WorldWideScience

Sample records for behaviour

  1. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  2. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  3. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  4. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  5. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  6. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  7. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...

  8. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  9. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  10. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...

  11. Behavioural hybrid process calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, H.; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in th

  12. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  13. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  14. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  15. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  16. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  17. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  18. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  19. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  20. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  1. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  2. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  3. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  4. Changing physician prescribing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    2006-01-01

    Didactic approaches to educating physicians and/or other health professionals do not produce changes in learner behaviour. Similarly, printed materials and practice guidelines have not been shown to change prescribing behaviour. Evidence-based educational approaches that do have an impact on provider behaviour include: teaching aimed at identified learning needs; interactive educational activities; sequenced and multifaceted interventions; enabling tools such as patient education programs, flow charts, and reminders; educational outreach or academic detailing; and audit and feedback to prescribers. Dr. Jean Gray reflects over the past 25 years on how there has been a transformation in the types of activities employed to improve prescribing practices in Nova Scotia. The evolution of Continuing Medical Education (CME) has resulted in the creation of the Drug Evaluation Alliance of Nova Scotia (DEANS) program, which is one exemplar of an evidence-based educational approach to improving physician prescribing in that province. Key words: Evidence-based, education, prescribing.

  5. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  6. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  7. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  8. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  9. Behavioural Real Estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Salzman (Diego); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe behavioural approach to decision making under uncertainty combines insights from psychology and sociology into economic decision making. It steps away from the normative homo economicus and introduces a positive approach to human decision making under uncertainty. We provide an overv

  10. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  11. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  12. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  13. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  14. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  15. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  16. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  17. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  18. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  19. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  20. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...

  1. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  2. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  3. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA

    1998-01-01

    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index score

  4. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...

  5. e-Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, C.; Merrilees, B; Jayawardhena, C; Wright, L T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to bring together apparently disparate and yet interconnected strands of research and present an integrated model of e-consumer behaviour. It has a secondary objective of stimulating more research in areas identified as still being underexplored. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on analysis and synthesis of econsumer literature. Findings – Despite a broad spectrum of disciplines that investigate e-cons...

  6. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  7. Internet user behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  8. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2dry matter and 4.96-16.57, respectively. Constant k was between 0.85 and 0.93, and GAB equation was determined to fit very well for bulgur adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  9. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  10. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  11. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  12. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials......, human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...

  13. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  14. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  15. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  16. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  17. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process.

  18. Does trust influence consumer behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Dierks, Leef H.

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of diverse food scandals this article investigates the role of trust as a determinant of consumer behaviour in Germany. As empirical analyses indicate, the impact of trust on consumer behaviour in a quotidian and presumably safe setting is to be neglected. In the environment of a food scandal, however, trust proves to be a crucial element with regard to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour under uncertainty. Moreover, it is analysed whether different valu...

  19. Behaviour Trees for Evolutionary Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper, Kirk Y. W.; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Coen C.; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this paper we show the first application of the Behaviour Tree framework to a real robotic platform using the Evolutionary Robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behaviour as compared to the traditional Neural Network formulation. As a result, the behaviour is easier to comprehend and manually ad...

  20. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  1. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galbiati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  2. Internet user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.

  3. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  4. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  5. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  6. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the ne

  7. Measuring Thermoforming Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, W.; Hopmann, C.; Ederleh, L.; Begemann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoforming is the process of choice for manufacturing thin-gauge or large-area parts for packaging or technical applications. The process allows low-weight parts to be produced rapidly and economically from thermoplastic semi-finished products. A technical and consequently economical problem is the choice of the right material in combination with the thermoformability of the product. The prediction of thermoformability includes the aspired product features and geometry and defined wall thickness distributions, depending on the specific stretchability of the semifinished product. In practice, thermoformability is estimated by empirical tests with the particular semi-finished product using e.g. staged pyramidal moulds or model cars. With this method, it still cannot be ensured that the product can be thermoformed with the intended properties. A promising alternative is the forming simulation using finite element analysis (FEA). For the simulation, it is necessary to describe the material behaviour using defined material models and the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the stress-/strain-behaviour of the semi-finished product under defined conditions is required. There are several, entirely different measurement techniques used in industry and at research facilities. This paper compares a choice of different measurement techniques to provide an objective basis for future work and research. The semi-finished products are examined with the Membrane-Inflation-Rheometer (MIR), an equibiaxial strain rheometer. A flat sample is heated to the desired temperature in silicone oil. During the measurement, a servohydraulic linear drive advances a piston, thus displacing the hot silicone oil and inflating the specimen to form a sphere. Further measurements are carried out with the Karo IV Laboratory Stretching Machine at Brückner Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany. The samples are heated using hot air. During the biaxial stretching, the resulting forces at the

  8. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    OpenAIRE

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations ...

  9. Behavioural management of migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognise that migraine is a ′biological′ and not a ′psychological′ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1 Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2 Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3 Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4 Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.

  10. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB)

  11. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  12. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  13. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  14. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  15. Trends in information behaviour research

    OpenAIRE

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008).Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014.Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed.Results. Qualit...

  16. Scitovsky, behavioural economics, and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Pugno, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    By revisiting Scitovsky's work on well-being, which introduces 'novelty' into the consumer's option set as a peculiar source of satisfaction, this paper finds a number of connections with the recent behavioural economics so as to open new lines on inquiry. First, similarly to behavioural economics, Scitovsky used psychology to interpret sub-optimal choices. However, his welfare benchmark is different from rational choice, as understood by the economists, because 'novelty' implies a very stron...

  17. Collective behaviour across animal species

    OpenAIRE

    DeLellis, P.; G. Polverino; Ustuner, G.; Abaid, N.; Macri, S.; Bollt, E. M.; M. Porfiri

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, whe...

  18. Group Norms and Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan; Rajan, Jainey S.; Variyamveettil, Sunitha; Mathew, Dhanu E.; Nath, Subodh S.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of group norms on forming consumer behaviour is an important attribute of man’s social life. The market segmentation principles acknowledge the presence of this phenomenon. People belong to different age group, professional status, income levels, educational status etc. are seemed to display some specific consumer behaviour that can be attributed to a particular group. The present study attempts to find the influence of certain selected group norms on consumption pattern.

  19. Social Behaviour in Public Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Nicole Alicia-Marie; Munch, Kathrine; Johansen, Gitte Højgaard; Duvarci, Medine

    2011-01-01

    Social behaviour in public transportation is a project that focuses on how passengers within the public transportation system behave, in terms of social psychology and psychological anthropology. Through the use of theoretical approaches, that being social psychology and psychological anthropology, we aimed to find patterns of social and anti-social behaviour. In order to gather valid research data, we conducted various observations in trains and busses in both London and Copenhagen. Through...

  20. Dynamic behaviour of fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Weydahl, Helge

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the dynamic behaviour of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and alkaline fuel cells (AFCs). For successful implementation in automotive vehicles and other applications with rapidly varying power demands, the dynamic behaviour of the fuel cell is critical. Knowledge of the load variation requirements as well as the response time of the cell at load change is essential for identifying the need for and design of a buffer system.The transient response of a PEMFC su...

  1. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Godin Gaston; Amireault Steve; Vohl Marie-Claude; Pérusse Louis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC)- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, parti...

  2. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing eff

  3. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DES

  4. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-07-28

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  5. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  6. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  7. BFS Human Behaviour Model for Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Molan, Marija; Molan, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    The Butterfly Flower Shower (BFS) Human Behaviour Model describes human behaviour in each demanding, possible accidental situation. The BFS human behaviour model is presented for a traffic situation. The key elements (perception, cognition, reaction) of the human behaviour are identified. Also possible limitations and errors in all elements of human behaviour are presented. The model is presented as the butterfly on the flower under the shower of interventions. The flower is environment descr...

  8. Habit versus planned behaviour: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, B; Aarts, H; van Knippenberg, A; Moonen, A

    1998-03-01

    A field experiment investigated the prediction and change in repeated behaviour in the domain of travel mode choices. Car use during seven days was predicted from habit strength (measured by self-reported frequency of past behaviour, as well as by a more covert measure based on personal scripts incorporating the behaviour), and antecedents of behaviour as conceptualized in the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention). Both habit measures predicted behaviour in addition to intention and perceived control. Significant habit x intention interactions indicated that intentions were only significantly related to behaviour when habit was weak, whereas no intention-behaviour relation existed when habit was strong. During the seven-day registration of behaviour, half of the respondents were asked to think about the circumstances under which the behaviour was executed. Compared to control participants, the behaviour of experimental participants was more strongly related to their previously expressed intentions. However, the habit-behaviour relation was unaffected. The results demonstrate that, although external incentives may increase the enactment of intentions, habits set boundary conditions for the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:9554090

  9. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  10. Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2016-01-01

    explores how cycling forms part of multimodal transport behaviour based on survey data on transport modes and travel purposes and the weekly frequency of out-of-home activities and travel mode use in a representative sample of adult Danes (n = 1957). The following five distinct multimodal travel segments......Multimodality is important for achieving less car dependent lifestyles and more sustainable transport behaviours. It is widely recognised that cycling plays a prominent role in sustainable transport. However, research has largely focused on cycling substituting motorised transport. This study...... or 'modality styles' are identified: 'education transport'; 'public-based transport'; 'limited transport'; 'bicycle-based transport'; and 'car-based transport'. Travel behaviour is predominantly multimodal with few unimodal car-drivers being identified. Substantial cycling takes place in all modality styles...

  11. Managerial Ownership Influencing Tunnelling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Juliarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent and the determinants of tunnelling behaviour in five ASEAN countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Related party transactions (RPTs in the form of loans to related parties are used as the proxy for tunnelling. With 200 firm-year observations over the period 2006-2009, this study finds a positive association between managerial ownership and the extent of tunnelling.The other important findings are that business environment (BE, foreign ownership, and independent directors are ineffective governance mechanisms to rein in tunnelling behaviour. This suggests that regulators need to evolve more effective governance mechanisms.

  12. Customer behaviour and student satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enache, I. C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Having to overcome new challenges, the higher education institutions need to understand their customer behaviour. The students’ satisfaction is becoming an important objective for universities and society as the role of the tertiary level institution is being questioned. The aim of this paper is to provide a concrete marketing approach to the student satisfaction problem. The literature review section aims to present resources that deliver relevant and updated information about the marketing perspectives on student satisfaction. A short survey is developed in order to provide insights on student behaviour and student satisfaction.

  13. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2005-01-01

    appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...... understanding of the way in which consumers perceive risks, and how these relate to an effective food safety and technology commercialisation policy....

  14. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures.......The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  15. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...

  16. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  17. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  18. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  19. Fundamental Theories on Consumer Behaviour: An Overview of the Influences Impacting Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Andreea Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a component of the economic behaviour, which in its turn is a manifestation of human behaviour. As a consequence of the social and economic development of modern societies, the study of consumer behaviour has undergone a strong development process, during the past years consumer behaviour acquiring its own status among sciences. However scientists concern with the study of consumer behaviour covers a time span of many decades. Due to the multiple interdependences and par...

  20. Protein structure and physical behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Belton; Miller, Aline F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the structure and behaviour of Protective Antigen (PA), which is the main constituent in a new and improved Anthrax vaccine. The long term goal of the work is to reduce degradation of PA by improving processing, formulation and storage.

  1. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vinale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical review of the analysis methods available for studying geotechnical structures under seismic loadings. All of the available methods can be classified into three main classes, including the pseudo-static, pseudo-dynamic and dynamic approaches, each of which is reviewed for applicability. A more advanced analysis procedure, suitable for a so-called performance-based design approach, is also described in the paper. Finally, the seismic behaviour of the El Infiernillo Dam was investigated. It was shown that coupled elastoplastic dynamic analyses disclose some of the important features of dam behaviour under seismic loading, confirmed by comparing analytical computation and experimental measurements on the dam body during and after a past earthquake.

  2. Dunking behaviour in Carib grackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morand-Ferron, J.; Lefebvre, L.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D.; Elvin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dunking behaviour, the dipping of food in water, has been anecdotally observed in more than 25 species of birds in the wild, but its function and ecology have not been systematically studied. In experiments conducted in the field and in captivity on Carib grackles, Quiscalus lugubris, in Barbados, w

  3. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  4. Gustatory Behaviour in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.K. Hukema (Renate)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe nematode C. elegans is an ideal model-organism to study the genetics of behaviour (Brenner, 1974). It is capable of sensing salts and we discriminate three different responses: it is attracted to low salt concentrations (Ward, 1973; Dusenbery et al., 1974), it avoids high salt concen

  5. Embodied myopia and purchasing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Bergh (Bram); J. Schmitt (Julien); L. Warlop (Luk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn conventional thinking, the mind controls the body. Our brains decide something and the body follows suit. However, in many ways this turns out not to be the case. Indeed, our research has found that even simple postures and gestures may be enough to influence our purchasing behaviour.

  6. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  7. Preventing behaviour problems in ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Under the Animal Welfare Act 2006, owners have a responsibility to take all reasonable precuations to ensure their animal's physical and mental health. This gives a brief overview of how to meet the behavioural needs of ferrets kept as companion animals.

  8. Behaviour: Seeing heat saves energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Household energy conservation can help to significantly lower energy consumption. Visual cues provided by thermal imaging of heat loss in buildings are now shown to increase energy conserving behaviours and implementations among homeowners more effectively than just performing carbon footprint audits.

  9. Promoting VET teachers’ innovative behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Piety; Bednall, Timothy; Sanders, Karin; Yang, Huadong

    2016-01-01

    Changing employer demands, new technological and pedagogical insights are examples of developments which urge Vocational Education and Training (VET) institutes to continually renew and innovate their educational programmes. This, in turn, requires teachers to show innovative behaviour. Our study

  10. Creep behaviour of flexible adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.; Berg, A. van den; Beers, P. van

    2004-01-01

    Since flexible adhesives are used more and more in structural applications, designers should have a better understanding of its behaviour under various conditions as ultimate load, fatigue load, long-term load and environmental conditions. This paper focuses on long-term load conditions and its effe

  11. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original (tr

  12. Mesophase behaviour of polyhedral particles

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Umang

    2011-02-13

    Translational and orientational excluded-volume fields encoded in particles with anisotropic shapes can lead to purely entropy-driven assembly of morphologies with specific order and symmetry. To elucidate this complex correlation, we carried out detailed Monte Carlo simulations of six convex space-filling polyhedrons, namely, truncated octahedrons, rhombic dodecahedrons, hexagonal prisms, cubes, gyrobifastigiums and triangular prisms. Simulations predict the formation of various new liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases at intermediate volume fractions. By correlating these findings with particle anisotropy and rotational symmetry, simple guidelines for predicting phase behaviour of polyhedral particles are proposed: high rotational symmetry is in general conducive to mesophase formation, with low anisotropy favouring plastic-solid behaviour and intermediate anisotropy (or high uniaxial anisotropy) favouring liquid-crystalline behaviour. It is also found that dynamical disorder is crucial in defining mesophase behaviour, and that the apparent kinetic barrier for the liquid-mesophase transition is much lower for liquid crystals (orientational order) than for plastic solids (translational order). © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Deterministic behavioural models for concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1993-01-01

    This paper offers three candidates for a deterministic, noninterleaving, behaviour model which generalizes Hoare traces to the noninterleaving situation. The three models are all proved equivalent in the rather strong sense of being equivalent as categories. The models are: deterministic labelled...

  14. Investment Behaviour of Institutional Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rubbaniy (Ghulame)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the portfolio choice anomalies and trading strategies of two types of institutional investors, Dutch pension funds (PFs) and US mutual funds (MFs), and presents some explanation for the unexpected behaviour in their trading. Particularly we focus on the determinants o

  15. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan

    2007-01-01

    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  16. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  17. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour. PMID:17355718

  18. Inclusive Education: Teachers' Intentions and Behaviour Analysed from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Sin, Kuen-fung

    2014-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) claims that behaviour can be predicted by behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control, while behavioural intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. This study aims at providing explanation and prediction of teachers' inclusive…

  19. Extended prospect theory: findings on choice behaviour from economics and the behavioural sciences and their relevance for travel behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Transport Sciences different implementations of Utility Theory are commonly used for the description and prediction of human choice behaviour. Almost 30 years ago Kahneman and Tversky proposed an alternative behavioural-economic model of choice behaviour called Prospect Theory. In contrast to Ut

  20. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  1. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  2. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links between...... values and specific behaviour, since values may be too abstract to influence behaviour directly. We propose the concept of lifestyle as a mediator between values and behaviour, and present our approach to lifestyle based on principles from cognitive psychology, where we distinguish between values...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  3. Machine analysis of facial behaviour: Naturalistic and dynamic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pantic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendati...

  4. Behaviour of Humans and Behaviour of Models in Dynamic Space

    OpenAIRE

    P. Nijkamp

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses new trends in quantitative geography research. Modern social science research - including economic and social geography - has in the past decades shown an increasing interest in micro-oriented behaviour of actors. This is inter alia clearly reflected in spatial interaction models (SIMs), where discrete choice approaches have assumed a powerful position. This paper aims to provide in particular a concise review of micro-based research, with the aim to review the potential ...

  5. Behavioural profiles : a relational approach to behaviour consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Weidlich, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Business Process Management (BPM) emerged as a means to control, analyse, and optimise business operations. Conceptual models are of central importance for BPM. Most prominently, process models define the behaviour that is performed to achieve a business value. In essence, a process model is a mapping of properties of the original business process to the model, created for a purpose. Different modelling purposes, therefore, result in different models of a business process. Against this backgr...

  6. Using Participatory Paradigm to Learn Human Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-Quang

    2009-01-01

    International audience Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a ...

  7. Neurobiology and behaviour: A network of connections

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2005-01-01

    Neurobiology is intimately related to animal behaviour at several levels. Mechanistically, the nervous system is the substrate that produces behaviour in response to external and internal stimuli. The structures and physiological properties of neurons and circuits not only determine immediate behavioural responses but also serve to bothc onstrain and enable the evolution of different kinds of signals,behaviours and community structures. These issues have been explored in this article using ac...

  8. Buying behaviour of children at secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Snížková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with buying behaviour of children at secondary school. The aim is to describe their buying behaviour and find out their motivational factors to purchase factors with a focus on advertisement. In the theoretical part is specified buying behaviour and factors influencing consumer. Gen Z and Net generation, in which children at secondary school class, are characterized. It described their buying behaviour and specification that characterize this generation. A part of th...

  9. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen

    2013-01-01

    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is a

  10. Intuitionistic Assessment Of Behavioural Present Value*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discussesd the impact of chosen behavioural factors on the imprecision of present value assessment. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. The behavioural present value is described here as an intuitionistic fuzzy set. The significance of the replacement of a fuzzy set by an intuitionistic fuzzy set is proved.

  11. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrul, J.; Stemmler, M.; Bühler, A.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) ag

  12. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mignan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  13. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  14. Behaviour of Structural Materials: Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of main problems to use lead alloys for nuclear systems such as ADS (Accelerator Driven Dystem) and FBR (Fast Breeder Reactors) is compatibility of steels with lead alloys. Mainly approaches from the following two directions have been made: 1) basic investigation on effects of various parameters to corrosion behaviour in liquid LBE (lead bismuth eutectic) investigation on applicability of candidate steels developed for FBR to LBE environment. Effects of temperature, oxygen concentration in LBE and contents of alloying elements, Cr, Ni, Si and Al in steels on corrosion behaviour are investigated in static liquid LBE. Drawing up the corrosion map in liquid LBE is the main goal in this study. In order to examine the applicability of candidate steels to LBE environment, some steels developed for FBR are used for corrosion tests in LBE. Furthermore, estimation of the predicted curves of the corrosion depth is the main goal

  15. Investigating mothers' decisions about their child's sun-protective behaviour using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to predict mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in sun-protective behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) of children aged four or five years completed standard TPB items (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention) and additional variables of role construction, mothers' own sun safe behaviour, planning and past behaviour. One week later, participants (N = 116) reported their behaviour. Results found support for the TPB constructs, role construction, past behaviour and the mediating role of planning. These findings can inform strategies to prevent skin cancer. PMID:22253324

  16. Germans' tourist behaviour in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Zillinger, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Tourism research has identified a number of factors that influence tourist behaviour, among them socio-demographic characteristics and the number of previous visits. This article argues that also tourists' spatial mobility, the time period within the holiday, the characteristics of the places visited, and the access to information act as important determinants for the level and choice of tourist activities. Focus in this analysis is lying on German car tourists in Sweden. For this study, a co...

  17. COMPLAINING BEHAVIOUR IN SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to present the issue of dealing with negative word-of-mouth under the newly created conditions of social media and formulate a set of rules for dealing with negative contributions in social networks such as Facebook. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents findings from both a quantitative survey of Czech Facebook users and expert interviews. Findings – The results of the survey that was done among internet users has proven, that Czech Facebook users are fully aware of the fact that by complaining publicly via social media they can get a company in a serious trouble and want to use it to their advantage. Expert interviews agreed on necessity of good knowledge of the community, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions. Research limitations/implications – the empirical research is focused on the Czech market that is specific in the field of internet user behaviour. Findings are primarily valid solely for the social network Facebook. Other platforms may differ in complaining behaviour of the users. Practical implications – research findings show, that social media play an important role in complaining behaviour of Czech internet users. This fact results in the necessity of the presence in social media and careful monitoring the word-of-mouth. Crucial factors of successful communication in social media are knowledge of the com munity, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions.Originality/Value – Word of mouth, nowadays the most powerful marketing tool and the strongest argument in the decision making process, is now not limited to the circle of nearest friends of family. Social media gives people a voice that is immediate and can have impact. Without an effective and fast reaction of the company, a serious harm can be suffered. The significance of social network Facebook in complaining behaviour of Czech consumers is assessed

  18. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to...

  19. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, A

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid ...

  20. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground...

  1. Simulating Household Waste Management Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tucker; Andrew Smith

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the outcome of research to demonstrate the proof of concept for simulating individual, collective and interactive household waste management behaviours to provide a tool for efficient integrated waste management planning. The developed model simulates whole communities as distributions of individual households engaged in managing their own domestic waste, through home composting or recycling activities. The research addresses the personal hierarchical ordering of these activ...

  2. Ethical consumer behaviour in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Salai, Suzana; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, marketing theory and practice have paid increasing attention to the phenomenon of ethical consumer behaviour. There is no doubt that the modern consumers are sophisticated and prepared for different types of actions to protect rights which are considered to belong to them. On the other hand, numerous reports on sales trends of so-called ethical products and services do not record significant growth and participation in the total consumption. As this issue still cont...

  3. Random Behaviour in Quantum Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Garbaczewski, P

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that a family of radial Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic processes displays an ergodic behaviour appropriate for known quantum chaos universality classes of nearest neighbour spacing distributions. A common feature of those parametric processes is an asymptotic balance between the radial (Bessel-type) repulsion and the harmonic attraction, as manifested in the general form of forward drifts $b(x) = {{N-1}\\over {2x}} - x$, ($N = 2,3,5$ correspond respectively to the familiar GOE, GUE and GSE cases).

  4. Multifractal behaviour of -simplex lattic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Kumar; Debaprasad Giri; Sujata Krishna

    2000-06-01

    We study the asymptotic behaviour of resistance scaling and fluctuation of resistance that give rise to flicker noise in an -simplex lattice. We propose a simple method to calculate the resistance scaling and give a closed-form formula to calculate the exponent, , associated with resistance scaling, for any . Using current cumulant method we calculate the exact noise exponent for -simplex lattices.

  5. Considerations concerning cosumer behaviour theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu; Codruta Dura

    2001-01-01

    The consumer`s scale of preference, which is the starting point of the theory of consumer behaviour can be ilustrated very clearly by indifference curves. The point where budget line meets the highest possible indifference curve compatible with the consumer`s income and prices represents the state of equilibrum for the consumer. Consumer behaviuor theory gains still more practical importance if consumer preferences are subjected to detailed psychological and sociological analysis.

  6. MICROSCOPIC BEHAVIOUR OF POROUS MACROMOLECULES

    OpenAIRE

    Del Regno, Annalaura

    2014-01-01

    This Thesis investigates computationally the behaviour of two novel microporous materials,organic molecules of intrinsic microporosity (OMIMs) and polymers of intrinsic microporosity(PIMs). OMIMs and PIMs are organic amorphous materials, which achieve microporosityby packing inefficiently. The design of amorphous materials is challenging because their self-assembly process is not known. Predictive molecular simulations can help in recognising thefeatures that affect the properties of these ma...

  7. Corporate behaviour and competitive forces

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Paranque

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a typology of the economic behaviour of French industrial companies in 1993 based on a sample of more than 7,000 companies participating in the Balance Sheet Data Centre of the Banque de France. The objective is therefore to explain how productivity and competitiveness shape a company's rate of return. Three performance levels have been put forward: the "physical" level, the "market" level and the "financial" level, corresponding respectively to labou...

  8. Neural substrates of driving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Spiers, H. J.; Maguire, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    Driving a vehicle is an indispensable daily behaviour for many people, yet we know little about how it is supported by the brain. Given that driving in the real world involves the engagement of many cognitive systems that rapidly change to meet varying environmental demands, identifying its neural basis presents substantial problems. By employing a unique combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), an accurate interactive virtual simulation of a bustling central London (UK) a...

  9. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation ...

  10. COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOUR IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karsai Márton

    2009-01-01

    In my PhD thesis I studied cooperative phenomena arise in complex systems using the methods of statistical and computational physics. The aim of my work was also to study the critical behaviour of interacting many-body systems during their phase transitions and describe their universal features analytically and by means of numerical calculations. In order to do so I completed studies in four different subjects. My first investigated subject was a study of non-equilibrium phase transitions in ...

  11. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    At least since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio there has been wide agree-ment that the hope for a sustainable society rests on the attainment of radi-cal changes in consumption patterns and lifestyles, especially in the rich countries of the World (Sitarz, 1994). Changes to a more sustainable life-s...... ago." It continues to be true that a funda-mental requirement for success in this endeavour is consumers' active support and willing participation (Norwegian Ministry of Environment, 1994). Information is an important tool in this connection. Not only for marshalling public support...... for the environmental cause, but for facilitating environmentally responsible behaviour in many specific ways. Research dealing with the diverse roles of information in the environmental field shows a need to distinguish between different forms and objectives of information, but also, it needs to be stressed......, that information alone is usually not sufficient to change behaviour (Stern, 1999). My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for pro-moting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this publication...

  12. Modelling the influence of automaticity of behaviour on physical activity motivation, intention and actual behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rietdijk, Yara

    2014-01-01

    In research and in practise social-cognitive models, such as the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), are used to predict physical activity behaviour. These models mainly focus on reflective cognitive processes. As a reflective process, intention is thought to be the most proximal predictor to behaviour. Nevertheless, research suggests that the relation between intention and actual behaviour, the so called intention-behaviour gap, is moderate. Many health-related actions in d...

  13. Designing interventions to change eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Understanding and changing eating behaviours are central to the work of Nutrition Society members working in both research and applied settings. The present paper describes a recently published resource to guide the design of interventions to change behaviour, The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions (BCW Guide). This is a practical guide to intervention design that brings together recently-developed theory-based tools in behavioural science into a coherent step-by-step design process. It is based on the BCW, a synthesis of nineteen frameworks of behaviour change found in the research literature. The BCW has at its core a model of behaviour known as 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour'. The model recognises that behaviour is part of an interacting system involving all these components. The BCW identifies different intervention options that can be applied to changing each of the components and policies that can be adopted to deliver those intervention options. The book shows how the BCW links to theory-based frameworks to understand behaviour such as the Theoretical Domains Framework and the recently developed Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 for specifying intervention content. In essence, it shows how to link what is understood about a given behaviour to types of intervention likely to be effective and then translate this into a locally relevant intervention. In addition, the present paper sets out some principles of intervention design. PMID:25998679

  14. Predicting behaviour from perceived behavioural control: tests of the accuracy assumption of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Armitage, Christopher J

    2003-09-01

    The theory of planned behaviour assumes that the accuracy of perceived behavioural control (PBC) determines the strength of the PBC-behaviour relationship. However, this assumption has never been formally tested. The present research developed and validated a proxy measure of actual control (PMAC) in order to test the assumption. In two studies, participants completed measures of intention and PBC, and subsequently completed measures of behaviour and the PMAC. Validity of the PMAC was established by findings showing; (a). that the PMAC moderated the intention-behaviour relation, and (b). that PMAC scores did not reflect attributions for participants' failure to enact their stated intentions. Accuracy was operationalized as the difference between PBC and PMAC scores. Consistent with theoretical expectations, several analyses indicated that greater accuracy of PBC was associated with improved prediction of behaviour by PBC. PMID:14567844

  15. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  16. Water behaviour in nanoporous aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel, E-mail: Konstantin.Smirnov@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, Universite Lille 1, Sciences et Technologie, CNRS, Batiment C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-21

    This paper briefly reviews results of molecular dynamics simulation studies of water confined in nanoporous aluminosilicates. The behaviour of confined molecules is shown to be influenced by the nature of the host structure, and the size and the topology of the voids. For some of the systems discussed the ambiguity in results of different modelling studies call for the use of extended potential and structural models. Thus, the use of polarizable force fields was shown to be necessary to take into account the variation of the molecular dipole of confined molecules in different environments.

  17. The selection of altruistic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, R; Serva, M

    1996-01-01

    Altruistic behaviour is disadvantageous for the individual while is advantageous for its group. If the target of the selection is the individual, one would expect the selection process to lead to populations formed by wholly homogeneous groups, made up of either altruistic or egoistic individuals, where the winning choice depends on the balance beetwen group advantage and individual disadvantage. We show in a simple model that populations formed by inhomogeneous groups can be stabilized in some circumstances. We argue that this condition is realized when there is a relative advantage conferred by the presence of a few altruists to all the members of the group.

  18. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  19. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-06-11

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  20. Dynamic behaviour of railway superstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Oostermeijer, K.H.; Kok, A.W.M

    2000-01-01

    Railways have always been designed on the basis of experiences from previous designs. With the coming of new types of superstructures, i.e. ballastless track, combined with a new field of application, ii.e. high speed lines, the empirical design method is no longer applicable. The use of computer models which predict the dynamic behaviour of the track and the vehicle have become necessary for designing this kind of track to ensure a save and trouble free exploitation. In this paper a ballastl...

  1. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  2. Fatique behaviour of electrical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical steel comes into focus with the development of electrically powered cars. In contrast to electrical motors used stationarily (e.g. conveyer belt drives in industrial applications, electrical steel in a car engine is subjected to cyclic loading due to vibrations caused by the imbalance of the rotor and start and stop driving events. For a safe and reliable design of an electrical motor the fatigue behaviour of electrical steel needs to be analysed. To minimize eddy current losses, a rotor consists of several hundred electrical steel sheets with a typical thickness of less than 1 mm. Due to optimal electrical and magnetic properties a very coarse microstructure of electrical steel is required. Only one to three grains are distributed along sheet thickness. Regarding the grain size and sheet thickness the material behaviour is governed by the reaction of single grains and grain-grain-interaction to external cyclic loading. Fatigue experiments with a load ratio of R = 0.005 and R = 0.1 were carried out. They give a very flat S-N-curve where the fatigue limit is close to the yield strength of this electrical steel. Crack initiation is observed at surface roughness and areas of stress concentration resulting from manufacturing processes.

  3. Cooperative behaviour in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Márton

    2009-07-01

    In my PhD thesis I studied cooperative phenomena arise in complex systems using the methods of statistical and computational physics. The aim of my work was also to study the critical behaviour of interacting many-body systems during their phase transitions and describe their universal features analytically and by means of numerical calculations. In order to do so I completed studies in four different subjects. My first investigated subject was a study of non-equilibrium phase transitions in weighted scale-free networks. The second problem I examined was the ferromagnetic random bond Potts model with large values of q on evolving scale-free networks which problem is equivalent to an optimal cooperation problem. The third examined problem was related to the large-q sate random bond Potts model also and I examined the critical density of clusters which touched a certain border of a perpendicular strip like geometry and expected to hold analytical forms deduced from conformal invariance. The last investigated problem was a study of the non-equilibrium dynamical behaviour of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on two-dimensional triangular lattice at zero temperature in the absence of external field and at the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition point.

  4. Healthy eating behaviour - a social marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kazbare, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Nutritionists and dieticians unequivocally consider diet as a significant contributor to health. Despite the fact that we know quite a lot about the relationship between diet and health outcomes, much less is known about how to affect behavioural change in a systematic and sustainable way at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, wh...

  5. Leadership as a determinant of innovative behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen de Jong; Deanne den Hartog

    2003-01-01

    In knowledge-intensive services innovative behaviour of co-workers is a critical success factor. In sectors like consultancy, research and architecture the nature of the work implies that projects are never alike. Innovative behaviour means that co-workers generate ideas for better and/or different products, services or working methods, and strive for implementing such changes. By carrying out certain leadership styles, entrepreneurs are able to boost innovative behaviour of their employees. ...

  6. Foraging: an ecology model of consumer behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Foraging theory is a well established set of models and ideas in ecology, anthropology and behavioural psychology. Two areas of research, the behavioural ecology of consumption and information foraging, have made strides in the application of foraging theories in relation to consumption and related behaviours. These focus on online situations and restrictions in methodologies utilized allows application to only a small range of marketing problems. This paper broadens the application of these ...

  7. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, J.; Stemmler, M.; Bühler, A; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) aged 11-16 years and not currently smoking at baseline participated in the study. Predictive validity of PMT constructs was tested in a path analysis model. Self-efficacy significantly predicted beha...

  8. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. ► We merge attitude–behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. ► Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. ► Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. ► Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude–behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz’s altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals’ engagement in future policies.

  9. Consumer behaviour analysis and consumer brand choice.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    This is the SECOND of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis dealing with the Behavioural Perspective Model, which locates consumer behaviour at the intersection of the consumer’s learning history and the consumer situation. As an example of research inspired by the Model, this article presents investigations into consumers’ patterns of brand choice, showing how brand repertoires are formed and how brands are selected within those repertoires.

  10. Building societies and local lending behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    J Doling; Williams, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper considers the determinants of variation in individual building society lending behaviour. A level of conformity in lending behaviour is identified, which it is argued results from a number of constraints that arise from the environment in which lending decisions are made. It is further argued, however, that considerable variation in lending behaviour is also apparent and is made possible by the practice of charging interest rates which are lower than the market clearing rate. The f...

  11. Online Buying Behaviour In The Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pilík, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the Internet and its impact on online shopping behaviour of customers in the Czech Republic. A large part of Czech population has already shopped online. Customers view it as a quick and convenient shopping where they can save money. But what are the other factors that influence their shopping behaviour? This paper tries to find the answer to this question. Each customer is an individual therefore models of customer behaviour often cannot be generalized, particularly not ...

  12. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  13. Interpersonal behaviour in relation to burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuens, Nina; Leemans, Annemie; Bogaerts, Annick; Van Bogaert, Peter; Franck, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Organisational and work-related challenges faced by midwives make them vulnerable to burnout, but individual factors, such as interpersonal behaviour, can also contribute. A study in eight hospitals in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium investigated the prevalence of burnout among Flemish midwives, assessed their interpersonal behaviour, and explored the relationship between interpersonal behaviour, burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave. This article describes the study and reports the findings. PMID:26602486

  14. Androgen Receptors, Sex Behaviour, and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviours, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviours is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens’ effects on behaviours through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and...

  15. Managing agitated behaviour in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Camille

    2012-09-01

    Older people diagnosed with dementia can have complex needs, especially when they exhibit agitated behaviour. Patients with agitated behaviour challenge the delivery of health care. Often the behaviour is a symptom of unmet needs in this population (Dewing 2010). It is important for nurses to understand the underlying causes and apply evidence-based interventions in their nursing practice to promote health, safety and the highest quality of life possible. This article defines and classifies agitated behaviours, discusses implications for their management and then presents evidence-based interventions nurses can use. The interventions are categorised according to each of the five senses.

  16. A holistic model of behavioural branding: The role of employee behaviours and internal branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive......Understanding employee behaviours is a growing concern in all kinds of companies and across disciplines because such behaviours are critical determinants of organizational success. This paper elaborates on the concept of behavioural branding, which refers to employee behaviours that convey brand...... behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures....

  17. Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: a test of the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kautonen, Teemu; Gelderen, Marco; Erno T. Tornikoski

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article contributes to the occupational choice literature pertaining to entrepreneurship by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to predict entrepreneurial behaviour. Originating from social psychology, the TPB posits that intention, a function of behavioural beliefs, is a significant predictor of subsequent behaviour. In spite of an established stream of scholarship explaining the formation of entrepreneurial intentions, empirical research has not yet emplo...

  18. Testing the bi-dimensional effects of attitudes on behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Brewster, Sarah E; Thomson, James A; Malcolm, Carly; Rasmussen, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Attitudes are typically treated as unidimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. On the basis of previous research showing that attitudes comprise two independent, positive and negative dimensions, we hypothesized that attitudes would be bi-dimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. We focused on health-risk behaviours. We therefore also hypothesized that the positive dimension of attitude (evaluations of positive behavioural outcomes) would better predict both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour than would the negative dimension, consistent with the positivity bias/offset principle. In Study 1 (cross sectional design), N = 109 university students completed questionnaire measures of their intentions to binge-drink and the positive and negative dimensions of attitude. Consistent with the hypotheses, both attitude dimensions independently predicted behavioural intentions and the positive dimension was a significantly better predictor than was the negative dimension. The same pattern of findings emerged in Study 2 (cross sectional design; N = 186 university students) when we predicted intentions to binge-drink, smoke and consume a high-fat diet. Similarly, in Study 3 (prospective design; N = 1,232 speed limit offenders), both the positive and negative dimensions of attitude predicted subsequent (6-month post-baseline) speeding behaviour on two different road types and the positive dimension was the better predictor. The implications for understanding the motivation of behaviour and the development of behaviour-change interventions are discussed. PMID:25440892

  19. Whole School Behaviour Management and Perceptions of Behaviour Problems in Australian Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobile, John; London, Teola; El Baba, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, whole school behaviour management systems have been implemented in many Australian schools in efforts to reduce undesirable behaviours and improve outcomes for students with behaviour problems. There is evidence in the literature suggesting that whole school approaches are more effective at managing student…

  20. The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

  1. Chaotic behaviour in speculative markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Artiles, María Dolores

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An asset price model of speculative financial market with fundamentalists and chartists is analyzed. Our model explains bursts of volatility in financial markets, which are not well explained by the traditional finance paradigms, as we will show. Depending on the time lag in the formation of chartists' expectations, the system evolves through several dynamic regimes finishing in a strange attractor. Chaos provides a self-sustained motion around the rationally expected equilibrium that corresponds to a speculative bubble. In order to explain the role of Chartism, chaotic motion is a very interesting theoretical feature for a speculative financial market model. It provides a complex non-linear dynamic behaviour around the Walrasian equilibrium price produced by deterministic interactions between fundamentalists and chartists

  2. Fuel rod behaviour during transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clad deformation code CANSWELL-2 is described. This is used, either as a stand-alone code or within MABEL-2, to predict and analyse the results of LOCA simulations in the Halden and NRU reactors and in the KfK and PROPAT rigs. Experimental evidence on fuel behaviour in RIA, PCM and ATWS events is presented with inclusion of certain FRAP-T5 results. Published calculations from the accident codes FRAP-T4 and FRAP-T5 are compared with experimental results in simulated loss of coolant tests in the Power Burst Facility. The limitations of this code in its treatment of RIA, PCM and ATWS events are considered. (U.K.)

  3. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element......One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...

  4. Tribological Behaviour of Kfre Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C. W.; Yousif, B. F.

    This paper presents an attempt to use kenaf fibres as reinforcement for tribo-polymeric composite. Kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composite was fabricated using a closed mould technique associated with vacuum system. Adhesive wear and frictional behaviour of the composite and neat epoxy (NE) were studied against polished stainless steel counterface using a newly developed block-on-disc (BOD) machine at 50N applied load, sliding distances (0-4.2 km) and sliding velocities of 2.8 m/s. The morphology of the worn surfaces of the composite and NE was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result revealed that the longer the sliding distance is, the higher the weight loss. Up to 70% reduction in the weight loss was achieved when the epoxy was reinforced with the kenaf fibres. The wear mechanism was predominated by plastic deformation, in the resinous regions and debonding of fibres.

  5. Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Partha; Padhan, Susanta K; Dash, Sukalyan; Patel, Sabita; Mishra, Bijay K

    2011-02-17

    A study on the phenomenon of clouding and the applications of cloud point technology has been thoroughly discussed. The phase behaviour of clouding and various methods adopted for the determination of cloud point of various surfactant systems have been elucidated. The systems containing anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants as well as microemulsions have been reviewed with respect to their clouding phenomena and the effects of structural variation in the surfactant systems have been incorporated. Additives of various natures control the clouding of surfactants. Electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, organic substances as well as ionic surfactants, when present in the surfactant solutions, play a major role in the clouding phenomena. The review includes the morphological study of clouds and their applications in the extraction of trace inorganic, organic materials as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources. PMID:21296314

  6. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2013-01-01

    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing the information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emerge of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regards to content.

  7. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by inform

  8. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  9. Editorial: Design Research for Sustainable Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.

    2012-01-01

    For better or worse, products contribute to shaping the behaviour of their users. Hence, designers have the opportunity, or if you are so inclined the responsibility, to take those potential behaviour changes into account in their design process. Through thoughtful design, they may aim to change use

  10. Meiotic behaviour of two human reciprocal translocations.

    OpenAIRE

    Egozcue, J; S Marina; Templado, C

    1981-01-01

    The meiotic behaviour of two male human reciprocal translocations is described. One patient had an unbalanced son and a chain configuration. The second had a stillborn child and a ring corresponding to an adjacent I segregation. The meiotic behaviour of chromosomal rearrangements must be investigated for proper genetic counselling.

  11. Behavioural Approaches to Understanding Student Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Abigail; Vorley, Tim; Roberts, Jennifer; Jones, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Higher Education Academy (HEA), in partnership with the National Union of Students (NUS), commissioned CFE and The University of Sheffield to undertake research to explore behavioural approaches to understanding student choice. Within the research, the authors' applied insights from behavioural economics to help aid understanding of student…

  12. Mobbing Behaviour: Victims and the Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the level of mobbing behaviour faced by teachers and managers working in primary schools, their responses to such behaviour and the difference in these responses according to the gender variable. The sample of the research consists of a total of 1,316 teachers and managers including 691 men and 625…

  13. Aminergic Control and Modulation of Honeybee Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Scheiner, R; Baumann, A.; Blenau, W

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amines are important messenger substances in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs of vertebrates and of invertebrates. The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is excellently suited to uncover the functions of biogenic amines in behaviour, because it has an extensive behavioural repertoire, with a number of biogenic amine receptors characterised in this insect.

  14. Interconnection of J-lossless behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by the phenomenon of the interconnection of lossless electrical networks, a class of behaviours known as J-lossless behaviours is introduced, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. It is shown that for certain values of J, interconnection of J-lossless behav

  15. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  16. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT – case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Głuszek-Osuch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to further elucitate the specifics cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT based on the treatment of 2 patients. The theoretical background of the therapy is based on the idea that the learning processes determine behaviour (behavioural therapy, acquisition and consolidation of beliefs and view of the world (cognitive therapy. The CBT is short-term (usually 12–20 weekly sessions. It assumes close links between the patient’s thoughts (about self, the world and the future and his/her emotions, behaviour and physiology. The patient’s work in between sessions consists in observation of their own thoughts, behaviours, and emotions, and introduction of changes within the scope of their thoughts and behaviours. The goal of cognitive behavioural therapy is autonomy and independence of a patient, attainment of the patient’s objectives, and remedying the most important problems of the patient. The therapist should be active, warm and empathic. Cognitive behavioural therapy is structured and active. Between sessions, the patient receives homework assignments to complete. During therapy, information is collected by experiments and verification of hypotheses. It should be emphasized that for changes to occur in the process of psychotherapy it is necessary to establish a strong therapeutic alliance.

  17. Virus-Induced Behavioural Changes in Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Oers, van M.M.; Houte, van C.G.J.; Ros, V.I.D.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that host behaviour often changes following infection by a variety of parasites, including viruses. The altered behaviour is either induced by the parasites to enhance parasite survival and transmission, or is a response of the host to avoid spread of infection in the host

  18. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  19. The Behavioural Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsler, K.; Oliver, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review is to examine the notion of a behavioural phenotype for Angelman syndrome and identify methodological and conceptual influences on the accepted presentation. Methods: Studies examining the behavioural characteristics associated with Angelman syndrome are reviewed and methodology is described. Results:…

  20. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population.

  1. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108

  2. Externalizing Behaviour for Analysing System Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof;

    2013-01-01

    System models have recently been introduced to model organisations and evaluate their vulnerability to threats and especially insider threats. Especially for the latter these models are very suitable, since insiders can be assumed to have more knowledge about the attacked organisation than outside...... attackers. Therefore, many attacks are considerably easier to be performed for insiders than for outsiders. However, current models do not support explicit specification of different behaviours. Instead, behaviour is deeply embedded in the analyses supported by the models, meaning that it is a complex......, if not impossible task to change behaviours. Especially when considering social engineering or the human factor in general, the ability to use different kinds of behaviours is essential. In this work we present an approach to make the behaviour a separate component in system models, and explore how to integrate...

  3. How to encourage enterprising behaviour in students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh

    2015-01-01

    across educations: 1) active students, 2) involvement of practice, 3) creation of visible relevance and sense, and 4) the teacher as a didactic element per se. The findings underline the need for teachers to focus on their own enterprising behaviour in class as well as the enterprising behaviour...... methods applied, which will provide the students with enterprising behavioural skills. For students to be enterprising we know that the learning environment must leave room for them to behave in an enterprising manner. Besides teaching methods that enhance enterprising behaviour we also need to consider...... basic psychological needs such as commitment, courage, competence, relationships and autonomy. A high degree of compliance with these five psychological needs generally generates a higher level of enterprising behaviour. The approach to the research question is based on different levels. The first level...

  4. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  5. Coordinated righting behaviour in locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, A A; Matheson, T

    2001-02-01

    A locust placed upside down on a flat surface uses a predictable sequence of leg movements to right itself. To analyse this behaviour, we made use of a naturally occurring state of quiescence (thanatosis) to position locusts in a standardised upside-down position from which they spontaneously right themselves. Locusts grasped around the pronotum enter a state of thanatosis during which the limbs can be manipulated into particular postures, where they remain, and the animal can be placed upside down on the ground. When released, thanatosis lasts 4-456 s (mean 73 s) before the animal suddenly becomes active again and rights itself within a further 600 ms. Thanatosis is characterised by very low levels of leg motor activity. During righting, one hind leg provides most of the downward force against the ground that rolls the body around a longitudinal axis towards the other side. The driving force is produced by femoral levation (relative to the body) at the trochanter and by tibial extension. As the animal rolls over, the hind leg on the other side is also levated at the trochanter, so that it does not obstruct the movement. The forelegs and middle legs are not required for successful righting but they can help initially to tip the locust to one side, and at the end of the movement they help stop the roll as the animal turns upright. Individual locusts have a preferred righting direction but can, nevertheless, roll to either side. Locusts falling upside down through the air use both passive and active mechanisms to right themselves before they land. Without active movements, falling locusts tend to rotate into an upright position, but most locusts extend their hind leg tibiae and/or spread their wings, which increases the success of mid-air righting from 28 to 49 % when falling from 30 cm. The rapid and reliable righting behaviour of locusts reduces the time spent in a vulnerable upside-down position. Their narrow body geometry, large hind legs, which can generate

  6. Anxiety and depression in adolescents with hostile behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: We may conclude that only depression has a relationship with hostile behaviours. It is higher in adolescents with these behaviours. The presence or absence of anxiety is not related to the hostile behaviour in adolescents.

  7. Stimulation of behavioural and nutritional satiety in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: sows; nutrition; welfare; stereotyped behaviour; foraging behaviour; feeding motivation; satiety; dietary fibre; non-starch polysaccharides; blood glucose; fermentation; volatile fatty acidsNon-lactating sows often show abnormal stereotyped behaviour, which indicates impa

  8. BSAVA manual of canine and feline behavioural medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Debra; Mills, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    1 Medical and metabolic influences on behavioural disorders Jaume Fatjo & Jon Bowen 2 Behavioural medicine as an integral part of veterinary practice Kendal Sheppard 3 Basic requirementss for good behavioural health and welfare in dogs Claire Corridan 4 Basic requirements for good behavioural health and welfare in cats Irene Rochlitz 5 Training and learning protocols Daniel Mills 6 Preventive behavioural medicine for dogs Wayne Hunthausen 7 Preventive behavioural medic...

  9. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the geometrical description of the spatio-temporal patterns of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope and provides an alternative physical approach to poroelasticity for the modelling of induced seismicity. The applicability of the proposed geometrical approach is illustrated for the case of the 2006, Basel enhanced geothermal system stimulation experiment. Applicability to more problematic cases where the stress field may be spatially heterogeneous is also discussed.

  10. Dynamic Behaviour of Ventilated Hydrofoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Arndt, Roger; Wosnik, Martin

    2006-11-01

    In certain types of pumping applications oscillations are induced by operation with liquids containing a free gas load. In order to understand the physics of this process, a series of tests with a ventilated A 2D NACA 0015 hydrofoil were performed in the water tunnel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota. The special bubble removal feature of the water tunnel allowed continuous ventilation without experiencing visible bubbles upstream the hydrofoil. These studies build on previous work on cavitation-induced oscillations. Gas injection studies were made over a range of gas flow rates and test section pressure. The results clearly show that lift oscillations increase in intensity when the gas load is increased. The point of maximum unsteadiness is also associated the rapid decline of the foil performance as measured as average lift. Further increase of the gas injection load gives a steady behaviour with almost no lift. These experiments are compared with traditional cavitation experiments. The similarities between gas injection- and cavitation induced unsteadiness on the hydrofoil are many, but the amplitude of lift oscillations found on the foil with gas injection corresponds to about 50% of that found for cavitating hydrofoils. The fact that the oscillations are periodic leads to the consideration of both passive and active control.

  11. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (Sf=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (Sf=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (Sf=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs

  12. The environmental behaviour of radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 and its daughter, radon-222, an inert gas, are important members of the uranium decay series as far as human exposure is concerned. Radon diffuses from rocks, soil and water into the atmosphere, and its daughter products polonium-218 and polonium-214 can be retained in the lungs. Radium and radon are contained in emissions from fossil fuel plants, fertilizers, natural gas, building materials and uranium ore. To assess the impact of man's use, intentional or not, of radium and its daughters, we must know their physical, chemical and biological behaviour. This report examines the literature pertinent to the natural levels of radium found in rock, soil, water and plants. Information concerning radium is integrated from several disciplines. The radiological properties and chemistry of radium, and radium-soil interactions are discussed as well as the soil distribution coefficient and the mode of soil transport of radium. Plant transfer coefficients for radium and methods of analysis and measurement are given. A list of topics requiring further research concludes the report. (auth)

  13. Asymptotic behaviour of exclusive processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main ideas, methods and results in the investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of exclusive processes are reviewed. We discuss power behaviour and its dependence on hadron quantum numbers, logarithmic corrections and properties of nonperturbative hadronic wave functions. Applications to meson and baryon form factors, strong, electromagnetic and weak decays of heavy mesons, elastic scattering, threshold behaviour of inclusive structure functions, etc., are described. Comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental data is made whenever possible. The review may be of interest to theoreticians, experimentalists and students specializing in elementary particle physics. The experts in this field can also find new results (nonleading logarithms, higher twist processes, novel applications, etc.). (orig.)

  14. Reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist in measuring behavioural problems after cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Opoka Robert O; Giordani Bruno; Nakasujja Noeline; Bangirana Paul; John Chandy C; Boivin Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background No measure of childhood behaviour has been validated in Uganda despite the documented risks to behaviour. Cerebral malaria in children poses a great risk to their behaviour, however behavioural outcomes after cerebral malaria have not been described in children. This study examined the reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and described the behavioural outcomes of cerebral malaria in Ugandan children. Methods The CBCL was administered t...

  15. The impact of behavioural screening on intervention outcomes in a randomised, controlled multiple behaviour intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing research focus on multiple health behaviour change interventions, a methodological issue requiring further investigation is whether or not to employ pre-trial behavioural screening to exclude participants who are achieving a pre-specified level of one or more behaviours. Behavioural screening can be used to direct limited resources to participants most in need of a behaviour change intervention; but may reduce the representativeness of the sample and limit comparability with trials that do not employ pre-trial behavioural screening. Furthermore, the impact of this type of screening on intervention participation and intervention effects is unknown. Methods Data for this study come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a randomised, controlled telephone counselling lifestyle intervention trial which did not employ behavioural screening prior to randomisation. Screening for physical activity, diet or the combination was simulated using baseline trial data. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention participation (in terms of participant characteristics, intervention dose received and retention, characteristics of participants included an excluded under the various screening scenarios were compared. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention effects, results from the main trial analysis were compared with results obtained from the same analyses performed separately for each of the screened groups. Results Simulated pre-trial behavioural screening impacted minimally on intervention dose received and trial retention rate. Beyond the anticipated effect of reducing baseline levels of the behaviours being screened for, behavioural screening affected baseline levels of behaviours not targeted by screening, and participants' demographic and health-related characteristics. Behavioural screening impacted on intervention effects in ways that were anticipated and positive, but also

  16. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717

  17. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    Full Text Available In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI, which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6 until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3 in very high income countries.

  18. Curved thin shell buckling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forasassi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to evaluate buckling instabilities behaviour of long curved thin shell. Both initially straight and curved tubes are investigated with numerical and experimental assessment methods, in the context of NPP applications with an illustrative example for IRIS LWR integrated Steam Generator (SG tubes.Design/methodology/approach: In this study structural buckling response tube with combination effects of geometric imperfections as well as initially bent shape under external pressure load are investigated using a non linear finite element (MSC.MARC FEM code formulation analysis. Moreover results are presented, extending the findings of previous research activity works, carried out at Pisa University, on thin walled metal specimen.Findings: The experiments were conducted on Inconel 690 test specimen tube. The comparison between numerical and experimental results, for the same geometry and loading conditions, shows a good agreement between the elastic-plastic finite-element predictions and the experimental data.Research limitations/implications: The presented research results may be considered preliminary in the sense that it would be important to enlarge the statistical base of the results themselves, even if they are yet certainly meaningful to highlight the real problem, considering the relatively large variability of the geometrical imperfections and bending instabilities also in high quality production tubes.Originality/value: From the point of view of the practical implication, besides the addressed problem general interest in industrial plant technology, it is worth to stress that straight and curved axis tubes are foreseen specifically in innovative nuclear reactors SG design.

  19. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB;

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  20. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.;

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  1. Insight, psychosis and aggressive behaviour in mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Aggressiveness is a common component of manic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics associated with aggressive behaviour in bipolar patients with acute manic episodes. Methods: A study was carried out with 173 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for manic or mixed bipolar disorder. Clinical and demographic variables were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. Significance and independence of relevant variables were tested with regression models. Results: Forty percent of patients displayed aggressive behaviour. Involuntary nature of admission, positive psychotic symptoms and lack of insight were predictors of aggressive behaviour in manic patients. Conclusions: Aggressive behaviour during acute manic episodes appears to be related with the severity of the psychopathology, and particularly positive psychotic symptoms, involuntary admissions and lack of insight.

  2. Supporting Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Innovation in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lukeš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on existence and support of entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation in larger organizations. It first suggests why it is important to pay attention to entrepreneurship and innovation and then defines corporate entrepreneurship. Typical barriers of entrepreneurial activities are described as well as innovation dilemmas organizations solve. Innovation process is not linear, but six components of innovation behaviour may be identified, together with specific roles employees play when moving the idea forward from idea creation to implementation. Important factors influencing the success of entrepreneurial behaviour are discussed, involving the role of middle managers and reward systems. Recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation are provided together with a simple inventory for measuring employee perception of manager's and organizational support for innovation.

  3. Modelling Reactive and Proactive Behaviour in Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mazlina Abdul; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the simulation model behaviour of a traditional and combined discrete event as well as agent based simulation models when modelling human reactive and proactive behaviour in human centric complex systems. A departmental store was chosen as human centric complex case study where the operation system of a fitting room in WomensWear department was investigated. We have looked at ways to determine the efficiency of new management policies for the fitting room operation through simulating the reactive and proactive behaviour of staff towards customers. Once development of the simulation models and their verification had been done, we carried out a validation experiment in the form of a sensitivity analysis. Subsequently, we executed a statistical analysis where the mixed reactive and proactive behaviour experimental results were compared with some reactive experimental results from previously published works. Generally, this case study discovered that simple proactive individual behaviou...

  4. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last......This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...

  5. Occupant behaviour and robustness of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buso, Tiziana; Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm;

    2015-01-01

    with alternating occupant behaviour patterns. The aim of this work was to investigate how alternating occupant behaviour patterns impact the performance of different envelope design solutions in terms of building robustness. Probabilistic models of occupants' window opening and use of shading were implemented......Occupant behaviour can cause major discrepancies between the designed and the real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to reduce the differences between predictions and actual performances is designing robust buildings, i.e. buildings whose performances show little variations...... in a dynamic building energy simulation tool (IDA ICE). The analysis was carried out by simulating 15 building envelope designs in different thermal zones of an Office Reference Building in 3 climates: Stockholm, Frankfurt and Athens.In general, robustness towards changes in occupants' behaviour increased...

  6. On the nonlinear anelastic behaviour of AHSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkabadi, A.; Meinders, V. T.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    It has been widely observed that below the yield stress the loading/unloading stress-strain curves of plastically deformed metals are in fact not linear but slightly curved, showing a hysteresis behaviour during unloading/reloading cycles. In addition to the purely elastic strain, extra dislocation based micro-mechanisms are contributing to the reversible strain of the material which results in the nonlinear unloading/reloading behaviour. This extra reversible strain is the so called anelastic strain. As a result, the springback will be larger than that predicted by FEM considering only the recovery of the elastic strain. In this work the physics behind the anelastic behaviour is discussed and experimental results for a dual phase steel are demonstrated. Based on the physics of the phenomenon a model for anelastic behaviour is presented that can fit the experimental results with a good accuracy.

  7. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  8. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...

  9. Characterization and behaviour of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities concerning characterization and behaviour of argillaceous rocks and their environment are presented. The studies are related to the technico-economic feasibility and the long-term safety of disposal of radioactive waste in argillaceous media. (author)

  10. How the Measurement of Store Choice Behaviour Moderates the Relationship between Distance and Store Choice Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2013-01-01

    The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance...... is influenced by the way in which store choice behaviour is conceptualized. A survey among 631 consuemrs was performed in order to examine the research proposition. Structural equation results suggest that the negative effect of distance on store choice behaviour is larger when store choice behaviour...... is measured as number of visits to a particular store than wehen store cjoice behaviour is measured as the percentage of budget spend at a particular store. Our results indicate that researchers should carefully consider the measurement of store choice behaviour when carrying out empirical research invlving...

  11. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  12. Managing Behaviour of Retail Trade Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Budnik Maryna M.; Dvalishvili Lada V.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of t...

  13. Behaviour of domestic violence in the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry; Ester Lilian Cabrera; Madeleines Arguelles Pérez

    2013-01-01

    The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abus...

  14. The entropic basis of collective behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Mann; Garnett, Roman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a radically new viewpoint on the collective behaviour of groups of intelligent agents. We first develop a highly general abstract model for the possible future lives that these agents may encounter as a result of their decisions. In the context of these possible futures, we show that the causal entropic principle, whereby agents follow behavioural rules that maximise their entropy over all paths through the future, predicts many of the observed features of social in...

  15. Econometric Studies of Stock Market Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Reng

    This thesis consists of three sefcontained essays, all centering around the topic of stock market behaviour. The papers focus on the empirical performance of a number of asset pricing models, all attempting to quantify and price asset risk. We look at how well these models actually do in describing...... the historic behaviour of the stock market, allowing us to get further insight into what drives the markes....

  16. BEHAVIOURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUPPLY CHAIN RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra-Codruta Popescu (Bîzoi); Cristian-Gabriel Bîzoi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has focused largely on the field of supply chain risk management. Numerous risks occur within supply chain management. Until lately, behavioural risks (implying large amount of losses) have been neglected and considered not relevant. In this paper we provide an analysis of the importance of including behavioural research in logistics and supply chain risk management, what has been written so far and potential future research directions. Until now, literature on logistics and supply...

  17. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Patricia H; Tye, Kay M

    2015-01-15

    The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of behaviours requires the study of distinct amygdala circuits. PMID:25592533

  18. A Semantics for Functions and Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Anthony C.

    1999-01-01

    The functional animation language Fran allows animations to be programmed in a novel way. Fran provides an abstract datatype of ``behaviours'' that represent time varying values such as the position of moving objects, together with a simple set of operators for constructing behaviours. More generally, this approach has potential for other kinds of real-time systems that consist of interactive components that evolve over time. We introduce a small functional language, CONTROL, which has behavi...

  19. Parton distributions and their small x behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the W boson mass or of the top quark production depends on the precision with which the parton distributions are known. This article describes the present knowledge of parton distribution in the proton. The small x behaviour of the parton distribution is investigated and it is shown that two effects: x-λ behaviour and shadowing effect are predicted from the study of the Lipatov equation. (A.C.)

  20. Analysis of behaviours in swarm systems

    OpenAIRE

    Erskine, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In nature animal species often exist in groups. We talk of insect swarms, flocks of birds, packs of lions, herds of wildebeest etc. These are characterised by individuals interacting by following their own rules, privy only to local information. Robotic swarms or simulations can be used explore such interactions. Mathematical formulations can be constructed that encode similar ideas and allow us to explore the emergent group behaviours. Some behaviours show characteristics remi...

  1. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hiselius Lena Winslott; Rosqvist Lena Smidfelt; Adell Emeli

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for bot...

  2. Mechanisms of change in human behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Paul; Bartelings, Heleen; Bastardie, François; Batsleer, Jurgen; Delaney, Alyne; Girardin, Raphael; Gloaguen, Pierre; Hamon, Katell; Hoefnagel, Ellen; Jouanneau, Charlène; Mahevas, Stephanie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Poos, Jan-Jaap; SCHULZE Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to present the science developed within the VECTORS project to improve the understanding of the key processes driving the behaviour of human agents utilising a variety of EU maritime domains. While particular attention has been paid to the spatial interactions between fishing activities and other human uses (e.g., maritime traffic, offshore wind parks, aggregate extractions), the behaviour of non-fishing sectors of activity has also been considered. Various quantit...

  3. Mechanical behaviour of compacted decomposed granite soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I K

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the mechanical behaviour of decomposed granite soil, especially when it is used as a construction material. The soil tested was a completely weathered granite soil (grade V) taken from Seoul, Korea and was a well graded silty sand and gravel. Triaxial compression tests have been carried out on compacted samples and special attention has been given to the determination of the effects of the moisture condition on the behaviour. The test results show...

  4. Chinese and Finnish Undergraduates’ Online Shopping Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the thesis was to recognise similar and different characteristics of online shopping behaviour between Chinese and Finnish undergraduates. Additionally, this thesis would give meaningful proposals for merchants and managers on offering better online marketing. This thesis report was conducted in both theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical parts include marketing research and online shopping consumption behaviour. The study describes the marketing research progre...

  5. Predatory behaviour of wolves in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The study of predatory behaviour is essential for understanding the interactions that may affect the behaviour and population dynamics of the species involved and consequent cascading ecosystem effects. In the case of large carnivores feeding on large ungulate prey, predation is strongly impacted by humans who alter the habitat of both predators and their prey, control population sizes, and compete with large carnivores for the same prey species. The objectives of this thesis were to 1) es...

  6. Modelling Reactive and Proactive Behaviour in Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, Mazlina Abdul; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the simulation model behaviour of a traditional and combined discrete event as well as agent based simulation models when modelling human reactive and proactive behaviour in human centric complex systems. A departmental store was chosen as human centric complex case study where the operation system of a fitting room in WomensWear department was investigated. We have looked at ways to determine the efficiency of new management policies for the fitting room operati...

  7. Bayesian Models of Brain and Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Penny, William

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of Bayesian models of brain and behaviour. We first review the basic principles of Bayesian inference. This is followed by descriptions of sampling and variational methods for approximate inference, and forward and backward recursions in time for inference in dynamical models. The review of behavioural models covers work in visual processing, sensory integration, sensorimotor integration, and collective decision making. The review of brain models covers a range of...

  8. Search Behaviour On Photo Sharing Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Maniu S.; O'Hare N.; Aiello L.M.; Chiarandini L.; Jaimes A.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour, goals, and intentions of users while searching for images in large scale online collections are not well understood, with image search log analysis providing limited insights, in part because they tend only to have access to user search and result click information. In this paper we study user search behaviour in a large photo-sharing platform, analyzing all user actions during search sessions (i.e. including post result-click pageviews). Search accounts for a significant part ...

  9. Electrical Switching Behaviour in Lead Phosphovanadate Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    B Sujatha; REDDY, C. Narayana

    2006-01-01

    Electrical switching behaviour of lead phosphovanadate glasses were studied by determining the current-voltage characteristics. All the investigated glasses exhibit the dependence of threshold voltages on temperature, thickness and composition. Below holding current the I - V characteristics obey Ohms law followed by a negative resistance region where the bulk behaviour dominates and at higher values of current the samples goes to a low resistance state. The studied glasses exhibit ...

  10. Perspectives of economics – behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Diacon, Paula-Elena; Gabriel-Andrei DONICI; Liviu-George MAHA

    2013-01-01

    The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and ...

  11. Using Intelligent Agents to understand organisational behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Celia, Helen; Robinson, Mark; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Sprigg, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces two ongoing research projects which seek to apply computer modelling techniques in order to simulate human behaviour within organisations. Previous research in other disciplines has suggested that complex social behaviours are governed by relatively simple rules which, when identified, can be used to accurately model such processes using computer technology. The broad objective of our research is to develop a similar capability within organisational psychology.

  12. INDIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF ONLINE TRANSACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harshmeeta Kaur Soni

    2014-01-01

    The number of users making online transactions has registered a strong growth in the recent past. In today's world of globalisation, expansion of business is possible through internet. Understanding the behaviour of online consumers is crucial for business enterprises to grow. Hence the study aims to examine the behaviour of the online users engaged in Business to Consumer (B2C) E-commerce. A questionnaire based survey is used to examine the most conducted and recommended onli...

  13. Perceptions of Deviant Behaviour in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela de Carvalho Wilks

    2012-01-01

    Employee misconduct in the workplace is relatively common and may be counterproductive in social and material terms. To identify which undesirable behaviours are considered acceptable is the first step to develop ways to reduce deviance in organizational settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived acceptability of deviant behaviour in the workplace, and to analyse the relation between the degree of such acceptance with organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and orga...

  14. Behaviour of Polariton in a Simple Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Shao-Long; MA Shuang-Ge; WANG Ke-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Behaviour of a simple model polariton system is restudied. The distribution of phonons in polariton never is sub-Poisson given by computation of the thermal counterpart of the Q parameter and the matrix m'3\\ The polariton complex as a whole shows non-classical behaviour below a threshold temperature, which depends on the photon-phonon coupling strength, when the distribution of phonons is always classical at any temperature.

  15. Critical fatigue behaviour in brittle glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajat Banerjee; Bikas K Chakrabarti

    2001-04-01

    The dynamic fatigue fracture behaviour in different glasses under various sub-threshold loading conditions are analysed here employing an anomalous diffusion model. Critical dynamical behaviour in the time-to-fracture and the growth of the micro-crack sizes, similar to that observed in such materials in the case of quasi-static (``instantaneous”) failures for above-threshold conditions, are predicted and compared with some of the experimental observations in different glasses.

  16. Behavioural psychology, marketing and consumer behaviour : a literature review and future research agenda.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychology, along with a wide range of other academic disciplines, has influenced research in both consumer behaviour and marketing. However, the influence of one area of psychology – namely, behaviourism – on research on consumers and marketing has been less prominent. Behaviourism has influenced consumer and marketing research through the application of classical and operant conditioning, matching and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks, during the past 50 years. This article provid...

  17. Risk Taking Behaviour And Assertiveness Behaviour Of D.T.ED., Teacher Trainees – A Study

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. LAL KUMAR; R.Muthumanickam

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the risk taking behaviour and assertiveness behaviour of D.T.Ed., Teacher Trainees. The sample of the study consisted of 400 D.T.Ed., Teacher Trainees (129 male and 271 female). The tools used in the study were the Risk Taking Behaviour Scale by Answer Yousuf and Assertiveness Inventory by Tasneem Naqvi (1988).After framing necessary objectives and hypotheses, appropriate analysis was carried out on the collected data .From this analysis ...

  18. Behaviour-based Knowledge Systems: An Epigenetic Path from Behaviour to Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we expose the theoretical background underlying our current research. This consists in the development of behaviour-based knowledge systems, for closing the gaps between behaviour-based and knowledge-based systems, and also between the understandings of the phenomena they model. We expose the requirements and stages for developing behaviour-based knowledge systems and discuss their limits. We believe that these are necessary conditions for the ...

  19. The Influence of the Monitored Youth Mentoring Program for Adolescents with Behavioural Problems and Behavioural Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boras, Sofija; Itković Zuckerman, Zora

    2008-01-01

    This aimed to measure the influence of the Monitored Youth Mentoring Program (MYMP) for adolescents with behavioural problems and behavioural disorders. The MYMP commenced in 1997 and was completed in 2003. The model of the program was for one university student of Pedagogy to mentor one pupil between the ages of 13 and 17 years, demonstrating risk seeking behaviours for a whole school year. The specimen group was made up of 141 pupils, approximately 20 pupils from each year level...

  20. Mechanosensory interactions drive collective behaviour in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdya, Pavan; Lichocki, Pawel; Cruchet, Steeve; Frisch, Lukas; Tse, Winnie; Floreano, Dario; Benton, Richard

    2015-03-12

    Collective behaviour enhances environmental sensing and decision-making in groups of animals. Experimental and theoretical investigations of schooling fish, flocking birds and human crowds have demonstrated that simple interactions between individuals can explain emergent group dynamics. These findings indicate the existence of neural circuits that support distributed behaviours, but the molecular and cellular identities of relevant sensory pathways are unknown. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster exhibits collective responses to an aversive odour: individual flies weakly avoid the stimulus, but groups show enhanced escape reactions. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking, computational simulations, genetic perturbations, neural silencing and optogenetic activation we demonstrate that this collective odour avoidance arises from cascades of appendage touch interactions between pairs of flies. Inter-fly touch sensing and collective behaviour require the activity of distal leg mechanosensory sensilla neurons and the mechanosensory channel NOMPC. Remarkably, through these inter-fly encounters, wild-type flies can elicit avoidance behaviour in mutant animals that cannot sense the odour--a basic form of communication. Our data highlight the unexpected importance of social context in the sensory responses of a solitary species and open the door to a neural-circuit-level understanding of collective behaviour in animal groups. PMID:25533959

  1. Determining Commuting Behaviour from Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of commuting behaviour has always been one significant focus of people to reach comprehensive knowledge of transport-related scenarios. Similarly, commuting behaviour, as one of the four major physical activities people engaged in during daily life, gained much attention in aspect of health fields. This paper, with the sample data collected by The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab study, discusses the process of how to utilize data obtained from GPS and inclinometer device, along with basic information about participants to conduct travel survey, and reconstructing participant's commuting behaviour. In the analyses of the sample, the procedure of datasets integration through DELPHI programming and protocols established to determine corresponding commuting behaviour are discussed. The details of commuting behaviour illustrated in this study included travel mode, travel duration, allocation of trip stages, and corresponding level of physical activities. This paper discusses a promise for applying advanced technologies in travel survey instead of traditional ones in terms of accuracy and reliability; it discusses the feasibility to discover the coherent relationship between health outcome and commuting behaviour from travel-tracking technologies.

  2. A proposed general model of information behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.

  3. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. PMID:26585600

  4. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual. PMID:22943555

  5. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual.

  6. The influence of leadership behaviour on organisational citizenship behaviour in self-managed work teams in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoharah Omar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of transformational-transactional leadership behaviour on organisational citizenship behaviour in self-managed work teams and the augmenting effect of transformational-transactional leadership behaviour. This cross-sectional correlation study was conducted on 93 self-managed work teams in a multinational manufacturing company. Data were collected through group face-to-face administration by the researcher and statistically analysed through Pearson correlation, partial correlation and multiple regressions. Results showed that both transactional and transformational leadership behaviour have a positive influence on organisational citizenship behaviour among team members. Transformational leadership behaviour, however, has a greater influence on organisational citizenship behaviour compared to transactional leadership behaviour. The results also conf rmed the augmenting effect of transformational leadership behaviour on the relationship between transactional leadership behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour.

  7. Phebus FP: fission product behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewi, J.; Schwarz, M. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), Dept. de Recherche en Securite, Saint Paul les Durance (France); Hardt, P. von der [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Inst. for Systems, Informatics and Safety (Isis), Saint Paul les Durance (France)

    1998-02-01

    The ongoing Phebus FP programme is the centrepiece of a wide international co-operation investigating, through a series of six integral in-pile experiments, key-phenomena involved in the progression of a postulated severe accident in a Light Wate Reactor (LWR). The Phebus facility offers the capability to study the degradation of real core material, from the early phase of cladding oxidation and hydrogen production up to the late phase of melt progression and molten pool formation. The subsequent release of fission products and structural materials is also experimentally studied, including their transport in the cooling system, and their deposition in the containment, under representative physicochemical conditions. The volatility of iodine in the containment is in particular receiving a special interest in the first experiments, as large uncertainties related to its modelling subsist. FPT-0 and FPT-1, performed respectively in December 1993 and July 1996, have reached very advanced states of degradation, comparable to what was observed in TMI-2, and generated a wealth of results on core degradation and fission product behaviour in particular, pool formation was obtained for a temperature well below the melting point of (U, Zr) O{sub 2} and volatile forms of iodine were detected in the containment much earlier than expected. The resulting database is used to develop and validate the computer codes used to assess the safety of the currently operating plants, to check the efficiency of accident management procedures and also support the design of future plants as EPR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das laufende Phebus-FP-Programm ist das Herzstueck einer weiten internationalen Zusammenarbeit, durch eine Serie von sechs realitaetsnahen Experimenten die Schluesselphaenomene zu erforschen, die fuer die Ausbreitung eines unterstellten schweren Unfalls in einem Leichtwasserreaktor (LWR) verantwortlich sind. Die Phebus-Anlage in Cadarache ermoeglicht die Untersuchung der Veraenderung

  8. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural...

  9. Aggressive Behaviour and Its Prevalence within Five Typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…

  10. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change. PMID:27615529

  11. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  12. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  13. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  14. Stimulation of behavioural and nutritional satiety in sows

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuw, de, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: sows; nutrition; welfare; stereotyped behaviour; foraging behaviour; feeding motivation; satiety; dietary fibre; non-starch polysaccharides; blood glucose; fermentation; volatile fatty acidsNon-lactating sows often show abnormal stereotyped behaviour, which indicates impaired welfare. Theoretically, sow welfare can be improved by allowing expression of natural behaviour (stimulation of behavioural satiety) or by providing sows with a diet that increases or prolongs the feeling of sa...

  15. MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel – Ionuţ BOGDAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L., describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this type of behaviour.

  16. Organizational behaviour management: A functional analysis of productivity

    OpenAIRE

    P. Taffinder; C. Viedge

    1986-01-01

    Organizational Behaviour Management (OBM) represents a new perspective on productivity. In place of addressing "attitudes and motivational drives", OBM concentrates on the control of on-task behaviour. The 3-term contingency of antecedent, behaviour and consequence, or the functional analysis of behaviour as it is known in OBM, provides a delineation of how behaviour is evoked and what maintains or reinforces it. This orientation to productivity requires that the manager establish a continge...

  17. Motivational systems or motivational states: Behavioural and physiological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Koolhaas, JM; deBoer, SF; Bohus, B

    1997-01-01

    This paper will critically discuss the available behavioural and neurobiological evidence for the existence of motivational systems and motivational states on the basis of our studies on aggressive behaviour in male rats and mice. Three types of evidence will be discussed. First, some behavioural studies will be evaluated indicating that aggressive behaviour can be considered as part of a cluster of behaviours used to cope actively with environmental challenges. Second, it will be argued that...

  18. The war on antisocial behaviour : rationeles underlying antisocial behaviour policies : comparing British and Dutch discourse analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, Monique Louise

    2011-01-01

    Only fifteen years ago, measures against antisocial behaviour on the street (ASB) were on the fringe of crime policies. Now this kind of behaviour is the focus of many new anti-crime actions. If this sort of sub-crime is addressed as a major security problem what does that say about the current Dutc

  19. Trajectories of Antisocial Behaviour towards Siblings Predict Antisocial Behaviour towards Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Rosie; Marks, Alex; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young siblings' antisocial behaviour is common yet its impact has received relatively little research attention. Methods: We examined trajectories of antisocial behaviour for a socially diverse sample (n = 99, 58 boys and 41 girls) who were filmed with their older siblings (52 boys and 47 girls) at ages 3 and 6 and with unfamiliar…

  20. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  1. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Children with Behavioural Difficulties in the Singapore Mainstream School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Choi, Pui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme delivered by a school psychologist for children with behavioural difficulties in Singapore elementary school classrooms. It examined the impact of a 12-session, psychoeducational group intervention in helping misbehaving pupils to control their…

  2. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  3. AIDS awareness and VCT behaviour: An application of the integrated model of behaviour prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Diteweg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to limit the expansion of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is important to develop targeted prevention strategies. The voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT programme appears to be effective for preventing the spread of the HI virus. This study adapted guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 years of age completed the questionnaire. Results suggested that beliefs about the outcomes of behaviour and beliefs about the expectations of others had a direct influence on the intention to undergo HIV counselling and testing. Efficacy beliefs, namely beliefs that there are factors that can facilitate behaviour, can lead to actual testing behaviour if accompanied by self-efficacy. Knowledge, intention and stigma are not related to VCT behaviour. Findings show that some constructs influence intention and test behaviour, but in ways not predicted by the model. Thus, the adequacy of the IMBP to determine HIV and AIDS-preventative behavioural intentions is questioned.

  4. Understanding online behavioural advertising: user knowledge, privacy concerns and online coping behaviour in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Smit; G. van Noort; H.A.M. Voorveld

    2014-01-01

    Online behavioural advertising (OBA) is a special form of targeted advertising. For OBA, it is necessary to collect data about online surfing behaviour, which is usually undertaken by installing ‘cookies’. The use of cookies is heavily debated by policy makers in the US and Europe. Central to this d

  5. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  6. Time perspective and attitude-behaviour consistency in future-oriented behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas; Postmes, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose that the salience of a distant-future time perspective, compared to a near-future time perspective, should increase attitude-behaviour and attitude-intention consistency for future-oriented behaviours. To test this prediction, time perspective was experimentally manipulated in th

  7. Spatial behaviour in Dutch dwelling areas: how housing layouts affects the behaviour of its users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.; Rueb, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to show how the spatial layout of neighbourhoods affect the behaviour of its dwellers. An area's social and spatial composition influences anti-social behaviour in built environments. However, social conditions can overrule spatial ones. A more adequate understanding o

  8. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  9. Leader Empowering Behaviour: The Leader’s Perspective : Understanding the motivation behind leader empowering behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Hakimi (Natalia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe present dissertation tries to shed light on the phenomenon of empowering leadership. We aim to understand the antecedents of leader empowering behaviour. In doing so, we mean to remedy the stated lack of research on empowering leadership and on the effect of follower’s behaviour on l

  10. Classroom Behaviour and Academic Achievement: How Classroom Behaviour Categories Relate to Gender and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Latent profile analysis was used to identify different categories of students having different "profiles" using self-reported classroom behaviour. Four categories of students with unique classroom behaviour profiles were identified among secondary school students in Oslo, Norway (n = 1570). Analyses examined how classroom behaviour…

  11. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized.

  12. Dynamic behaviour of suction caissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    Offshore wind energy is a promising source of energy in the near future, and is rapidly becoming competitive with other power generating technologies. The continuous improvement in wind turbine technology means that the wind turbines have increased tremendously in both size and performance during the last 25 years. In order to reduce the costs, the overall weight of the wind turbine components is minimized, which means that the wind turbine structures become more flexible and thus more sensitive to dynamic excitation. Since the first resonance frequency of the modern offshore wind turbines is close to the excitation frequencies of the rotor system, it is of outmost importance to be able to evaluate the resonance frequencies of the wind turbine structure accurately as the wind turbines increase in size. In order to achieve reliable responses of the wind turbine structure during working loads it is necessary to account for the possibilities of dynamic effects of the soil-structure interaction. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of foundations for offshore wind turbines, with the intention that the dynamic properties of the foundation can be properly included in a composite structure-foundation system. The work has been focused on one particular foundation type; the suction caisson. The frequency dependent stiffness (impedance) of the suction caisson has been investigated by means of a three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model, where the soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequencydependent coefficients corresponding to the different degrees of freedom. Comparisons with known analytical and numerical solutions indicate that the static and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the

  13. Antisocial and callous behaviour in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-01-01

    Antisocial behaviour is one of the most common reasons for a childhood referral to mental health and educational services and represents a substantial public health cost. Callous-unemotional traits can be used to distinguish children who are capable of pre-meditated antisocial behaviour and violence from those whose antisocial behaviour and violence are primarily impulsive and threat reactive. Decades of developmental psychopathology research have shown that children with antisocial behaviour are thus a heterogeneous group and, for interventions to be successful, it is critical that distinct subgroups of children receive services that best match their profile of vulnerabilities and strengths. Recent advances in genetic and brain imaging research in the field have made important contributions to our understanding of the developmental vulnerability that callous-unemotional traits represent. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current evidence base with regard to genetic and neuroscience findings of callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behaviour with callous-unemotional traits. We also discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and intervention, and finish by outlining what we consider are necessary directions for future research.

  14. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  15. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  16. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  17. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  18. Social Behaviour of Captive Belugas, Delphinapterus Leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Cheri Anne

    1994-01-01

    Focal-animal sampling techniques developed for investigating social behaviour of terrestrial animals were adapted for studying captive belugas, providing quantitative descriptions of social relationships among individuals. Five groups of captive belugas were observed, allowing a cross -sectional view of sociality in groups of diverse sizes and compositions. Inter-individual distances were used to quantify patterns of spatial association. A set of social behaviours for which actor and recipient could be identified was defined to characterize dyadic interactions. The mother-calf pair spent more time together, and interacted more often than adults. The calf maintained proximity with his mother; larger adults generally maintained proximity with smaller adults. Among adults, larger groups performed more kinds of behaviours and interacted at higher rates than smaller groups. Within dyads, the larger whale performed more aggressive behaviours and the smaller whale more submissive behaviours. Clear dominance relations existed in three groups, with larger whales dominant to smaller whales. Vocalizations of three groups were classified subjectively, based on aural impressions and visual inspection of spectrograms, but most signals appeared graded. Statistical analyses of measured acoustic features confirmed subjective impressions that vocalizations could not be classified into discrete and homogeneous categories. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-553-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  19. Managing Behaviour of Retail Trade Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Maryna M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of their impact – orientation at subconsciousness of consumers. The article analyses a psychological process of making a decision on purchase of a commodity and draws a conclusion about necessity of exerting subconsciousness influence upon consumer behaviour using the modern marketing instruments. It develops an improved model of consumer behaviour, which takes into account innovation means of impact on the buyer. The prospect of further development of this direction in science is creation of theoretical methods of managing consumer behaviour on the basis of co-operation of specialists in the field of economy, management, marketing, sociology and psychology, which would be applied in practice of management of trade enterprises.

  20. Spillover of environment-friendly consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes empirical input to current reasoning about consumers' propensity to behave in an environmentally friendly way in different domains. Spe-cifically, we investigate whether environmentally friendly behaviours spread to more and more areas of the consumption pattern in a virtuo...... of spillover is marginally but significantly higher when respondents give high priority to the value domain that Schwartz (1994) termed universalism or hold strong personal norms for envi-ronmentally friendly behaviour. Udgivelsesdato: SEP......This paper contributes empirical input to current reasoning about consumers' propensity to behave in an environmentally friendly way in different domains. Spe-cifically, we investigate whether environmentally friendly behaviours spread to more and more areas of the consumption pattern in a virtuous...... indicate that the performance of an environmentally friendly behaviour reduces the propensity to behave environmentally friendly in other areas. However, they may also be the result of the two involved behaviours correlating positively from the out-set. Multigroup SEM analyses indicate that the likelihood...

  1. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume 1 Micro- and Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2012-01-01

    Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties.   This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour.   As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...

  2. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  3. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict maintenance of a frequently repeated behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, A; Conner, M; Bodansky, H J

    2007-03-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behaviour to predict self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes. Sixty-four adult patients with type 1 diabetes completed a questionnaire assessing the variables of the TPB in addition to demographic variables and a measure of conscientiousness. Self-report measures of daily self-monitoring behaviour were obtained for a two-week period. The extended model predicted 46% of the variance in behavioural intention and 57% of variance in self-monitoring behaviour, suggesting that the TPB is able to predict useful levels of variance, comparable to initiation, even in familiar and frequently repeated maintenance behaviours. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:17365901

  4. The relation between intrapersonal and interpersonal staff behaviour towards clients with ID and challenging behaviour: a validation study of the Staff-Client Interactive Behaviour Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.A.M Willems; P.J.C.M. Embregts; G.J.J.M. Stams; X.M.H. Moonen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics - such as beliefs, attributions and emotional r

  5. Healthy eating behaviour - a social marketing perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura

    at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2...... and addressing the abovementioned problem areas and gaps in social marketing. To achieve that, five research questions are set up and these are investigated in the four papers that this dissertation is comprised of....

  6. Fission product behaviour in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of fission product (FP) behaviour in severe accidents is important for source term assessment and accident mitigation measures. For example in accident management the operator needs to know the effect of different actions on the behaviour and release of fission products. At VTT fission product behaviour have been studied in different national and international projects. In this presentation the results of projects in EU funded 4th framework programme Nuclear Fission Safety 1994-1998 are reported. The projects are: fission product vapour/aerosol chemistry in the primary circuit (FI4SCT960020), aerosol physics in containment (FI4SCT950016), revaporisation of test samples from Phebus fission products (FI4SCT960019) and assessment of models for fission product revaporisation (FI4SCT960044). Also results from the national project 'aerosol experiments in the Victoria facility' funded by IVO PE and VTT Energy are reported

  7. The environmental behaviour of radium. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide an up to date review of the environmental behaviour of radium, including methods for analysis, assessment and control. The need for a reference text on the subject was identified at an early stage of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on radium behaviour in relation to uranium mining and milling wastes. This publication deals with the sources, properties, environmental behaviour and the methods of analysis, control and assessment of 226Ra. It is an outgrowth of Agency programmes directed towards the environmental problems involved in uranium mining and milling. The emphasis in several of the sections reflects these origins. For example, many of the contributions in Volume 2 of this report on technologically enhanced sources of radium (Part 1), methods of control and abatement (Part 2) and the impact on man (Part 3) are concerned with uranium mining and milling. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Optimally designing games for behavioural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Zaharia, Matei; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Computer games can be motivating and engaging experiences that facilitate learning, leading to their increasing use in education and behavioural experiments. For these applications, it is often important to make inferences about the knowledge and cognitive processes of players based on their behaviour. However, designing games that provide useful behavioural data are a difficult task that typically requires significant trial and error. We address this issue by creating a new formal framework that extends optimal experiment design, used in statistics, to apply to game design. In this framework, we use Markov decision processes to model players' actions within a game, and then make inferences about the parameters of a cognitive model from these actions. Using a variety of concept learning games, we show that in practice, this method can predict which games will result in better estimates of the parameters of interest. The best games require only half as many players to attain the same level of precision.

  9. CONSUMER ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS FOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Radzymińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the attitudes and behaviour of young consumers towards food waste based on a pilot qualitative research and data published in the literature. Qualitative research was conducted with the use of focus grou p method, with approximately 8–10 selected students per group. Four focus group sessions were held, with open discussion led by a moderator and the scenario containing problematic issues. The study included a total of thirty-seven students, aged 22– 25 years. Studies have shown that negative attitude of household towards food waste is not frequently refl ected in consumers’ behaviour, despite their fundamental knowledge on how to reduce food waste. Respondents emphasized the need for educational campaigns. Properly selected and presented information will stimulate both consumer’s attitude and behaviour.

  10. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiselius Lena Winslott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for both shopping and other errands as others. Also, frequent online shoppers in total make as many trips to a physical store as infrequent online shoppers – although by more sustainable modes of transport – and that the time saved from online shopping is spent on both additional shopping trips and trips for other errands. The conclusion is that online shopping might facilitate changing travel behaviour but does not in itself represent a good stand–alone measure for reducing vehicle mileage.

  11. Spreadsheet End-User Behaviour Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Brian

    2008-01-01

    To aid the development of spreadsheet debugging tools, a knowledge of end-users natural behaviour within the Excel environment would be advantageous. This paper details the design and application of a novel data acquisition tool, which can be used for the unobtrusive recording of end-users mouse, keyboard and Excel specific actions during the debugging of Excel spreadsheets. A debugging experiment was conducted using this data acquisition tool, and based on analysis of end-users performance and behaviour data, the authors developed a "spreadsheet cell coverage feedback" debugging tool. Results from the debugging experiment are presented in terms of enduser debugging performance and behaviour, and the outcomes of an evaluation experiment with the debugging tool are detailed.

  12. Sudden gains in behavioural activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Ciara; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Richards, David; Toner-Clewes, Benjamin; McMillan, Dean

    2014-09-01

    Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation.

  13. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard;

    2011-01-01

    observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P Activity indicated that cows most often stood to defaecatewhenperforming stati c activities, such as loafing or grazing, before and after defaecating (P...... was the predominant behaviour pattern of dairy cows at pasture, regardless of activity. Avoidance of bodily contamination with fresh faeces was shown at all observed eliminative events.......Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...

  14. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control....... Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities....... Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data...

  15. Consumer Behaviour Model on the Furniture Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEDNÁRIK, Éva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the furniture purchasing behaviour model. The study describes thebehaviour model and characteristics of decision making and the environmental factors affecting theindividuals besides emphasising the family character of furniture purchase. We introduce a chapterfrom the primary research verifying the model that analyses the validity of customer behaviour trendsdefined as elements of the impersonal environment on the furniture market. We touch on our lifestylebased segmentation model which is elaborated in our work in detail. The method of primary researchis quantitative, personal interview. While working out our research model we applied a method thatenables multi-level cross-section and cohort analyses. Our work has verified the need for trendresearches on the furniture market so we suggest the construction and the near-future launch of a trendresearch system consisting of several modules that reveals the specific factors on the furniture marketbesides verifying the validity of general behaviour trends.

  16. Distributed representations accelerate evolution of adaptive behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Stone

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals with rudimentary innate abilities require substantial learning to transform those abilities into useful skills, where a skill can be considered as a set of sensory-motor associations. Using linear neural network models, it is proved that if skills are stored as distributed representations, then within-lifetime learning of part of a skill can induce automatic learning of the remaining parts of that skill. More importantly, it is shown that this "free-lunch" learning (FLL is responsible for accelerated evolution of skills, when compared with networks which either 1 cannot benefit from FLL or 2 cannot learn. Specifically, it is shown that FLL accelerates the appearance of adaptive behaviour, both in its innate form and as FLL-induced behaviour, and that FLL can accelerate the rate at which learned behaviours become innate.

  17. Lawful Distortion of Consumers’ Economic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive prohibits unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices with a view to protect consumers’ economic interests. In a market economy such regulation cannot protect the economic interests of all consumers in all situations – there must inevitably be some...... ‘collateral damage’. In that vein this article discusses situations where consumers may have their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices that are not unfair under the Directive. It is expected that many consumers will make relatively good decisions most of the time...... Visitors’). The article suggests how behavioural sciences may be applied to understand these situations in order to protect more consumers from having their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices. It is suggested that per se prohibitions may be advantageous in some instances as long...

  18. Incentivizing behaviour change to improve diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, N M; Cengiz, E; Wagner, J A; Hood, K K; Carria, L; Tamborlane, W V

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural economics refers to the study of psychological and cognitive factors that relate to decision-making processes. This field is being applied increasingly to health care settings, in which patients receive tangible reinforcers or incentives for meeting objective behavioural criteria consistent with healthy lifestyles. This article reviews the background and efficacy of reinforcement interventions in general, and then as applied to behaviours related to diabetes prevention and management. Specifically, reinforcement interventions have been applied with some notable success towards promoting greater attendance at medical appointments, enhancing weight loss efforts, augmenting exercising regimes, improving medication adherence and increasing blood glucose monitoring. Suggestions for promising areas of future research are provided, keeping in mind the controversial nature of these interventions.

  19. Dynamic behaviour of “Collapsible” concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caverzan Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a particular cement composite material for protection of structures and infrastructures against accidental actions, such as blast or impact, has been investigated. An experimental procedure has been developed in order to assess static and dynamic behaviour of energy absorbing cementitious composites. The granular cementitious composite has been studied focusing attention to compressive strength, high deformation and energy dissipation capacity which are important characteristics for an absorber material. An experimental characterization of the material behaviour under compressive static and dynamic loadings has been carried out. Different deformation velocities have been studied in order to define the material behaviour in a wide range of strain rates. The velocity range up to 0.1 m/s is investigated by means of a universal servo-hydraulic MTS 50 kN testing machine. Some preliminary results have been reported and discussed in the present work.

  20. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Although childhood obesity has long been in focus, little is known about the sensitivity of behavioural choices to measure parental resource constraints. The aim of this study is to examine the heterogeneous effects of children’s (or their parents’) choices of lifestyle subject to information...... and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...

  1. Perceptions of Deviant Behaviour in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Carvalho Wilks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee misconduct in the workplace is relatively common and may be counterproductivein social and material terms. To identify which undesirable behavioursare considered acceptable is the first step to develop ways to reducedeviance in organizational settings. The purpose of this study was to examinethe perceived acceptability of deviant behaviour in the workplace, and to analysethe relation between the degree of such acceptance with organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction, and organizational tenure. Data was obtainedfrom 223 adults employed full-time. Results suggest a positive relationshipbetween the degree of acceptability of certain forms of deviant behaviour andorganizational commitment, but not with job satisfaction. They further indicatethat tenure was the factor having the most impact on the acceptanceof deviant behaviours. Implications of the findings for the management arediscussed.

  2. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  3. The Relation between Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Staff Behaviour towards Clients with ID and Challenging Behaviour: A Validation Study of the Staff-Client Interactive Behaviour Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics--such as beliefs, attributions and emotional reactions--on staff behaviour. Little is known,…

  4. Significant determinants of mouse pain behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Minett

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.

  5. Detecting Predatory Behaviour in Online Game Chats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnadottir, Elin Rut; Jensen, Alaina K.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung;

    This paper describes a machine learning approach to detect sexually predatory behaviour in the massively multiplayer online game for children, MovieStarPlanet. The goal of this work is to take a chat log as an input and outputs its label as either the predatory category or the non-predatory categ......This paper describes a machine learning approach to detect sexually predatory behaviour in the massively multiplayer online game for children, MovieStarPlanet. The goal of this work is to take a chat log as an input and outputs its label as either the predatory category or the non...

  6. A behavioural approach to remittances analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Wiebke; Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud

    2012-01-01

    This paper approaches the migrant’s motivation to remit from a new, behavioural perspective. We apply the well-established Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using a structural equation model for the first time for this specific research question. Our micro-dataset stems from a 2009/10 survey, covering Albanian migrants from Kosovo living in Germany as well as their home-country households. More than 90% of Kosovar migrants living in Germany remit. However, little is known about their underlyi...

  7. Children's travel behaviour and its health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mackett, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Children’s travel behaviour varies from that of adults in several ways: they have less choice about where they go and often they are not allowed to travel unescorted by an older person. The factors that influence children’s travel behaviour have changed in recent years, with the development of car-oriented lifestyles, increased numbers of mothers in employment and changes in attitudes towards children’s independent mobility. The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of children’s tra...

  8. Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment of Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2013-01-01

    Whether it is morally acceptable to offer rehabilitation by CNS-intervention to criminals as a condition for early release constitutes an important neuroethical question. Bomann-Larsen has recently suggested that such interventions are unacceptable if the offered treatment is not narrowly targeted...... at the behaviour for which the criminal is convicted. In this article it is argued that Bomann-Larsen's analysis of the morality of offers does not provide a solid base for this conclusion and that, even if the analysis is assumed to be correct, it still does not follow that voluntary rehabilitation...... schemes targeting behaviour beyond the act for which a criminal is convicted are inappropriate....

  9. Challenging behaviour: a challenge to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A; van Loon, J; Peelen, A

    2002-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often exhibit severe behavioural problems. Treatment of these problems is frequently very difficult. In The Netherlands, parents, institutes, schools and others can request the services of an independent advisory team with a pool of professionals who have experience with individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. In this article the methods of the team will be described using a 24-year-old man as an example. The process took almost 7 years. Finally, this man, who had been living full time in one room in total isolation from the rest of the world, fulfilled his heart's desire--visiting the UK by Hovercraft. PMID:12212917

  10. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean......Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...

  11. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour...... and Link Nested Logit. Estimates were produced from model specifications that considered level-of-service, label and facility dummy variables. Moreover, a modelling framework was designed to represent drivers’ choices as affected by the latent constructs extracted with factor analysis. Previous experience...

  12. Perspectives of economics – behavioural economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena DIACON

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and the extent to which it may increase the explanatory power of science by providing a realistic database for analysis, taking into account the complexity of the human factor.

  13. Understanding Casual-Leisure Information Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsweiler, David; Wilson, Max L.; Lunn, Brian Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    , they are typically related back to tasks, motivated by work or personal goals. This chapter, however, focuses on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needs rather than information needs, where people engage in searching behaviours for pleasure rather than to find information......Originally grounded in library and information science, the majority of information behaviour and information-seeking theories focus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. While other theories exist, such as how people unexpectedly encounter information, for example...

  14. Predicting automaticity in exercise behaviour: the role of perceived behavioural control, affect, intention, action planning, and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; B. Gardner; L. van Osch; F.F. Sniehotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Habit formation has been proposed as a way to maintain behaviour over time. Purpose Recent evidence suggests that constructs additional to repeated performance may predict physical automaticity, but no research has yet explored possible direct impacts of intention, planning, affect, and p

  15. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  16. A Socio Behavioural Perspective for Understanding and Managing Behaviour Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cull

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of interictal behaviour disturbance in children with epilepsy, and the management of such problems, are considered. The search for a direct relationship between epilepsy related variables and behaviour disorders is far from conclusive. While such a relationship may exist with respect to ictal behaviour problems, this line of investigation is of limited value in respect of its implications for the management of interictal problems. In the latter case it is proposed that organic factors may be considered to be a risk factor. In addition, the negative psychosocial sequelae of a diagnosis of epilepsy can result in conditions which are likely to foster the development of inappropriate behaviours. Learning theory would further suggest that environmental contingencies have a role to play in the shaping and maintenance of such behaviours. This broader framework for conceptualising the development and maintenance of interictal behaviour disorders has clear management implications. Clinical examples of the successful application of this approach to the management of persistent behavioural problems in two young people with epilepsy are presented.

  17. Blood donation and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour: an examination of perceived behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, M; Cairns, E

    1995-06-01

    In spite of the success achieved by the theory of reasoned action, researchers continue to suggest that new components should be added to the original model. Indeed, Ajzen has himself acknowledged that some behaviours may be subject to control problems and thus proposed the theory of planned behaviour to handle behaviours of this kind. This study set out to explore the predictive superiority of the revised theory of planned behaviour by focusing on blood donation, a behavioural domain in which volitional control was thought to be incomplete. It was also the intention to explore the extent to which the belief-based measure of attitude exists as a multidimensional construct. An Ajzen & Fishbein type questionnaire was administered to 141 undergraduate students. Multiple regression analyses provided strong support for the theory of planned behaviour, suggesting that perception of control has an important impact on a person's behavioural motivation. Also, some support for a multidimensional representation of the belief-based measure of attitude was provided. PMID:7620844

  18. Leadership empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and turnover intention in a manufacturing division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Bester

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ perceptions of their leaders’ behaviour play a role in creating empowering environments where employees are willing to do more than what is expected, with retention of employees as a result.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to theoretically conceptualise and empirically determine the relationships between employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and intention to leave within a manufacturing division of an organisation.Motivation for the study: In the ever-changing work environment, organisations must capitalise on their human capital in order to maintain competitiveness. It is therefore important to identify the role of employees’ perception of leadership in contributing to the establishment of an environment where employees feel empowered, are willing to do more than what is expected and want to stay in the organisation.Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used. The total population (N = 300 employed at the manufacturing division was targeted. Two hundred completed questionnaires were obtained. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire and Intention to Leave Scale were administered.Main findings: Employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour (keeping employees accountable, self-directed decision-making and people development, psychological empowerment (attitude and influence and organisational citizenship behaviours (loyalty, deviant behaviour and participation predict intention to leave the organisation.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should foster the elements of a positive organisation, in this case leader empowering behaviours, if they want to retain their employees.Contribution/value-add: The results of this research contribute to

  19. The transient behaviour of an input protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de Kees; Luchies, Jan Marc; Vrehen, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The high frequency behaviour of input protections has been measured with electro-optic sampling. These measurements allow the determination of the time dependence of the voltages at internal nodes as well as the time dependence of the current through the input protection. Simulations are performed u

  20. Discounting Behaviour and the Magnitude Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel;

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the claim that individuals exhibit a magnitude effect in their discounting behaviour, where higher discount rates are inferred from choices made with lower principals, all else being equal. If the magnitude effect is quantitatively significant, it is not appropriate to use one discount...

  1. The Pedestrian Behaviour of Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…

  2. Behaviour of Metal Foam Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhudery, Hayder; Virdi, Kuldeep

    2011-01-01

    Sandwich panels as used in structures comprise of a foam core enclosed by thin high strength steel faces. This paper discusses currently design formulae of local buckling behaviour of such panels using the finite element method. Multiple wave finite element models were adopted to investigate...

  3. Cell behaviour on chemically microstructured surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Agnese; Priamo, Alfredo; Pasqui, Daniela; Barbucci, Rolando

    2003-03-03

    Micropatterned surfaces with different chemical topographies were synthesised in order to investigate the influence of surface chemistry and topography on cell behaviour. The microstructured materials were synthesised by photoimmobilising natural Hyaluronan (Hyal) and its sulphated derivative (HyalS), both adequately functionalised with a photorective moiety, on glass substrates. Four different grating patterns (10, 25, 50 and 100 {mu}m) were used to pattern the hyaluronan. The micropatterned samples were analysed by Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy to investigate the chemistry and the topography of the surfaces. The spectroscopic and microscopic analysis of the microstructured surfaces revealed that the photoimmobilisation process was successful, demonstrating that the photomask patterns were well reproduced on the sample surface. The influence of chemical topographies on the cell behaviour was then analysed. Human and 3T3 fibroblasts, bovine aortic and human (HGTFN line) endothelial cells were used and their behaviour on the micropatterned surfaces was analysed in terms of adhesion, proliferation, locomotion and orientation. Both chemical and topographical controls were found to be important for cell guidance. By decreasing the stripe dimensions, a more fusiform shape of cell was observed. At the same time, the cell locomotion and orientation parallel to the structure increased. However, differences in cell behaviour were detected according to both cell type and micropattern dimensions.

  4. Sleepwalking and other ambulatory behaviours during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazzi, G; Vetrugno, R; Provini, F; Montagna, P

    2005-12-01

    Different pathological conditions may lead to somnambulic automatisms arising from nocturnal sleep. Video polysomnography represents the diagnostic tool but, due to the difficulty of capturing complex episodes in the sleep laboratory, audio-video recordings at home of the episodes may help in the differential diagnosis also. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal in which the subject arises from deep sleep, even displaying long complex behaviour, including leaving the bed and walking, with memory impairment of the event. Disordered arousal mechanisms with an inability of the brain to fully awaken from slow-wave sleep are thought to lead to these motor automatisms. REM sleep behaviour disorders begin during REM sleep and are accompanied by features of REM sleep. The motor behaviour may be violent and injurious to the patient and/or bed partner. In some patients, however, the behaviour may be similar to that observed in sleepwalking and some patients have an overlap syndrome. In nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in particular, and in complex partial seizures in general, stereotypic and repetitive motor attacks may recur, at any time, on the same night and on different nights, with a continuum between minimal or minor attacks and major or prolonged episodes up to agitated epileptic nocturnal wanderings. PMID:16331395

  5. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship encount...

  6. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G;

    2012-01-01

    the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  7. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  8. Oral hygiene behaviour change using motivational interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wynne, Leanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding a person's readiness to change could improve the way in which oral hygiene interventions and advice are given in the clinical setting. The aim of this article, therefore, is to provide a brief guide to behaviour change using motivational interviewing when discussing interdental cleaning.

  9. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J;

    2013-01-01

    behaviour. Methods  The study population consisted of 24 patients recently diagnosed with CMM during the 7 months preceding the start of the study; 51 controls who matched these recently diagnosed patients in age, sex, occupation and constitutive skin type; and 29 patients diagnosed with CMM between 12...

  10. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  11. Behavioural Phenotypes in Disability Research: Historical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodey, C. F.

    2006-01-01

    Western medicine has a long history of accounting for behaviour by reducing the body to ultimate explanatory entities. In pre-modern medicine these were invisible "animal spirits" circulating the body. In modern medicine, they are "genes". Both raise questions. The psychological phenotype is defined by human consensus, varying according to time…

  12. BEHAVIOUR OF METALS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emission of toxic metals from sewage sludge incinerators can present a risk to human health and the environment. ignificant base of data on the behaviour of metals in sludge incinerators has been compiled. hese data were examined in detail to identify the mechanisms responsib...

  13. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2001-01-01

    In the biological literature on animal behaviour, in addition to real experiments and field studies, also simulation experiments are a useful source of progress. Often specific mathematical modelling techniques are adopted and directly implemented in a programming language. Modelling more complex ag

  14. Coexisting Problem Behaviour in Severe Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Anne Elisabeth; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Andreassen, Anne Brit

    2011-01-01

    A small group of children and young adolescent with dyslexia has severely impaired reading skills despite prolonged special education. These are the students in focus. In dyslexia, problem behaviour, internalised as well as externalised, has previously been reported, so also for the participants with dyslexia in this study. The aim of the present…

  15. Perfectionism, health and preventive health behaviours.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    The perfectionism and health literature suggests that maladaptive perfectionism is associated with a plethora of negative health outcomes and adaptive perfectionism with both favourable and unfavourable health outcomes. Additionally, a small amount of research has proposed maladaptive perfectionists may refrain from engaging in preventive health behaviours whilst adaptive perfectionists may engage more readily. This thesis explored the differences between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionis...

  16. Cooperative behaviour, uncertainty and operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Game theory is a mathematical theory that can model and analyse cooperation between individuals. In this thesis, which consists of two parts, game theory is used to study the cooperative behaviour of agents in several situations. Part I of this thesis provides analysis of several problems from opera

  17. Business cycle fluctuations and consumption behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Bergh (Bram)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNew studies of business cycles and consumption tendencies reveal interesting and sometimes unexpected insights into consumption patterns. It appears that, while purchasing behaviour is obviously influenced by the overall economic environment, it is not merely a matter of more consumption

  18. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  19. Large 1 behaviour of the phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the large l behaviour of the phase-shifts, using their W.K.B. expressions, which are good in this case. A recurrence relation for the phase-shifts is deduced when the potentials fall off as 1/sub(r)m, while a potentially useful inequality is obtained for potentials which decrease monotonically for large r. (author)

  20. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.;

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  1. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, H.; Bouvy, M.L.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Floor-Schreudering, A.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Discontinuity of care bears the risk of medication errors and poor clinical outcomes. Little is known about the continuity of care related to pharmacies. Therefore, we studied the prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour in the Netherlands. METHODS: Benefi

  3. Prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvy, M. L.; De Smet, P. A. G. M.; Floor-Schreudering, A.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Buurma, H

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective: Discontinuity of care bears the risk of medication errors and poor clinical outcomes. Little is known about the continuity of care related to pharmacies. Therefore, we studied the prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour in the Netherlands. Methods: Benefi

  4. Dynamic behaviour of a CAREM type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As complement to CAREM reactor design studies, behaviour analysis were made in a non-stationary regime, with the aim of developing plant systems and determining process variables variation ranges, characteristic of normal operating conditions, specifying alarm values for different variables, as well as for operating policies. Transient accidental scenes analysis were made, concluding that reactor characteristics provide security, maintaining the core integrity. (Author)

  5. Risky traffic behaviour among young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Compared with older adolescents (18-24 years old), young adolescents (10-17 years old) exhibit more risky behaviour. Because of their physical and mental development, young adolescents are attracted to risky challenges, they are more suscep

  6. Optimal claim behaviour for vehicle damage insurances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. Dellaert (Nico); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); L.P. van Rijsoort

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse the optimal claim behaviour of a risk sensitive policy holder having a vehicle damage insurance. It is proved that the optimal decision is of the form: to claim for damages only if its amount exceeds a certain limit. Moreover, we also derive the optimal stopping

  7. Testing the Fracture Behaviour of Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…

  8. Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are consider

  9. Predictive Mapping of Anti-Social Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, S.K.; Vecht, B. van der; Lebesque, L.H.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Predictive mapping of crime and anti-social behaviour is becoming more and more popular as a tool to support police and policy makers. Important ingredients of such models are often demographic and economic characteristics of the area. Since those are hard to influence, we propose to use the environ

  10. Bullying Behaviour, Intentions and Classroom Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Sarah; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    Anti-bullying commitment across school communities is seen as crucial to the effectiveness of interventions. This exploratory study used a mixed-methods design to investigate bullying behaviour, intentions and aspects of the classroom ecology within the context of an anti-bullying initiative that was launched with a declaration of commitment.…

  11. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A micro-mecha

  12. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  13. Risk sectors for undesirable behaviour and mobbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubert, A.B.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this short note was to get an impression of risk sectors for the prevalence of undesirable behaviour and mobbing in The Netherlands. Data were collected from 1995 to 1999 with the Questionnaire on The Assessment and Experience of Work (Vragenlijst Beleving en Beoordeling van de Arbeid; VB

  14. Modelling Traveller Behaviour under Emergency Evacuation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic traffic simulation models are frequently used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. This paper focuses on limitations in the modelling of travellers’ behaviour with respect to traffic information and compliance to evacuation instructions. More specifically, we propose a model fra

  15. Fertility behaviour of recent immigrants to Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fertility practices of immigrants are a particularly interesting field of study for demographers, providing an insight into the fertility behaviour of individuals when both the society and the individual undergo a period of rapid change. This paper describes and compares the fertility behaviour of two large groups of immigrants, from the former Soviet Union (FSU and from Ethiopia to Israel in the last 20 years. The changes in fertility behaviour undergone in the same society and at the same time by two very different groups are examined. The findings reveal that the fertility behaviour of immigrants is indeed changing. The fertility of FSU immigrants is increasing and that of the Ethiopian immigrants decreasing, with accompanying changes in the proximate determinants of fertility. Although the fertility of immigrants is becoming more similar to that of the receiving society, the methods employed to achieve the fertility change are not necessarily similar, and, in some cases, diverge from the norms of the receiving society.

  16. Opiate antagonists stimulate affiliative behaviour in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Nys, C; Meller, R E; Keverne, E B

    1982-04-01

    The effects of treating captive talapoin monkeys acutely (twice daily for 7 days) with naltrexone hydrochloride (0.25 mg 0.5 mg and 1 mg/kg intramuscular injections twice daily), naloxone hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg IM twice daily) and sulpiride (1.5 mg/kg IM twice daily) was studied in social pairs and singly caged animals. The behaviour of social pairs and endocrine changes in all treated monkeys were monitored before, during and after withdrawal of the course of drug treatment. Naltrexone and naloxone, but not sulpiride, significant increased grooming and grooming invitations while aggressive behaviour, self grooming, scratching and general locomotor activity were unaffected. There was an overall increase in LH, testosterone and cortisol in plasma samples taken 60 mins after opiate receptor blockade. Prolactin was unchanged but increased dramatically in animals treated with sulpiride. No significant endocrine changes were observed to precede the increased grooming behaviour which opiate receptor blockade induced. The behavioural changes reported for this primate support the view that positive affect arising from social bonds may be mediated by cerebral endorphin containing systems. PMID:6280208

  17. Inhaled corticosteroids do not affect behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T. W.; van Roon, E. N.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether children with asthma and on inhaled corticosteroids have more behavioural problems, such as aggressiveness and hyperactivity, as compared with healthy controls and with children under medical care because of other disorders. Methods: Questionnaires were given to three group

  18. Behavioural actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R.; Cottrell, G.A.; Veldhuis, H.D.; Rostene, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied on fear-motivated behaviours, exploration of a novel environment and on novelty and ACTH-induced grooming. VIP was administered via a plastic cannula into the lateral ventricle. Retention of a step-through passive avoidance task was inhib

  19. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. In contrast, this project views retailer...

  20. Bullying and Inappropriate Behaviour among Faculty Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Käyhkö, Katinka

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the degree, nature and consequences of bullying or inappropriate behaviour among faculty personnel (n = 303) in a Finnish university. A total of 114 (38%) faculty members answered the email questionnaire. According to the results, 15% of the respondents had experienced bullying; in addition, 45% had experienced inappropriate…

  1. Retention Behaviour in Micellar Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rambla-Alegre

    2012-01-01

    More often than not, the complexity of the mixtures of compounds studied and the relevant modification of their chromatographic behaviour when changing the mobile phase composition requires the use of computer-assisted simulations in MLC to follow the modifications in the chromatograms in detail. These simulations can be done with sound reliability thanks to the use of chemometrics tools.

  2. Sleep hygiene behaviours: an application of the theory of planned behaviour and the investigation of perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Kenny; Mullan, Barbara Ann

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the sleep hygiene behaviour of university students within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB [Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.]), and examined the predictive validity of additional variables including perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition. A total of 257 undergraduate students from an Australian university were administered two online questionnaires at two time points. At time 1, participants completed the TPB questionnaire and the Go/NoGo task as a measure of response inhibition. A week later at time 2, participants completed a questionnaire measuring the performance of sleep hygiene behaviours. Multiple and hierarchical regression analyses showed that the TPB model significantly predicted intention and behaviour. Although intention and perceived behavioural control were statistically significant in predicting behaviour, past behaviour and response inhibition accounted for more variance when added to the TPB model. Subjective norm was found to be the strongest predictor of intention implying the importance of normative influences in sleep hygiene behaviours. Response inhibition was the strongest predictor of behaviour, reinforcing the argument that the performance of health protective behaviours requires self-regulatory ability. Therefore, interventions should be targeted at enhancing self-regulatory capacity. PMID:21678170

  3. Sleep hygiene behaviours: an application of the theory of planned behaviour and the investigation of perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Kenny; Mullan, Barbara Ann

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the sleep hygiene behaviour of university students within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB [Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.]), and examined the predictive validity of additional variables including perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition. A total of 257 undergraduate students from an Australian university were administered two online questionnaires at two time points. At time 1, participants completed the TPB questionnaire and the Go/NoGo task as a measure of response inhibition. A week later at time 2, participants completed a questionnaire measuring the performance of sleep hygiene behaviours. Multiple and hierarchical regression analyses showed that the TPB model significantly predicted intention and behaviour. Although intention and perceived behavioural control were statistically significant in predicting behaviour, past behaviour and response inhibition accounted for more variance when added to the TPB model. Subjective norm was found to be the strongest predictor of intention implying the importance of normative influences in sleep hygiene behaviours. Response inhibition was the strongest predictor of behaviour, reinforcing the argument that the performance of health protective behaviours requires self-regulatory ability. Therefore, interventions should be targeted at enhancing self-regulatory capacity.

  4. The social definition of women's smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, A K

    1985-01-01

    The history of women's smoking behaviour is one of changing normative definitions. Recent trends have been explained in terms of the symbolic value of smoking, representing for women freedom and independence. This view is emphasised by advertising. However, other evidence suggests the continued existence of an older, more negative cultural stereotype. A two-part study of young women undergoing professional training for nursing and teaching throws some light on the way in which female smoking behaviour is currently socially interpreted. The first phase indicated that among the minority of parents who had expressed their attitudes towards their daughter's smoking in relation to sex-role norms, smoking was presented as unacceptable for women. More than half the sample perceived a negative cultural stereotype to be operating in contemporary society and two-thirds recognised its existence in the past. This stereotype presents smoking as a male behaviour and hence inappropriate for women. Women who do smoke are liable to be labelled as having unfeminine or degrading attributes. The stereotype operated more strongly in the general social background rather than in reference to personal relationships and hence its influence on contemporary behaviour is likely to be limited. It was rejected as out-dated or a male belief by some but nevertheless it represented the personal opinion of others. In terms of a more favourable definition the female smoker was perceived in terms of an elegant/sophisticated dimension and in relation to an extrovert personality. The view of sample members that the growing acceptability of women's smoking was related to social change indirectly supported the view that sees smoking as symbolic of independence. Those who saw smoking in neutral terms, i.e. as not having sex-role attributes, perceived smoking in this sense as normal social behaviour for men and women alike. The second phase suggested that smokers and non-smokers have divergent views about

  5. The social definition of women's smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, A K

    1985-01-01

    The history of women's smoking behaviour is one of changing normative definitions. Recent trends have been explained in terms of the symbolic value of smoking, representing for women freedom and independence. This view is emphasised by advertising. However, other evidence suggests the continued existence of an older, more negative cultural stereotype. A two-part study of young women undergoing professional training for nursing and teaching throws some light on the way in which female smoking behaviour is currently socially interpreted. The first phase indicated that among the minority of parents who had expressed their attitudes towards their daughter's smoking in relation to sex-role norms, smoking was presented as unacceptable for women. More than half the sample perceived a negative cultural stereotype to be operating in contemporary society and two-thirds recognised its existence in the past. This stereotype presents smoking as a male behaviour and hence inappropriate for women. Women who do smoke are liable to be labelled as having unfeminine or degrading attributes. The stereotype operated more strongly in the general social background rather than in reference to personal relationships and hence its influence on contemporary behaviour is likely to be limited. It was rejected as out-dated or a male belief by some but nevertheless it represented the personal opinion of others. In terms of a more favourable definition the female smoker was perceived in terms of an elegant/sophisticated dimension and in relation to an extrovert personality. The view of sample members that the growing acceptability of women's smoking was related to social change indirectly supported the view that sees smoking as symbolic of independence. Those who saw smoking in neutral terms, i.e. as not having sex-role attributes, perceived smoking in this sense as normal social behaviour for men and women alike. The second phase suggested that smokers and non-smokers have divergent views about

  6. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour—electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls’ choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. - Highlights: • We surveyed 323 fourth and fifth grade Girl Scouts and parents about energy behaviours. • We asked about electricity, transportation and food behaviour and its correlates. • Girls’ electricity behaviours are linked to intrapersonal and interpersonal influences. • Girls’ transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. • Girls’ food behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled

  7. Making scents of behavioural genetics: lessons from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Robert R H

    2010-12-01

    The expression of behaviours is influenced by many segregating genes. Behaviours are, therefore, complex traits. They have, however, unique characteristics that set them apart from physiological and morphological quantitative traits. First, behaviours are the ultimate expression of the nervous system. This means that understanding the genetic underpinnings of behaviours requires a neurobiological context, i.e. an understanding of the genes-brain-behaviour axis. In other words, how do ensembles of genes empower specific neural circuits to drive behaviours? Second, behaviours represent the interface between an organism and its environment. Thus, environmental effects are likely to make substantial contributions to determining behavioural outputs and genotype-by-environment interactions are expected to be prominent. It is important to differentiate between genes that contribute to the manifestation of the behavioural phenotype and genes that contribute to phenotypic variation in behaviour. The former are identified by classical mutagenesis experiments, whereas the latter can be detected through quantitative genetic approaches. Genes that contribute to phenotypic variation in behaviour harbour polymorphisms that provide the substrates for evolution. This review focuses on olfactory behaviour in Drosophila with the goal to illustrate how fundamental insights derived from studies on chemosensation can be applied to a wide range of behavioural phenotypes. PMID:21429267

  8. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN

    2014-10-01

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of sorption behaviour on contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sorption behaviour on contaminant migration in groundwater systems are varied. Retardation of migration and dispersive effects can vary widely and contaminant concentration profiles can take a number of different shapes. This report examines the nature of some of these effects, especially those due to sorption behaviours that are dependent on the concentration of the contaminant in the groundwater. The effects are calculated using, in most cases, analytical solutions to the chemical equations imbedded in a simple reaction-cell or box-model transport algorithm. The hydrogeological parameters are held constant, and radioactive decay and hydrodynamic dispersion are excluded. A general discussion of the role of sorption equations in transport modelling is followed by presentation of migration results for a number of models of sorption behaviour varying from linear isotherms, Langmuir, Freundlich and ion-exchange isotherms, to precipitation reactions and multiple-site sorption reactions. The results are compared and general conclusions are drawn about the various migration behaviours calculated. The conclusions are that equilibrium sorption of trace contaminants can be modelled with linear isotherms (constant distribution coefficients or constant retardation factors) but the evaluation and extrapolation of the distribution coefficient are not easy. Nonlinear isotherms lead to unsymmetrical migration fronts. A comparison of Freundlich and linear isotherms is made. Sorption/desorption kinetic factors can be significant on the time scale of laboratory experiments and can cause large dispersive effects. Slow but important reactions can be missed altogether. Precipitation or mineralization behaviour cannot be modelled with constant distribution coefficients. Also, mineralization reactions can be kinetically slow even on the geological time scale. 89 refs

  10. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy vs. cognitive behaviour therapy for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvenegaard, Morten; Watkins, Ed R; Poulsen, Stig;

    2015-01-01

    Scale for Depression) at completion of treatment. Secondary outcomes will be level of rumination, worry, anxiety, quality of life, behavioural activation, experimental measures of cognitive flexibility, and emotional attentional bias. A 6-month follow-up is planned and will include the primary outcome......BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment for depression. However, one third of the patients do not respond satisfactorily, and relapse rates of around 30 % within the first post-treatment year were reported in a recent meta-analysis. In total, 30-50 % of remitted patients...... of future depression. Rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy is a psychotherapeutic treatment targeting rumination. Because rumination plays a major role in the initiation and maintenance of depression, targeting rumination with rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy may be more...

  11. Management Control Systems, Evaluative Style, and Behaviour : Exploring the Concept and Behavioural Consequences of Evaluative Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Noeverman (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganisations develop and implement performance measurement and performance evaluation systems to motivate employees to take actions that -in the end- improve organisational (financial) performance. But do these systems really influence employee behaviour as intended? This thesis shows

  12. Does "Behavioural Economics" Offer an Alternative to the Neoclassical Paradigm? (Discussion Forum II: Behavioural Economics)

    OpenAIRE

    Streeck, W.

    2010-01-01

    At the 2009 SASE meeting in Paris, Amitai Etzioni, Michael Piore and Wolfgang Streeck discussed the potential contributions of behavioural economics to socio-economics. Following are slightly expanded versions of their presentations.

  13. Web-assisted tobacco intervention in Portuguese : intentions to make behavioural changes and behavioural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT - The problem of how to support “intentions to make behavioural changes” (IBC) and “behaviour changes” (BC) in smoking cessation when there is a scarcity of resources is a pressing issue in public health terms. The present research focuses on the use of information and communications technologies and their role in smoking cessation. It is developed in Portugal after the ratification of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (on 8 November 2005). The prevalence of smokers over fi...

  14. AIDS awareness and VCT behaviour: An application of the integrated model of behaviour prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde Diteweg; Adinda van Oostwaard; Hugo Tempelman; Adri Vermeer; Melanie Appels; Marieke F. van der Schaaf; David J.F. Maree

    2013-01-01

    In order to limit the expansion of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is important to develop targeted prevention strategies. The voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) programme appears to be effective for preventing the spread of the HI virus. This study adapted guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP) into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 yea...

  15. Fractal analysis of behaviour in a wild primate: behavioural complexity in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Alados, Concepción L.; Huffman, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism and other stressors are ubiquitous in nature but their effects on animal behaviour can be difficult to identify. We investigated the effects of nematode parasitism and other indicators of physiological impairment on the sequential complexity of foraging and locomotion behaviour among wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). We observed all sexually mature individuals (n = 28) in one macaque study group between October 2007 and August 2008, and collected two faecal samples/mon...

  16. Factors influencing Household Recycling Behaviour A study of Japanese consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Takiyama, Saori

    2008-01-01

    Waste production has been a major social and environmental issue across nations. Recycling has increasingly concerned as one of the effective ways to deal with the issue. Although there has been official recycling system in Japan, recycling rate in households has not been improved, comparing that in industrial sector. This study examines factors influencing recycling behaviour with evidence from Japanese consumers. Several factors have been identified as the predictor of recycling behaviour w...

  17. Energy, the Environment and Behaviour Change: A survey of insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of climate change is largely undisputed but moderating the impacts not only of climate change but also of resource depletion is a complex, multi-faceted problem. Technical solutions will have a large role to play but engineering behaviour change within households and firms is essential to harnessing the potential for energy efficient consumption, production and investment. To inform debates about behavior change, this paper explores some insights from behavioural economics including ...

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of teacher training in Applied Behaviour Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Ian M; Honan, Rita; McClean, Brian; Daly, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Interventions for children with autism based upon Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) has been repeatedly shown to be related both to educational gains and to reductions in challenging behaviours. However, to date, comprehensive training in ABA for teachers and others have been limited. Over 7 months, 11 teachers undertook 90 hours of classroom instruction and supervision in ABA. Each teacher conducted a comprehensive functional assessment and designed a behaviour support plan targeting one behaviour for one child with an autistic disorder. Target behaviours included aggression, non-compliance and specific educational skills. Teachers recorded observational data for the target behaviour for both baseline and intervention sessions. Support plans produced an average 80 percent change in frequency of occurrence of target behaviours. Questionnaires completed by parents and teachers at the end of the course indicated a beneficial effect for the children and the educational environment. The potential benefits of teacher implemented behavioural intervention are discussed. PMID:16144826

  19. Morphology and behaviour : functional links in development and evolution Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are kno

  20. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  1. A meta-analysis of the effects of measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs on behaviour within prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankarious, Evon; Kothe, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Measurement reactivity effects, such as the mere measurement effect, have been proposed as a reason for behavioural changes in a number of theory of planned behaviour intervention studies. However, it is unclear whether such changes are the result of the mere measurement effect or of other artefacts of intervention study design. The aim of this study is to determine the size and direction of changes in health behaviours from baseline to follow-up in prospective studies using the theory of planned behaviour. Electronic databases were searched for the theory of planned behaviour studies which measured health behaviours at two or more time points. Change in behaviour was calculated for all studies. Sixty-six studies were included. Mean effect sizes across all studies were small and negative (d = -.03). Effect size was moderated by behaviour, behaviour type and follow-up length. Subgroup analyses showed significant decreases in socially undesirable behaviour (d = -.28), binge drinking (d = -.17), risk driving (d = -.20), sugar snack consumption (d = -.43) and sun-protective behaviour (d = -.18). Measurement of intention at baseline resulted in significant decreases in undesirable behaviour. Changes in undesirable behaviours reported in other studies may be the result of the mere measurement effect. PMID:26209208

  2. The Examination of Brand Switching Behaviour in Cosmetic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, I-Jiun

    2007-01-01

    Cometic industry is a lucrative business that progressively attracts more attentions from marketing research. The highly competitive environment in the cosmetic industry makes it a valuable area to study consumer behaviours. Brand switching behaviour is one of the most important consumer behaviours which is significant for the management to sustain competitive advantages in the global market. In this research, the relationship between brand switching behaviour and factors influencing such beh...

  3. Assessing professional behaviour: Overcoming teachers’ reluctance to fail students

    OpenAIRE

    Mak–van der Vossen, Marianne; Peerdeman, Saskia; van Mook, Walther; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing professional behaviour is an important goal of medical education in which teachers play a significant part. Many teachers can be reluctant to fail students demonstrating unprofessional behaviour. We hypothesize that supporting teachers in teaching and assessing professional behaviour and involving them in remediation will reduce this reluctance. Findings In 2010, VUmc School of Medical Sciences Amsterdam introduced an educational theme on professional behaviour for the b...

  4. Tendencies Shaping Consumer Behaviour in the Present Context

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Andreea Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Due to the multiple interdependences and parameters emerged from the coalescence among consumer behaviour, economic and human behaviour in general, there is a vast interest in the study of consumer behaviour, and not just in the field of economic sciences. As a direct consequence of the social and economic development of modern societies, the study of consumer behaviour has undergone an important development process and is permanently enriched with new contributions. At present, consumer beha...

  5. Myopia, customer returns and the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    King, T.; Dennis, C.; Wright, L T

    2008-01-01

    As a prevalent and growing form of customer behaviour, deshopping is on the rise. Retailers’ focus on good customer service and the offering of lenient returns polices has led to the growth in this fraudulent behaviour of customers in returning goods. This paper considers retailer myopia in the context of dishonest customer returns, applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using a quantitative questionnaire with 535 female consumers. The findings highlight the extent of the behaviour wi...

  6. Impact of Socially Responsible Marketing on Consumers� Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Cristache; Ciprian Istrate

    2016-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the impact of socially responsible marketing on consumers� behaviour. In this context, special attention was devoted both to certain aspects related to the previous ecological behaviour of consumers and to the consequences of this type of behaviour influenced by various external factors. Moreover, there has been assessed the intensity of the relationship between the following three dimensions: ecological behaviour, ecological sensibility and lifestyle of a well-defi...

  7. THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    OMER TURUNC; MAZLUM CELIK; IBRAHIM SANI MERT

    2013-01-01

    Ethical behaviour is one of the dynamics of modern business life of which importance have been increasing. Many factors affect to make the employees behave ethically. Being one of these factors, leader's behaviour is a premise of ethical behaviour as it is of many organizational behaviors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and contingent reward leadership styles, two important leadership styles, on the employees' ethical behaviour. An...

  8. Consumer behaviour in respect of milk in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Termorshuizen, J.G.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Wierenga, B.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, consumer behaviour in the Netherlands in respect of milk is investigated using a model based on the EKB model, a so-called integrated model of consumer behaviour. The objectives of the study are: to gain insight into the factors that influence buying and consumption behaviour with respect to milk and into the applicability of integrated models to consumer behaviour regarding generic products, such as liquid milk. It was established that liquid milk was perceived as a neutral dr...

  9. Does Students' Financial Behaviour Differ Based on Their Family Income?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorjana NANO; Teuta LLUKANI

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the differences on Financial Behaviour among Albanian university students based on their family income. The main objectives of this study are: i) firstly, to assess the level of financial behaviour of Albanian university students; ii) to examine whether the financial behaviour differs based on the level of students family income; and ii) finally, , to provide some conclusions and policy implications with regard to financial behaviour. An instrument comprised of specifi...

  10. Investigating Communication and Social Behaviour Using Wearable Sensor Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Ailbhe N.

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour that we exhibit contributes to the message that is communicated to those that we are interacting with and can have an impact on how the message is conveyed and interpreted. Nonverbal behaviour is just as important to be aware of as well as what is being said, as the subtleties of behaviour can impact the outcome of interactions. Advancements in research technologies have allowed us the chance to investigate natural human behaviour is a variety of settings outside of the laborato...

  11. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  12. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  13. Behavioural Sciences and the Regulation of Privacy on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the policy implications of behavioural sciences insights for the regulation of privacy on the Internet, by focusing in particular on behavioural targeting. This marketing technique involves tracking people’s online behaviour to use the collected information to show people indiv

  14. After the Assessment: Introducing Adolescents to Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Keating, Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the practical aspects involved in adapting cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) to an adolescent population in Australia. Some effective ways to use CBT with adolescents include preparing them for CBT by providing a thorough cognitive-behavioural formulation, describing the cognitive-behavioural approach…

  15. Schizotypy and Behavioural Adjustment and the Role of Neuroticism

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Völter; Tilo Strobach; Aichert, Désirée S.; Nicola Wöstmann; Anna Costa; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Torsten Schubert; Ulrich Ettinger

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Ad...

  16. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  17. Expression of behaviour and psychoactive drugs in the rat EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, Hester van

    2004-01-01

    Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to

  18. Complicating "Student Behaviour": Exploring the Discursive Constitution of "Learner Subjectivities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    2015-01-01

    When educators consider "student behaviour", they usually think about "problem behaviour" such as disruption or defiance. This limited and limiting view of "student behaviour" not only fails to acknowledge children as educational actors in a wider sense, but also narrowly positions educators as either in control or…

  19. Disruptive Behaviour of Students in Primary Education and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esturgo-Deu, M. Estrella; Sala-Roca, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the relation between disruptive behaviours and the emotional abilities of children in primary education. To do this, disruptive behaviour and emotional abilities were evaluated in 1422 pupils aged between 6 and 12 years of age at 11 education centres using EQIjv. No relation was found between disruptive behaviours and age, but…

  20. Evolution of central pattern generators and rhythmic behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of rhythmic movements and the central pattern generators (CPGs) that control them uncover principles about the evolution of behaviour and neural circuits. Over the course of evolutionary history, gradual evolution of behaviours and their neural circuitry within any lineage of animals has been a predominant occurrence. Small changes in gene regulation can lead to divergence of circuit organization and corresponding changes in behaviour. However, some behavioural divergence has resulted from large-scale rewiring of the neural network. Divergence of CPG circuits has also occurred without a corresponding change in behaviour. When analogous rhythmic behaviours have evolved independently, it has generally been with different neural mechanisms. Repeated evolution of particular rhythmic behaviours has occurred within some lineages due to parallel evolution or latent CPGs. Particular motor pattern generating mechanisms have also evolved independently in separate lineages. The evolution of CPGs and rhythmic behaviours shows that although most behaviours and neural circuits are highly conserved, the nature of the behaviour does not dictate the neural mechanism and that the presence of homologous neural components does not determine the behaviour. This suggests that although behaviour is generated by neural circuits, natural selection can act separately on these two levels of biological organization.

  1. On the coevolution of social responsiveness and behavioural consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Max; Van Doorn, G. Sander; Weissing, Franz J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research focuses on animal personalities, that is individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across contexts and over time. From an adaptive perspective, such limited behavioural plasticity is surprising, since a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective adv

  2. Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction among Behaviourally At-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanaki, Evangelia P.; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula A.; Babalis, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between loneliness/social dissatisfaction and teacher-identified behavioural risk during late childhood. A broad range of behaviour problems, as well as academic adjustment, are assessed, in order to specify in which types of behaviour and academic problems loneliness/social dissatisfaction is…

  3. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lene; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    behavioural changes for up to 19 h – and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare...

  4. Discourses on Behaviour: A Role for Restorative Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Victoria L.; Corcoran, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The description and management of difficult behaviour in schools has interested educational practitioners and researchers worldwide, including in the UK. Concerns have been raised about the use and implications of more dominant discourses, namely those of behaviourism and zero tolerance, for understanding student behaviour. This article presents…

  5. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  6. Towards a Definition of Serendipity in Information Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…

  7. COMPLEXITY OF LARGE TIME BEHAVIOUR OFEVOLUTION EQUATIONS WITH BOUNDED DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the heat equation and a number of evolution equations using scaling techniques. It is proved that in the framework of bounded data stabilization need not occur and the general asymptotic behaviour is complex. This behaviour reflects for large times,even on compact sets,the complexity of the initial data at infinity.

  8. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  9. Human behaviour in tunnels: what further steps to take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel safety, especially in case of fires, has received a lot of attention due to heavy disasters. However, much attention is paid to controlling and extinguishing the fire, and not so much on the role of human behaviour. In this case, human behaviour includes the behaviour of road users, rail pass

  10. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  11. Primary School Teachers' Views about Supervisional Deviant Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Ali; Gucer, Halil; Orcan, Asli

    2015-01-01

    This research examines supervisional deviant behaviours depending on the primary school teachers' view in Izmir, Turkey. Organizational or workplace deviant behaviours have been studied in number of studies and these types of behaviours are determined. It is obvious that solving the problems of orgaizational deviance contribute to meet…

  12. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours.

  13. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. PMID:26423363

  14. Household waste behaviours among a community sample in Iran: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Emamjomeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Asefzadeh, Saeed; Pearson, Heidi

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing recycling behaviour can lead to better and more effective recycling programs in a community. The goal of this study was to examine factors associated with household waste behaviours in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) among a community sample of Iranians that included data collection at time 1 and at follow-up one year later at time 2. Study participants were sampled from households under the coverage of eight urban health centers in the city of Qazvin. Of 2000 invited households, 1782 agreed to participate in the study. A self-reported questionnaire was used for assessing socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention). Furthermore, questions regarding moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were asked, creating an extended TPB. At time 2, participants were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire on self-reported recycling behaviours. All TPB constructs had positive and significant correlations with each other. Recycling behaviour at time 1 (past behaviour) significantly related to household waste behaviour at time 2. The extended TPB explained 47% of the variance in household waste behaviour at time 2. Attitude, perceived behavioural control, intention, moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were significant predictors of household waste behaviour at time 2 in all models. The fact that the expanded TPB constructs significantly predicted household waste behaviours holds great promise for developing effective public campaigns and behaviour-changing interventions in a region where overall rates of household waste reduction behaviours are low. Our results indicate that educational materials which target moral obligation and action planning may be particularly effective. PMID:24252373

  15. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  16. Harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarvesh K Tiwari; L J Shukla; K S Upadhyaya

    2010-05-01

    Harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides (TlCl and TlBr) have been studied using the new van der Waals three-body force shell model (VTSM), which incorporates the effects of the van der Waals interaction along with long-range Coulomb interactions, three-body interactions and short-range second neighbour interactions in the framework of rigid shell model (RSM). Phonon dispersion curves (PDC), variations of Debye temperature with absolute temperature and phonon density of state (PDS) curves have been reported for thallous halides using VTSM. Comparison of experimental values with those of VTSM and TSM are also reported in the paper and a good agreement between experimental and VTSM values has been found, from which it may be inferred that the incorporation of van der Waals interactions is essential for the complete harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides.

  17. Improving workplace behaviour in maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Jacque; Smith, Gillian

    2016-02-01

    Within the midwifery and medical profession it is tragic that we are still witnessing bullying and poor workplace behaviours in the NHS. The Royal College of Midwives (RCM) and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) have been discussing this since the early 2000s as midwifery and obstetrics feature at the top of General Medical Council (GMC) reporting and NHS surveys. It has come to the point that, as royal colleges, we need to take responsibility, show leadership and do something about this, before waiting for the next set of survey results. Through a joint project, both royal colleges are optimistic that the juggernaut of poor workplace behaviour can be turned around and improved in a generation, if we all work together. PMID:27008756

  18. Behaviour of Soil Subjected to Dynamic Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, L.

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal-Torsional Resonant Column apparatus placed at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University. Another, but quite new technique for small strain testing to determine the maximum shear modulus, Gmax, is the bender element technique, and as part of the project this technique has also been...... foundations, and hence it is necessary to know the deformation properties for the soil at very low strain level. The main topic of the project is to increase the knowledge of the behaviour of Danish soils at small strain levels and to extend the laboratory facilities to deal with testing at small strains....... The soil behaviour at very small strain levels is non-linear, and the most common testing technique for this situation is the resonant column technique. One of the aims of this project is to install, check, get familiar with and perform tests on different kinds of Danish soils in a new Drnevich...

  19. Helium behaviour in nuclear waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiss, T.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Colle, J.Y.; Maugeri, E.; Raison, P.; Konings, R.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Roudil, D.; Deschanel, X.; Peuget, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de VALRHO, B.P. 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    Waste conditioning matrices like synthetic zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) were fabricated and doped with either the short-lived alpha-emitters {sup 238}Pu or {sup 244}Cm, or with {sup 239}Pu to generate various amounts of helium and of alpha-damage. The samples were annealed in a Knudsen cell, and the helium desorption profiles interpreted in conjunction with parallel radiation damage and previous annealing behaviour studies. To understand the long term behaviour of spent nuclear fuel, UO{sub 2} samples doped with the alpha-emitters {sup 233}U, {sup 238}Pu have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), by XRD and by thermal desorption spectroscopy. The release of helium has been explained by the recrystallization of amorphized zirconolite on one hand and partially during alpha-damage recovery in the case of the spent fuel. This study mostly highlights the correlation between restructuring of damaged materials and gas release.

  20. Redeeming behaviours: a push, not a shove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joan Wharf; Cookson, Susanne; Hastings-James, Cynthia; Frazer, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    By now, it's no secret that Canadians are struggling to maintain a healthy body weight, eat right and get enough physical activity to promote their health and prevent the early onset of or to manage, chronic disease. Considered with our tendency to have poor adherence rates to prescribed medications and difficulties overcoming addictive substances, this struggle threatens to shorten our life spans and overburden our healthcare system. To turn the tide, layered and coordinated initiatives at the population level are needed that educate, motivate and support individuals to embrace healthy living. In this commentary, the authors respond to Oliver's recent paper on the utility of user financial incentives and architectural choice interventions as mechanisms for facilitating voluntary behaviour change. They concur with many of his ideas and argue that a more comprehensive approach, particularly adhering to the principles and strategies of social marketing, is needed to stimulate and sustain behaviour change. PMID:23713400

  1. Behaviour of domestic violence in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abused elderly. The predominant groups were: ages between 70 – 79 years. (75.0%, the female sex (59.3%, those with marital links (65.6% dissatisfaction with their lives like a psychological symptom (53,2% psychological abused (50,0% and children as principles aggressors. The adult persons studied were a victim of any kind of domestic abused and as a consequence was presented second psychological manifestations.

  2. Preliminary analysis of turbochargers rotors dynamic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monoranu, R.; Ştirbu, C.; Bujoreanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Turbocharger rotors for the spark and compression ignition engines are resistant steels manufactured in order to support the exhaust gas temperatures exceeding 1200 K. In fact, the mechanical stress is not large as the power consumption of these systems is up to 10 kW, but the operating speeds are high, ranging between 30000 ÷ 250000 rpm. Therefore, the correct turbochargers functioning involves, even from the design stage, the accurate evaluation of the temperature effects, of the turbine torque due to the engine exhaust gases and of the vibration system behaviour caused by very high operating speeds. In addition, the turbocharger lubrication complicates the model, because the classical hydrodynamic theory cannot be applied to evaluate the floating bush bearings. The paper proposes a FEM study using CATIA environment, both as modeling medium and as tool for the numerical analysis, in order to highlight the turbocharger complex behaviour. An accurate design may prevent some major issues which can occur during its operation.

  3. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nicholas T Ouellette

    2015-03-01

    The collective behaviour of groups of social animals has been an active topic of study across many disciplines, and has a long history of modelling. Classical models have been successful in capturing the large-scale patterns formed by animal aggregations, but fare less well in accounting for details, particularly for groups that do not display net motion. Inspired by recent measurements of swarming insects, which are not well described by the classical modelling paradigm, I pose a set of questions that must be answered by any collective-behaviour model. By explicitly stating the choices made in response to each of these questions, models can be more easily categorized and compared, and their expected range of validity can be clarified.

  4. Typing Context-Dependent Behavioural Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Degano

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Oriented Programming (COP concerns the ability of programs to adapt to changes in their running environment. A number of programming languages endowed with COP constructs and features have been developed. However, some foundational issues remain unclear. This paper proposes adopting static analysis techniques to reason on and predict how programs adapt their behaviour. We introduce a core functional language, ContextML, equipped with COP primitives for manipulating contexts and for programming behavioural variations. In particular, we specify the dispatching mechanism, used to select the program fragments to be executed in the current active context. Besides the dynamic semantics we present an annotated type system. It guarantees that the well-typed programs adapt to any context, i.e. the dispatching mechanism always succeeds at run-time.

  5. Behavioural Rule Discovery from Swarm Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, David; Wang, Hui; Moore, George; Bi, Yaxin

    Rules determine the functionality of a given system, in either natural or man-made systems. Man-made systems, such as computer applications, use a set of known rules to control the behaviours applied in a strict manner. Biological or natural systems employ unknown rules, these being undiscovered rules which are more complex. These rules are unknown due to the inability to determine how they are applied, unless observed by a third party. The swarm is one of the largest naturally observed systems, with bird flocks and ant colonies being the most notable. It is a collection or group of individuals who use behaviours to complete a given goal or objective. It is the aim of this paper to present rule discovery methods for the mining of these unknown rules within a swarm system, employing a bird flock simulation environment to gather data.

  6. Dealing with drug-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient's biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918

  7. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount impor...

  8. Understanding the behaviour of infinite ladder circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block of impedance is added. However, the impedance derived from this assumption may lead to incorrect conclusions if it is not treated carefully. Sometimes, in the literature, the input impedance behaviour of infinite ladder circuits is referred to as a paradox, leaving students and educators in doubt. This study intends to clarify this confusion and help to better comprehend the behaviour of the input impedance of infinite ladder circuits

  9. Temperature behaviour: Comparison for nine storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Marion; Malbranche, Philippe; Lemaire-Potteau, Elisabeth [GENEC, CEA de Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Willer, B. [ISET, Kassel (Germany); Soria, M.L. [EXIDE Tudor, Azuqueca de Menares (Spain); Jossen, A. [ZSW, Ulm (Germany); Dahlen, M. [Catella-Generics, Jaerfaella (Sweden); Ruddell, A. [CCRLC, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Cyphelly, I. [CMR Alternativas, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Semrau, G. [ZOXY AG, Bretten (Germany); Sauer, D.U. [RWTH-ISEA, Aachen (Germany); Sarre, G. [SAFT, Bordeaux (France)

    2006-03-21

    Within the INVESTIRE Thematic Network, 33 partners worked together in order to compare nine storage technologies for renewable energy applications. For this purpose, storage technology reports were written that presented the state of the art of*lead-acid batteries; *lithium batteries; *double-layer capacitors; *nickel-based batteries; *flywheel; *redox flow battery; *compressed air; *hydrogen-based energy storage; *metal/air systems, e.g. Zn/O{sub 2}. The technology reports include detailed consideration of the technical characteristics, including thermal behaviour. Parallel tasks defined categories of storage requirements and technical criteria in renewable energy applications and conducted a detailed analysis of the economic and environmental aspects. This paper summarises the technology reports to show the differences of behaviour between the storage technologies, with particular focus on the thermal performance according to environmental and other operational conditions. The thermal characteristics of each technology are considered in the context of the storage requirements in various renewable energy applications. (author)

  10. Fission gas behaviour in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During irradiation, nuclear fuel changes volume, primarily through swelling. This swelling is caused by the fission products and in particular by the volatile ones such as krypton and xenon, called fission gas. Fission gas behaviour needs to be reliably predicted in order to make better use of nuclear fuel, a factor which can help to achieve the economic competitiveness required by today's markets. These proceedings communicate the results of an international seminar which reviewed recent progress in the field of fission gas behaviour in light water reactor fuel and sought to improve the models used in computer codes predicting fission gas release. State-of-the-art knowledge is presented for both uranium-oxide and mixed-oxide fuels loaded in water reactors. (author)

  11. Therapist behaviours in internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT for depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Holländare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT is efficacious for treating depression, with therapist guidance identified as important for favourable outcomes. We have limited knowledge, however, about the fundamental components of therapist guidance in ICBT. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine therapist messages sent to patients during the course of ICBT for depressive symptoms in order to identify common “therapist behaviours” and the extent to which these behaviours correlate with completion of modules and improvements in symptoms at post-treatment, one- and two-year follow-up. A total of 664 e-mails from 5 therapists to 42 patients were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The most frequent behaviour was encouraging that accounted for 31.5% of the total number of coded behaviours. This was followed by affirming (25.1%, guiding (22.2% and urging (9.8%. Less frequently the therapists clarified the internet treatment framework, informed about module content, emphasised the importance of patient responsibility, confronted the patient and made self-disclosures. Six of the nine identified therapist behaviours correlated with module completion. Three behaviours correlated with symptom improvement. Affirming correlated significantly (r = .42, p = .005 with improvement in depressive symptoms at post-treatment and after two years (r = .39, p = .014. Encouraging was associated with outcome directly after treatment (r = .52, p = .001. Self-disclosure was correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms at post-treatment (r = .44, p = .003. The study contributes to a better understanding of therapist behaviours in ICBT for depressive symptoms. Future directions for research are discussed.

  12. Young Consumer Behaviour Towards Tourism Products

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Anca Cristea; Mihaela Simona Apostol; Tatiana Corina Dosescu

    2014-01-01

    Tourism is considered to be an important branch of the Romanian economy. However, its contribution to the GDP is extremely low. Inbound tourism is reduced, the sole indicator which is constanly increasing being the number of Romanian tourists who travel abroad. We assume that a good way of increasing domestic tourism in Romania would be to get the young population practise various forms of tourism. Conducting a market survey in consumer behaviour towards tourism products among pupils and stud...

  13. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy

    OpenAIRE

    De Roos, Carlijn; Greenwald, Ricky; Hollander-Gijsman, Margien den; Noorthoorn, Eric; van Buuren, Stef; Jongh, Ad De

    2011-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. Objective: The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Design...

  14. Job Finding, Job Loss and Consumption Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, E.

    2015-01-01

    According to the permanent income / life-cycle hypothesis (PILCH), under standard preferences anticipated changes in employment status should not affect the changes in consumption. In this paper, we investigate the consumption behaviour of individuals who lose their jobs and those who find a job. For a representative sample of American households anticipated changes between employment and unemployment states are identified using monthly transition expectations. Firstly, it is shown that expec...

  15. The environmental behaviour of radium. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide an up to date review of the environmental behaviour of radium, including methods for analysis, assessment and control. The need for a reference text on the subject was identified at an early stage of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on radium behaviour in relation to uranium mining and milling wastes, which began in 1976. There were two CRPs: (1) The Source, Distribution, Movement and Deposition of Radium in Inland Waterways and Aquifers (1976-1980; final report: IAEA-TECDOC-301, published in 1984). (2) The Environmental Migration of Radium and Other Contaminants Present in Liquid and Solid Wastes from the Mining and Milling of Uranium (1981-1985; final report: IAEA-TECDOC-370, published in 1986). This publication deals with the sources, properties, environmental behaviour and the methods of analysis, control and assessment of 226Ra. It is an outgrowth of Agency programmes directed towards the environmental problems involved in uranium mining and milling. The emphasis in several of the sections reflects these origins. For example, many of the contributions in Volume 2 of this report on technologically enhanced sources of radium (Part 1), methods of control and abatement (Part 2) and the impact on man (Part 3) are concerned with uranium mining and milling. In Volume 1, coverage of the natural distribution (Part 2), analytical methods (Part 3), environmental migration (Part 4) and biological uptake (Part 5), is more general. It is likely that the reader will find the information needed on the environmental behaviour of radium in this report, or will at least find references to other, more appropriate, texts contained in it. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Consumer behaviour in agricultural direct marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Heer, Ines M.

    2008-01-01

    Scandals in the food production industry have caused an uncertainty about quality and innocuousness of food for many consumers. This resulted in a strong risk perception of consumers at the point of sale. The direct marketing of products by farmers can be an important way to strengthen consumer confidence. In this contribution, buying behaviour is examined by an observation and a following interview. We develop an econometric model about the number of bought products and the proposition of ma...

  17. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  18. Shear behaviour of crushed concrete and bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Chidiroglou, Iordanis; O'Flaherty, Fin; Goodwin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Demolition waste materials mainly consist of concrete and bricks and arise from the demolition of existing structures and buildings. Environmental and economical reasons make their recycling necessary, but to date, their use is curtailed due to the lack of research in determining their properties. This paper reports on the efforts to understand the behavioural characteristics of three types of recycled material to determine their potential for engineering fill applicat...

  19. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour - Source of Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alecxandrina DEACONU; Lavinia RASCA

    2011-01-01

    Organizational performance has, over time, become a fundamental objective of managerial strategies. Its achievement is conditioned by thorough scientific research concerning the context in which it is obtained as well as the analysis of the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and the way it influences different dimensions of organizational involvement, organizational climate, work satisfaction and, consequently, business results. This study has a two-part structure: the firs...

  20. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Margalho, R; Velez, J; D. Guzman; Oliveira, J.; A. Saraiva da Cunha; A. Meliço Silvestre

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ps...

  1. Development of the children's eating behaviour questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, J.; Guthrie, C. A.; Sanderson, S; Rapoport, L.

    2001-01-01

    Individual differences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children; the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Constructs for inclusion were derived both from t...

  2. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    2003-01-01

    social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the...... target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....

  3. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Janak, Patricia H.; Tye, Kay M

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of...

  4. Corporate culture and behaviour: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the literature on organizational psychology, this paper discusses the potential of studying corporate culture and organizational behaviour for financial supervision. First, we discuss how corporate culture is often linked to long-term firm performance. From that perspective, factoring in corporate culture seems worthwhile. Second, the literature on organizational psychology suggests many pitfalls regarding leadership and group decision-making, which would be relevant to monitor. Th...

  5. Explaining cognitive behaviour : a neurocomputational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Francesca Micol

    2014-01-01

    While the search for models and explanations of cognitive phenomena is a growing area of research, there is no consensus on what counts as a good explanation in cognitive science. This Ph.D. thesis offers a philosophical exploration of the different frameworks adopted to explain cognitive behaviour. It then builds on this systematic exploration to offer a new understanding of the explanatory standards employed in the construction and justification of models and modelling fra...

  6. Transforming specifications of observable behaviour into programs

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, D.; Hogger, C; Zlatuska, J

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for deriving programs from specifications of observable behaviour is described. The class of processes to which this methodology is applicable includes those whose state changes are fully definable by labelled transition systems, for example communicating processes without internal state changes. A logic program representation of such labelled transition systems is proposed, interpreters based on path searching techniques are defined, and the use of partial eva...

  7. Flutter behaviour of composite aircraft wings

    OpenAIRE

    Ashawesh, Gamal Mohamed

    1999-01-01

    This research work presents series of investigations into the structural dynamics and dynamic aeroelastic (flutter) behaviour of composite and metal wings. The study begins with a literature review where the development and an over view of the previous investigations in this field are presented. Static stiffness is very important to any type of analysis, especially in both dynamic and flutter analysis as in this case. Therefore, different methods are presented and used for the ...

  8. Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Passer, Michael; Smith, Ronald; Holt, Nigel; Bremner, Andrew J.; Sutherland, Ed; Vliek, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour imparts students with a scientific understanding of the field of psychology whilst also showing them the impact on their day-to-day existence. A simple conceptual framework within the text emphasizes relations between biological, psychological, and environmental levels of analysis and portrays the focus of modern psychology. Together with Research Close-Ups in each chapter; Beneath the Surface discussions and What Do You Think? questions, the text...

  9. Tritium Behaviour in the Fusion Reactor Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pajuste, Elīna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doctoral thesis is devoted to the development of future energy source nuclear fusion. The objective of this research is to evaluate fusion reactor material suitability regarding their behaviour and tritium retention in the fusion reactor relevant conditions. Methods and technique developed in the UL Institute of Chemical Physics Laboratory of Radiation Chemistry of Solid State has been used in this study. Synergetic facilitating effect of accelerated electrons and high magnetic fi...

  10. Behaviour of Soil Subjected to Dynamic Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Bødker, L.

    1998-01-01

    Many geotechnical problems involve design of dynamically loaded foundations. The design criterion fr dynamically loaded foundations is often described in terms of limiting values for the displacements. The displacements in the soil are normally very small when dealing with dynamically loaded foundations, and hence it is necessary to know the deformation properties for the soil at very low strain level. The main topic of the project is to increase the knowledge of the behaviour of Danish soils...

  11. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.;

    2015-01-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, ...... and predicting the behaviour of gs across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate....

  12. Insight, psychosis and aggressive behaviour in mania

    OpenAIRE

    Itxaso González-Ortega; Fernando Mosquera; Enrique Echeburúa; Ana González-Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Aggressiveness is a common component of manic symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics associated with aggressive behaviour in bipolar patients with acute manic episodes. Methods: A study was carried out with 173 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for manic or mixed bipolar disorder. Clinical and demographic variables were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the...

  13. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  14. A sober look at healthy behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Sjoerd Kooiker; Koos van der Velden

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Een nuchtere kijk op gezond gedrag. Public health would improve markedly if people lived a healthier lifestyle. With this in mind, the focus of prevention policy in the Netherlands has come to lie more and more on high-risk lifestyle attributes such as smoking, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and excessive alcohol consumption. Discouraging the use of tobacco has proved successful, but what about other forms of unhealthy behaviour? Do these require a different kind of discoura...

  15. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. PMID:22607774

  16. Violence in adolescents: social and behavioural factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Sandra; Correia, Teresa; Ramos, Elisabete; Fraga, Silvia; Barros, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of young people’s involvement in violence measured as participation in physical fights or being physically, sexually or emotionally abused. We also aimed to understand the role of social, demographic and other behavioural characteristics in violence. Methods: We evaluated 7511 adolescents (4243 girls and 3268 boys) aged 15 to 19 years old, enrolled in public schools. Information was obtained using an anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire. Results: T...

  17. Open source innovation phenomenon, participant behaviour, impact

    CERN Document Server

    Herstatt, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Open Source Innovation (OSI) has gained considerable momentum within the last years. Academic and management practice interest grows as more and more end-users consider and even participate in Open Source product development like Linux, Android, or Wikipedia. Open Source Innovation: Phenomenon, Participant Behaviour, Impact brings together rigorous academic research and business importance in scrutinizing OCI from three perspectives: The Phenomenon, Participants' Behavior, and Business Implications. The first section introduces OCI artefacts, including who is participating and why, and provide

  18. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    2010-01-01

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinci...

  19. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, we tested if behavioural consistency and POLS could be detected during the early ontogenesis of this amphibian. We targeted two ontogenetic stages and measured activity, exploration and risk-taking in a common garden experiment, assessing both individual behavioural type and intra-individual behavioural variation. We observed that activity was consistent in all tadpoles, exploration only became consistent with advancing age and risk-taking only became consistent in tadpoles that had been tested, and thus disturbed, earlier. Only previously tested tadpoles showed trends indicative of behavioural syndromes. We found an activity-age at metamorphosis POLS in the previously untested tadpoles irrespective of age. Relative growth rate correlated positively with the intra-individual variation of activity of the previously untested older tadpoles. In previously tested older tadpoles, intra-individual variation of exploration correlated negatively and intra-individual variation of risk-taking correlated positively with relative growth rate. We provide evidence for behavioural consistency and POLS in predator- and conspecific-naive tadpoles. Intra-individual behavioural variation was also correlated to life history, suggesting its relevance for the POLS theory. The strong effect of moderate disturbance related to standard behavioural testing on later behaviour draws attention to the pitfalls embedded in repeated testing.

  20. Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

  1. Explaining young adults' drinking behaviour within an augmented Theory of Planned Behaviour : Temporal stability of drinker prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, B. van; Vries, H. de; Burdorf, A.; Conner, M.; Empelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Prototypes (i.e., social images) predict health-related behaviours and intentions within the context of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This study tested the moderating role of temporal stability of drinker prototype perceptions on prototype-intentions and prototype-behaviour rela

  2. Including Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Pupils in a Mainstream Comprehensive: A Study of the Behaviour of Pupils and Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, Jeremy; Woof, Catherine; Melling, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A group of twelve pupils from an emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) school were transferred to a mainstream comprehensive school. They were supported by a specialist teacher and two Educational Support Assistants. The behaviour of the pupils was monitored. The behaviour of the EBD pupils was found to be very similar to that of the other…

  3. Consent to Behavioural Targeting in European Law - What are the Policy Implications of Insights from Behavioural Economics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural targeting is the monitoring of people’s online behaviour to target advertisements to specific individuals. European law requires companies to obtain informed consent of the internet user before they use tracking technologies for behavioural targeting. Other jurisdictions also emphasise t

  4. Risky behaviours among university students in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of psychoactive substances is one of the most important public health issues. Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs are among the top risk factors for ill-health defined by World Health Organisation. The risky behaviours acquired in teenage can be magnified or decreased during university when a person starts having more awareness about the importance of own wellness. This paper describes the results of the project "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk" with respect to risky behaviours in a large sample of Italian university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 questions of the survey "Sportello Salute Giovani" dealing with risky behaviors, the use of psychoactive substances such as tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs were included. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Besides, chi square test were used to test the differences in sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: About 24% of the interviewed students currently smokes. 89% and 42.2% respectively drinks at least rarely or weekly beer, wine or spirits. About 40% of students smoked at least a joint and about 2% used other drugs (mostly cocaine. CONCLUSION: The "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey suggests that the frequency of risky behaviours in Italian university students is not reassuring, although they should be aware about the negative consequences on their and others health because of their educational level.

  5. Behaviour of boundary functions for quantum billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the behaviour of the normal derivative of eigenfunctions of the Helmholtz equation inside billiards with Dirichlet boundary condition. These boundary functions are of particular importance because they uniquely determine the eigenfunctions inside the billiard and also other physical quantities of interest. Therefore, they form a reduced representation of the quantum system, analogous to the Poincare section of the classical system. For the normal derivatives we introduce an equivalent to the standard Green function and derive an integral equation on the boundary. Based on this integral equation we compute the first two terms of the mean asymptotic behaviour of the boundary functions for large energies. The first term is universal and independent of the shape of the billiard. The second one is proportional to the curvature of the boundary. The asymptotic behaviour is compared with numerical results for the stadium billiard, different limacon billiards and the circle billiard, and good agreement is found. Furthermore, we derive an asymptotic completeness relation for the boundary functions

  6. Estimating the severity of safety related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Ase; Hydén, Christer

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this work is to be a starting point for a more thorough description and analysis of safety related road user behaviour in order to better understand the different parts forming the traffic safety processes. The background is that it is problematic to use analysis of crash data and conflict data in the everyday traffic safety work due to low occurrence rates and the focus on rather exceptional and unsuccessful events. A new framework must consider the following aspects: (1) The importance of feedback to the road users. (2) Inclusion of more frequent events, "normal" road user behaviours and the possibility to link them to a severity dimension. (3) Prediction of safety/unsafety based on the more frequent events. By constructing severity hierarchies based on a uniform severity dimension (Time to Accident/Conflicting Speed value) it is possible to both describe the closeness to a crash and to get a comprehensive understanding of the connection between behaviour and safety by both considering unsuccessful and successful interactive situations. These severity hierarchies would make it possible to consider road users' expectations due to feedback and estimate its safety relevance.

  7. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punita Nanda; Bashisth Narayan Singh

    2012-06-01

    The origin of premating reproductive isolation continues to help elucidate the process of speciation and is the central event in the evolution of biological species. Therefore, during the process of species formation the diverging populations must acquire some means of reproductive isolation so that the genes from one gene pool are prevented from dispersing freely into a foreign gene pool. In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern and degree of isolation within and between the species have often been used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships. The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural incompatibility in different species groups of Drosophila with particular reference to the models proposed on the basis of one-sided ethological isolation to predict the direction of evolution. This study is crucial for understanding the mechanism of speciation through behavioural incompatibility and also for an understanding of speciation genetics in future prospects.

  8. Environmental behaviour of stabilised foundry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz, Alberto; Andrés, Ana; Soriano, Sonia; Irabien, Angel

    2004-06-18

    Environmental characterisation of foundry sludge (FS) and the stabilised/solidified (S/S) derived products has been performed according to the leaching behaviour. Portland cement and lime have been used as binders and foundry sand fines, activated carbon and black carbon have been used as additives in the S/S processes. The results of the characterisation show that the behaviour of the waste in acid media is mainly influenced by the inorganic components of the waste, while the organic matter only has an influence in the redox potential of the leachates. Due to the complexity of the waste, a computer modelling of equilibrium (MINTEQ) has been used in order to compare the experimental extractability with the simulated curves of the metallic species. The zinc content in the leachate is close related to the theoretical curves in the waste and all S/S products, while the rest of the metals do not show a coherent behaviour with the hydroxides evolution. The results of compliance testing allow to obtain the best S/S formulations using activated and black carbon as sorbents. The comparison between different leaching procedures leads to equivalent results depending only on the pH. PMID:15177750

  9. Influence of freezing on strata behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoss, K.; Oellers, T.

    1985-10-10

    Freezing the ground has not only the desired beneficial effects but can also have unavoidable deleterious effects on strata properties and behaviour. The usual calculation for dimensioning the ice wall does provide some valuable indications about strata behaviour during sinking. But the effects from fissure and ice lentil formation caused by temperature are not recorded, nor can they be in practical terms. For certain beds it is advisable to complement the preliminary investigations carried out on core samples to establish strata properties and behaviour when frozen by investigations into the degree of frost endangerment (ice lentils). In critical beds regular convergence measurement in the shaft with continuous evaluation are the most important means of avoiding unpleasant surprises during sinking. A properly tested array of additional support measures has to be ready to keep strata movement around the shaft within acceptable limits even in unfavourable conditions. To sum up: Success in sinking a freezing shaft does not only depend on the care during preliminary examinations, planning and preparation but also to a large degree on the ability and experience of the shaft construction engineers and on the decisions which these will make at the site in each case on the basis of what they see and measure. (orig./MOS).

  10. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions

  11. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  12. A New Perspective: Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and its Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Somunoglu Ikinci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational citizenship behaviour is not only confined to the behaviours of the organizational workers in accordance with the definitions of their roles, but it also includes all the other behaviours they display on the basis of voluntariness. While displaying organizational citizenship behaviour, the workers are eager to improve the performance of their organization, behave sincerely with no expectation of an award while behaving in this way. This study aims to include organizational citizenship behaviour and its significance which has a direct effect on organizational performance and to explain its reflections by analysing its examples in different sectors.

  13. Nonchaotic random behaviour in the second order autonomous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yun; Zhang Jian-Xia; Xu Xia; Zhou Hong

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the nonchaotic random behaviour in a second-order autonomous deterministic system. This behaviour is different from chaos and strange nonchaotic attractor. The nonchaotic random behaviour is very sensitive to the initial conditions. Slight difference of the initial conditions will generate wholly different phase trajectories. This random behaviour has a transient random nature and is very similar to the coin-throwing case in the classical theory of probability. The existence of the nonchaotic random behaviour not only can be derived from the theoretical analysis, but also is proved by the results of the simulated experiments in this paper.

  14. Biologically Inspired Behaviour Design for Autonomous Robotic Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Dong Liu; Huosheng Hu

    2006-01-01

    Behaviour-based approach plays a key role for mobile robots to operate safely in unknown or dynamically changing environments. We have developed a hybrid control architecture for our autonomous robotic fish that consists of three layers: cognitive, behaviour and swim pattern. In this paper, we describe some main design issues of the behaviour layer, which is the centre of the layered control architecture of our robotic fish. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) is adopted here to design individual behaviours. Simulation and real experiments are presented to show the feasibility and the performance of the designed behaviour layer.

  15. Identifying prototypical components in behaviour using clustering algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Braun

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of animal behaviour is a requirement to understand the task solving strategies of animals and the underlying control mechanisms. The identification of repeatedly occurring behavioural components is thereby a key element of a structured quantitative description. However, the complexity of most behaviours makes the identification of such behavioural components a challenging problem. We propose an automatic and objective approach for determining and evaluating prototypical behavioural components. Behavioural prototypes are identified using clustering algorithms and finally evaluated with respect to their ability to represent the whole behavioural data set. The prototypes allow for a meaningful segmentation of behavioural sequences. We applied our clustering approach to identify prototypical movements of the head of blowflies during cruising flight. The results confirm the previously established saccadic gaze strategy by the set of prototypes being divided into either predominantly translational or rotational movements, respectively. The prototypes reveal additional details about the saccadic and intersaccadic flight sections that could not be unravelled so far. Successful application of the proposed approach to behavioural data shows its ability to automatically identify prototypical behavioural components within a large and noisy database and to evaluate these with respect to their quality and stability. Hence, this approach might be applied to a broad range of behavioural and neural data obtained from different animals and in different contexts.

  16. Adaptive behavioural syndromes due to strategic niche specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmüller Ralph

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural syndromes, i.e. consistent individual differences in behaviours that are correlated across different functional contexts, are a challenge to evolutionary reasoning because individuals should adapt their behaviour to the requirements of each situation. Behavioural syndromes are often interpreted as a result of constraints resulting in limited plasticity and inflexible behaviour. Alternatively, they may be adaptive if correlated ecological or social challenges functionally integrate apparently independent behaviours. To test the latter hypothesis we repeatedly tested helpers in the cooperative breeder Neolamprologus pulcher for exploration and two types of helping behaviour. In case of adaptive behavioural syndromes we predicted a positive relationship between exploration and aggressive helping (territory defence and a negative relationship between these behaviours and non-aggressive helping (territory maintenance. Results As expected, helpers engaging more in territory defence were consistently more explorative and engaged less in territory maintenance, the latter only when dominant breeders were present. Contrary to our prediction, there was no negative relationship between exploration and territory maintenance. Conclusion Our results suggest that the three behaviours we measured are part of behavioural syndromes. These may be adaptive, in that they reflect strategic specialization of helpers into one of two different life history strategies, namely (a to stay and help in the home territory in order to inherit the breeding position or (b to disperse early in order to breed independently.

  17. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-05-26

    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health. PMID:25870392

  18. Understanding exercise behaviour during home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a theory of planned behaviour perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Although home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs have been shown to produce significant increases in exercise capacity, obtaining patient adherence to these programs has been challenging. It is therefore critical to identify key theoretical determinants of exercise during home-based CR in order to inform the development of behavioural interventions that improve adherence. The present study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining exercise behaviour during home-based CR. Seventy-six patients who were receiving 6 months of home-based CR completed a TPB questionnaire at the beginning and mid-point of the program and a physical activity scale at the mid-point and end of the program. Path analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intention for both time intervals (baseline to 3 months, and 3 months to 6 months), whereas subjective norm only predicted intention within the 1st 3 months. Intention significantly predicted implementation intention, which, in turn, significantly predicted exercise for both time intervals. Finally, several underlying accessible beliefs were significantly related to exercise for both time intervals. Therefore, results suggest that the TPB is a potentially useful framework for understanding exercise behaviour during home-based CR.

  19. Religious Affiliation and Ethics: Patterns Regarding Beliefs for Workplace Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Fogel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethical decisions are made regarding day-to-day workplace behaviours. We surveyed 315 college students from 9 different religious categories: Catholic, Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Agnostic, Atheist, and Other. Individuals were asked whether “in the workplace, it is acceptable to do so” for 27 different behaviours. Those who were Hindu or Catholic consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing more ethical behaviour. Those who were Buddhist or Atheist consistently had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. In the analysis relating to 5 items regarding computer and Internet behaviours, those who were Jewish had scores indicating beliefs in performing less ethical behaviour. Managers who supervise young adults who recently graduated from college can be aware of possible ethical concerns facing those of different religions. They can mentor these individuals beginning their careers to adapt appropriate ethical behaviours for their job.

  20. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.