Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D
In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions
Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....
symptoms signifying a hostile-aggressive dimension, factor 2 an anxious-fearful dimension, and factor 3 emerged as a ... Objective. This paper examines the factor structure of the. Yoruba translation of the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire .... Twitches/mannerisms/tics. Sucks thumb/finger. Bites nails. Often disobedient.
This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....
Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender ...
Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas
on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....
Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...
Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian
Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour....
Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....
Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.
Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min
. In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....
Brinksma, Hendrik; Krilavicius, T.
Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in
Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.
Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to
AJRH Managing Editor
lead to an increase in population-wide high-risk sexual behaviour (either because HIV transmission appears to be ... countries reported an increase in high-risk sexual behaviour amongst men who have sex with men ... government and resulted in a fall in the annual number of HIV incidence and a drop in HIV prevalence ...
Leistedt, Samuel J
Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
James, Richard J.E.; Tunney, Richard J.
This manuscript overviews the behavioural (i.e. associative learning, conditioning) research in behavioural addictions, with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual ...
Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.
The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...
In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals.
A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)
ABSTRACT. Electrochemical behaviour of Aloe secundiflora on carbon steel corrosion control in neutral and aerated soft water solutions have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under ...
Eken Asp, Helena
The absolute majority of dogs are kept as companion animals. Dogs kept as family pets are frequently exposed to noisy and crowded environments, and often have to interact with unfamiliar dogs and humans. In Sweden, we have a long history of recording behaviour in dogs on a large scale. The Swedish Working Dog Association (SBK) has, since 1989, carried out a standardized behavioural test called Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA). Results from the DMA can be condensed into five personality traits: ...
Focus and Scope. Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural ...
Animal experiments demonstrate that it is not only the quality of transmitted and received social signals that is important, but also their frequency and the timing of the information transmitted. In order for progress to be made in the investigation of human social behaviour and its disorders, methods must be developed which allow the transmission of verbal and non-verbal information to be measured. Experiments carried out with healthy adults and healthy and disturbed children to investigate human eye contact and distance behaviour are reported, along with experiments on the influence of gaze and body posture on spoken communication. Finally, a report on the use of behaviour therapy for an autistic child is outlined in order to explore the psychobiological correlations between social behaviour and language, which concur with extensive experiments on brain stimulation. It is suggested that there is a cerebral representation for species-specific social behaviour and a vocalization system embedded in these brain structures which is a phylogenetically-patterned prerequisite for the development of human language.
Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.
The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...... or inconclusive. Positive studies (+) were those that demonstrated a statistically significant change in the majority of outcomes measured at level of p change in the opposite direction and inconclusive studies...
Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David
This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness
of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...
Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie
Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.
Carmon, P; Tabak, N
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.
The electrochemical behaviour of Geshoidin was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode in mixtures of citric acid and di-sodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous buffer system over a wide pH range (pH 2-11) using cyclic voltammetry. Chemically irreversible single oxidation and reduction peaks were obtained in the ...
May 20, 2003 ... It is a form of therapy where the patient is helped to recognise patterns of ... The article briefly discusses the development of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and makes mention of the important contri- butions made by South ..... was the displace- ment of aspects of the Newtonian paradigm of physics by.
Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben
Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions...
Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.
The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel
Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.
Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.
Marcela Rodica LUCA
The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.
Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano
systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...
Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild
Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...
Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina
The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... from different sectors of energy efficiency from the following PLEEC partner countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the UK, the Netherlands, Estonia, Bulgaria and Spain. Each case is presented shortly with key details of budget, target group, and methods as well as a short assessment of main success...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...
Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten
The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....
Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)
Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten
The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....
Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten
The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...
Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S
This article examines sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use and reading) in relation to obesity among Canadian adults aged 20 to 64 years. The analysis is based on 42,612 respondents from the 2007 Canadian Community Health Survey Cross-tabulations were used to compare the prevalence of obesity by time engaged in sedentary behaviours. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine if associations between sedentary behaviours and obesity were independent of the effects of sociodemographic variables, leisure-time physical activity and diet. Approximately one-quarter of men (25%) and women (24%) who reported watching television 21 or more hours per week were classified as obese. The prevalence of obesity was substantially lower for those who averaged 5 or fewer hours of television per week (14% of men and 11% of women). When examined in multivariate models controlling for leisure-time physical activity and diet, the associations between time spent watching television and obesity persisted for both sexes. Frequent computer users (11 or more hours per week) of both sexes had increased odds of obesity, compared with those who used computers for 5 or fewer hours per week. Time spent reading was not related to obesity.
This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...
Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…
Flouris, Andreas D
The human thermoregulatory system relies primarily on behavioural adaptation and secondarily on autonomic and endocrine responses for thermal homeostasis. This is because autonomic and endocrine responses have a limited capacity in preventing hyper/hypothermia in extreme environments. Until recently, the neuroanatomy of behavioural thermoregulation as well as the neuroanatomic substrate of the various thermoregulatory behaviours remained largely unknown. However, this situation has changed in recent years as behavioural thermoregulation has become a topic of considerable attention. The present review evaluates the current knowledge on behavioural thermoregulation in order to summarize the present state-of-the-art and to point towards future research directions. Findings on the fundamental distinction between thermal (dis)comfort and sensation are reviewed showing that the former drives behaviour while the latter initiates autonomic thermoregulation. Moreover, the thermosensitive neurons and thermoeffector functions of behavioural thermoregulation are presented and analysed in a detailed discussion.
Cash, Philip; Hartlev, Charlotte Gram; Durazo, Christine Boysen
Nudge, persuasion, and the influencing of human behaviour through design are increasingly important topics in design research and in the wider public consciousness. However, current theoretical approaches to behaviour change have yet to be operationalized this in design process support....... Specifically, there are few empirically grounded processes supporting designers in realising behaviour change projects. In response to this, 20 design projects from a case company are analysed in order to distil a core process for behavioural design. Results show a number of process stages and activities...... associated with project success, pointing to a new perspective on the traditional design process, and allowing designers to integrate key insights from behaviour change theory. Using this foundation we propose the Behavioural Design process....
Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lovegrove, Peter J
A life-course perspective was used to examine whether a parent's adolescent antisocial behaviour increases the chances of his or her child being involved in antisocial behaviour and, if so, the extent to which different aspects of parenting mediate this relationship. It was hypothesised that there will be significant levels of intergenerational continuity in antisocial behaviour when parents have ongoing contact with the child, and that stress from parenting and ineffective parenting styles will mediate this relationship. Longitudinal data from the Rochester Intergenerational Study were used to test these issues in structural equation models for fathers and for mothers. Parental antisocial behaviour is significantly related to child antisocial behaviour for mothers and for fathers who have frequent contact with the child, but not for fathers with infrequent contact. For mothers, the impact of adolescent antisocial behaviour on the child's antisocial behaviour is primarily mediated through parenting stress and effective parenting. For high-contact fathers there are multiple mediating pathways that help explain the impact of their adolescent antisocial behaviour on their child's behaviour. The roots of antisocial behaviour extend back at least to the parent's adolescence, and parenting interventions need to consider these long-term processes.
Managers in the public sector act in a political context full of dilemmas. Nevertheless, they must show courage, efficiency, make difficult decisions, prioritize and produce results for the citizens. This seems to demand new and/or better ways of leading the public sector. Leadership development......, education and training are some of the tools, which are often used to renew, rethink and restructure leadership as well as management. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of formal leadership education on developing public leadership behaviour....
Stamps, Judy A
Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural
Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.
Füzéki, E; Vogt, L; Banzer, W
Exercise-related public health recommendations and research for increased fitness and health had long focused on vigorous exercise or the lack thereof. Recently scientific interest in possible effects of sedentary behaviour (SB) (sitting) independent of moderate-vigorous intensity exercise has been growing.We conducted a selective literature search in Pubmed and the Sedentary Research Database with the outcomes SB, risk factors, mortality and morbidity in adults. We included only reviews and systematic reviews.Observational studies suggest an association between SB and all-cause and cardiovascular, but not cancer mortality. SB also seems to be associated with diabetes and overweight/weight gain. Evidence for other diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, cancer, and mental diseases is limited also because of the heterogeneity and poor methodology of the -studies. Intervention studies found inconsistent evidence that SB is associated with detrimental effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.The evidence on the detrimental effects of sedentary behaviour is decreasingly convincing with the endpoints of mortality, -morbidity, and markers of metabolic risk, in that order. Higher TV and screen time, but not total SB seems to be associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular, but not cancer mortality. Further intervention studies are needed to establish -dose-response relationships and potentially protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Yan, Zi; Sin, Kuen-fung
The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) claims that behaviour can be predicted by behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control, while behavioural intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. This study aims at providing explanation and prediction of teachers' inclusive…
, that information alone is usually not sufficient to change behaviour (Stern, 1999). My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for pro-moting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this publication...... that are in some way related to their behaviour as consumers. Information may be even more important for furthering other important types of behaviour, such as voter behaviour or activist behav-iour, but these issues are outside the limits of this chapter...... ago." It continues to be true that a funda-mental requirement for success in this endeavour is consumers' active support and willing participation (Norwegian Ministry of Environment, 1994). Information is an important tool in this connection. Not only for marshalling public support...
Abstract Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports.
Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans
With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...
Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie
Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism should be of interest to investigate. Furthermore, modern brain-imaging studies will reveal the site of action of aggressiveness and impulsivity. Within brain regions of interest, biological studies will promote our knowledge of this deleterious behaviour.
Several approaches have been made to unravel the genetic complexity of the behaviour, which have provided information that may be useful in dif- ... and environment, the study of the genetic control of behaviour habits has tended to lag ... are rapidly expanding mostly due to the excellent tools for genetic analysis readily.
Full Text Available In the first part of this paper I intend to argue that anthropologists have a predominantly causal conception of explanation and that the only feasible way to avoid this is to apply consistently the assumption of goal-orientation of behaviour, that is to hold what could broadly be called a teleological conception of explanation – a view that developments are due to the purpose or design that is served by them. Further on I will try to show that groups and norms do not exist and act independently of people. They have no existence as “things” apart from forming a part of the relevant stock of knowledge of the members of society. They can be brought to bear on actions only by people invoking them. Thus we have to make a sharp distinction between the conceptual or notional level of phenomena, and the transactional or processual level, sometimes known as cultural and social respectively.
Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.
Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.
Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert
We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the
Marcela Rodica LUCA
Full Text Available The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.
Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.
Full Text Available It is important to recognise that migraine is a ′biological′ and not a ′psychological′ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1 Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2 Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3 Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4 Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.
Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C
Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).
Household energy conservation can help to significantly lower energy consumption. Visual cues provided by thermal imaging of heat loss in buildings are now shown to increase energy conserving behaviours and implementations among homeowners more effectively than just performing carbon footprint
SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.
Full Text Available The reasons for dealing with the chosen topic can be found in the fact that there is a certain number of anomalies, system errors and conduct leaving the frames of rational behaviour, not being included and presented synthetically within a concise scientific work. Instead, the analysis deals with definite, already identified postulates of behavioural economics and finance. During the research, induction, deduction, comparative and abstraction methods are used. The challenge of the research lies in the identification of those system errors, partialities and behaviours deviating from postulates of rational, typical for classical finance, not being covered by standard behavioural, economic and finance literature. However, the challenge is even bigger because of the fact that it deals with answers to demands of universality and conciseness. Its greatest importance is reflected in the extent of identified and processed anomalies decision makers face, as well as in the identification and description of factors implying absence of rationality during the decision making process.
Thesis submitted to University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Business Administration. A major aim of this study is to offer a relatively comprehensive picture of marketing channel behaviour and performance. Given the statistical difficulties in testing a very large, comprehensive model to achieve this aim, two separate but overlapping models are proposed. One model specifically addresses behaviour in marketing channels, while the other integrates k...
DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio
We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.
Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay
Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022
Full Text Available Even though philanthropy tends to be considered a sociological theme rather than an economic one, it poses a number of questions that challenge economists as well. We chose to address the following: How can economists contribute to the theories related to philanthropy? We examine some terms that are used in public economics theory and use them to explore the issues of philanthropy like Samaritan’s Dilemma, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, and the Free-Rider Problem, which we consider to be interesting and inspiring (Stone, 2008. We have to find and identify the social values of donors and volunteers rather than their economic values, because economists are not fully able to explain empathy, altruism, and helpful behaviour using traditional economic principles (Rutherford, 2008. The theoretical frame is supported by relevant empirical data. Before starting a large-scale survey, we decided to conduct smaller pre-research probes into people’s attitudes towards altruism, philanthropy, and giving. Even though our sample was not fully representative, the responses that we collected generated interesting findings about people’s views and attitudes. The first wave of data was collected between February and April 2009; the second wave between February and April 2010.Because of this pilot research mission and because of the budget restriction too, the non-representative sample of 823 respondents has been used; students of our Public Economics study programme were used as interviewers. They have also obtained a proper training of the professional sociologist. Students utilized the face to face interviewing method; non-standardized questions were immediately recorded into the reply form. Questions were divided into three groups with typical characteristics. The first one focuses on personal (individual motives for financial donating (only financial gifts for non-profit organizations. Second part examines the attitudes of individual towards the non
The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing
C.M. Jonker (Catholijn); J. Treur
textabstract In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for
Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N
The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.
Gkoutos, Georgios V.
The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Verplanken, B; Aarts, H; van Knippenberg, A; Moonen, A
A field experiment investigated the prediction and change in repeated behaviour in the domain of travel mode choices. Car use during seven days was predicted from habit strength (measured by self-reported frequency of past behaviour, as well as by a more covert measure based on personal scripts incorporating the behaviour), and antecedents of behaviour as conceptualized in the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention). Both habit measures predicted behaviour in addition to intention and perceived control. Significant habit x intention interactions indicated that intentions were only significantly related to behaviour when habit was weak, whereas no intention-behaviour relation existed when habit was strong. During the seven-day registration of behaviour, half of the respondents were asked to think about the circumstances under which the behaviour was executed. Compared to control participants, the behaviour of experimental participants was more strongly related to their previously expressed intentions. However, the habit-behaviour relation was unaffected. The results demonstrate that, although external incentives may increase the enactment of intentions, habits set boundary conditions for the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.
Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Hysse Forchhammer, Birgitte; Maier, Anja
We are entering an era of distributed healthcare that should fit and respond to individual needs, behaviour and lifestyles. Designing such systems is a challenging task that requires continuous information about human behaviour on a large scale, for which pervasive sensing (e.g. using smartphones...... and wearables) presents exciting opportunities. While mobile sensing approaches are fuelling research in many areas, their use in engineering design remains limited. In this work, we present a collection of common behavioural measures from literature that can be used for a broad range of applications. We focus...... specifically on activity and location data that can easily be obtained from smartphones or wearables. We further demonstrate how these are applied in healthcare design using an example from dementia care. Comparing a current and proposed scenario exemplifies how integrating sensor-derived information about...
Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim
Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...
Wear, Helen J; Wedderburn, Catherine J; Mioshi, Eneida; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A; Hodges, John R
Neurobehavioural and psychiatric symptoms are common in a range of neurodegenerative disorders with distinct profiles which are helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring of these disorders. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI) has been shown to distinguish frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but it is lengthy. To develop a shorter version of the 81 item CBI. CBI data from 450 participants with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD) (64), AD (96), PD (215) and HD (75) were analysed using Principal Components Analysis and measures of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha). A reduced 45-item questionnaire was developed. The instrument identified distinct behavioural profiles and performed as well as the original version. A shorter (45 item) version of the CBI is capable of differentiating bv-FTD and AD from PD and HD. It may be useful in delineating the type and extent of problems in these disorders as well as monitoring therapeutic interventions.
Sator, N.; Mechkov, S.; Sausset, F. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UMR CNRS 7600, 75 - Paris (France); Mechkov, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lab. de Physique Statistique, 75 - Paris (France)
From atomic nuclei to supernovae, including plates and rocks, every cohesive system can be broken into fragments, provided that the deposited energy is sufficiently large compared to its cohesive energy. We present a simple numerical model for investigating the general properties of fragmentation. By use of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the impact fragmentation of a solid disk of interacting particles with a wall. Regardless of the particular form of the interaction potential, the fragment size distribution exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent that increases logarithmically with the energy deposited in the system, in agreement with experiments. We expect this behaviour to be generic in fragmentation phenomena. (authors)
The LWR-Core behaviour project concerns the mathematical simulation of a light water reactor in normal operation (emergency situations excluded). Computational tools are assembled, i.e. programs and libraries of data. These computational tools can likewise be used in nuclear power applications, industry and control applications. The project is divided into three parts: the development and application of calculation methods for quantisation determination of LWR physics; investigation of the behaviour of nuclear fuels under radiation with special attention to higher burnup; simulation of the operating transients of nuclear power stations. (A.N.K.)
Greifeneder, Elke Susanne
Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...
Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures.......The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....
sophila have low mobility due to which their survival depends largely on ... pressure. The genetic architecture of a behavioural habit may indicate the nature of the relationship between expression of the character and fitness. Characters closely ... are due mainly to the accumulation of factor for low gre- garious oviposition on ...
Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan
Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107
Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan
Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.
Kautonen, T.; van Gelderen, M.W.; Fink, M.
This article contributes to the occupational choice literature pertaining to entrepreneurship by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to predict entrepreneurial behaviour. Originating from social psychology, the TPB posits that intention, a function of behavioural beliefs, is a significant
Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G
The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...
Moraru Andreea Daniela
Consumer behaviour is a component of the economic behaviour, which in its turn is a manifestation of human behaviour. As a consequence of the social and economic development of modern societies, the study of consumer behaviour has undergone a strong development process, during the past years consumer behaviour acquiring its own status among sciences. However scientists concern with the study of consumer behaviour covers a time span of many decades. Due to the multiple interdependences and par...
Antonides, Gerrit; Ranyard, Rob
This chapter first presents an overview of research into mental accounting and its effects on economic behaviour. It then considers mental accounts posited to broadly categorize financial resources across the life-cycle, and those constructed for specific transactions. Mental accounting has several
Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P
We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and
G. Rubbaniy (Ghulame)
textabstractThis study examines the portfolio choice anomalies and trading strategies of two types of institutional investors, Dutch pension funds (PFs) and US mutual funds (MFs), and presents some explanation for the unexpected behaviour in their trading. Particularly we focus on the determinants
May 7, 2003 ... forms and includes rock music and music videos, advertising, video and computer games as well computers and the internet.(1). In addition, print media in the form of books, ... electronic media forms. Media exposure is known to influence knowledge, behaviour and value systems amongst children (1), with ...
assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...
suicidality. Conversely, participation in sexual intercourse and solvent sniffing in the previous month were not associated with urbanisation. Conclusion. Urbanisation is associated with an increase in the prevalence rates of some risk behaviours. Mental health promotion efforts may be informed by further research aimed.
Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.; Berg, A. van den; Beers, P. van
Since flexible adhesives are used more and more in structural applications, designers should have a better understanding of its behaviour under various conditions as ultimate load, fatigue load, long-term load and environmental conditions. This paper focuses on long-term load conditions and its
feeding, social behaviour and temperature preferences of A. atra on Gunfire Hill, Grahams- town, in the eastern ... of A. atra in terms of food, social grouping and temperature preferences to provide information on their ..... The bright-red interior of the mouth is also displayed, and bobbing movements of the head and fore ...
an insect, echolocation and foraging behaviour of bats, and human circadian rhythms. The Course Director will be Dr G Marimuthu and Dr Sripathi Kandula will be the Course. Coordinator. Teachers who wish to participate in this Refresher Course should submit their brief curriculum vitae (including name, date of birth, sex, ...
Miglierini, M.; Lančok, Adriana
Roč. 118, č. 5 (2010), s. 944-945 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Iron proteins * Human spleen * Superparamagnetic behaviour s Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2010
Dorp, Ph. van
The paper presents human motion measurements with the experimental Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar at TNO-FEL. The aim of these measurements is to analyse the Doppler velocity spectrum of humans. These analysis give insight in measuring human behaviour with radar for security
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Referesher Course on Animal Behaviour. Information and Announcements Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 103-103. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/07/0103-0103 ...
Kawakami, S.; Akiyama, H.; Shibata, H.; Watabe, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Fujita, K.
For some years the Japanese have been working on a major research programme to determine the likely effects of an earthquake on nuclear plant internals. One aspect of this was a study of the behaviour of Pressurized Water Reactor control rods as they are being inserted in the core, which is reported here. (author)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Behavioural View of Language Acquisition. Rajeev Sangal. Book Review Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 487-489. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/05/0487-0489 ...
This document summarizes the following specific studies concerning the transuranic behaviour in marine environment: 1. Radionuclides in deep sea amphipods; 2. Actinides, 55 Fe and 137 Cs in N. pacific water columns; 3. Vertical profile of artificial radionuclide concentrations in the central Arctic Ocean; 4. Bioturbation and the distributions of fallout radionuclides in Pacific Ocean sediments
besetting, learners poor study habits would appear to be the most grandiose and constitutes the major headache, which seriously militate against adequate academic performance of students. In view of the above therefore, the acquisition of efficient study behaviour should be understood as signiﬁcant as the teacher's ...
Clough, Peter; Garner, Philip; Pardeck, John T.; Yuen, Francis K.O.
The behaviour of children in primary/elementary and secondary/high schools has been a consistent source of interest and controversy since the 19th century. As education systems in First World democracies struggle to meet changing social, economic and educational conditions, one group of children has increasingly become the focus of attention.…
Hatice Gülşen Birinci
Among user studies, which date to the 1940s, historians have become subject of various research since the 1970s. In this paper, historians’ information seeking behaviour is analyzed in terms of information sources, information channels, information centers, and information technology in order to determine their information use characteristics.
May 31, 2010 ... Keywords: obesity; dietary behavioural changes; weight loss; goal setting; evaluation; non-adherence; diet. Obesity: a growing concern. Obesity is complex because it is clearly a biological, psychological and social phenomenon. The increasing prevalence of obesity in many countries means that it should ...
This two-week course will introduce on behavioural ecology, chronobiology, animal communication, plant-animal interactions, conservation biology, statistics in biology and on other related areas would be delivered by the experts. In addition to lectures, laboratory and field oriented experiments will be carried out by the ...
Translational and orientational excluded-volume fields encoded in particles with anisotropic shapes can lead to purely entropy-driven assembly of morphologies with specific order and symmetry. To elucidate this complex correlation, we carried out detailed Monte Carlo simulations of six convex space-filling polyhedrons, namely, truncated octahedrons, rhombic dodecahedrons, hexagonal prisms, cubes, gyrobifastigiums and triangular prisms. Simulations predict the formation of various new liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases at intermediate volume fractions. By correlating these findings with particle anisotropy and rotational symmetry, simple guidelines for predicting phase behaviour of polyhedral particles are proposed: high rotational symmetry is in general conducive to mesophase formation, with low anisotropy favouring plastic-solid behaviour and intermediate anisotropy (or high uniaxial anisotropy) favouring liquid-crystalline behaviour. It is also found that dynamical disorder is crucial in defining mesophase behaviour, and that the apparent kinetic barrier for the liquid-mesophase transition is much lower for liquid crystals (orientational order) than for plastic solids (translational order). © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion
Barriga, Alvaro Q; Hawkins, Mark A; Camelia, Carl R T
Cognitive distortions have long been posited to facilitate antisocial behaviours, but the specificity of such distortions has rarely been studied. To replicate findings of specificity between particular cognitions and externalizing or internalizing behaviours; to test for specificity of relationship between particular cognitions and different types of externalizing behaviours. The participants were 239 male youths aged 10 to 19 years (mean (M) = 14.22, standard deviation (SD) = 1.64) from schools on the island of Curaçao. Their cognitive distortions and problem behaviours were investigated through self-report. Results In controlled analyses, self-serving cognitive distortions were associated with externalizing behaviours whereas self-debasing cognitive distortions were associated with internalizing behaviours. Within the externalizing domain, self-serving distortions with overt behavioural referents were linked to aggressive behaviour while self-serving distortions with covert behavioural referents were linked to delinquent behaviour. Within the aggression domain, distortions with opposition-defiance referents related to verbal aggression whereas distortions with physical aggression referents related to physically aggressive behaviour. The degree of cognitive-behavioural specificity documented by this study was remarkable. The observed pattern suggests that cognitive interventions designed for externalizing versus internalizing behaviours should differ in therapeutic approach.
Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul
The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour.
Närhi, Vesa; Kiiski, Tiina; Savolainen, Hannu
Disruptive behaviour in classrooms is a significant challenge for learning in schools and a risk factor for students' academic achievement and a significant source of teachers' work-related stress. Earlier research shows that clear behavioural expectations, monitoring students' adherence to them and behaviour-specific praise are effective…
Van de Kaa, E.J.
In Transport Sciences different implementations of Utility Theory are commonly used for the description and prediction of human choice behaviour. Almost 30 years ago Kahneman and Tversky proposed an alternative behavioural-economic model of choice behaviour called Prospect Theory. In contrast to
For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links between...... values and specific behaviour, since values may be too abstract to influence behaviour directly. We propose the concept of lifestyle as a mediator between values and behaviour, and present our approach to lifestyle based on principles from cognitive psychology, where we distinguish between values...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....
Loredana Orhei; S. Nandram; Marise Born
We present insights from literature on enterprising behaviour and competence followed by an application of the competence perspective. Data collection is based on the critical incident technique among 205 entrepreneurs. The study shows how entrepreneurial behaviour benefits from an integrating
Raudsepp, M; Parts, O
This research is conducted about compulsive buying behaviour in Estonia. The current research purpose is to find out how many people are affected by compulsive buying behaviour in Estonia and what factors are influencing this phenomenon. The research compares compulsive and usual buyers’ behavioural differences. The sample was 310 respondents and the research revealed that 8% of the respondents were compulsive consumers. Compulsive behaviour is influenced by materialistic factors.
Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; T. Vasconcelos, Vasco
Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patterns...... of interaction using expressive type languages, so types can be used to determine automatically whether the component interacts correctly with other components. Two related important notions of behavioural types are those of session types and behavioural contracts. This article surveys the main accomplishments...
Seeber, Peter A; Ciofolo, Isabelle; Ganswindt, André
Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts.
Full Text Available The emergence in DSM-5 of gambling addiction as the first official behavioural addiction has opened a new chapter in the thinking about and research into behavioural pathology. We are becoming increasingly aware of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of addictive behaviour, but the majority of the work is conducted mainly on adult populations. Although the use of the term “behavioural addiction” in children and adolescents is controversial due to the dynamic nature of their development processes, there is no doubt that more and more young people are involved in addictive behaviours that negatively affect their lives. The currently still few studies are throwing new light on the early symptoms of behavioural addictions observed in increasingly younger children. This article is a review of current knowledge about potential behavioural addictions in the first two decades of life viewed from the perspective of developmental psychopathology. While there is significantly less research into addictive behaviours in childhood and adolescence than in later decades, empirical evidence has clearly shown that early symptoms of behavioural addiction pose a significant threat to the mental health of children and adolescents, both now and in the future. The article discusses the definition of behavioural addiction in the DSM-5 context, the controversy surrounding the diagnosis of these disorders in young people, the behavioural addictions in children and adolescents, and the identified risk factors for early-onset behavioural addictions.
The article discussesd the impact of chosen behavioural factors on the imprecision of present value assessment. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. The behavioural present value is described here as an intuitionistic fuzzy set. The significance of the replacement of a fuzzy set by an intuitionistic fuzzy set is proved.
Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn
In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...
Fantozzi, G.; Saadaoui, M.; Chevalier, J.; Olagnon, C. [Groupe d' Etude de Metallurgie Physique UMR, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)
Thermal shock of ceramics is complex to analyse because of the important number of parameters to take into account. Thermal shock analysis has been refined by considering the dependence with temperature of the different parameters. From the temperature evolution in the specimen, the stress and stress intensity factor (SIF) profiles can be calculated. This allows the prediction of the crack evolution during thermal shock. Thermal shock experiments conducted by using an in-situ acoustic emission (AE) apparatus allow the determination of the time of unstable crack growth. The effect of crack growth resistance (R-curve behaviour) can be taken into account and, if it is significant, the thermal shock resistance of ceramics can be improved. The fracture mechanical analysis was used to determine the R-curve behaviour of alumina material subjected to thermal shock. A good agreement is observed between predictions of thermal fracture theory based on fracture mechanics and experimental results. (orig.)
Sulem, J.; Ouffroukh, H.
The hydromechanical behaviour of Fontainebleau sandstone is studied on the basis of isotropic and triaxial compression tests in drained and undrained conditions on water saturated samples. The effect of the evolution of the compressibility of the rock with the applied stress on the poromechanical parameters is shown. On the basis of micro-mechanical considerations, a new expression for the Skempton coefficient B is proposed as a function of the porosity, the drained bulk compressibility and the grain and fluid compressibility. The relation between rock deformation and pore-pressure evolution in undrained deviatoric tests is analysed. An elasto-plastic constitutive model with stress-dependent elasticity and damage is proposed to describe the behaviour of the rock and validated through back analysis of drained and undrained tests.
Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim
Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...
Larsen, Kim André
theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...... as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element...... method is concluded to be a superior method in estimating the post peak behaviour as well as the combined capacity of bucket foundations in relation to the offshore wind turbine problem....
Full Text Available Purpose – to present the issue of dealing with negative word-of-mouth under the newly created conditions of social media and formulate a set of rules for dealing with negative contributions in social networks such as Facebook. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents findings from both a quantitative survey of Czech Facebook users and expert interviews. Findings – The results of the survey that was done among internet users has proven, that Czech Facebook users are fully aware of the fact that by complaining publicly via social media they can get a company in a serious trouble and want to use it to their advantage. Expert interviews agreed on necessity of good knowledge of the community, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions. Research limitations/implications – the empirical research is focused on the Czech market that is specific in the field of internet user behaviour. Findings are primarily valid solely for the social network Facebook. Other platforms may differ in complaining behaviour of the users. Practical implications – research findings show, that social media play an important role in complaining behaviour of Czech internet users. This fact results in the necessity of the presence in social media and careful monitoring the word-of-mouth. Crucial factors of successful communication in social media are knowledge of the com munity, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions.Originality/Value – Word of mouth, nowadays the most powerful marketing tool and the strongest argument in the decision making process, is now not limited to the circle of nearest friends of family. Social media gives people a voice that is immediate and can have impact. Without an effective and fast reaction of the company, a serious harm can be suffered. The significance of social network Facebook in complaining behaviour of Czech consumers is assessed
Caravona, Natalia Filomena
Today there is a growing awareness that in Parkinson's disease can occur motor and non motor disorders, in particular substances dependency syndromes and behavioral addiction. Objectives of the study. Objective of the study is to determine any changes frontal circuits potentially involved in the development and maintenance of "behaviour addiction", by neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods in patients with Parkinson's disease with impulses control disorder. Materials and methods. I...
Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; V?s?rhelyi, G?bor; Nagy, M?t?
We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i) the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii) during ...
Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; He, Meizi; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Pollett, Graham
Preschoolers' dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers' parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents' keen interest in their preschoolers' eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted.
TUCKER, PATRICIA; IRWIN, JENNIFER D.; HE, MEIZI; BOUCK, L. MICHELLE SANGSTER; POLLETT, GRAHAM
Purpose Preschoolers’ dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Results Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Conclusions Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers’ parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents’ keen interest in their preschoolers’ eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted. PMID:16759432
dos Santos Silva, I; Beral, V
There are marked socioeconomic variations in the risk of female reproductive cancers. We examine here data from the World Fertility Surveys, the Demographic and Health Surveys, and other national surveys, to assess whether these variations in cancer risk might be explained, at least in part, by socioeconomic variations in reproductive behaviour. There were marked socioeconomic differentials in achieved parity, age at first birth, final childlessness, duration of breastfeeding, and possibly also age at menopause. These differentials were present in almost all settings: countries with low and high levels of modernization, and countries with low and high levels of fertility. In general, women of higher socioeconomic status and with more education had lower fertility and later age at first birth, but a greater prevalence of childlessness, shorter duration of breastfeeding and later age at menopause. However, the size and even the direction of these differentials varied markedly from country to country according to its level of economic development and, within each country, from generation to generation of women. It is possible that some of these socioeconomic differences may be narrowing in recent generations in Western countries. There was little evidence of socioeconomic variations in age at menarche. The observed socioeconomic differentials in most aspects of reproductive behaviour could potentially account for some of the socioeconomic variation in the risk of female reproductive cancers. However, this relationship could not be assessed directly because such analysis would require birth-cohort-specific data on socioeconomic variations in reproductive behaviour and in cancer risks. Unfortunately, these data are not available.
Williams, J M G; Healy, H; Eade, J; Windle, G; Cowen, P J; Green, M W; Durlach, P
Obesity is a growing health problem, but most people find dieting unsuccessful. Three studies examine possible reasons for the difficulty and the extent to which dieting-related reductions in cognitive function are associated with mood and well-being. In Study One, 49 female dieters were compared with a control group of 31 matched non-dieters on measures of well-being, mood, eating behaviour (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire), and attention. Study Two examined two measures of restraint to examine why previous studies find high restrainers are prone to react to emotion. Study Three experimentally manipulated mood using music and the standard Velten Induction Procedure to examine attention in restrainers and emotional eaters. Dieting was found to be associated with deficits in sustained attention. This finding was further supported by the demonstration of a significant impairment in performance following a negative mood induction in high emotional eaters whereas high restrainers were relatively unaffected by the mood challenge. We suggest that different aspects of eating behaviour have dissociable effects on cognitive-affective function. Trait tendencies to restrained eating are associated with attentional deficits, but are not further affected by mood disruption. It is the long-term tendency to eat when emotional that combines with current emotional state to trigger cognitive deficits.
Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L
Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.
Naranjo, C A; Bremner, K E
Alcohol is used in most cultures despite knowledge of the physical, psychological and social problems associated with its abuse. Behavioural impairment is a function of several factors, including blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the rate of alcohol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system. Their availability and activity depend upon alcohol use history, ethnicity, other drug use and gender. Adverse social consequences related to alcohol intoxication include impaired driving, acts of aggression and violence towards self and others, and various types of accidents. About 40% of all fatal traffic accidents in Canada and the US in 1986-1987 were alcohol-related. Similar statistics have been reported in the UK and Europe (e.g. Sweden). The risk of a fatal car accident increases exponentially with a driver's BAC, prompting recommendations to lower the legal BAC limit for driving and piloting aircraft. Risks of falls, drownings, and fires and burns may also be increased by alcohol intoxication. At least 22% of work-related accidents may have involved alcohol use. These data are probably conservative estimates as under-reporting of alcohol use is likely. Alcohol facilitates aggressive behaviours, but it is difficult to separate the pharmacological effect from psychosocial effects or some other common factor (e.g. low CSF levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-H1AA have been reported in alcoholics, suicide attempters, violent offenders). In addition, alcohol interacts with other drugs to increase or decrease their behavioural and therapeutic effects. An acutely high BAC inhibits the metabolism of other CNS depressants (e.g. benzodiazepines), but long-term alcohol use increases the metabolism of most drugs. A potential amethystic agent, to block or reverse alcohol's effects, has been identified in preclinical studies (Ro15-4513, an imidazobenzodiazepine). Some clinical studies indicated that naloxone, lithium, ibuprofen, zimeldine and
Matson, Johnny L; Neal, Daniene; Fodstad, Jill C; Hess, Julie A
Challenging behaviours are a commonly co-occuring problem in children with ASD and are often present during the toddler years. The relationship that these challenging behaviours have with core features of ASD, specifically social behaviours, was examined in this study. This study analysed the relationship between socialization and challenging behaviours among 153 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Social behaviour was evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition and challenging behaviours were assessed using Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part 3. Lower levels of adult interaction and peer interaction were associated with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour, aggressive/destructive behaviour and to a lesser extent self-injury. The nature of the relationships between socialization and challenging behaviours likely interact in several ways. A better understanding of these relationships is essential to early identification and treatment of children with ASD.
Laud, Gaurangi; Karpen, Ingo Oswald
Purpose:The purpose of this paper is to identify antecedents and consequences ofcustomers’ value co-creation behaviour (VCB). VCB as a means to facilitatevalue realisation processes is gaining importance in service research andpractice. Encouraging such enactments can be challenging, but can also...... that customers’ VCB has a significantimpact on their object-oriented, self-oriented and brand-oriented socialvalue-in-context outcomes. Research limitations/implications:This study contributes by empirically investigating and validatingantecedents and consequences of VCB in a service system. In doing so...
Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.
Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)
P. Bagya Janani
Nadu in order to know the marketing behaviour of jasmine growers with a sample size of 120 respondents. The respondents were selected based on proportionate random sampling method. The results of the study revealed that majority of the jasmine growers were using polythene bags for packing the produce and sold their produce through commission agents. More than two - fifths sold their produce in the villages. Majority of the respondents considered ‘immediate payment’ as the main criterion for the selection of market. Majority of the respondents had reported that they were not having sufficient marketing facility.
Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid
Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.
N. Mathan Kumar
Full Text Available Al 2618 matrix material was mixed with the Silicon Nitride (Si3N4, Aluminium Nitride (AlN and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2 reinforced particles. AMC was synthesized successfully by the stir casting method with the various X-wt.% of reinforcements (X = 0,2,4,6,8. Tribological behaviour was studied in this composite with various temperature conditions. The working conditions were Temperature (°C, Load (N, Velocity (m/s and Sliding Distances (m. Before wear testing the mechanical behaviour has been analysed. EDAX was confirmed by the matrix material composition. The Al 2618 alloy and the reinforcement mixers were confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction analysis. Wear rate (mm3/m, Wear resistance (m/mm3, Specific Wear rate (m/Nm and Co-efficient of friction (μ were analysed with various conditions. The worn surfaces were analysed before and after wear testing by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Influence of process parameters and Percentage of contribution were analysed by Taguchi and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA methods. Genetic Algorithm (GA was adopted for optimizing the best and mean of the wear rate and to identify the exact influence of input parameters.
Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.
The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.
Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos
we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...
Farid, Hadi; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Ismail, Mohd Nazari
The intention of this paper was to examine the impact of six selected leaders' behaviours on employees' innovative behaviour through the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX). A total number of 155 pairs of employees and their immediate managers participated in this study. Employees rated...... their managers' behaviours and managers evaluated their subordinates' innovative behaviour. Both managers and employees answered to LMX measurement. Then, the agreements of employees' and managers' LMX rating were applied based on the results of within and between analysis (WABA). The obtained data were analysed...... through structural equation modelling-partial least square (SEM-PLS). The findings revealed the significance of mediating role of LMX in relationship between behaviour of recognising, taking risks for change and paternalistic with employees' innovative behaviour. Thus, this study has contributed...
Farid, Hadi; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Ismail, Mohd Nazari
The intention of this paper was to examine the impact of six selected leaders' behaviours on employees' innovative behaviour through the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX). A total number of 155 pairs of employees and their immediate managers participated in this study. Employees rated...... their managers' behaviours and managers evaluated their subordinates' innovative behaviour. Both managers and employees answered to LMX measurement. Then, the agreements of employees' and managers' LMX rating were applied based on the results of within and between analysis (WABA). The obtained data were analysed...... through structural equation modelling-partial least square (SEM-PLS). The findings revealed the significance of mediating role of LMX in relationship between behaviour of recognising, taking risks for change and paternalistic with employees' innovative behaviour. Thus, this study has contributed...
Mitchell, A E; Morawska, A; Fraser, J A; Sillar, K
Children with atopic dermatitis are at increased risk of both general behaviour problems, and those specific to the condition and its treatment. This can hamper the ability of parents to carry out treatment and manage the condition effectively. To date, there is no published instrument available to assess child behaviour difficulties in the context of atopic dermatitis management. Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems, and parents' self-efficacy (confidence) for managing these behaviours. The Eczema Behaviour Checklist (EBC) was developed as a 25-item questionnaire to measure (i) extent of behaviour problems (EBC Extent scale), and (ii) parents' self-efficacy for managing behaviour problems (EBC Confidence scale), in the context of child atopic dermatitis management. A community-based sample of 292 parents completed the EBC, measures of general behaviour difficulties, self-efficacy with atopic dermatitis management and use of dysfunctional parenting strategies. There was satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity for EBC Extent and Confidence scales. There was a negative correlation between atopic dermatitis-specific behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with behaviours (r = -.53, p behaviours; (ii) symptom-related behaviours; and (iii) behaviours related to impact of the illness. Variation in parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's atopic dermatitis was explained by intensity of illness-specific child behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with the behaviours. The new measure of atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems was a stronger predictor of parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's condition than was the measure of general child behaviour difficulties. Results provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the EBC, which has potential for use in clinical and research settings, and
Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko
ABSTRACT Background: Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals in achieving temporary behaviour change. Behaviour change maintenance, however, is rarely attained. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise current theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance to inform future research and practice. Methods: Potentially relevant theories were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO). In addition, an existing database of 80 theories was searched, and 25 theory experts were consulted. Theories were included if they formulated hypotheses about behaviour change maintenance. Included theories were synthesised thematically to ascertain overarching explanations for behaviour change maintenance. Initial theoretical themes were cross-validated. Findings: One hundred and seventeen behaviour theories were identified, of which 100 met the inclusion criteria. Five overarching, interconnected themes representing theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance emerged. Theoretical explanations of behaviour change maintenance focus on the differential nature and role of motives, self-regulation, resources (psychological and physical), habits, and environmental and social influences from initiation to maintenance. Discussion: There are distinct patterns of theoretical explanations for behaviour change and for behaviour change maintenance. The findings from this review can guide the development and evaluation of interventions promoting maintenance of health behaviours and help in the development of an integrated theory of behaviour change maintenance. PMID:26854092
Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz
Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.
Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko
Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals in achieving temporary behaviour change. Behaviour change maintenance, however, is rarely attained. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise current theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance to inform future research and practice. Potentially relevant theories were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO). In addition, an existing database of 80 theories was searched, and 25 theory experts were consulted. Theories were included if they formulated hypotheses about behaviour change maintenance. Included theories were synthesised thematically to ascertain overarching explanations for behaviour change maintenance. Initial theoretical themes were cross-validated. One hundred and seventeen behaviour theories were identified, of which 100 met the inclusion criteria. Five overarching, interconnected themes representing theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance emerged. Theoretical explanations of behaviour change maintenance focus on the differential nature and role of motives, self-regulation, resources (psychological and physical), habits, and environmental and social influences from initiation to maintenance. There are distinct patterns of theoretical explanations for behaviour change and for behaviour change maintenance. The findings from this review can guide the development and evaluation of interventions promoting maintenance of health behaviours and help in the development of an integrated theory of behaviour change maintenance.
De Spiegelaere, Stan
In this dissertation the relation between the employment relationship and the Innovative Work Behaviour (IWB) is treated. As employees contribute significantly to innovation companies, research tries to identify the triggers and obstacles for employee innovative behaviour. Few studies here focused on the effect of the employment relationship. In this dissertation the focus lies on the relation of job insecurity, performance-related pay and time flexibility with the innovative behaviour of emp...
Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke
Highlights: ► We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. ► We merge attitude–behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. ► Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. ► Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. ► Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude–behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz’s altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals’ engagement in future policies.
Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste
Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control....... With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed....
Atkin, Andrew James; Gorely, Trish; Clemes, Stacy A; Yates, Thomas; Edwardson, Charlotte; Brage, Soren; Salmon, Jo; Marshall, Simon J; Biddle, Stuart JH
Background: Research examining sedentary behaviour as a potentially independent risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality has expanded rapidly in recent years. Methods: We present a narrative overview of the sedentary behaviour measurement literature. Subjective and objective methods of measuring sedentary behaviour suitable for use in population-based research with children and adults are examined. The validity and reliability of each method is considered, gaps in...
Dib, Wassim; Tourabi, Ali; Bles, Guilhem
International audience; A tensorial visco-elasto-hysteresis model has been used previously in order to describe the thermomechanical behaviour of woven fabrics. Thus, it takes into account the essential features of behaviour, such as the steady state viscous stress as a function of strain and strain rate, the time-independent irreversible behaviour and the instantaneous modulus increasing with the strain. The aim of the study is to suggest the interest of the theory in the field of sail fabri...
Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans
This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and lo...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....
Fazzi, Caterina; Saunders, David H.; Linton, Kathryn; Norman, Jane E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.
Background In the general population, at least 50% of time awake is spent in sedentary behaviours. Sedentary behaviours are activities that expend less energy than 1.5 metabolic equivalents, such as sitting. The amount of time spent in sedentary behaviours is a risk factor for diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and death from all causes. Even individuals meeting physical activity guidelines are at a higher risk of premature death and adverse metabolic outcomes if they s...
Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.
In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...... be efficiently profiled in dissimilar clusters according to camera control as part of their game- play behaviour....
Udry, J R; Morris, N M; Kovenock, J
Test of the applicability of the hormonal theory of sex-dimorphic behaviour to adult women is achieved in this study by assembling measures of prenatal and adult androgen exposure, and a broad measure of gendered behaviour on a sample of white women aged 27-30. Androgen exposure in the second (and no other) trimester of fetal life, combined with and in interaction with adult androgens, masculineses women's behaviour and explains a substantial proportion of the within-sex variance in women's adult gendered behaviour.
Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H
Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs.
Atkin, Andrew J; Gorely, Trish; Clemes, Stacy A; Yates, Thomas; Edwardson, Charlotte; Brage, Soren; Salmon, Jo; Marshall, Simon J; Biddle, Stuart JH
Background Research examining sedentary behaviour as a potentially independent risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality has expanded rapidly in recent years. Methods We present a narrative overview of the sedentary behaviour measurement literature. Subjective and objective methods of measuring sedentary behaviour suitable for use in population-based research with children and adults are examined. The validity and reliability of each method is considered, gaps in the literature specific to each method identified and potential future directions discussed. Results To date, subjective approaches to sedentary behaviour measurement, e.g. questionnaires, have focused predominantly on TV viewing or other screen-based behaviours. Typically, such measures demonstrate moderate reliability but slight to moderate validity. Accelerometry is increasingly being used for sedentary behaviour assessments; this approach overcomes some of the limitations of subjective methods, but detection of specific postures and postural changes by this method is somewhat limited. Instruments developed specifically for the assessment of body posture have demonstrated good reliability and validity in the limited research conducted to date. Miniaturization of monitoring devices, interoperability between measurement and communication technologies and advanced analytical approaches are potential avenues for future developments in this field. Conclusions High-quality measurement is essential in all elements of sedentary behaviour epidemiology, from determining associations with health outcomes to the development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. Sedentary behaviour measurement remains relatively under-developed, although new instruments, both objective and subjective, show considerable promise and warrant further testing. PMID:23045206
Full Text Available This article starts with a review of different recent theoretical views and positions on culture, menstruation taboos, and ethical consumer behaviour. We performed a quantitative research in England, Germany, Slovenia and Sweden on 1,081 responding female students about the effect of cultural and sociological factors on female consumer behaviour when buying feminine hygiene products. Countries were selected depending on different cultures, religions and consumer behaviour. Based on the acquired results, we established a structural model of female consumer behaviour in the selected countries. This model showed a spiral transfer of cultural limitations and prejudices to the respondent students through the environment.
Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia
consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive......Understanding employee behaviours is a growing concern in all kinds of companies and across disciplines because such behaviours are critical determinants of organizational success. This paper elaborates on the concept of behavioural branding, which refers to employee behaviours that convey brand...... behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures....
Mathot, K.J.; Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.
1. Animals frequently exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behavioural and physiologicaltraits that are inherently flexible. Why should individuals differ consistently in theirexpression of labile traits? Recently, positive feedbacks between state and behaviour have beenproposed as a
Mathot, Kimberley J.; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis
Animals frequently exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behavioural and physiological traits that are inherently flexible. Why should individuals differ consistently in their expression of labile traits? Recently, positive feedbacks between state and behaviour have been proposed as a
Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia
behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures.......Understanding employee behaviours is a growing concern in all kinds of companies and across disciplines because such behaviours are critical determinants of organizational success. This paper elaborates on the concept of behavioural branding, which refers to employee behaviours that convey brand...... consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive...
Kroutilová Nováková, Radana; Vávrová, Soňa
In their research the authors focused on uncovering the mechanisms of self-regulation of behaviour of minors living in children's home in the context of peer pressure and problem behaviour. The aim of the research was to uncover the mechanisms of self-regulation of behaviour in adolescents (aged 15-18) living in institutionalised environment of children's homes in relation to peer pressure and risk behaviour. Researchers used a system of inductive qualitative research methods. Namely, the tea...
Bilsby, C.F.; Haste, T.J.; Garlick, A.; Cameron, R.F.
The clad deformation code CANSWELL-2 is described. This is used, either as a stand-alone code or within MABEL-2, to predict and analyse the results of LOCA simulations in the Halden and NRU reactors and in the KfK and PROPAT rigs. Experimental evidence on fuel behaviour in RIA, PCM and ATWS events is presented with inclusion of certain FRAP-T5 results. Published calculations from the accident codes FRAP-T4 and FRAP-T5 are compared with experimental results in simulated loss of coolant tests in the Power Burst Facility. The limitations of this code in its treatment of RIA, PCM and ATWS events are considered. (U.K.)
Bergenti, I; Savini, L; Bonetti, E; Bosco, E; Baricco, M
Fe/Fe-oxide core-shell systems obtained by inert-gas condensation and Au sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 nanostructured alloys prepared by fast-quenching techniques followed by thermal treatment have been studied by polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The particle-size distribution was derived from the fit of the scattering curves. In the core-shell samples, the results support the model of a magnetic iron core surrounded by a surface layer (oxide shell) with a reduced magnetisation. The SANS measurements on the Au sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 alloys do not show any appreciable magnetic signal, indicating that the iron precipitates have a superparamagnetic behaviour. Thermal treatment induces the formation of small precipitates of atomic size. (orig.)
Vine grapes and potato seedlings have been exposed in situ to tritiated water vapor and 14 C labeled carbon dioxide. Leaves sampling was done during and after the exposition. Measurements allowed to distinguish the three forms of tritium in leaves, i.e. tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT), in exchangeable position or not. The results lead to a description of the dynamical behaviour of tritium between these three compartments. It has been shown that 20% of organically bound hydrogen is readily exchangeable thus being in permanent isotopic equilibium with tissue free water. Moreover, the activity of nonexchangeable OBT appears to be strongly related to the organic 14 C, which shows that photosynthesis is responsible of tritium incorporation in organic nonexchangeable position, and occurs with a 20% discrimination in favor of protium. In contrast with the other two compartments, this fixation is almost irreversible, which is a fact of importance from a radiological point of view [fr
Full Text Available We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to find a structure of consumer behaviour, especially regarding the preference for the newly-released products from the market. We intend to study the impact of the new, innovative products compared to the traditional ones. Empirical research is based on the selling mix of a company in Romania and Austria. The analysis of this case will be done with the support of an econometric model of simple regression. This research confirms the validation of the structure and the attitude of the consumers towards the new products, launched by that company. By applying this linear model, it is possible to identify the percentage of the increase or decrease in consumption of new products. The need of carrying out this study regarding the impact of the consumption of new products is to create a profile and to find the causes that influence their acquisition. The originality of this paper lays in studying some aspects of influence over the consumption of new products from McDonald’s in Romania and Austria. Where does McDonald’s stand regarding the digitalization? It is not enough to sell new products; it is also necessary to bring innovation in the organization. Nowadays consumers are more present in the online environment and retailers are adapting at a fast pace to their needs of direct communication and transparency. How does a company that faces Slow Food and Bio era, deal with consumers who are more preoccupied with the nutritive values of the nourishment act? Platforms for real-time communication with clients such as “Our food. Your question” redefined the term of transparency and helped McDonald’s stop bad rumors. The results of the research will show us if there really is transformation in behaviour towards traditional products and in what degree consumers are influenced by innovation.
De Nobile, John; London, Teola; El Baba, Mariam
Over the past decade and a half, whole school behaviour management systems have been implemented in many Australian schools in efforts to reduce undesirable behaviours and improve outcomes for students with behaviour problems. There is evidence in the literature suggesting that whole school approaches are more effective at managing student…
Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje
The study investigated dimensionality in the Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCSBS) that assess social competence (Peer Relations and Self-Management/Compliance) and antisocial behaviour (Defiant/Disruptive and Antisocial/Aggressive behaviour) in children and adolescents. The four scales comprising 64 items were completed by 551…
In this paper, a causal form of Autoregressive Moving Average process, ARMA (p, q) of various orders and behaviour of the causality parameter of ARMA model is investigated. It is deduced that the behaviour of causality parameter ψi depends on positive and negative values of autoregressive parameter φ and moving ...
Gyuris, Enikö; Feró, Orsolya; Tartally, András
The concept of animal personalities has recently become of major interest as researchers began to wonder why animals within a given population show consistent behaviour across situations and contexts, what led to the evolution of such behavioural inflexibility and what mechanisms might underlie...
van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Jahoda, Andrew
Background: A training package for staff working with clients presenting challenging behaviour was developed to (1) increase their knowledge regarding challenging behaviour, and (2) to improve the quality of physical intervention techniques. The latter aim was intended to reduce staff anxiety about dealing with incidents and limit physical risk of…
Mol, de R.M.; Verhoeven, P.H.F.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.
Acceleration sensors in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) were used to monitor the behaviour of dairy cows. The data processing from 3D acceleration into behaviour classification (lying, standing or walking) was based on a two-steps method: first the distinction between lying and standing/walking was
Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.
, a globalscale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here,we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour diers among...
Abstract. The dynamic fatigue fracture behaviour in different glasses under various sub-threshold loading conditions are analysed here employing an anomalous diffusion model. Critical dynamical behaviour in the time-to-fracture and the growth of the micro-crack sizes, similar to that observed in such materials in the case.
Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...
Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.
The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein
Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.
encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3...
Brown, Gillian R.; Dickins, Thomas E.; Sear, Rebecca; Laland, Kevin N.
Human beings persist in an extraordinary range of ecological settings, in the process exhibiting enormous behavioural diversity, both within and between populations. People vary in their social, mating and parental behaviour and have diverse and elaborate beliefs, traditions, norms and institutions. The aim of this theme issue is to ask whether, and how, evolutionary theory can help us to understand this diversity. In this introductory article, we provide a background to the debate surrounding how best to understand behavioural diversity using evolutionary models of human behaviour. In particular, we examine how diversity has been viewed by the main subdisciplines within the human evolutionary behavioural sciences, focusing in particular on the human behavioural ecology, evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution approaches. In addition to differences in focus and methodology, these subdisciplines have traditionally varied in the emphasis placed on human universals, ecological factors and socially learned behaviour, and on how they have addressed the issue of genetic variation. We reaffirm that evolutionary theory provides an essential framework for understanding behavioural diversity within and between human populations, but argue that greater integration between the subfields is critical to developing a satisfactory understanding of diversity. PMID:21199836
The state of the art in intermetallic alloys development with particular emphasis on deformation, mechanical and fracture behaviour is documented. This review paper is prepared to lay the ground stones for a future work on mechanical property characterization and fracture behaviour of intermetallic alloys at GKSS. (orig.)
Cooperative Learning and Observed Interactive Behaviour. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Teacher's use and evaluation of cooperative group learning were examined in this study, along with students' reactions to working in groups and their verbal interactive behaviours during group activities. Teachers ...
The purpose of this research was to identify the level of mobbing behaviour faced by teachers and managers working in primary schools, their responses to such behaviour and the difference in these responses according to the gender variable. The sample of the research consists of a total of 1,316 teachers and managers including 691 men and 625…
Martins, C.I.; Galhardo, L.; Noble, C.; Damsgard, B.; Spedicato, M.T.; Zupa, W.; Beauchaud, M.; Kulczykowska, E.; Massabuau, J.C.; Carter, T.; Planellas, S.R.; Kristiansen, T.
Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in
Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; Vasconcelos, Vasco
of interaction using expressive type languages, so types can be used to determine automatically whether the component interacts correctly with other components. Two related important notions of behavioural types are those of session types and behavioural contracts. This article surveys the main accomplishments...
Rißling, J K; Melzer, J; Menke, B; Petermann, F; Daseking, M
Children with language disorders are at increased risk of developing behavioural and emotional problems. The analysis focused on the question whether behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit. The present study examines the behaviour of preschool children with different language impairments. The results of N=540 children aged between 4;0 and 5;11 years were analyzed. Language impairments were classified into phonetics/phonology (n=44), vocabulary (n=44), grammar (n=58), pragmatics (n=26) and multiple language impairments (n=171). In addition, a distinction was made between deficits in language production and comprehension. The children were compared with an unimpaired control group (n=197). The extent of emotional and behavioural problems were analyzed. The results indicate that emotional and behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit already in preschoolers. Especially deficits in language comprehension, pragmatic impairments and multiple language impairments increase the risk of behavioural and emotional problems and hyperactivity. The relationship between language skills and emotional and behavioural problems should be emphasized in the developmental observation and documentation in preschool. In particular, the distinction between deficits in pragmatics and behavioural problems requires a differentiated examination to ensure an optimal intervention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Oorsouw, W.M.W.J. van; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Jahoda, A.
Background - A training package for staff working with clients presenting challenging behaviour was developed to (1) increase their knowledge regarding challenging behaviour, and (2) to improve the quality of physical intervention techniques. The latter aim was intended to reduce staff anxiety about
Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where...
05) and adolescents' sexual risky behaviour. The results further showed the significant position between Parents adolescent disclosure (X2 cal = 32.856) is the most potent factor followed Parental autonomy (X2 cal = 24.642); Parent adolescent relationship (X2 cal = 18.986); Positive adolescent behaviour (X2 cal = 11.626); ...
Context: The continued poor reproductive health behaviour and outcomes among youths informed the investigation of the knowledge, attitudes, sexual behaviour, outcomes and care-seeking among university students in Zaria, north western Nigeria. Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, ...
C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)
textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by
Nazan Özenç Uçak
Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.
South African Journal of Education; 2014; 34(2). 1. Art. # 818, 18 pages, ... between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural ... Numerous researchers have conducted studies on the influence of temperament on the behaviour of children ...
Rutter teachers' and parents' scales for assessment of behavioural problems have been standardised for use on Nigerian children.3,12. These scales have been used in previous studies to assess the prevalence of behavioural disorders in children in western and south-eastern Nigeria.3,6,8, 13,14. In the study by Adelekan ...
This paper focuses on two mainstream therapeutic approaches towards persons with borderline personality disorder, in which suicidal behaviour is a prominent feature demanding understanding and active attention. It is argued that dialectical behaviour therapy and psychoanalytically informed therapies are lacking on two ...
Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken
The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors,…
Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.
A significant relationship was found between participants' sexual behaviour and parental communication and parental monitoring (p<0.05). The study recommended increased parental involvement in communication and monitoring of adolescent sexual behaviour, bearing in mind the consequences of risky sexual ...
Horsler, K.; Oliver, C.
Background: The purpose of this review is to examine the notion of a behavioural phenotype for Angelman syndrome and identify methodological and conceptual influences on the accepted presentation. Methods: Studies examining the behavioural characteristics associated with Angelman syndrome are reviewed and methodology is described. Results:…
Adolescence is usually very adventurous and it is during this stage that behavioural patterns such as risky sexual behaviours which have long life consequences on the life of an adolescent are formed and established (Clement, Robert& Dermott et al, 2001). What happens to adolescents, either good or bad, is sometimes a ...
Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.
A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular
Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Mierlo, M.C.L.M. van; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.
A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular
Scheper, F Y; Abrahamse, M E; Jonkman, C S; Schuengel, C; Lindauer, R J L; de Vries, A L C; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C
Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children, referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems, compared with young children in treatment foster care. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview, Maltreatment Classification System, the Child Behaviour Checklist and Parenting Stress Index were used in 141 referred home reared children and 59 referred foster children, aged 2.0-7.9 years (M = 4.7, SE = 1.3), 71% boys. Inhibited attachment behaviour was less prevalent in the referred home reared group (9%) than in the foster care group (27%). Disinhibited social engagement behaviour was found in 42% of the home reared group, similar to the foster care group. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour were not associated with child maltreatment. More inhibited attachment behaviour was associated with clinical levels of child internalizing and externalizing behaviour in the home reared group, not in the foster care group. In both groups, more disinhibited social engagement behaviour was associated with clinical levels of externalizing behaviour and with more parenting stress. Even without evident links to maltreatment, results of this study suggest clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard
Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P
Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard
Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2......) lack of availability and application of theories that explain the process of specific behavioural change, 3) predominance of "downstream" approaches, and 4) ethical issues. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide insights into healthy eating behaviour using the social marketing approach...
Wong, M Y L; Medina, A; Uppaluri, C; Arnold, S; Seymour, J R; Buston, P M
Using the social clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris, whether individuals exhibited consistency in activity levels, boldness and sociability in a paired context, and whether these three behavioural traits were positively correlated within a single behavioural syndrome, was investigated. The results highlight that consistent individual differences in behaviour are expressed in a social fish and suggest that consistent behavioural traits and behavioural syndromes could influence the structure and functioning of their societies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren
Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. © 2016 The Author(s).
Abram, Paul K; Boivin, Guy; Moiroux, Joffrey; Brodeur, Jacques
Temperature imposes significant constraints on ectothermic animals, and these organisms have evolved numerous adaptations to respond to these constraints. While the impacts of temperature on the physiology of ectotherms have been extensively studied, there are currently no frameworks available that outline the multiple and often simultaneous pathways by which temperature can affect behaviour. Drawing from the literature on insects, we propose a unified framework that should apply to all ectothermic animals, generalizing temperature's behavioural effects into: (1) kinetic effects, resulting from temperature's bottom-up constraining influence on metabolism and neurophysiology over a range of timescales (from short to long term), and (2) integrated effects, where the top-down integration of thermal information intentionally initiates or modifies a behaviour (behavioural thermoregulation, thermal orientation, thermosensory behavioural adjustments). We discuss the difficulty in distinguishing adaptive behavioural changes from constraints when observing animals' behavioural responses to temperature. We then propose two complementary approaches to distinguish adaptations from constraints, and categorize behaviours according to our framework: (i) 'kinetic null modelling' of temperature's effects on behaviour; and (ii) behavioural ecology experiments using temperature-insensitive mutants. Our framework should help to guide future research on the complex relationship between temperature and behaviour in ectothermic animals. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Abulkassim, Roua; Brett, Ros; MacKenzie, Scott M; Bushell, Trevor J
Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is widely expressed in the CNS but whether it plays a key role in inflammation-related behavioural changes remains unknown. Hence, in the present study we have examined whether PAR2 contributes to behaviour associated with systemic inflammation using PAR2 transgenic mice. The onset of sickness behaviour was delayed and the recovery accelerated in PAR2(-/-) mice in the LPS-induced model of sickness behaviour. In contrast, PAR2 does not contribute to behaviour under normal conditions. In conclusion, these data suggest that PAR2 does not contribute to behaviour in the normal healthy brain but it plays a role in inflammation-related behavioural changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: We may conclude that only depression has a relationship with hostile behaviours. It is higher in adolescents with these behaviours. The presence or absence of anxiety is not related to the hostile behaviour in adolescents.
The findings, therefore, suggest that authoritative parenting, vigilant decision making and frequent engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviours were the most prevalent behaviours amongst male and female learners. Keywords: Adolescence, decision making, gender, healthy lifestyle behaviours, learners, parenting ...
Radium-226 and its daughter, radon-222, an inert gas, are important members of the uranium decay series as far as human exposure is concerned. Radon diffuses from rocks, soil and water into the atmosphere, and its daughter products polonium-218 and polonium-214 can be retained in the lungs. Radium and radon are contained in emissions from fossil fuel plants, fertilizers, natural gas, building materials and uranium ore. To assess the impact of man's use, intentional or not, of radium and its daughters, we must know their physical, chemical and biological behaviour. This report examines the literature pertinent to the natural levels of radium found in rock, soil, water and plants. Information concerning radium is integrated from several disciplines. The radiological properties and chemistry of radium, and radium-soil interactions are discussed as well as the soil distribution coefficient and the mode of soil transport of radium. Plant transfer coefficients for radium and methods of analysis and measurement are given. A list of topics requiring further research concludes the report. (auth)
Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.
In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S f =353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S f =225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S f =210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs
Kjeldsen, Morten; Arndt, Roger; Wosnik, Martin
In certain types of pumping applications oscillations are induced by operation with liquids containing a free gas load. In order to understand the physics of this process, a series of tests with a ventilated A 2D NACA 0015 hydrofoil were performed in the water tunnel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota. The special bubble removal feature of the water tunnel allowed continuous ventilation without experiencing visible bubbles upstream the hydrofoil. These studies build on previous work on cavitation-induced oscillations. Gas injection studies were made over a range of gas flow rates and test section pressure. The results clearly show that lift oscillations increase in intensity when the gas load is increased. The point of maximum unsteadiness is also associated the rapid decline of the foil performance as measured as average lift. Further increase of the gas injection load gives a steady behaviour with almost no lift. These experiments are compared with traditional cavitation experiments. The similarities between gas injection- and cavitation induced unsteadiness on the hydrofoil are many, but the amplitude of lift oscillations found on the foil with gas injection corresponds to about 50% of that found for cavitating hydrofoils. The fact that the oscillations are periodic leads to the consideration of both passive and active control.
Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan
Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).
Friedman, H L
Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood in which interlocking changes in the body, mind and social relationship take place. Healthy development depends on both a propitious environment and the action of adolescents themselves. A stable family, peace, material conditions for physical health, and educational, social and vocational opportunities with a chance to make use of them before marriage, are necessary environment conditions. However, within this context the adolescent must experiment with new behaviours and relationships inevitably courting some risks. Adolescent health is especially linked to behaviour. If the environment is inadequate or dangerous and the adolescent lacks self-esteem, behaviours dangerous to health are more likely to occur. These include: precocious and unprotected sexual behaviour sometimes resulting in too early or unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; injuries arising accidentally from risk taking behaviours especially when combined with alcohol or drugs; intentional injury whether self-inflicted or inflicted by others; and poor eating and habits of hygiene leading to obesity, or emaciation, acne and poor teeth and gums. Adolescent behaviour is often governed by their beliefs about what others think. Two way communication in a trusting atmosphere will reduce myths and misinformation and encourage healthy behaviour. The promotion of health, the prevention of problems, and their treatment and rehabilitation when they arise can best be accomplished with the active co-operation of young people.
This thesis presents basic design concepts, design methods and a basic design language for distributed system behaviours. This language is based on two basic concepts: the action concept and the causality relation concept. Our methods focus on behaviour refinement, which consists of replacing an abstract behaviour by a more concrete behaviour, such that the concrete behaviour conforms to the abstract behaviour. An important idea underlying this thesis is that an effective design methodology s...
Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof
System models have recently been introduced to model organisations and evaluate their vulnerability to threats and especially insider threats. Especially for the latter these models are very suitable, since insiders can be assumed to have more knowledge about the attacked organisation than outside......, if not impossible task to change behaviours. Especially when considering social engineering or the human factor in general, the ability to use different kinds of behaviours is essential. In this work we present an approach to make the behaviour a separate component in system models, and explore how to integrate...
Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom
There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...
Full Text Available In this paper we take account of the role of aspirant candidate behaviour in progressive political ambition, specifically how some individuals signal their political ambition to political actors by approaching them to discuss running for office. We examine how the effect of this behaviour compares to the more prominently studied effect of elite recruitment. We conclude that signalling behaviour by an aspirant candidate has a substantial effect, particularly with regard to actually acting on initial considerations of whether to stand, and that elite recruitment makes a difference but only in conjunction with the aspirant candidate themselves signalling their ambition to political actors.
Full Text Available The use of ceramic materials in structural applications is limited by the lack of reliability associated with brittle fracture behaviour. In order to extend the structural use of ceramics, the design of microstructures which exhibit flaw tolerance due to toughening mechanisms which produce an increase in crack growth resistance during crack propagation has been proposed. This work is a review of the mechanical behaviour of structural ceramic materials and its characterisation. Firstly, the basic brittle fracture parameters and the statistical criteria to determine the probability of exceeding the safety factors demanded for a particular application are analysed. Then, the toughening mechanisms which can be developed in the materials through microstructural design as well as the mechanical characterisation of toughened ceramics are discussed. The experimental values of linear elastic fracture toughness parameters (critical stress intensity factor, KIC, and critical energy release rate, GIC are not intrinsic properties for toughened materials and depend on crack length and the loading system. In this work, the different mechanical parameters proposed to characterise such materials are reviewed. The following fracture parameters are analysed: work of fracture (γWOF, critical J-integral value (JIC and R-curve. For the determination, stable fracture tests are proposed in order to ensure that the energy provided during the test is no more than the necessary one for crack propagation.
El uso de los materiales cerámicos en aplicaciones estructurales está limitado por la falta de fiabilidad asociada a su comportamiento frágil durante la fractura. Para extender su aplicación se ha propuesto el diseño de microestructuras que presenten tolerancia a los defectos debido a la actuación de mecanismos de refuerzo. Este trabajo es una puesta al día sobre el estudio del comportamiento mecánico de los materiales cerámicos estructurales y su
The programme carried out by ENEA to model the thermal-hydraulic-mechanical behaviour of the clay formations and to measure, in situ and in laboratory, the thermal properties of these rocks, is presented. An in situ heating experiment has been carried out in an open clay quarry in the area of Monterotondo, near Rome. The main goal of the experiment was to know the temperature field and the thermal effects caused by the high level radioactive waste disposed of in a clayey geological formation. The conclusions are as follows: - the thermal conduction codes are sufficiently accurate to forecast the temperature increases caused in the clay by the dissipation of the heat generated by high level radioactive waste; - the thermal conductivity deduced by means of the ''curve fitting'' method ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 W.cm -1 . 0 C -1 - the temperature variation associated with the transport of clay interstitial water caused by temperature gradient is negligible. A laboratory automated method has been designed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity in clay samples. A review of experimental data concerning thermomechanical effects in rocks as well as results of thermal experiments performed at ISMES on clays are presented. Negative thermal dilation has been found both in the elastic and plastic range under constant stress. Thermoplastic deformation appears ten times greater than the thermoelastic one. A mathematical model is proposed in order to simulate the above and other effects that encompass thermal-elastic-plastic-pore water pressure response of clays at high temperature and effective pressure with undrained and transient drainage conditions. Implementation of the two versions into a finite element computer code is described
Full Text Available In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI, which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6 until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3 in very high income countries.
In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population’s exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012–14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries’ level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717
In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries.
Full Text Available In order for marketing to act proactively, it must acknowledge the trends (mega and metatrends which anticipate future changes reagrding the customer as well as changes in consumption, regarding products and rivals. From yesterday's industrial era, through space conquering era and today's dominating information era, the world is turning toward 'the era of the man'. Human potential (talent, innovativeness, creativity grows to be the main determinant of economic development will have to face new reality which will have higher importance for management companies and individuals, as well. Societies and economies underlay significant transformations on a daily basis which occur randomly. Whatsoever, it might seem to the observer that these transformations are almost tangible. For example, the presently overwhelming business models are shored to be redefined in the forecoming period. Present models that rose out of the recent recession have imposed hard times to societies which will probably strengthen them. It will be necessary to reconcept the social system and redefine values. In marketing and business the upcoming of new power calls for new conceptions and practice. Marketers understand the need for a full, cohesive approach that leaves behind traditional marketing. This new holistic conception is based on development, design and realization of marketing programmes, processes and activities by which the width and interrelatedness of effects are acknowledged, e.g. that everything has its importance in marketing and that a wide, integrated perspective is necessary. Changes regarding the customer are headed towards searching for one's identity, while behaviour aims at the way the customer wants himself/herself to be seen by the environment.
Full Text Available As the average age of the urban population increases, cities must adapt to improve the quality of life of their citizens. The City4Age H2020 project is working on the early detection of the risks related to mild cognitive impairment and frailty and on providing meaningful interventions that prevent these risks. As part of the risk detection process, we have developed a multilevel conceptual model that describes the user behaviour using actions, activities, and intra- and inter-activity behaviour. Using this conceptual model, we have created a deep learning architecture based on long short-term memory networks (LSTMs that models the inter-activity behaviour. The presented architecture offers a probabilistic model that allows us to predict the user’s next actions and to identify anomalous user behaviours.
microbial resistance. This study emphasises the need to integrate alternative care providers and particularly traditional healers in STI control activities, and to encourage their role in promoting safer sexual behaviour. In patients presenting with ...
Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi
This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...... of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last...
Full Text Available During 2010 a national survey on waste management service delivery and recycling behaviour amongst metropolitan households was conducted. WasteCon2010 conference attendees were also surveyed in parallel and on a voluntary basis. This paper reports...
cyanide- plating bath for copper has been developed using alkaline trisodium citrate and triethanolamine solutions5. The present investigation presents cyclic voltammetric studies on the electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes, ...
Elsweiler, David; Wilson, Max L.; Lunn, Brian Kirkegaard
Originally grounded in library and information science, the majority of information behaviour and information-seeking theories focus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. While other theories exist, such as how people unexpectedly encounter information, for example......, they are typically related back to tasks, motivated by work or personal goals. This chapter, however, focuses on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needs rather than information needs, where people engage in searching behaviours for pleasure rather than to find information....... This chapter describes two studies on (1) television information behaviour and (2) the casual information behaviours described by users of Twitter. The first study focuses on a specific casual-leisure domain that is familiar to many, while the second indicates that our findings generalise to many other casual...
Full Text Available The paper is focused on existence and support of entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation in larger organizations. It first suggests why it is important to pay attention to entrepreneurship and innovation and then defines corporate entrepreneurship. Typical barriers of entrepreneurial activities are described as well as innovation dilemmas organizations solve. Innovation process is not linear, but six components of innovation behaviour may be identified, together with specific roles employees play when moving the idea forward from idea creation to implementation. Important factors influencing the success of entrepreneurial behaviour are discussed, involving the role of middle managers and reward systems. Recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation are provided together with a simple inventory for measuring employee perception of manager's and organizational support for innovation.
and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before...... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....
The main mechanical properties (fracture, thermal and irradiation creep) of oxide and carbide fuels are summarised and discussed. Some examples are given of the influence of these mechanical properties on the in-pile behaviour of fuel pins [fr
Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB
In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...
D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.
In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...
Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.
Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....
Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María
A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.
Shirodkar, P.V.; Anand, S.P.
and alkalinity gave positive correlations with a linear variation. Though the overall behavioural pattern of boron indicated non-conservative nature, it showed a quasi-conservative character during premonsoon and a non-conservative during rest of the seasons...
Rosman, Benjamin S
Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...
Hall, Zachary J; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D
Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, specifically, how the avian brain controls nest building. Here, we argue that nest building in birds may be a useful model behaviour in which to study how the brain controls behaviour. Specifically, we argue that nest building as a behavioural model provides a unique opportunity to study not only the mechanisms through which the brain controls behaviour within individuals of a single species but also how evolution may have shaped the brain to produce interspecific variation in nest-building behaviour. In this review, we outline the questions in both behavioural and comparative neuroscience that nest building could be used to address, summarize recent findings regarding the neurobiology of nest building in lab-reared zebra finches and across species building different nest structures, and suggest some future directions for the neurobiology of nest building.
Waller, Glenn; Kyriacou Marcoulides, Olivia
This study examined the utility of a transdiagnostic measure of safety behaviours [Brief Safety Behaviours Scale (BSBS)] in eating disorders. Prior to treatment, a group of 102 women with eating disorders completed the BSBS and well-validated measures of eating pathology, anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty. The BSBS had three factors, suggesting that avoidant, checking and social safety behaviours are distinct constructs in the eating disorders. This three-scale scoring system showed greater clinical precision in correlations with eating pathology than the original two-scale version. The pattern of safety behaviours in the eating disorders is more specific than had previously been shown in other clinical samples. While it is important to consider eating-related safety behaviours in the eating disorders (e.g. restriction, body checking), it is also necessary to consider the role of generic safety behaviours when assessing, formulating and treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente
This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this
Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Reng
This thesis consists of three sefcontained essays, all centering around the topic of stock market behaviour. The papers focus on the empirical performance of a number of asset pricing models, all attempting to quantify and price asset risk. We look at how well these models actually do in describing...... the historic behaviour of the stock market, allowing us to get further insight into what drives the markes....
Janak, Patricia H.; Tye, Kay M.
The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of behaviours requires the study of distinct amygdala circuits. PMID:25592533
Jiji Mary Antony; Suresh Sebastian Vadakedom
BACKGROUND Parenting is the process of giving care to the young and preparing them to face the challenges of life. Diana Baumrind introduced the models of parenting, authoritative, authoritarian and permissive depending on the level of demandingness and responsiveness. Defective parenting is associated with problem behaviours in children. This study was undertaken to find out which parenting style is least associated with behavioural problems and what are the problems associated w...
Jiji Mary Antony
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parenting is the process of giving care to the young and preparing them to face the challenges of life. Diana Baumrind introduced the models of parenting, authoritative, authoritarian and permissive depending on the level of demandingness and responsiveness. Defective parenting is associated with problem behaviours in children. This study was undertaken to find out which parenting style is least associated with behavioural problems and what are the problems associated with the different parenting style. MATERIALS AND METHODS 46 children who were admitted with minor illness at the institute of Child Health, Kottayam from January 2017 to Oct 2017 were enrolled after getting informed consent and IRB clearance. Purposive sampling method were used for the study. Demographic data was entered into a proforma. The PSDQ and CBCL 1½ -5 questionnaire was given to mothers to assess the parenting style and behavioural problems in their children. Data was analysed with statistical tests. The t test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analyses were used for the analyses. RESULTS The parenting styles of the mothers and the behavioural problems seen in their children were studied in this research. There was no significant difference in behavioural problems between the different age group studied and there was no difference in problem behaviours between male children and female children. Authoritative parenting style was least associated with problem behaviour. Authoritarian parenting style is associated with internalizing problems and permissive parenting is associated with externalizing problems. CONCLUSION Since the behaviour problems tends to linger through adolescence and adulthood, parental education regarding the positive parenting style and interventions can be given from early childhood during routine child care and structured programs.
The main goal of the thesis was to recognise similar and different characteristics of online shopping behaviour between Chinese and Finnish undergraduates. Additionally, this thesis would give meaningful proposals for merchants and managers on offering better online marketing. This thesis report was conducted in both theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical parts include marketing research and online shopping consumption behaviour. The study describes the marketing research progre...
1985-01-01During the last three decades the housing conditions of our livestock have been changed drastically (chapter 1). Amongst others, reduced floor space per animal and the monotony of the environment are the most striking changes.As in other animals, the actual situation strongly influences the behaviour of pigs. However, the effects of early experience on later behaviour in pigs are still not well documented. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate these effects....
NYSSA TEGAN HADGRAFT
Sedentary behaviour (or sitting) is a recently identified chronic disease risk factor. Many adults spend the majority of their working hours sitting, making the workplace a key setting for public health interventions. This thesis aimed to identify factors that influence workplace sitting time and the feasibility of reducing this behaviour. The most prominent factors identified were: the nature of work, social norms and workplace culture, and the workplace physical environment. These findings ...
Sidoumou, Mohamed Redha; Bechkoum, Kamal; Benatchba, Karima
In this paper we present a study that looks at modelling drivers’ behaviour with a view to contribute to the problem of road rage. The approach we adopt is based on agent technology, particularly multi-agent systems. Each driver is represented by a software agent. A virtual environment is used to simulate drivers’ behaviour, thus enabling us to observe the conditions leading to road rage. The simulated model is then used to suggest possible ways of alleviating this societal problem. Our agent...
Hunger is a poorly defined cognition, assumed to motivate overeating, but there is no firm evidence that the intensity of a sense of hunger is related to overweight. Recent research has suggested instead that irregular eating habits, as deriving from dieting, emotional stressors or other causes may have a role in the weight gain of obese people. These "borderline eating behaviours" (or BEB), targeted in cognitive behavioural therapy of obesity, were found associated to the body mass index bot...
Hüttel, Hans; Tuosto, Emilio; Vieira, Hugo Torres; Zavattaro, Gianluigi; Lanese, Ivan; Vasconcelos, Vasco T.; Caires, Luís; Carbone, Marco; Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Mostrous, Dimitris; Padovani, Luca; Ravara, António
International audience; Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patterns of interaction using expressive type languages, so that types can be used to determine automatically whether the component interacts correctly with other components. Two rel...
Roberts, J F; Curzon, M E J; Koch, G; Martens, L C
Behaviour management is widely agreed to be a key factor in providing dental care for children. Indeed, if a child's behaviour in the dental surgery/office cannot be managed then it is difficult if not impossible to carry out any dental care that is needed. It is imperative that any approach to behavioural management for the dental child patient must be rooted in empathy and a concern for the well being of each child. Based on various presentations given at Congresses of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD), documents reviewing behaviour management prepared by the Clinical Affairs Committee of the EAPD, and written submissions to the Executive Board of the EAPD, a review of the various approaches to the behaviour management of the child dental patient was completed. All aspects of non-pharmacological behavioural management techniques described in the literature over the past 80 years were reviewed. There is a very wide diversity of techniques used but not all are universally accepted by specialist paediatric and general dentists. Wide cultural and philosophical differences are apparent among European paediatric dentists that seem difficult to bridge when forming agreed guidelines. Accordingly, this review highlights those behaviour techniques that are universally accepted such as tell, show, do (TSD) or positive reinforcement, but nevertheless describes the most commonly mentioned techniques for which there are descriptions in the literature. A wide variety of behavioural management techniques are available to paediatric dentists which must be used as appropriate for the benefit of each child patient, and which, importantly, must take into account all cultural, philosophical and legal requirements in the country of dental practice of every dentist concerned with dental care of children.
Full Text Available The paper outlines a synthesis of the models (The rationalist models, models based on Theory of Reasoned Action/ Theory of Planned Behavior, prosocial models and antecedents of pro-environmental behaviors. The values models applicable for the study of pro-environmental behaviours (Rokeach’s; Schwartz’s; Kollmus and Agyeman synthesis, are presented afterwards, as the results of the studies which confirm the predictive role of values when it comes to pro-environmental behaviour.
Background: Childhood obesity is a chronic disease associated with increased morbidity, psychosocial problems and reduced life expectancy, all of which is today very common. Despite this, long-term studies of behavioural treatment of childhood obesity are currently lacking. In addition, behavioural treatment has often only a modest effect and the number of children and adolescents who drop out during treatment is very high. Therefore, additional treatment with antiobesity drugs may be of i...
Liu, Jie; Xu, Shanqing; Wen, Guilin; Xie, Yi Min
In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could stron...
Williams, A L; Lasky, R E; Dannemiller, J L; Andrei, A M; Thomas, E J
To describe relationships between teamwork behaviours and errors during neonatal resuscitation. Trained observers viewed video recordings of neonatal resuscitations (n = 12) for the occurrence of teamwork behaviours and errors. Teamwork state behaviours (such as vigilance and workload management, which extend for some duration) were assessed as the percentage of each resuscitation that the behaviour was observed and correlated with the percentage of observed errors. Teamwork event behaviours (such as information sharing, inquiry and assertion, which occur at specific times) were counted in 20-s intervals before and after resuscitation steps, and a generalised linear mixed model was calculated to evaluate relationships between these behaviours and errors. Resuscitation teams who were more vigilant committed fewer errors (Spearman's rho for vigilance and errors = -0.62, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.87, p = 0.031). Assertions were more likely to occur before errors than correct steps (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89, p = 0.008) and teaching/advising occurred less frequently after errors (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.94, p = 0.028). Though not statistically significant, there was less information sharing before errors (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.05, p = 0.172). Vigilance is an important behaviour for error management. Assertion may have caused errors, or perhaps was an indicator for some other factor that caused errors. Teams may have preferred to resolve errors directly, rather than using errors as opportunities to teach their teammates. These observations raise important questions about the appropriate use of some teamwork behaviours and how to include them in team training programmes.
Alexandra-Codruta Popescu (Bîzoi); Cristian-Gabriel Bîzoi
Literature has focused largely on the field of supply chain risk management. Numerous risks occur within supply chain management. Until lately, behavioural risks (implying large amount of losses) have been neglected and considered not relevant. In this paper we provide an analysis of the importance of including behavioural research in logistics and supply chain risk management, what has been written so far and potential future research directions. Until now, literature on logistics and supply...
Psychology, along with a wide range of other academic disciplines, has influenced research in both consumer behaviour and marketing. However, the influence of one area of psychology – namely, behaviourism – on research on consumers and marketing has been less prominent. Behaviourism has influenced consumer and marketing research through the application of classical and operant conditioning, matching and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks, during the past 50 years. This article provid...
Janie Bester; Marius W. Stander; Llewellyn E. van Zyl
Orientation: Employees’ perceptions of their leaders’ behaviour play a role in creating empowering environments where employees are willing to do more than what is expected, with retention of employees as a result. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to theoretically conceptualise and empirically determine the relationships between employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and intention to leave wi...
Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking dur...
Full Text Available Big Data analytics in healthcare has become a very active area of research since it promises to reduce costs and to improve health care quality. Behavioural analytics analyses a patients behavioural patterns with the goal of early detection if a patient becomes symptomatic and triggering treatment even before a disease outbreak happens. Behavioural analytics allows a more precise and personalised treatment and can even monitor whole populations for events such as epidemic outbreaks. With the prevalence of mobile phones, they have been used to monitor the health of patients by analysing their behavioural and movement patterns. Cell phones are always on devices and are usually close to their users. As such they can be used as social sensors to create "automated diaries" of their users. Specialised apps passively collect and analyse user data to detect if a patient shows some deviant behaviour indicating he has become symptomatic. These apps first learn a patients normal daily patterns and alert a health care centre if it detects a deviant behaviour. The health care centre can then call the patient and check on his well-being. These apps use machine learning techniques to for reality mining and predictive analysis. This paper describes some of these techniques that have been adopted recently in eHealth apps.
Bowers, L; Ross, J; Cutting, P; Stewart, D
The purpose of the study was to assess the types and frequency of sexual behaviours displayed by patients during the first 2 weeks of admission to acute psychiatric units and what relationship these have to other challenging patient behaviours. The method used was a survey of sexual behaviours, conflict and containment events carried out by 522 patients during the first 2 weeks of admission in 84 wards in 31 hospitals in the South East of England. Incidents of sexual behaviour were common, with 13% of patients responsible for at least one incident. Although exposure was the most frequent of these behaviours, non-consensual sexual touching, was instigated by 1 in 20 patients. There were no differences in the numbers of sexual events between single sex and mixed gender wards. Few associations were found with the demographic features of perpetrators, although all those engaging in public masturbation were male, and male patients were more likely to sexually touch another without their consent. Single sex wards do not seem to necessarily offer significant protection to potentially vulnerable victims. Perpetrators do not seem to be predictable in advance, nor was there any common set or pattern of disruptive behavioural events indicating that a sexual incident was about to occur. © 2013 Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office/Queen's Printer for Scotland and Institute of Psychiatry.
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E
The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke
Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although many authors agree on the role of personal values in explaining the main determinants of eco-behaviour, disagreement about the effects of socio-demographic features exists, particularly about the effect of nationality. In an attempt to fill this gap in the literature, this paper contributes to the debate surrounding the main determinants of eco-behaviour, based on a cross-country analysis. To test the role of nationality and personal values in eco-behaviour, a linear regression model involving 353 Chinese and 333 Italian subjects was performed. A stepwise analysis was then conducted to identify the main significant effects. The explorative and stepwise analyses confirmed that nationality is significant when explaining individual eco-behaviour, for both Italian and Chinese people. Moreover, the linear regression model, as a stepwise analysis, showed that regulatory focus and universalism are the main personal values influencing ecological behaviour. Differences emerging from the analysis show significant differences in terms of eco-behaviour and eco-awareness, for the two countries involved in the analysis, that might lead companies to adopt different marketing strategies when promoting eco-products.
Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe
The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance...... is influenced by the way in which store choice behaviour is conceptualized. A survey among 631 consuemrs was performed in order to examine the research proposition. Structural equation results suggest that the negative effect of distance on store choice behaviour is larger when store choice behaviour...
Altenhöner, T; Philippi, M; Böcken, J
Individual health behaviour counts as an important factor for health status. A healthier lifestyle substantially contributes to better health. People burdened with lower health and with lower socio-economic status could benefit notably. So far it is not known exhaustively to what extent education and social status contribute to changes in health behaviour and which motifs play a decisive role. Based on cross-sectional data from the seventh wave of the "Gesundheitsmonitor", Bertelsmann Foundation, (n=1 436), the influence of social status and education on health behaviour and changes in behaviour was analysed. Specific health behaviour correlates with level of education and socio-economic status. In contrast, regarding health behaviour changes in the last 12 months prior to survey, no social class- or education-specific effect was found. Age, health status as well as fears and wishes in relation to health seem to be important causalities for changes of health-related behaviour. Interventions to foster healthy lifestyles should include class differences in specific health-related behaviour and personal reasons for behavioural changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Adda, Y.; Mustelier, J.P.; Quere, Y.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses
The main results obtained in a study of the formation of defects caused in uranium by fission at low temperature are reported. By irradiation at 20 K. it was possible to determine the number of Frenkel pairs produced by one fission. An analysis of the curves giving the variations in electrical resistivity shows the size of the displacement spikes and the mechanism of defect creation due to fission. Irradiations at 77 K gave additional information, showing behaviour differences in the case of recrystallised and of cold worked uranium. The diffusion of rare gases was studied using metal-rare gas alloys obtained by electrical discharge, and samples of irradiated uranium. Simple diffusion is only responsible for the release of the rare gases under vacuum in cases where the rare gas content is very low (very slightly irradiated U). On the other hand when the concentration is higher (samples prepared by electrical discharge) the gas is given off by the formation, growth and coalescence of bubbles; the apparent diffusion coefficient is then quite different from the true coefficient and cannot be used in calculations on swelling. The various factors governing the phenomenon of simple diffusion were examined. It was shown in particular that a small addition of molybdenum could reduce the diffusion coefficient by a factor of 100. The precipitation of gas in uranium (Kr), in silver (Kr) and in Al-Li alloy (He) have been followed by measurement of the crystal parameter and of the electrical resistivity, and by electron microscope examination of thin films. The important part played by dislocations in the generation and growth of bubbles has been demonstrated, and it has been shown also that precipitation of bubbles on the dislocation lattice could block the development of recrystallisation. The results of these studies were compared with observations made on the swelling of uranium and uranium alloys U Mo and U Nb strongly irradiated between 400 and 700 C. In the case of Cubic
With the aim of using scintillation detectors for the starting-up, the study of transient phenomena, the control or the safety of a nuclear reactor or of a critical assembly, the behaviour of 8 photomultipliers (Radiotechnique 51 AVP and UVP, and EMI 9524 B) has been studied in the gamma flux of 1 to 10 3 Rh -1 in a storage well, and in an EL 2 reactor channel where the exposures varied between 1 to 2 x 10 3 Rh -1 and 6 x 10 5 to 5 x 10 7 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Spurious pulses are produced by this radiation at the photomultiplier anode. By comparing the amplitudes of these pulses to those produced by a NaI scintillator, it was observed that their maximum energy level was about 100 keV at 10 3 Rh -1 in the gamma flow of the storage well and from 200 to 400 keV at 10 3 Rh -1 and 10 7 n.cm -2 .s -1 in the reactor channel. Furthermore, the detection of a luminous reference pulse corresponding to 200 keV (NaI) is only perturbed at values Of above a few hundred Rh -1 the γ radiation alone, and above 5 x 10 6 n.cm -2 .s -1 and ∼ 500 Rh -1 in the reactor channel. The dispersion of these results is of the order of 2 for the 8 tubes tested. The main part of the γ radiation effect is attributed to the Cerenkov effect in the window of the photomultiplier. The possibility of separating the respective effects of neutrons and of γ radiation is considered. No marked evolution in the photomultiplier parameters during exposure was noticed. Their characteristics were not modified by the doses received, the largest of which attained 4 x 10 12 neutrons.cm -2 and ≅ 3 x 10 4 roentgens. The advantages of using photomultipliers and fast circuits for widening the field of use of photomultipliers under irradiation is stressed. (author) [fr
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of some Nigerian children's predicted behaviour to their observed behaviour ... study of children from low socio- economic families during their first dental visit, Hawley et al, ... An assessment of the behaviour of each child was made using Frankl's. Behaviour Rating ...
Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary
Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…
The results confirm that the theory of planned behaviour not only has good explanatory power, but also effectively predicts such behaviour among physical education and sport professionals in general. Key words: Theory of Planned Behaviour, Professionals of Physical Education and Sport, Knowledge Sharing Behaviour, ...
Rogers, Wendy; Ballantyne, Angela
Professionalism remains a challenging part of the medical curriculum to define, teach and evaluate. We suggest that one way to meet these challenges is to clarify the definition of professionalism and distinguish this from medical ethics. Our analysis is two staged. First, we reviewed influential definitions of professionalism and separated elements relating to (a) ethico-legal competencies, (b) clinical competence and (c) professionalism. In reference to professionalism, we then distinguished between aspirational virtues/values and specific behaviours. From these, we develop a working definition of medical professional behaviour consisting of six domains of behaviour: responsibility; relationships with and respect for patients; probity and honesty; self awareness and capacity for reflection; collaboration and team work; and care of colleagues. Second, we tested this working definition against empirical data concerning disciplinary action against practising doctors using (a) sources in the literature and (b) an original analysis of complaints received by the Medical Board of South Australia. Our empirical analysis supports the relevance of four of the six potential domains: responsibility; relationships with and respect for patients; probity and honesty; self awareness and capacity for reflection. There are additional reasons for retaining 'collaboration and team work' in the medical professional behaviour curriculum but 'care of colleagues' may be better addressed in the ethico-legal curriculum. Our definition of professional behaviour is consistent with the theoretical literature, captures behaviours that predict future complaints against practitioners and is consistent with current complaints about professionalism in South Australian practitioners. This definition can further the teaching and assessing of professional behaviour in medical schools.
Rajesh Kumar Mohapatra
Full Text Available Conservation breeding programmes as an essential tool for conservation of endangered species require a sound knowledge on behaviour of the species. At present time, knowledge of behaviour and biology of Indian pangolins is inadequate and inconsistent. During the present study, an ethogram was developed based on the behavioural observations of seven Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata at Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha, India, between February 2012 and January 2013. A total of 27 behaviours of seven distinct behavioural categories (stationary body positions, locomotory patterns, maintenance behaviours, explorative behaviours, defensive behaviours, reproductive/social behaviours, and others were described and illustrated. The results offer a consistent frame of reference for further studies on behavioural patterns of Indian pangolins. Besides, these preliminary observations could be useful in management and breeding of the species in captivity.
Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria
Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.
Offshore wind energy is a promising source of energy in the near future, and is rapidly becoming competitive with other power generating technologies. The continuous improvement in wind turbine technology means that the wind turbines have increased tremendously in both size and performance during the last 25 years. In order to reduce the costs, the overall weight of the wind turbine components is minimized, which means that the wind turbine structures become more flexible and thus more sensitive to dynamic excitation. Since the first resonance frequency of the modern offshore wind turbines is close to the excitation frequencies of the rotor system, it is of outmost importance to be able to evaluate the resonance frequencies of the wind turbine structure accurately as the wind turbines increase in size. In order to achieve reliable responses of the wind turbine structure during working loads it is necessary to account for the possibilities of dynamic effects of the soil-structure interaction. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of foundations for offshore wind turbines, with the intention that the dynamic properties of the foundation can be properly included in a composite structure-foundation system. The work has been focused on one particular foundation type; the suction caisson. The frequency dependent stiffness (impedance) of the suction caisson has been investigated by means of a three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model, where the soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequencydependent coefficients corresponding to the different degrees of freedom. Comparisons with known analytical and numerical solutions indicate that the static and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the
Van Nes, A.; Rueb, L.
The aim of this short paper is to show how the spatial layout of neighbourhoods affect the behaviour of its dwellers. An area's social and spatial composition influences anti-social behaviour in built environments. However, social conditions can overrule spatial ones. A more adequate understanding
Borg, van der Joanne A.M.; Graat, Lisette; Beerda, Bonne
Behavioural testing allows to exclude dogs that are fearful and aggressive from the breeding population, but relatively little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies in practice. From 2001 till 2009 parent purebred Dutch Rottweilers had to pass the Socially Acceptable Behaviour
Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.
It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant
de Luca, Claudia; Perello, Michelle; Romein, A.; Louw, E.; Fertner, Christian; Grosse, Juliane; Buckingham, Susan
D3.2 aims at analysing the existing literature on tourism and waste behaviour of tourists. Based on this literature review and with the aim of filling the knowledge gap about waste behaviour of tourists, URBANWASTE has developed and circulated 3 surveys for 3 different categories: waste workers,
Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra
Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…
Finkenauer, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Baumeister, R.F.
Cross-sectional data from 1359 boys and girls aged 10-14 years investigated whether parenting behaviours are directly or indirectly (through building self-control) associated with emotional (depression, stress, low self-esteem) and behavioural (delinquency, aggression) problems among adolescents.
Krneta, Dragoljub; Ševic, Aleksandra
This paper analyzes the results of the study of prevalence of problem behaviour of students in primary and secondary schools. The starting point is that it is methodologically and logically justified to look for early forms of problem behaviour of students, because it is likely that adult convicted offenders at an early school age manifested forms…
N.A. Hakimi (Natalia)
textabstractThe present dissertation tries to shed light on the phenomenon of empowering leadership. We aim to understand the antecedents of leader empowering behaviour. In doing so, we mean to remedy the stated lack of research on empowering leadership and on the effect of follower’s behaviour on
Research purpose: The aim of this study was to theoretically conceptualise and empirically determine the relationships between employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and intention to leave within a manufacturing division of an organisation. Motivation for the study: In the ever-changing work environment, organisations must capitalise on their human capital in order to maintain competitiveness. It is therefore important to identify the role of employees’ perception of leadership in contributing to the establishment of an environment where employees feel empowered, are willing to do more than what is expected and want to stay in the organisation. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used. The total population (N = 300 employed at the manufacturing division was targeted. Two hundred completed questionnaires were obtained. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire and Intention to Leave Scale were administered. Main findings: Employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour (keeping employees accountable, self-directed decision-making and people development, psychological empowerment (attitude and influence and organisational citizenship behaviours (loyalty, deviant behaviour and participation predict intention to leave the organisation. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should foster the elements of a positive organisation, in this case leader empowering behaviours, if they want to retain their employees. Contribution/value-add: The results of this research contribute to scientific knowledge about the positive effects of employees experiencing their leaders as empowering.
Andrews, Sophie Claire; Pavlis, Alexia; Staios, Mathew; Fisher, Fiona
Behaviour change is increasingly recognised as a common feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and may be similar to that seen in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The behaviours most disturbed in ALS, and those that relate most significantly to caregiver burden, however, have not been well established. Forty ALS participants and their caregivers, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls and their relatives, participated in this study. ALS participants were assessed on a disease rating scale, and caregivers and control informants completed the revised version of the Cambridge Behaviour Inventory and a measure of burden. ALS caregivers reported significantly more disturbance than healthy control informants on the functional domains of everyday skills, self-care, and sleep, and in the behavioural domains of mood and motivation. There were no differences between groups in frequency of memory and orientation difficulties, or behaviours characteristic of FTD, such as changes to eating habits or stereotypic and motor behaviour, indicating that the behavioural profile in ALS may differ from FTD. In the ALS group, the domains with the strongest relationship to caregiver burden were everyday skills, motivation and memory, likely because poor motivation, memory dysfunction and difficulties completing activities of daily living require more carer support via direct supervision, prompting or hands on care. Services to support ALS patients and caregivers need to provide targeted interventions for those functional and behavioural changes which are most burdensome in the disease.
Smit, E.G.; van Noort, G.; Voorveld, H.A.M.
Latent profile analysis was used to identify different categories of students having different "profiles" using self-reported classroom behaviour. Four categories of students with unique classroom behaviour profiles were identified among secondary school students in Oslo, Norway (n = 1570). Analyses examined how classroom behaviour…
Budnik Maryna M.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of their impact – orientation at subconsciousness of consumers. The article analyses a psychological process of making a decision on purchase of a commodity and draws a conclusion about necessity of exerting subconsciousness influence upon consumer behaviour using the modern marketing instruments. It develops an improved model of consumer behaviour, which takes into account innovation means of impact on the buyer. The prospect of further development of this direction in science is creation of theoretical methods of managing consumer behaviour on the basis of co-operation of specialists in the field of economy, management, marketing, sociology and psychology, which would be applied in practice of management of trade enterprises.
Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.
Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.
Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia
The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.
Hvenegaard, Morten; Watkins, Ed R; Poulsen, Stig
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment for depression. However, one third of the patients do not respond satisfactorily, and relapse rates of around 30 % within the first post-treatment year were reported in a recent meta-analysis. In total, 30-50 % of remitted patients...... of future depression. Rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy is a psychotherapeutic treatment targeting rumination. Because rumination plays a major role in the initiation and maintenance of depression, targeting rumination with rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy may be more...... effective in treating depression and reducing relapse than standard cognitive behavioural therapy. METHOD/DESIGN: This study is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of group-based rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy with the effectiveness...
François, Dominique; Zaoui, André
Advances in technology are demanding ever-increasing mastery over the materials being used: the challenge is to gain a better understanding of their behaviour, and more particularly of the relations between their microstructure and their macroscopic properties. This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour. As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and the...
Willems, A.P.A.M; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Moonen, X.M.H.
Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics - such as beliefs, attributions and emotional
Quinto Romani, Annette
and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...... set of child and parental characteristics; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge...
Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B
RATIONALE: Compulsive behaviour, present in different psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and drug abuse, is associated with altered levels of monoamines, particularly serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and its receptor system. OBJECTIVES: The present study...... evaluated, as well as the 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptor binding, in different brain regions. METHODS: Wistar rats were selected as high (HD) or low (LD) drinkers according to their SIP behaviour, while Lister hooded rats did not show SIP acquisition. Both strains were fed for 14 days with either a TRP...... in the striatum was significantly reduced in the TRP-depleted HD Wistar rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that alterations of the serotonergic system could be involved in compulsive behaviour in vulnerable populations....
Full Text Available This study introduces the furniture purchasing behaviour model. The study describes thebehaviour model and characteristics of decision making and the environmental factors affecting theindividuals besides emphasising the family character of furniture purchase. We introduce a chapterfrom the primary research verifying the model that analyses the validity of customer behaviour trendsdefined as elements of the impersonal environment on the furniture market. We touch on our lifestylebased segmentation model which is elaborated in our work in detail. The method of primary researchis quantitative, personal interview. While working out our research model we applied a method thatenables multi-level cross-section and cohort analyses. Our work has verified the need for trendresearches on the furniture market so we suggest the construction and the near-future launch of a trendresearch system consisting of several modules that reveals the specific factors on the furniture marketbesides verifying the validity of general behaviour trends.
Mobach, Mark P
To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each waiting area (brochures, books, illuminated new trailer, children's play area, etc.). Per patient each activity was registered, and at each pharmacy the behaviour was studied for 2 weeks. Most patients only waited during the waiting time at the studied pharmacies. Few consumers obtained written information during their wait. The waiting area may have latent possibilities to expand the information function of the pharmacy and combine this with other activities that distract the consumer from the wait. Transdisciplinary research, combining knowledge from pharmacy practice research with consumer research, has been a useful approach to add information on queueing behaviour of consumers.
Chui, S T
Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations. Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials. Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...
Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia
Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non......-normative and constitutive approach to internal branding by proposing an enablement-oriented communication approach. The conceptual background presents a holistic model of the inside-out process of brand building. This model adopts a theoretical approach to internal branding as a nonnormative practice that facilitates...... constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...
Simonsen, Henrik Køhler
the participants looked, but also how they accessed lexicographic data. The paper presents a suitable method for using eye-tracking studies in Internet lexicography and advocates an increased use of this method to produce empirical data upon which additional theoretical considerations on the information and data......The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss user consultation behaviour on the basis of eye-tracking data and interview data. To date the focus has been almost exclusively on the use of log files in Internet lexicography - an approach which is questioned in this article. The paper is based...... on empirical data from an exploratory eyetracking study of the user consultation behaviour of six participants and on interview data from a follow-up post-study interview of the participants. The paper elucidates and discusses the consultation behaviour in Internet lexicography and shows not only at what...
When buildings are to undergo energy upgrading in Denmark, the national compliance checker, Be10, is often used to calculate expected energy savings for different energy-saving measures. The Be10 calculation is, however, very dependent on a variety of standard assumptions concerning the building...... and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before...... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...
Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin
Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment.
Daniela de Carvalho Wilks
Full Text Available Employee misconduct in the workplace is relatively common and may be counterproductivein social and material terms. To identify which undesirable behavioursare considered acceptable is the first step to develop ways to reducedeviance in organizational settings. The purpose of this study was to examinethe perceived acceptability of deviant behaviour in the workplace, and to analysethe relation between the degree of such acceptance with organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction, and organizational tenure. Data was obtainedfrom 223 adults employed full-time. Results suggest a positive relationshipbetween the degree of acceptability of certain forms of deviant behaviour andorganizational commitment, but not with job satisfaction. They further indicatethat tenure was the factor having the most impact on the acceptanceof deviant behaviours. Implications of the findings for the management arediscussed.
The objective of this publication is to provide an up to date review of the environmental behaviour of radium, including methods for analysis, assessment and control. The need for a reference text on the subject was identified at an early stage of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on radium behaviour in relation to uranium mining and milling wastes. This publication deals with the sources, properties, environmental behaviour and the methods of analysis, control and assessment of 226 Ra. It is an outgrowth of Agency programmes directed towards the environmental problems involved in uranium mining and milling. The emphasis in several of the sections reflects these origins. For example, many of the contributions in Volume 2 of this report on technologically enhanced sources of radium (Part 1), methods of control and abatement (Part 2) and the impact on man (Part 3) are concerned with uranium mining and milling. Refs, figs and tabs
Full Text Available In this work a particular cement composite material for protection of structures and infrastructures against accidental actions, such as blast or impact, has been investigated. An experimental procedure has been developed in order to assess static and dynamic behaviour of energy absorbing cementitious composites. The granular cementitious composite has been studied focusing attention to compressive strength, high deformation and energy dissipation capacity which are important characteristics for an absorber material. An experimental characterization of the material behaviour under compressive static and dynamic loadings has been carried out. Different deformation velocities have been studied in order to define the material behaviour in a wide range of strain rates. The velocity range up to 0.1 m/s is investigated by means of a universal servo-hydraulic MTS 50 kN testing machine. Some preliminary results have been reported and discussed in the present work.
Sekiguchi, Yuske; Arai, Kazutoshi; Kohshima, Shiro
Sleep has been assumed to be necessary for development and to be a vital function in mammals and other animals. However, Lyamin et al. claim that in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), neonates and their mothers show almost no sleep behaviour for the first month after birth; this conclusion is based on their observation that the cetaceans keep swimming, avoid obstacles and rarely close their eyes for 24 hours a day throughout that period. Here we analyse the behaviour and eye closure of three neonate-mother pairs of bottlenose dolphins and find that, although the animals tend to open both eyes when surfacing to breathe, one or both eyes are closed during 'swim rest', an underwater sleeping behaviour that is associated with continuous activity. This observation calls into question the conclusions of Lyamin et al., who overlooked this type of sleep by analysing the animals' eye state only when they surfaced to breathe.
Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka
In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours
Walker, C H
Organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides and organomercury fungicides are all neurotoxic and therefore have the potential to cause behavioural disturbances in birds. A number of studies have described behavioural effects caused to captive birds by neurotoxic pesticides, but it is very difficult to measure such effects in the field, which is a serous limitation given their potential to cause adverse effects at the population level. The mode of action, and the neurotoxic and behavioural effects of these compounds are briefly reviewed before considering evidence for their effects in the laboratory and field. Behavioural effects may cause adverse changes at the population level either directly or indirectly. Direct effects upon avian populations may be due to disturbances of reproduction, feeding, or avoidance of predation. Indirect effects on predators may be the consequence of direct action upon the prey population leading to either (1) reduction of numbers of the prey population, or (2) selective predation by the predator upon the most contaminated individuals within the prey population. Attention is given to the historic evidence for neurotoxic and behavioural effects of persistent organochlorine insecticides, raising the question of retrospective analysis of existing data for this once important and intensively studied class of compounds. Less persistent pesticides currently in use may also have neurotoxic effects upon birds in the field. Sometimes, as with some OPs, their effects may outlast the persistence of their residues, and the ecotoxicity and persistence of some may be affected by interactions with other environmental chemicals. The development of new mechanistic biomarker assays could improve understanding of behavioural effects and possible associated effects at the population level caused by such compounds in the field.
Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Piquero, Alex R
There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. What is the prevalence of the co-occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates. The prevalence of animal cruelty was 0.59%, accounting for 1732 young people, and of firesetting 1.56% (n = 4553). The co-occurrence of these behaviours was rare: 0.17% (n = 498), but approximately twice that expected by chance based on the prevalence of each behaviour individually (0.59% × 1.56% = 0.009%). Rates were higher in males, older youths and Whites. Among historical variables, criminal history was the strongest correlate, followed by mental health problems, then familial and individual indicators. As only male gender and being a victim of sexual abuse increased the odds of evidencing both animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour substantially above the odds for each behaviour individually, there thus appears to be little that is unique to the co-occurrence. Our findings suggest that sensitivity to the occurrence of each is the best way forward, with rather familiar assessments and interventions offering some hope of reducing these seriously damaging behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Michael S Minett
Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.
Ryberg, Jesper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk
Whether it is morally acceptable to offer rehabilitation by CNS-intervention to criminals as a condition for early release constitutes an important neuroethical question. Bomann-Larsen has recently suggested that such interventions are unacceptable if the offered treatment is not narrowly targeted...... at the behaviour for which the criminal is convicted. In this article it is argued that Bomann-Larsen's analysis of the morality of offers does not provide a solid base for this conclusion and that, even if the analysis is assumed to be correct, it still does not follow that voluntary rehabilitation schemes...... targeting behaviour beyond the act for which a criminal is convicted are inappropriate....
Gudnadottir, Elin Rut; Jensen, Alaina K.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung
This paper describes a machine learning approach to detect sexually predatory behaviour in the massively multiplayer online game for children, MovieStarPlanet. The goal of this work is to take a chat log as an input and outputs its label as either the predatory category or the non......-predatory category. From the raw in-game chat logs provided by MovieStarPlanet, we ﬁrst prepared three sub datasets via extensive preprocessing. Then, two machine learning algorithms, naive Bayes and Decision Tree, were employed to model the predatory behaviour using diﬀerent feature sets. Our evaluation has...
Fountas, Spyros; Blaskmore, Benjamin Simon; Vougioukas, Stavros
decomposed into primitive actions, whichin turn are converted into the tractor directrix. Examples of this method are given forexploring an unknown area and ploughing a field. Results of a simulation of the exploreoperation are presented.Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, route planning, autonomous tractor......A new method is described that can be used to decompose human controlled agriculturaloperations into robotic behaviours embedded in an autonomous tractor. Four main levels havebeen identified: Operation, Task, Optimisation/Behaviour and Primitive actions where eachlevel is subsumed by the level...
Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær
Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...
Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh
Our history of learning has an impact on the way we organise lessons today. We still have many teacher-led lectures with considerable focus on the content to be learnt. This paper discusses how we can give the initiative back to the students. The paper search for didactic elements in the teaching...... across educations: 1) active students, 2) involvement of practice, 3) creation of visible relevance and sense, and 4) the teacher as a didactic element per se. The findings underline the need for teachers to focus on their own enterprising behaviour in class as well as the enterprising behaviour...
Brooker, Rohan M; Feeney, William E; White, James R; Manassa, Rachel P; Johansen, Jacob L; Dixson, Danielle L
The impacts of human activities on the natural world are becoming increasingly apparent, with rapid development and exploitation occurring at the expense of habitat quality and biodiversity. Declines are especially concerning in the oceans, which hold intrinsic value due to their biological uniqueness as well as their substantial sociological and economic importance. Here, we review the literature and investigate whether incorporation of knowledge from the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology may improve the effectiveness of conservation initiatives in marine systems. In particular, we consider (1) how knowledge of larval behaviour and ecology may be used to inform the design of marine protected areas, (2) how protecting species that hold specific ecological niches may be of particular importance for maximizing the preservation of biodiversity, (3) how current harvesting techniques may be inadvertently skewing the behavioural phenotypes of stock populations and whether changes to current practices may lessen this skew and reinforce population persistence, and (4) how understanding the behavioural and physiological responses of species to a changing environment may provide essential insights into areas of particular vulnerability for prioritized conservation attention. The complex nature of conservation programmes inherently results in interdisciplinary responses, and the incorporation of knowledge from the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology may increase our ability to stem the loss of biodiversity in marine environments.
C. A. Cull
Full Text Available In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of interictal behaviour disturbance in children with epilepsy, and the management of such problems, are considered. The search for a direct relationship between epilepsy related variables and behaviour disorders is far from conclusive. While such a relationship may exist with respect to ictal behaviour problems, this line of investigation is of limited value in respect of its implications for the management of interictal problems. In the latter case it is proposed that organic factors may be considered to be a risk factor. In addition, the negative psychosocial sequelae of a diagnosis of epilepsy can result in conditions which are likely to foster the development of inappropriate behaviours. Learning theory would further suggest that environmental contingencies have a role to play in the shaping and maintenance of such behaviours. This broader framework for conceptualising the development and maintenance of interictal behaviour disorders has clear management implications. Clinical examples of the successful application of this approach to the management of persistent behavioural problems in two young people with epilepsy are presented.
van Dijk Jitse P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.
Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran
Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.
Sturm, Virginia E.; Seeley, William W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Rosen, Howard J.
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia identified overeating or increased sweet food preference in 80 (78%), new or increased alcohol or drug use in 27 (26%), and hypersexuality in 17 (17%). For each patient, a primary reward-seeking score of 0–3 was created with 1 point given for each target behaviour (increased seeking of food, drugs, or sex). Voxel-based morphometry performed in 91 patients with available imaging revealed that right ventral putamen and pallidum atrophy correlated with higher reward-seeking scores. Each of the reward-related behaviours involved partially overlapping right hemisphere reward circuit regions including putamen, globus pallidus, insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that in some patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, low volume of subcortical reward-related structures is associated with increased pursuit of primary rewards, which may be a product of increased thalamocortical feedback. PMID:24740987
Ali, Afia; Hall, Ian; Blickwedel, Jessica; Hassiotis, Angela
Outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour is a significant part of problem behaviours presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Prevalence rates of up to 50% have been reported in the literature, depending on the population sampled. Such behaviours often run a long-term course and are a major cause of social exclusion. This is an update of a previously published systematic review (see Hassiotis 2004; Hassiotis 2008). To evaluate the efficacy of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural interventions on outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities when compared to standard intervention or wait-list controls. In April 2014 we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and eight other databases. We also searched two trials registers, checked reference lists, and handsearched relevant journals to identify any additional trials. We included studies if more than four participants (children or adults) were allocated by random or quasi-random methods to either intervention, standard treatment, or wait-list control groups. Two review authors independently identified studies and extracted and assessed the quality of the data. We deemed six studies (309 participants), based on adult populations with intellectual disabilities, suitable for inclusion in the current version of this review. These studies examined a range of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches: anger management (three studies (n = 235); one individual therapy and two group-based); relaxation (one study; n = 12), mindfulness based on meditation (one study; n = 34), problem solving and assertiveness training (one study; n = 28). We were unable to include any studies using behavioural interventions. There were no studies of children.Only one study reported moderate quality of evidence for outcomes of interest as assessed by the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We judged the evidence for the remaining studies to be of
Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe
The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance...... is measured as number of visits to a particular store than wehen store cjoice behaviour is measured as the percentage of budget spend at a particular store. Our results indicate that researchers should carefully consider the measurement of store choice behaviour when carrying out empirical research invlving...
Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'). This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on reducing obesity
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'. This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence
Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.
In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern ...
Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion
A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…
hypothalamus there are certain areas which integrate stimuli from numerous nene tracts; the hypothalamus reacts by releasing its hormones and these condition the same or other areas to react to psychological stimuli which cause the manifestation of mating behaviour (Harris 1959; Sawyer. 1959; Grey & Phoenix 1963).
Nov 27, 2015 ... Harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides (TlCl and TlBr) have been studied using the new van der Waals three-body force shell model (VTSM), which incorporates the effects of the van der Waals interaction along with long-range Coulomb interactions, three-body interactions and short-range ...
Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel
We evaluate the claim that individuals exhibit a magnitude effect in their discounting behaviour, where higher discount rates are inferred from choices made with lower principals, all else being equal. If the magnitude effect is quantitatively significant, it is not appropriate to use one discount...
compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it has also been observed in other clinical syndromes including schizophrenia. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical presentation of hoarding behaviour in schizophrenia among Xhosa patients. Method. The sample consisted of 102 patients, recruited as.
mirror. Tape recordings of verbal commentaries, as well as cinematographic and still photo- graphic records, were found to be useful aids to analysis. The fish .... The black eye- stripe, red eye-spot, and opercular patches also appear. These are discussed more fully in the description of courtship and parental behaviour.
manager, a good manager may not be a good leader. But the two can be found in one person; where this is so, the organization (in which the leader-manager is operating) reigns supreme. The Three Management Approaches To Organizational Behaviour. Whether production in an organization is tangible or intangible, the ...
The paper discusses the findings of a study which sought insight into engineer's information seeking and communication behaviour at Kenya Railways Corporation. The study employed a user centered approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which were system centered. It focused broadly and ...
Despite this possibility, there are surprisingly few definitive studies that examine the effects of socioeconomic status on HIV risk and prevention behaviours among youth in South Africa. Using household survey data collected in 2001, this study investigates how socioeconomic disadvantage has influenced the sexual ...
Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more
determine the risky sexual behaviours among the visually and hearing impaired pupils, determine ... Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, UNZA, Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia. Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org ... to all known risk factors for HIV infection. For example, adolescents and adults with disability.
Maruster, L.; Faber, N.R.; Wang, J.
As the on-line services and Web-based information systems proliferate in many domains of activities, it has become increasingly important to model user behaviour and personalization, so that these systems will appropriately address user characteristics. In this sense, particular topics are addressed
Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E.
The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss
Interface behaviour and electrical performance of ruthenium Schottky contact on 4H-SiC after argon annealing. KINNOCK V MUNTHALI1,2,∗, CHRIS THERON1, F DANIE AURET1 and SERGIO M M COELHO1. 1Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. 2Department of Mathematics, Science ...
Objective of the study: To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. Method: The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each
Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.
Electrical activity of the dog's hippocampus was recorded in (a) an operant behaviour situation, and (b) a field situation by a radio-telemetering system. The dominant frequency of the theta rhythm shifted consistently from 4–5 c/sec to 6–7 c/sec when a dog (a) withdrew from a pedal after being
Adeoye (1980) and Oniye (2006), include play, simulation and games among others. Play: According to Adeoye (1980), play is the child's natural and best way to learn. Adeoye maintained that the idea of getting pupils and children to acquire new/more desirable behaviour through play was popularized by Montessori in ...
... continued breast feeding for 2 years as against 0.0% at baseline survey. Conclusion: In this study, drama was shown to be an effective method of behaviour change communication to increase infant and young child feeding practices among mothers. Key words: intervention, drama, breastfeeding, complementary feeding ...
Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera : Apidae) on Daniellia oliveri, Delonix regia, Hymenocardia acida and Terminalia mantaly flowers in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon). F-N Tchuenguem Fohouo, SF Tope, AP Mbianda, J Messi, D Bruckner ...
The persistence or cessation of sexual behaviour after abrupt testosterone withdrawal i.e. castration depends among other things on the age of the animal at castration. The aim of this work is to ascertain the effect of early orchidectomy and subsequent hormone replacement to 24 weeks of age on restoration of sexual ...
The model of Positive Environmental Action. (Figure 1) has four important features. First, it emphasises positive environmental action instead of environmental behaviour as a goal. Second, the model focuses on the integration of multiple student learning areas and their combined effect on positive environmental action.
Dahle, Anne Elisabeth; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Andreassen, Anne Brit
A small group of children and young adolescent with dyslexia has severely impaired reading skills despite prolonged special education. These are the students in focus. In dyslexia, problem behaviour, internalised as well as externalised, has previously been reported, so also for the participants with dyslexia in this study. The aim of the present…
The study examined the joint and relative effects of emotional intelligence and communication skill on conflict management behaviour of labour leaders in Lagos State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted using questionnaire as the main instrument. 180 respondents (labour leaders) were purposively ...
Claudio Ricardo Lazzari
Full Text Available Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.
This thesis describes an approach to model development based on the concept of iterative model improvement, which is a process where by trial and error different hypotheses of catchment behaviour are progressively tested, and the understanding of the system proceeds through a combined process of
The most common types of these forms of violent behaviours experienced were slaps (84.5%), unwanted touch of breast and backside (22.7%) and being belittled (63.2%). Approximately 8% of the study group haave had sex and 25% of sexually active respondents claimed that their first sexual encounter occurred in ...
crossing. Significant gender differences in distractive activities were observed among users of ... Gender Aspects of Street Crossing Behaviour among Undergraduates: An Observational Study. 3. Theoretical .... of land totaling 11,861 hectares lying approximately within Longitudes 40 30'E and 40 34'E and Latitude 70 29'N ...
Change is the only constant phenomenon. An organisation that fails to recognise the inevitability of change is doomed to fail. However, workers' behaviour towards change has become a serious issue facing today's management in complex and ever evolving organisations. Employees' resistance to change has been ...
Maeckelberghe, Els; McKee, Martin
The overwhelming message of the EPH-conference is that taking health inequalities seriously demands a portfolio of approaches. Regulating health behaviour is neither a choice for liberalism (self- regulation) nor for paternalism (interventionism). Regulation and fiscal policies are essential but
Based on this result, it was recommended that head teachers should adopt appropriate managerial behaviour to boost teachers' morale towards high task performance. KEYWORDS: Managerial behavior, Leadership, communication, decision-making and teachers' task performance. INTRODUCTION. Education is a sure ...
A Survey of 202 final year students (114 females, 88 males) of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma was conducted to determine gender-specific differences in their knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sources of knowledge and sexual behaviours. Random sampling procedures were used to select students from ...
TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE TSESSEBE (DAMALISCUS LUNA TUS. LUNA TUS BURCHELL) IN THE KRUGER NATIONAL PARK. S.C.J. JOUBERT. Kruger National Park, P.O. Skukuza. ABSTRACT. This paper forms part of a general bio-ecological study of the tsessebe (DamDliscus IUIIQlus IullQlus. Burchell) ...
TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR IN CERTAIN HORNED UNGULATES, WITH SPECIAL. REFERENCE TO THE EXAMPLES OF THOMSON'S AND GRANT'S GAZELLES. FRITZ R. WALTHER. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A & M University,. College Station, Texas 77843. ABSTRACT. An attempt has been ...
Feb 1, 2003 ... For this reason the nature of care seeking is not homogenous depending on cognitive and non-cognitive factors that call for a contextual analysis of care seeking behaviour. Context may ... seeking model will involve recognition of symptoms, perceived nature of illness, followed initially by appropriate home ...
electrodes containing high amount of Pt towards methanol oxidation is due to the bifunctional behaviour of the electrodes. ... hydroxyl radicals and active chlorine species to destroy refractory organic waste into carbon dioxide [9-12]. But, the oxidation of organic compounds occurs in the domain of water decomposition, i.e. ...
Composites of CuFe2O4 and BaTiO3 were prepared using a conventional ceramic double sintering process. The presence of both phases was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The variations of resistivity and thermo emf with temperature in these samples were studied. All the composites showed -type behaviour.
Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of Aloe Secundiflora Extract in Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel in Soft Water Media. ... The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under static and dynamic conditions using a Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE). The impedance and ...
Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne
The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.
2Department of Ceramic Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210 702, Republic of Korea. MS received 15 March 2015; accepted 17 August 2015. Abstract. The electrochemical supercapacitor behaviour of bare, washed and nitric acid functionalized candle flame carbon soots were reported.
Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.
Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…
Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A
Lancaster, Sue; Di Milia, Lee; Cameron, Roslyn
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the supervisor behaviours that employees found to be helpful and unhelpful in facilitating training transfer. The study aims to provide rich qualitative data from the employee's perspective. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilises a cross-sectional design. A case study and a qualitative…
We refine the function-behaviour-structure framework for design introduced by John Gero in order to deal with complexity. We do this by connecting the frameworks for the desing of two models, one the refinement of the other. The result is a refined framework for the design of an object on two levels
The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable ...
Males did not have permanent harems, since groups of females were fluid in composition and highly mobile. Groups ... Aspects of territorial behaviour, such as courtship displays, defence of territory (by chasing out trespassing males), and advertising of territory by means of linked urination-defaecation displays on discrete ...
Busula, Annette O.
Host-seeking is an important component of mosquito vectorial capacity on which the success of the other behavioural determinants depends. Blood-seeking mosquitoes are mainly guided by chemical cues released by their blood hosts. This thesis describes results of a study that determined the effect
Different subgroups of cells that regu- late the morning and evening components of activity are ... tion of time from circadian pacemaker to target organs? At least two decades ago, a model of circadian clocks .... type behaviour (with robust morning and evening bouts of activity) by expressing UAS-per in the CRY+ cells.
Full Text Available Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre (SST) was investigated and compared with that under a conventional dual tyre (CDT). Contact areas and contact pressures over a range of loading conditions were measured and compared. Two approaches were...
J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)
markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood
The instruments for data collection were aggressive behaviour scale (ABAS) and Psychological Assessment Scale (PAQ). The instruments were validated by experts in Educational Psychology, Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained for ABAS while reliability coefficients of 0.74, 0.85 ...
Zandstra, E.H.; Miyapuram, K.P.; Tobler, P.N.; Pammi, C.; Srinivasan, N.
People make many decisions throughout the day involving finances, food and health. Many of these decisions involve considering alternatives that will occur at some point in the future. Behavioural economics is a field that studies how people make these decisions (Camerer, 1999)[[Au: The reference
Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Malaysia – a mini systematic review. ... Criteria for eligibility include studies conducted in Malaysia and published from the year 2008 to 2015, and written in English language. A total of fifteen articles were identified ...
Jul 20, 2017 ... ... of the scientific community. I argue in this paper that a systematic study of social behavioural epistemology is likely to boost the progress of science by addressingseveral prevalent biases and other problems in scientific communication and by facilitating appropriate acceptance/rejection of novel concepts.
Les quatre vecteurs différaient significativement des cinq sur huit du point de vue du comportement de pénétration du stylet étudié. .... Measured response variables of leafhopper probing behaviour evaluated on maize were (i) total number of probes, (ii) waveform duration per probe, (iii) waveform duration per baseline, ...
We study the asymptotic behaviour of resistance scaling and ﬂuctuation of resistance that give rise to ﬂicker noise in an -simplex lattice. We propose a simple method to calculate the resistance scaling and give a closed-form formula to calculate the exponent, , associated with resistance scaling, for any . Using current ...
In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...
Ricci, M.; Tocho, E.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Castro, A. M.
Roč. 64, č. 2 (2011), s. 235-241 ISSN 1721-8861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Diuraphis noxia * Russian wheat aphid * sexual reproduction * temperature * photoperiod * altitude Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011
Nov 6, 1980 ... drohyrax dorsalis) Biologia Gabonica I. RUDNAI, J. 1984. Activity cycle and space utilization in a captive. Dendrohyrax arboreus group. S. Afr. J. Zool. 19: 124-128. SALE, J.B. 1 965a. Some aspects of the behaviour and ecology of the rock hyraces (Genera Procavia and Heterohyrax) Ph.D. thesis, Ju·.
Jan 16, 2017 ... Keywords: aggression, backtest, candidate genes, pigs, serotonin, SNP association. *Corresponding author: Bo Zhou (e-mail: email@example.com). Introduction. Behavioural characteristics of some pig breeds are different. For example, Danish Landrace pigs have been shown to be more aggressive than ...
Bacterial adhesion, haemocompatibility and corrosion behaviour of TiZrN coating were examined in order to evaluate the coating's compatibility for ideal implant. Results revealed that TiZrN coatings exhibited less bacterial attachment against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, negligible platelets ...
Cultural Environment, Health Seeking Behaviour and Survival Chances of under five Children in South East Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review. Journal Home ... It was found that neonatal, infant, and child mortality rate is the highest among children of mothers aged less than 20 years.
van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.
Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In
other zoologists and the detailed findings are being published separately. The work is ... Aspects investigated include behaviour in the field under natural conditions, light reactions and swimming speeds in the ... Experiments were carried out in the field in glass tubes immersed in estuaries under natural light conditions, and ...
Ghana Journal of Development Studies Volume 4, Number 1, May 2007. KNOWLEDGE, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS. HIV/AIDS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NORTHERN GHANA. Felix Longi. Center for Interdisciplinary Research,. University for Development Studies, Ghana. ABSTRACT. Between ...
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
brittle to ductile transition temperature, mean stress and environment on fatigue behaviour of same γ-TiAl alloys are discussed. Keywords. Nickel aluminides; titanium aluminides; low cycle fatigue; micro- alloying. 1. Introduction. Ordered intermetallic alloys have undergone extensive development over the past two decades.
Life on earth has evolved under continuously changing day and night cycles caused by the rotation of the earth around its axis. Although day and night follow each other in a cycle of fixed length, their duration changes with season, latitude and altitude. A question then arises as to how organisms adjust their behavioural and ...
The negative behaviour of teenage students in Nigeria in recent times has become a source of concern to parents and society. The general observation is that children are often left entirely to the care of maids as parents have abandoned their primary assignment of proper child upbringing in pursuit of material and ...
Meriläinen, Matti; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Käyhkö, Katinka
This study focuses on the degree, nature and consequences of bullying or inappropriate behaviour among faculty personnel (n = 303) in a Finnish university. A total of 114 (38%) faculty members answered the email questionnaire. According to the results, 15% of the respondents had experienced bullying; in addition, 45% had experienced inappropriate…
The presence of two phases was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The temperature variation of dielectric constant, ', dielectric loss, tan , d.c. conductivity, a.c. conductivity, elastic and anelastic behaviour of ferrite–ferroelectric composites were studied in the temperature range 30–350°C. The a.c. conductivity measurements ...
Among other things the implications of the findings in this study include the fact that deviant behaviours can be mitigated by optimal engagement of the adolescent time. Introducing counseling programmes, leisure time activities, sporting activities in our schools and community can be an effective mechanism to accomplish ...
The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the ...
Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.
1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and
Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R
The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the
Chitiyo, Morgan; Wheeler, John J.
School phobia affects about 5% of the school-age population. If left untreated, school phobia can have devastating long-term consequences in children challenged by this condition. Various treatment approaches have been used to explore this complex behavioural response, major among them being the psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, pharmacological and…
In this paper, we examine the attitudes and behaviour of some women and gender activists to the social change that may result from gender equality when, and if it is achieved. Since it started in the 19th century, gender activism has always focused on the issue of equality between the genders, to the extent that the society ...
Feb 10, 2017 ... 1. Introduction. Organisms maximize their fitness by synchronizing their physiology and behaviour with the abiotic and biotic features of their environments. This is achieved by endogenous cir- cadian clocks, which in interaction with prevailing light, food and social environments, determine temporal patterns.
Lee, Nikki; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle
Lee, N. C., Krabbendam, L., Dekker, S., Boschloo, A., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2011, June). Adolescent discounting behaviour: influences on academic achievement. Poster presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference of the International Mind, Brain, and Education Society, San Diego, United
Tools of analyses were descriptive statistics of mean and percentages and probit model, The result of the Probit model on the variables influencing borrowing behaviour of male-headed households indicated that the coefficients of household size, farm size, purpose of borrowing, loan duration, interest rate and collateral ...
Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...
Feb 4, 2015 ... The collective behaviour of groups of social animals has been an active topic of study across many disciplines, and has a long history of modelling. Classical models have been successful in capturing the large-scale patterns formed by animal aggregations, but fare less well in accounting for details, ...
A study of behaviour of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linn. 1758) in a dry season water pool was conducted at the Kali hippo pool (Km 19.5 from Oli Base Camp)Kainji Lake National Park, using both scan sampling and focal point techniques. The pattern of daily use of the sample hippo pool by the ...
Jun 3, 2015 ... As such, related research topics have become increasingly prominent in recent years. In this review on the mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles, the main investigation approaches are first briefly presented. The main results in terms of elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms are then reported and ...
Buls, Toms; Anderskouv, Kresten; Friend, Patrick L.
. This article provides an extensive view of the erosional and depositional behaviour of calcareous nannofossil ooze based on experimental work using annular flumes. A fundamental observation of this study is the significant decrease of nannofossil ooze mobility with decreasing bed porosity. Erosion...
Farmers' discontinuance decision behaviours of technologies is attributed to certain reasons and it is governed by certain socio-economic variables. This study identified and analyzed the rate of discontinuance of yam minisett technology, reasons for discontinuance and the socio-economic determinants of the ...
Observations on the behaviour of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris were made during daytime and night-time sampling on an unexploited rocky reef habitat in Baía dos Tigres, southern Angola. The relative numerical abundance sampled was 0.47 octopus person–1 h–1 during the day and 5.33 octopus person–1 h–1 ...
Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.
In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…
The development of any nation is a function of Organizational Behaviour (OB) which is, in turn, influenced by the impact of individuals, groups and structure within the organization. OB encompasses the study of what people do and how they do it in an organization touching on employment related issues - job analysis with ...
Subjects. Standard 5, 6 and 7 pupils at both sexes. Outcome measures. Demographic and social characteristics, maturational and sexual behavioural milestones, and the prevalence of contraceptive use, pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Results. Data from 1 072 girls and 903 boys were anatysed.
The paper examines the Mother's Health-seeking Behaviour and Childhood. Mortality in South East ... within the family in the right quantity (Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services,. 1992). The unfortunate .... foods, such as meat, chicken, and eggs, from infants for cultural reasons because of the. Ugwueje, E. A.: ...
More Gwari and Hausa respondents claimed that they did not use any family planning method during their first sexual relationship than Yoruba and Igbo respondents. There is need for reproductive health programmes to intensify efforts towards improving adolescents\\' attitudes to risky sexual behaviours and motivate them ...
The literature on climate change adaptation in developing countries focused on the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of adaptation decisions to climate change. Decision behavioural among others is thought to influence the path of innovation uptake related to climate change. We need to
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca
"Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…
biology—ecological, behavioural, genetic, molecular, cellular, neuroendocrine and physiological, includ- ing studies of phenomena with obvious adaptive value such as photoperiodism, hibernation, and migration. Integrative studies on a few focal organisms provided us with a better understanding of molecular, cellular.
The movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in the estuarine headwater region of the Kowie River, South Africa, was investigated using passive acoustic telemetry. Ten adult fish were tagged and released in four discrete pools below a weir that precluded possible upriver migration. Their residency ...
TiZrN coating was deposited on 316L stainless steel (SS) by the reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique. Cubic phase of TiZrN with uniform surface morphology was observed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Bacterial adhesion, haemocompatibility and corrosion behaviour of TiZrN coating were ...
In this thesis the dynamical behaviour of the atoms in a fluid or gas is studied with time dependent correlation functions as the density-density correlation function and the velocity autocorrelation function. Theoretically it is not possible to calculate these correlation functions exactly for the
R can be obtained from partial derivatives of surface equation. ( , ). z f x y. = and yx ..... layered symmetric shells, cross ply shell shows less deflection values than the angle ply one. Table 4. .... to conclude regarding the relative behaviour of antisymmetric and symmetric stacking orders for delaminated shells. 4.1.3 Effect of ...
www.insites-consulting.com/infographic- millennials-social-media [Downloaded: 2016-06-. 16]. WARD, S. 1974. Consumer socialization. Journal of Consumer Research 1(2):1-14. WIESE, BS & FREUND, AM. 2011. Parents as role models: Parental behaviour affects adolescents' plans for work involvement. International.
containing low quantity of Pt, the surface of the coating is essentially composed of IrO2 and methanol oxidation occurs in the domain of water ... electrodes containing high amount of Pt towards methanol oxidation is due to the bifunctional behaviour of the electrodes. ..... fuel cell application and for the wastewater treatment.
A cross-sectional study was carried out among 572 pupils from six primary schools selected randomly from private and government schools in Uyo. Pupils with a normal IQ were selected using a systematic sampling method. The Rutter behavioural scale for teachers (B2) was completed by their teachers, and that for parents ...
Barker, Fiona; de Lusignan, Simon; Cooke, Deborah
The consequences of poorly managed hearing loss can be ameliorated with hearing aid use but rates of use are sub-optimal. The impact of audiologist behaviour on subsequent use, particularly over the long term, is unknown. This study aimed to describe the role of the behaviour change wheel in developing an intervention to introduce and embed particular clinical behaviours into adult hearing aid fitting consultations, within the framework of the Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions. Following the steps of the behaviour change wheel, audiologist behaviours that might influence hearing aid use were identified based on a systematic review and qualitative work with audiologists. An analysis, using the COM-B model, identified potential drivers of the target behaviours. This was used to select intervention functions and behaviour change techniques likely to influence behaviour in this context. The target behaviours were as follows: giving information about the benefits of hearing aid use and the negative consequences of non-use, providing prompts for use and engaging in collaborative behavioural planning for use. The behavioural analysis suggested that psychological capability, opportunity and motivation were potential drivers of these behaviours. The intervention functions of education, coercion, training, environmental restructuring, modelling and enablement were selected and combined to develop a single complex intervention that seeks to address the target behaviours. This is the first study to use the behaviour change wheel to develop a complex intervention in the context of audiology. The theory-based development of the intervention will facilitate evaluation of its feasibility and effectiveness.
Kor, Kenny; Mullan, Barbara Ann
This study investigated the sleep hygiene behaviour of university students within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB [Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.]), and examined the predictive validity of additional variables including perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition. A total of 257 undergraduate students from an Australian university were administered two online questionnaires at two time points. At time 1, participants completed the TPB questionnaire and the Go/NoGo task as a measure of response inhibition. A week later at time 2, participants completed a questionnaire measuring the performance of sleep hygiene behaviours. Multiple and hierarchical regression analyses showed that the TPB model significantly predicted intention and behaviour. Although intention and perceived behavioural control were statistically significant in predicting behaviour, past behaviour and response inhibition accounted for more variance when added to the TPB model. Subjective norm was found to be the strongest predictor of intention implying the importance of normative influences in sleep hygiene behaviours. Response inhibition was the strongest predictor of behaviour, reinforcing the argument that the performance of health protective behaviours requires self-regulatory ability. Therefore, interventions should be targeted at enhancing self-regulatory capacity.
Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.
Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour—electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls’ choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. - Highlights: • We surveyed 323 fourth and fifth grade Girl Scouts and parents about energy behaviours. • We asked about electricity, transportation and food behaviour and its correlates. • Girls’ electricity behaviours are linked to intrapersonal and interpersonal influences. • Girls’ transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. • Girls’ food behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled
Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN
Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mullan, Barbara; Allom, Vanessa; Brogan, Amy; Kothe, Emily; Todd, Jemma
The aim of this study was to explore whether two aspects of self-regulation (impulsivity and temporal orientation) could reduce the intention–behaviour gap for two dietary behaviours: fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat consumption. Australian undergraduate students (N = 154) completed questionnaires (the Barratt impulsiveness scale and the consideration of future consequences scale) and intention measures, and 1 week later behaviour was measured using the Block rapid food screener. After controlling for demographics, intention was associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, but the self-regulation measures did not further improve the variance accounted for. For saturated fat, gender was associated with consumption, such that males tended to consume more saturated fat. Intention was significantly associated with consumption, and impulsivity further improved the model such that those who were more impulsive tended to consume more saturated fat. These findings suggest that health protective and health risk behaviours, such as those investigated in the current study, may have different determinants.
J. Noeverman (Jan)
textabstractOrganisations develop and implement performance measurement and performance evaluation systems to motivate employees to take actions that -in the end- improve organisational (financial) performance. But do these systems really influence employee behaviour as intended? This thesis shows
Introduction. This article proposes a model of culture and its relationship to information behaviour based on two empirical studies of Taiwanese aborigines' information behaviour. Method. The research approach is ethnographic and the material was collected through observations, conversations, questionnaires, interviews and relevant documents. In 2003-2004, the author lived with two Taiwan aboriginal tribes, the Yami tribe and the Tsau tribe and conducted forty-two theme-based interviews. An...
Baig, Fahd; Lawton, Michael A.; Rolinski, Michal; Ruffmann, Claudio; Klein, Johannes C.; Nithi, Kannan; Okai, David; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hu, Michele T.M.
Introduction Changes in personality have been described in Parkinson’s disease (PD), with suggestion that those with established disease tend to be risk averse with a disinclination for addictive behaviour. However, little is known about the earliest and prodromal stages. Personality and its relationship with addictive behaviours can help answer important questions about the mechanisms underlying PD and addiction. Methods 941 population-ascertained PD subjects within 3.5 years of dia...
A wealth of support has shown higher levels of state and trait impulsivity can be found among those individuals prone to developing problematic eating behaviors and obesity. Thus, upon commencing the investigations in this thesis, it was hypothesized that impulsivity is an individual difference implicated in overeating behaviour.\\ud \\ud Increasing information indicates that there are divisions within impulsivity subtypes. Prior to this thesis, studies in the field of eating behaviour had not ...
Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline
Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.
Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890
Briscoe, Ciara; Aboud, Frances
Behaviour change communication is vital for increasing the enactment of particular behaviours known to promote health and growth. The techniques used to change behaviour are important for determining how successful the intervention is. In order to integrate findings from different interventions, we need to define and organize the techniques previously used and connect them to effectiveness data. This paper reviews 24 interventions and programs implemented to change four health behaviours related to child health in developing countries: the use of bed nets, hand washing, face washing and complementary feeding. The techniques employed are organized under six categories: information, performance, problem solving, social support, materials, and media. The most successful interventions use three or even four categories of techniques, engaging participants at the behavioural, social, sensory, and cognitive levels. We discuss the link between techniques and theories. We propose that program development would be more systematic if researchers considered a menu of technique categories appropriate for the targeted behaviour and audience when designing their studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.
Søvik, Eirik; Even, Naïla; Radford, Catherine W; Barron, Andrew B
In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward) when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.
Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli
The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario.
Differences among individuals are necessary for natural selection to occur. The extent and expression of these differences can limit the power of selection to cause evolutionary change. When individuals inconsistently express a trait, selection is less powerful. Labile traits such as behaviour are most likely to be inconsistent in their expression, because of the substantial role of environmental factors in their immediate expression. Previous work has focused on the consistency, or repeatability, of individual behaviour across different environments or within a single environment; little is known about how repeatability within an environment changes across environments. To address this issue, we examined the consistency of antipredator behaviour in juvenile garter snakes in different thermal environments. A group of 59 laboratory-born garter snakes Thamnophis ordinoides, was repeatedly assayed for sprint speed, distance crawled, and number of reversals performed during flight and antipredator display. Antipredator display showed very little variation and could not be analysed. Each individual was tested three times at each of three temperatures chosen to span the range of temperatures that snakes encounter in the field (15, 22.5, 30 degrees C). Temperature had substantial effects on the average expression of each behaviour; snakes crawled more slowly, for shorter distances, and performed fewer reversals at cooler temperatures. Individuals showed significant consistency in their behaviour, and this consistency of expression was not affected by temperature. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
-related genes. Behavioural characteristics of some pig breeds are different. To compare the genetic differences between breeds, backtest and aggressive behaviour assessments, and genotyped using Sequenom iPLEX ...
The evaluation of immediate behavioural outcomes of the syndromic case management approach for the treatement of patients with sexually transmitted infections at PHC centres of South Africa: Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and sexual behaviour.
Using the Falaye Adolescent' Sexual Behaviour Inventory (FASBI), adolescents' sexual behaviour was assessed using the proximate determinants of attitude towards pubertal changes and reproductive biology, adolescent source of sex information, adolescent sexual activities (intercourse and contraception) and attitude ...
Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio
Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive proce...
van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Cronin, Katherine A.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D.
Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their geneti...
Cometic industry is a lucrative business that progressively attracts more attentions from marketing research. The highly competitive environment in the cosmetic industry makes it a valuable area to study consumer behaviours. Brand switching behaviour is one of the most important consumer behaviours which is significant for the management to sustain competitive advantages in the global market. In this research, the relationship between brand switching behaviour and factors influencing such beh...
Moraru Andreea Daniela
Due to the multiple interdependences and parameters emerged from the coalescence among consumer behaviour, economic and human behaviour in general, there is a vast interest in the study of consumer behaviour, and not just in the field of economic sciences. As a direct consequence of the social and economic development of modern societies, the study of consumer behaviour has undergone an important development process and is permanently enriched with new contributions. At present, consumer beha...
Behavioural inhibition to the unfamiliar is a temperamental style of reacting to novel situations, peers or adults with fear, wariness and avoidance. Childhood behavioural inhibition is a well-established risk factor for anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia. However, there is presently a gap in the literature with regard to possible links between behavioural inhibition and children’s social development, including their social cognition. There is evidence that behavioural inhibition p...
Behavioural Gerontology is concerned with the interaction of the aging individual and their environment. One aspect of behavioural gerontology has focussed on the use of behaviourist methods to improve the functioning and quality of life of individuals with dementia. Positive reinforcement techniques have shown to have an effect on dementia related behavioural excesses (wandering, disruptive vocalisations), behavioural deficits (incontinence, self feeding) and mood changes (depression). One o...
Burke, Valerie; Mori, Trevor A; Giangiulio, Nella; Gillam, Helen F; Beilin, Lawrie J; Houghton, Stephen; Cutt, Hayley E; Mansour, Jacqueline; Wilson, Amy
Health-related behaviours affecting diet, weight control and physical activity are important for long-term cardiovascular health but behaviour change is difficult to initiate and even more difficult to maintain. We have developed a health promotion program, in which social support has a key role, to encourage a prudent diet, weight control and physical activity. Behaviour change is based on evaluating initial behaviour, weighing up costs and benefits, assessing barriers to change and goal-setting. We first evaluated the program in couples beginning to live together, a group chosen because of the risk of weight gain and decreased physical activity after marriage, readiness to change behaviour at that time in the life course and the opportunity to use partner's support in achieving behaviour change. In an initial short-term study with 39 couples, intake of fat and take-away foods decreased and consumption of fruit, vegetables and reduced fat foods increased. Physical activity increased and there was a 6% fall in blood cholesterol. Further evaluation in 137 couples included assessment after 12 months. A decrease in fat intake and increase in physical activity and fitness seen at the end of the program persisted 1 year later. Lower cholesterol and a trend to lower weight gain and lower blood pressure were also maintained after 12 months. We have modified the program aiming for weight loss, improved dietary habits and increased physical activity in overweight treated hypertensives, supported by their partners. Decreased intake of energy, total and saturated fat, and weight loss seen at the end of the 16 week program was significantly greater in the intervention group than with usual care. Blood pressure fell in the program group at the end of intervention and, in men, withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs was significantly associated with the intervention. Weight loss and a decrease in waist circumference were maintained in the program group up to 16 months after
Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel
In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food
Fran H Regan
Full Text Available The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram.Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males. Instantaneous (scan and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001. Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001. Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001. However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001. Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001 and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies.All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys.
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…
Objectives. To ascertain whether the notion of a syndrome of adolescent risk behaviour (which includes problem drinking, marijuana use, having experienced sexual intercourse, 'general deviance' and cigarette smoking) is valid for this setting; and to investigate whether suicidal behaviour and behaviour that exposes the ...
Almond, Louise; Canter, David
This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…
Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.
This PhD thesis discusses how European law could improve privacy protection in the area of behavioural targeting. Behavioural targeting, also referred to as online profiling, involves monitoring people’s online behaviour, and using the collected information to show people individually targeted
Swales, Michaela A.
Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is a cognitive behavioural treatment initially developed for adult women with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of chronic suicidal behaviour (Linehan, 1993a; 1993b). DBT was the first treatment for BPD to demonstrate its efficacy in a randomised controlled trial (Linehan ,…
Klabunde, A.; Zinn, S.; Willekens, F.J.; Leuchter, M.
We propose to extend demographic multistate models by adding a behavioural element: behavioural rules explain intentions and thus transitions. Our framework is inspired by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We exemplify our approach with a model of migration from Senegal to France. Model parameters
Objective: Various studies have reported increased prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric patients. Psychiatric patients are under-evaluated in terms of their HIV risk behaviour. The study sought to establish the prevalence of HIV risk behaviour and determine the association between risk behaviour and demographic ...
... explored Shoebill foraging behaviour across habitat types and seasons through behavioural observations in the Bangweulu Wetlands, Zambia. Behaviours associated with foraging were standing, walking and flying. Shoebills spent 85% of their time engaged in low-energy activities, mainly by standing still and preening.
Esturgo-Deu, M. Estrella; Sala-Roca, Josefina
This study analyses the relation between disruptive behaviours and the emotional abilities of children in primary education. To do this, disruptive behaviour and emotional abilities were evaluated in 1422 pupils aged between 6 and 12 years of age at 11 education centres using EQIjv. No relation was found between disruptive behaviours and age, but…
Mol, de R.M.; Bleumer, E.J.B.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.
The daily behaviour of dairy cows reflects the health and well-being status. The behaviour can be monitored with accelerometers (used as a tilt sensor to measure the angle) in a wireless sensor network. The angle of a leg reflects the lying or standing behaviour, the angle of the head might reflect
The national picture of school behaviour is complex, but numerous indicators suggest that it can be better in a great number of schools and contexts. Every leader should consciously aspire to the very best behaviour possible in their schools as a matter of priority. There are a number of strategies that schools with outstanding behaviour use…
Full Text Available Behavioural Gerontology is concerned with the interaction of the aging individual and their environment. One aspect of behavioural gerontology has focussed on the use of behaviourist methods to improve the functioning and quality of life of individuals with dementia. Positive reinforcement techniques have shown to have an effect on dementia related behavioural excesses (wandering, disruptive vocalisations, behavioural deficits (incontinence, self feeding and mood changes (depression. One of the major concerns of using reinforcement techniques in the case of dementia is maintenance of the behavioural changes with the continual implementation of the intervention. Research has indicated that individuals with dementia meet behavioural extinction criteria at an advanced rate in comparison with individuals without dementia. Thus for a behavioural change to be successfully maintained it requires diligence on the part of the caregiver and/or nursing home staff. In the case of dementia care centres and nursing homes, when using behavioural interventions to modify the behavioural symptoms of dementia, there needs to be a considerable overlap between Behavioural Gerontology and Organisational Behavioural Management to ensure the successful maintenance of behavioural change.
Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; Jenssen, G.D.; Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders
Tunnel safety, especially in case of fires, has received a lot of attention due to heavy disasters. However, much attention is paid to controlling and extinguishing the fire, and not so much on the role of human behaviour. In this case, human behaviour includes the behaviour of road users, rail
The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of ...
biological clocks, evolution and speciation, courtship behaviours, population dynamics, modeling in behavioural ecology, evolution of mutualism, chemical ecology and plant behavioural ecology. Interested individuals may apply on plain paper giving biodata (with date of birth) and full contact address including email and ...
Millei, Zsuzsa; Petersen, Eva Bendix
When educators consider "student behaviour", they usually think about "problem behaviour" such as disruption or defiance. This limited and limiting view of "student behaviour" not only fails to acknowledge children as educational actors in a wider sense, but also narrowly positions educators as either in control or…
Lier, Hester van
Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to
Kelly, Michael P; Barker, Mary
To demonstrate that six common errors made in attempts to change behaviour have prevented the implementation of the scientific evidence base derived from psychology and sociology; to suggest a new approach which incorporates recent developments in the behavioural sciences. The role of health behaviours in the origin of the current epidemic of non-communicable disease is observed to have driven attempts to change behaviour. It is noted that most efforts to change health behaviours have had limited success. This paper suggests that in policy-making, discussions about behaviour change are subject to six common errors and that these errors have made the business of health-related behaviour change much more difficult than it needs to be. Overview of policy and practice attempts to change health-related behaviour. The reasons why knowledge and learning about behaviour have made so little progress in alcohol, dietary and physical inactivity-related disease prevention are considered, and an alternative way of thinking about the behaviours involved is suggested. This model harnesses recent developments in the behavioural sciences. It is important to understand the conditions preceding behaviour psychologically and sociologically and to combine psychological ideas about the automatic and reflective systems with sociological ideas about social practice. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Ryan, Martin
Undergraduate study behaviours, principally lecture attendance and additional study, are shown to predict better student achievement by many researchers. Despite this, there is not much evidence on the determinants of these behaviours. This is the first paper to explore the determinants of study behaviours across multiple subject areas; and is the…
Aksu, Ali; Gucer, Halil; Orcan, Asli
This research examines supervisional deviant behaviours depending on the primary school teachers' view in Izmir, Turkey. Organizational or workplace deviant behaviours have been studied in number of studies and these types of behaviours are determined. It is obvious that solving the problems of orgaizational deviance contribute to meet…
The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various
guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP) into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 years of age completed the questionnaire. Results suggested that beliefs about the outcomes of behaviour ...
Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne
Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…
Field studies (Lake Kariba shoreline and Salisbury) and experiments with a captive colony of 12 species of Rhodesian rodents were undertaken for a period of three years. Comparative behavioural data are presented here with special reference to den and nest behaviour, group and territorial behaviour, reproductive and ...
Lier, H. van
Brain activity and behaviour are related to each other. Psychoactive drugs can influence both brain activity and behaviour. In order to be able to understand the interplay between brain activity as measured by the electroencephalogram (EEG), behaviour, and psychoactive drugs, it is not sufficient to
The debate on the environment and heredity as the causes of human behaviour is not restricted to the psychologists alone. Prior to the developments in psychology, which is a relatively new science of mental process and behaviour, the creative writers have had interest in the sources of the behaviour of their fictive ...
Pieper, M.J.C.; Dalen-Kok, A.H. van; Francke, A.L.; Steen, J.T. van der; Scherder, E.J.A.; Husebo, B.S.; Achterberg, W.P.
Background: Both pain and challenging behaviour are highly prevalent in dementia, and multiple studies show that some of these behaviours may be correlated. Pain, especially in non-communicative patients, can cause challenging behaviour, and treatment of pain therefore may have an effect on
Background: Occupation may affect health seeking behaviour. Very little is known about this behaviour in labourers. This study assessed the health-seeking behaviour of the female manual labourers to fever in Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 300 female manual ...
Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip
Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…