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Sample records for behaviour neglecting ocean

  1. Marine animal behaviour: neglecting ocean currents can lead us up the wrong track

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, P.; Georges, J.-Y.; Lenoble, A.; Ferraroli, S.; Fossette, S; Le Maho, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Tracks of marine animals in the wild, now increasingly acquired by electronic tagging of individuals, are of prime interest not only to identify habitats and high-risk areas, but also to gain detailed information about the behaviour of these animals. Using recent satellite-derived current estimates and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) tracking data, we demonstrate that oceanic currents, usually neglected when analysing tracking data, can substantially distort the observed trajectorie...

  2. Functional Assessment of Region-Specific Neglect: Are There Differential Behavioural Consequences of Peripersonal versus Extrapersonal Neglect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. W. Nijboer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-specific neglect, using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS. Methods. 118 stroke patients were screened within the first two weeks after admission to the rehabilitation center for inpatient rehabilitation. Results. Patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions had significantly higher total score on the CBS compared to nonneglect patients. Total scores for patients with extrapersonal neglect were comparable to non-neglect patients. ADL impairments were found across activities (e.g., looking towards one side, forgetting body parts, colliding for both patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions. Patients with extrapersonal neglect were only impaired on the item on way finding. Conclusions. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, where needed, to adjust the rehabilitation program accordingly. As the CBS is not developed to typically measure ADL in extrapersonal neglect, it would be of importance to add other (instrumental activities that heavily rely on processing information in farther space.

  3. Functional assessment of region-specific neglect: are there differential behavioural consequences of peripersonal versus extrapersonal neglect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Ten Brink, A.F.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal) have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-

  4. Comparison of the Behavioural Inattention Test and the Catherine Bergego Scale in assessment of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkainen-Markkula, R; Tarkka, I M; Pitkanen, K; Sivenius, J; Hamalainen, H

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to correlate visual and behavioural assessments of hemispatial neglect caused by cerebrovascular accident. We assessed 17 consecutive right-hemisphere stroke patients with hemispatial neglect: the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) was used to evaluate neglect in spontaneous behaviour and the conventional subtests of the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT C) were used to assess visual neglect. The proportional severity of both visual and behavioural neglect was calculated in each individual patient. Dissociations were found between mild neglect in visual screening tasks and moderate or severe neglect in behaviour, although in most patients, neglect was equally evident in both tests. Only the line bisection subtest from the BIT correlated significantly with the CBS, yet both tests showed good internal consistency. The line bisection test and several items of the CBS were especially sensitive in detecting the combination of visual field deficit and hemispatial neglect. In conclusion, we propose that visual fields should always be assessed in patients with neglect because neglect may be exacerbated by a visual field deficit and this can cause prolonged functional disability in everyday life situations. Specific rehabilitation methods might also be needed in neglect with or without hemianopia.

  5. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  6. Association between Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect and Health Risk Behaviours among Young Adolescents: Results from the National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a relationship between physical abuse and later manifestation of health risk behaviours such as: smoking and early pregnancy. Physical neglect increased the chances for drug abuse, drink-driving, having early sex, having more sexual partners.

  7. Association between Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect and Health Risk Behaviours among Young Adolescents: Results from the National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Marija Raleva; Izabela Filov; Dinesh Sethi; Tamara Jordanova; Kadri HazdiHamza; Fimka Tozija; Vesna Damchevska Ilievska

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One of the main objectives of this paper is to analyze the associations between physical abuse and neglect and health risk behaviours among young adolescents in the country. METHOD: A representative sample consisted of total 1277 students (58.6% female and 41.6%), aged 18 and above. About 664 of them are in last (fourth) year of secondary school and 613 respondents are first- and second-year university students. The data were obtained using Adverse Childhood Experiences Study ...

  8. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  9. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-12-01

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds' vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds' co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  10. Lateralized loss of biting attack-patterned reflexes following induction of contralateral sensory neglect in the cat: a possible role for the striatum in centrally elicited aggressive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, R; Halliday, R

    1982-06-17

    A syndrome of "contralateral sensory neglect' was induced by hypothalamic knife cuts in 6 of 10 cats in which quiet biting attack behaviour could be elicited by lateral hypothalamic stimulation. The contralateral sensory neglect in the 6 affected cats was accompanied by a loss on the "neglected' side of the body of the patterned reflexes which mediate positioning of the head to bite and the jaw-opening component of biting. As a result, when these cats were stimulated in the lateral hypothalamus, although they continued to approach and even make tactile contact with the rat, they generally failed to bite it. Analysis of the histological and behavioural data suggested that damage to the nigrostriatal and/or striato/pallidonigral fibre systems provided the likely basis for both the induction of the contralateral sensory neglect and the lateralized patterned reflex loss. It was suggested, with respect to these specific patterned reflex components of the attack, that an important contribution may be made by the striatum.

  11. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pistevos, Jennifer C. A.; Ivan Nagelkerken; Tullio Rossi; Maxime Olmos; Connell, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and ...

  12. Motor neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Laplane, D.; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection...

  13. Oceanic migration behaviour of tropical Pacific eels from Vanuatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabetsberger, R; Økland, F; Aarestrup, K;

    2013-01-01

    Information on oceanic migrations and spawning areas of tropical Pacific freshwater eels (genus Anguilla) is very limited. Lake Letas and its single outflowing river, Mbe Solomul on Gaua Island, Vanuatu, were surveyed for large migrating individuals. Twenty-four Anguilla marmorata (87 to 142 cm...

  14. Ocean acidification impacts on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential bring sperm swimming behaviour near its tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Peter; Binet, Monique T; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Doyle, Christopher J; Williamson, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    Broadcast spawning marine invertebrates are susceptible to environmental stressors such as climate change, as their reproduction depends on the successful meeting and fertilization of gametes in the water column. Under near-future scenarios of ocean acidification, the swimming behaviour of marine invertebrate sperm is altered. We tested whether this was due to changes in sperm mitochondrial activity by investigating the effects of ocean acidification on sperm metabolism and swimming behaviour in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. We used a fluorescent molecular probe (JC-1) and flow cytometry to visualize mitochondrial activity (measured as change in mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP). Sperm MMP was significantly reduced in ΔpH -0.3 (35% reduction) and ΔpH -0.5 (48% reduction) treatments, whereas sperm swimming behaviour was less sensitive with only slight changes (up to 11% decrease) observed overall. There was significant inter-individual variability in responses of sperm swimming behaviour and MMP to acidified seawater. We suggest it is likely that sperm exposed to these changes in pH are close to their tipping point in terms of physiological tolerance to acidity. Importantly, substantial inter-individual variation in responses of sperm swimming to ocean acidification may increase the scope for selection of resilient phenotypes, which, if heritable, could provide a basis for adaptation to future ocean acidification.

  15. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C. A.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs. PMID:26559327

  16. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs. PMID:26559327

  17. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D

    2015-11-12

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs.

  18. Behavioural impairment in reef fishes caused by ocean acidification at CO2 seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Philip L.; Cheal, Alistair J.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Rummer, Jodie L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2014-06-01

    Experiments have shown that the behaviour of reef fishes can be seriously affected by projected future carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the ocean. However, whether fish can acclimate to elevated CO2 over the longer term, and the consequences of altered behaviour on the structure of fish communities, are unknown. We used marine CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea as a natural laboratory to test these questions. Here we show that juvenile reef fishes at CO2 seeps exhibit behavioural abnormalities similar to those seen in laboratory experiments. Fish from CO2 seeps were attracted to predator odour, did not distinguish between odours of different habitats, and exhibited bolder behaviour than fish from control reefs. High CO2 did not, however, have any effect on metabolic rate or aerobic performance. Contrary to expectations, fish diversity and community structure differed little between CO2 seeps and nearby control reefs. Differences in abundances of some fishes could be driven by the different coral community at CO2 seeps rather than by the direct effects of high CO2. Our results suggest that recruitment of juvenile fish from outside the seeps, along with fewer predators within the seeps, is currently sufficient to offset any negative effects of high CO2 within the seeps. However, continuous exposure does not reduce the effect of high CO2 on behaviour in natural reef habitat, and this could be a serious problem for fish communities in the future when ocean acidification becomes widespread as a result of continued uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  19. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies.

  20. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs to 51 Northwest (NW Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008. Using General Additive Models (GAMs we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding. Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods.

  1. Neglect and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role ... are mentally ill, or who have alcohol, substance abuse or other mental health ... Persons with physical or mental disabilities who depend on others for ...

  2. Investigating behaviour and population dynamics of striped marlin (Kajikia audax from the southwest Pacific Ocean with satellite tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Sippel

    Full Text Available Behaviour and distribution of striped marlin within the southwest Pacific Ocean were investigated using electronic tagging data collected from 2005-2008. A continuous-time correlated random-walk Kalman filter was used to integrate double-tagging data exhibiting variable error structures into movement trajectories composed of regular time-steps. This state-space trajectory integration approach improved longitude and latitude error distributions by 38.5 km and 22.2 km respectively. Using these trajectories as inputs, a behavioural classification model was developed to infer when, and where, 'transiting' and 'area-restricted' (ARB pseudo-behavioural states occurred. ARB tended to occur at shallower depths (108 ± 49 m than did transiting behaviours (127 ± 57 m. A 16 day post-release period of diminished ARB activity suggests that patterns of behaviour were affected by the capture and/or tagging events, implying that tagged animals may exhibit atypical behaviour upon release. The striped marlin in this study dove deeper and spent greater time at ≥ 200 m depth than those in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. As marlin reached tropical latitudes (20-21 °S they consistently reversed directions, increased swimming speed and shifted to transiting behaviour. Reversals in the tropics also coincided with increases in swimming depth, including increased time ≥ 250 m. Our research provides enhanced understanding of the behavioural ecology of striped marlin. This has implications for the effectiveness of spatially explicit population models and we demonstrate the need to consider geographic variation when standardizing CPUE by depth, and provide data to inform natural and recreational fishing mortality parameters.

  3. Distribution, ecology and polymorphic behaviour of the genus Oxycephalus (Hyperiidea, Oxycephalidae) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.

    There have been many controversies on the number of valid, species under Oxycephalus including the studies made from Indian waters. This is the first comprehensive account on the distribution of this genus covering the entire Indian Ocean through...

  4. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Unexpected wave group behaviour challenges use of Stokes theory for ocean waves

    CERN Document Server

    Banner, Michael; Fedele, Francesco; Allis, Michael; Benetazzo, Alvise; Dias, Frederic; Peirson, William

    2013-01-01

    A key result of Stokes' water wave theory is that deep-water gravity waves of larger amplitude travel faster than those of lower amplitude at fixed wavelength. Recent observations, however, suggest that maximally-steep breaking wave crests actually travel significantly slower than expected, calling into question the predictions of Stokes' theory and its impact on diverse areas of ocean-wave physics ranging from rogue wave generation to the role of wave breaking in climate modelling. Here we report our discovery of a generic wave-crest slowdown mechanism that occurs within unsteady, propagating wave groups, which modifies the phasing of individual wave crests. Our numerical and observational studies show that just prior to reaching its maximum height, each wave crest slows down significantly. It either breaks at this reduced speed, or accelerates forward unbroken. Implications for oceanic and other natural wave systems are described.

  6. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  7. Zooplankton distribution and behaviour in the Southern Ocean from surveys with a towed Optical Plankton Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, R. T.; Bathmann, U.; Dubischar, C.; Read, J. F.; Lucas, M.

    Spatial distributions of zooplankton with lengths between about 500 μm and 8 mm are described from surveys in the vicinity of the Antarctic Polar Front in austral summer 1995/6 using an Optical Plankton Counter mounted on a towed profiling SeaSoar. The distributions, split into several logarithmically spaced size classes, are compared and related to the physical environment south of the Polar Front in the Antarctic Zone and within the Polar Frontal Zone. They also are compared with phytoplankton distributions determined from surface chlorophyll data. Both phytoplankton and zooplankton carbon densities are low in the Antarctic Zone (2-3 g C m -2), but rise to larger values in the Polar Frontal Zone (5-7 g C m -2 for zooplankton and a maximum of 6 g C m -2 at fronts for phytoplankton). Calibration of OPC derived zooplankton biovolume to carbon was achieved by comparison with dry weights from multinet samples deployed in conjunction with CTD casts. The net data showed that over 98% of zooplankton counts were copepods. Diel behaviour also was examined. Only larger copepods (over 2 mm long) displayed significant diel migration, and then only 10-20% of the standing stock; the majority remained deeper than about 100 m and their distribution patterns suggest that they may be retained aside from the main frontal jets by ageostrophic circulations associated with the front. Copepods shorter than 2 mm rose from depth over the month-long survey to become concentrated in the surface layer (the top 70-100 m). The largest copepods that could be resolved, with lengths of about 4-8 mm (possibly Rhincalanus gigas), displayed unexpected behaviour in tending to migrate to the top 0-10 m by day, descending to 40-50 m each night.

  8. Prose reading in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  9. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones....

  10. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  11. Seahorses under a changing ocean: the impact of warming and acidification on the behaviour and physiology of a poor-swimming bony-armoured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Santos, Catarina; Aurélio, Maria L; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Paula, José Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Seahorses are currently facing great challenges in the wild, including habitat degradation and overexploitation, and how they will endure additional stress from rapid climate change has yet to be determined. Unlike most fishes, the poor swimming skills of seahorses, along with the ecological and biological constraints of their unique lifestyle, place great weight on their physiological ability to cope with climate changes. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (ΔpH = -0.5 units) on the physiological and behavioural ecology of adult temperate seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus. Adult seahorses were found to be relatively well prepared to face future changes in ocean temperature, but not the combined effect of warming and acidification. Seahorse metabolism increased normally with warming, and behavioural and feeding responses were not significantly affected. However, during hypercapnia the seahorses exhibited signs of lethargy (i.e. reduced activity levels) combined with a reduction of feeding and ventilation rates. Nonetheless, metabolic rates were not significantly affected. Future ocean changes, particularly ocean acidification, may further threaten seahorse conservation, turning these charismatic fishes into important flagship species for global climate change issues. PMID:27293694

  12. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  13. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  14. Reaching the Neglected 95%

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors' comments focus on why American psychologists have become overreliant on American samples, and they provide alternative suggestions for broadening the scope…

  15. Behavioural Effects of Tourism on Oceanic Common Dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: The Effects of Markov Analysis Variations and Current Tour Operator Compliance with Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M.; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D. M.; Orams, Mark B.; Stockin, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  16. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D M; Orams, Mark B; Stockin, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  17. Neglected vaginal pessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal pessary may be opted for management of uterine prolapse as a safe option, but to avoid complications regular follow-up is a must. We are reporting a case of neglected vaginal pessary in a 72 year old female which got embedded in vaginal mucosa and required excision of vaginal band for its removal. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 291-292

  18. Behaviour of oceanic 137Cs following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for four years simulated numerically by a regional ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Misumi, K.; Tateda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition.We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the regional ocean for four years by numerical model, such as a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model. Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for four years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly release was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. Decrease rate were quite small after 2013. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1010 Bq/day by the end of March 2015. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. There is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011. Observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. We reconstructed the history of 137Cs activity in this early period by considering atmospheric deposition, river input, rain water runoff from the 1F NPP site. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. The

  19. Electromagnetic induction in the oceans and the anomalous behaviour of coastal C-responses for periods up to 20 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.V.; Olsen, Nils; Avdeev, D.B.;

    2002-01-01

    [1] Electromagnetic transfer functions at coastal sites are known to be strongly distorted by the conductivity of the seawater. This ocean effect is generally considered to be small for periods greater than a few days. We revise this statement by detailed and systematic model studies in the period....../bathymetry and map of sediment thicknesses. The simulations were performed for spatial resolutions of the surface shell of 5degrees x 5degrees,2degrees x 2degrees and 1degrees x 1degrees, respectively, and for two, continental and oceanic, underlying 1-D conductivity models. The inducing source is described...... that peculiarities in the observed coastal responses in the period range from 1 to 20 days can be explained to a large amount by induction in the oceans. We show that correction for the ocean effect results in responses that are much better interpretable by 1-D conductivity models compared to the uncorrected...

  20. NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES IN BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Polman, Katja; Allen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs) points to the need for a biosocial perspective. Although 'diseases' are widely understood as biological phenomena, 'neglect' is inherently social. Social priorities, social relations and social behaviour profoundly influence the design, implementation and evaluation of control programmes. Yet, these dimensions of neglect are, themselves, neglected. Instead, emphasis is being placed on preventive chemotherapy - a technical, context-free approach which relies almost entirely on the mass distribution of drugs, at regular intervals, to populations living in endemic areas. This article reflects on the processes which have enabled an NTD 'brand' identity to emerge, and it comments on a disquieting disengagement with some of the more critical insights about the consequences of mass drug administration. Building on the work of biosocial scholars studying other aspects of health and disease, a more adequate, evidence-based approach is delineated. Developing such an approach is an iterative process, requiring on-going engagement with both biological and social insights as they emerge. Considerable theoretical, methodological and political challenges lie ahead, but it is essential they are overcome, if the sustainable control of NTDs is to become a reality. PMID:27428062

  1. Neglected hangman fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman′s fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients.

  2. A note on neglect defaulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Margolis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the notion of ``neglect defaulting,'' which labels the propensity to neglect possibilities which are ordinarily sensibly neglected. In familiar contexts we are well-tuned to recognize when to override the default. But outside the range of familiar experience --- here in the artificial context of puzzles --- these ordinarily benign defaults can make it difficult for even sophisticated subjects, such as readers of this note, to avoid responses which on reflection will be seen as obviously mistaken. A detail of particular importance is that, although subjects are easily prompted to take one step in the direction of reaching a sound response, the tendency to then neglect to consider that another step may be needed is remarkably strong. In each of the five examples the needed but usually neglected second step is quite trivial. Concluding remarks point to consequences for larger questions outside the range of familiar experience, in politics and other contexts out of scale with everyday experience.

  3. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  4. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  5. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  6. Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter κ (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter κ featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median κ-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The κ-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, κ was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with κ-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low κ-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

  7. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  8. Albert's test: a neglected test of perceptual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, K J; McSherry, D; Stout, R W

    1986-02-22

    Disorders of perception are thought to be important in predicting the outcome from stroke, but their exact significance is difficult to define because of lack of standardised terminology and diagnostic methods. In a prospective study of 205 unselected stroke patients, perceptual neglect, assessed by a standardised test battery, was found in 49% of patients with lesions of the non-dominant hemisphere and in 25% with lesions of the dominant hemisphere. One component of the test battery was a simple test described by Albert in which patients cross out lines ruled in a standard fashion on a sheet of paper; this was easy to administer and related closely to neglect diagnosed by the test battery as a whole. Results of Albert's test were a significant predictor of both mortality and functional activity six months after the stroke, independent of the influence of other clinical, neurological, laboratory, and social factors. The full test battery for perceptual neglect was of no significant additional predictive value.

  9. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  10. Cognitive Processes Associated with Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. Method: A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N = 34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N…

  11. Does trust influence consumer behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Dierks, Leef H.

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of diverse food scandals this article investigates the role of trust as a determinant of consumer behaviour in Germany. As empirical analyses indicate, the impact of trust on consumer behaviour in a quotidian and presumably safe setting is to be neglected. In the environment of a food scandal, however, trust proves to be a crucial element with regard to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour under uncertainty. Moreover, it is analysed whether different valu...

  12. Intermediate crust (IC); its construction at continent edges, distinctive epeirogenic behaviour and identification as sedimentary basins within continents: new light on pre-oceanic plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. The plate tectonics paradigm currently posits that the Earth has only two kinds of crust - continental and oceanic - and that the former may be stretched to form sedimentary basins or the latter may be modified by arc or collision until it looks continental. But global analysis of the dynamics of actual plate motions for the past 150 Ma indicates [1 - 3] that continental tectospheres must be immensely thicker and rheologically stiffer than previously thought; almost certainly too thick to be stretched with the forces available. In the extreme case of cratons, these tectospheric keels evidently extend to 600 km or more [2, 3]. This thick-plate behaviour is attributable, not to cooling but to a petrological 'stiffening' effect, associated with a loss of water-weakening of the mineral crystals, which also applies to the hitherto supposedly mobile LVZ below MORs [4, 5]. The corresponding thick-plate version of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) process [6 - 8], replacing the divergent mantle flow model, has a deep, narrow wall-accreting axial crack which not only provides the seismic anisotropy beneath the flanks but also brings two outstanding additional benefits:- (i) why, at medium to fast spreading rates, MOR axes become straight and orthogonally segmented [6], (ii) not being driven by body forces, it can achieve the sudden jumps of axis, spreading-rate and direction widely present in the ocean-floor record. Furthermore, as we will illustrate, the crack walls push themselves apart at depth by a thermodynamic mechanism, so the plates are not being pulled apart. So the presence of this process at a continental edge would not imply the application of extensional force to the margin. Intermediate Crust (IC). In seeking to resolve the paradox that superficially extensional structures are often seen at margins we will first consider how this MOR process would be affected by the heavy concurrent sedimentation to be expected when splitting a mature continent. I reason

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Nutritional Neglect in a Developing Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. (author)

  14. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed...

  15. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended. PMID:27455922

  16. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended.

  17. Childhood neglect: The role of the paediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Dubowitz, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Neglect is a pervasive form of child maltreatment. Health care practitioners often struggle with deciding when an action (or lack of action) by a caregiver constitutes inadequate care and is neglectful. The present article discusses the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of neglect. In addition, assessment using objective markers, such as harm and potential harm, in the identification of neglect is described, and unique factors that impact assessing and addressing issues of neglect in the clinical setting are discussed. Practical strategies for intervening in cases of neglect are discussed, including how to engage families in which there are concerns for neglect, mandated reporting, working collaboratively with children's services, ongoing monitoring of families, and how health care professionals can effectively engage in neglect prevention and advocacy.

  18. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  19. Visual neglect in posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Katia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, there is a progressive impairment of high-level visual functions and parietal damage, which might predict the occurrence of visual neglect. However, neglect may pass undetected if not assessed with specific tests, and might therefore be underestimated in PCA. In this prospective study, we aimed at establishing the side, the frequency and the severity of visual neglect, visual extinction, and primary visual field defects in an unselected sample of PCA patients. Methods Twenty-four right-handed PCA patients underwent a standardized battery of neglect tests. Visual fields were examined clinically by the confrontation method. Results Sixteen of the 24 patients (66% had signs of visual neglect on at least one test, and fourteen (58% also had visual extinction or hemianopia. Five patients (21% had neither neglect nor visual field defects. As expected, left-sided neglect was more severe than right-sided neglect. However, right-sided neglect resulted more frequently in this population (29% than in previous studies on focal brain lesions. Conclusion When assessed with specific visuospatial tests, visual neglect is frequent in patients with PCA. Diagnosis of neglect is important because of its negative impact on daily activities. Clinicians should consider the routine use of neglect tests to screen patients with high-level visual deficits. The relatively high frequency of right-sided neglect in neurodegenerative patients supports the hypothesis that bilateral brain damage is necessary for right-sided neglect signs to occur, perhaps because of the presence in the right hemisphere of crucial structures whose damage contributes to neglect.

  20. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  1. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children.

  2. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 1: the ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures to cure, manage or control. Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms. In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control.

  3. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome. PMID:26465369

  4. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio QUEIROZ-TELLES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYChromoblastomycosis (CMB is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome.

  5. Towards a Definition of Serendipity in Information Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…

  6. The Medial Habenula: Still Neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humsini eViswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habenula is a small, bilateral brain structure located at the dorsal end of the diencephalon. This structure sends projections to the dopaminergic striatum and receives inputs from the limbic forebrain, making the habenula a unique modulator of cross-talk between these brain regions. Despite strong interest in the habenula during the seventies and eighties (1-5, interest waned due to lack of a clearly identifiable functional role. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka’s seminal work on the lateral habenula as a predictor of negative reward in monkeys, the habenula has undergone a resurgence of scientific interest. Matsumoto and Hikosaka demonstrated an increase in habenular neuron firing when monkeys did not receive an expected juice reward (6. Studies have shown that increased habenular activity inactivates dopaminergic cells in the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus (RMTg through GABAergic mechanisms (7, 8. Additional studies link habenular activity to the regulation of serotonin and norepinephrine, suggesting the habenula modulates multiple brain systems (9, 10. These discoveries ushered in a series of new studies that have refocused attention on the lateral habenula and the importance of this small brain structure (7, 11-14. Recently, Geisler and Trimble reviewed this renewed interest in: The Lateral Habenula: No Longer Neglected (15. While the lateral habenula (LHb has been extensively studied, the anatomically and histochemically distinct medial habenula (MHb remains largely understudied. This short review argues that the MHb is functionally important and should be studied more aggressively.

  7. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  8. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  9. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  10. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, M.E. van; Fasotti, L.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic st

  11. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Hemi-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n=52, mean age=66 years. To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25mins, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude=1mA. Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioural Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change=28%, SD=18 was still evident 1month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study.

  12. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo di Procolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs, through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%, and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%, especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%, which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%, followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%, foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%. Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%, whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location

  13. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  14. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  15. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  16. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Reidpath Daniel; Pokhrel Subhash; Allotey Pascale

    2011-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. BACKGROUND: The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. METHOD: A case study was ca...

  17. Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — There are more than 6,500 identified rare and neglected diseases, yet only about 250 treatments are available for these conditions. The limited numbers of patients...

  18. Representational neglect in "invisible" drawing from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristinzio, Chiara; Bourlon, Clémence; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario; Chokron, Sylvie; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    We describe the case of a patient with right hemisphere damage and left unilateral neglect. The patient was asked to draw from memory common objects, either with or without visual feedback. In the conditions without visual feedback the patient was either blindfolded or he made "invisible" drawings using a pen with the cap on, the drawings being recorded with carbon paper underneath. Results showed more neglect without than with visual feedback, contrary to previously published cases. This patient's pattern of performance may result from the contribution of a deficit of spatial working memory. Alternatively or in addition, the patient, who was undergoing cognitive rehabilitation for neglect, may have found easier to compensate for his neglect with visual feedback, which allowed him to visually explore the left part of his drawings. PMID:18718580

  19. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards About NAPSA Overview History Success Code of Ethics Strategic Plan Board & Staff Committees Partners NAPSRC National ... money inappropriately Dressing inappropriately for existing weather conditions * Definitions of self-neglect vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. ...

  20. Observational measure of elder self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris, Madelyn; Conrad, Kendon J; Ridings, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve measurement of elder self-neglect by testing the psychometric properties of the Elder Self-Neglect Assessment (ESNA). Social workers, case managers, and adult protective services providers from 13 Illinois agencies completed a 77-item assessment for 215 clients suffering from self neglect. Analyses used Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches to test for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation, resulting in a 62-item assessment. The ESNA met Rasch fit criteria with good internal consistency, item reliability, and construct validity. A 25-item short form also met Rasch criteria. A hierarchy of items associated with severity of abuse was produced by frequency of occurrence. ESNA indicators of self-neglect align into two broad categories: behavioral characteristics and environmental factors, which must be accounted for in a comprehensive evaluation. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  1. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE data...

  2. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  3. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-05-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent-based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus-response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  4. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasotti, Luciano; van Kessel, Marlies

    2013-11-15

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation, or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalization to (un)trained tasks, lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuospatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into four categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich, and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of treatments.

  5. Novel insights in the rehabilitation of neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano eFasotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalisation to (untrained tasks lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuo-spatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into 4 categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of

  6. Medical implications of elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2005-05-01

    Recognition of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Each year, millions of elderly persons suffer as the result of abuse and neglect. Their quality of life is severely jeopardized in the form of worsened functional status and progressive dependency, poorly rated self-health, feelings of helplessness, and from the vicious cycle of social isolation, stress and further psychologic decline. Other medical implications of abuse and neglect include higher health systems use in the form of frequent ER visits, higher hospitalization, and higher nursing home placement; most importantly, it is an independent predictor for higher mortality. Physicians are well situated in detecting and reporting suspected cases and taking care of the frail elders who are victims of abuse and neglect, but there are barriers on the individual level, and there is a broader need for system change. Through education, training, and reinforcement, there are strategies to get health care professionals more involved and provide effective management protocols and guidelines for us to advocate for our patients in the current epidemic of elder abuse and neglect. PMID:15804552

  7. Neuroimaging of eye position reveals spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Conjugate eye deviation describes the tonic horizontal deviation of the eyes in acute stroke patients. Here we investigate whether measuring patients' eye-in-head position in clinical magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans obtained at admission shows a specific relationship to spatial neglect. We investigated 124 continuously admitted subjects with unilateral, first-ever left- or right-sided stroke. To control for the possibility that the degree of eye deviation is related to lesion size rather than spatial neglect, overall lesion volume was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Horizontal eye-in-head deviation on clinical brain scans appeared to be associated with spatial neglect rather than with brain damage per se. In contrast to the subject groups without the disorder, the patients with spatial neglect showed an eye-in-head position that was significantly deviated towards the ipsilesional right. Evaluation of eye-in-head position on clinical scans thus may be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing spatial neglect, particularly in the very early period of the stroke.

  8. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  9. Error Types and Error Positions in Neglect Dyslexia: Comparative Analyses in Neglect Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to…

  10. Neglect Dyslexia: Frequency, Association with Other Hemispatial Neglects, and Lesion Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Seo, Sang Won; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Na, Duk L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere injury often omit or misread words on the left side of a page or the beginning letters of single words (neglect dyslexia). Our study involving a large sample of acute right hemisphere stroke investigated (1) the frequency of neglect dyslexia (ND), (2) the association between ND and other types of contralesional…

  11. Behaviour of domestic violence in the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry; Ester Lilian Cabrera; Madeleines Arguelles Pérez

    2013-01-01

    The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abus...

  12. BEHAVIOURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUPPLY CHAIN RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra-Codruta Popescu (Bîzoi); Cristian-Gabriel Bîzoi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has focused largely on the field of supply chain risk management. Numerous risks occur within supply chain management. Until lately, behavioural risks (implying large amount of losses) have been neglected and considered not relevant. In this paper we provide an analysis of the importance of including behavioural research in logistics and supply chain risk management, what has been written so far and potential future research directions. Until now, literature on logistics and supply...

  13. Identifying and Evaluating Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Kissal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse and neglect have been put into agenda because of the increasing number of elderly people, changing family and socio-cultural structure, worsening of the economic conditions in recent years. Abuse and neglect has been considered as a critical and complex subject which affects the health of elderly people and their life quality. Health professionals are a central position to reveal, manage and prevent elder abuse. For this reason, They need to know the reason, risk-factor and findings of abuse. Health professionals who support elder-especially nurse- shouldn’t only deal with this subject but also they should be educated about diagnosing, reporting and attempting. This paper’s aim is to inform people about the evaluation of risk-factors, findings and prevention of elder abuse and neglect and to increase sensitivity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 357-364

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  15. The Neglected Tools Can Work for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Mac M.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the resources and techniques available to the classroom teacher of English as a second or foreign language, none are more neglected than audiovisual aids. Properly planned, constructed, and employed, such aids can help not only to improve the overall language program but also to enhance the classroom atmosphere and to ensure greater student…

  16. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  17. Preserved semantic access in neglect dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Làdavas, E; Shallice, T; Zanella, M T

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preservation of semantic access in patients with severe neglect dyslexia for words and non-words. Patients were given the following tasks: (1) reading aloud letter strings (first basic reading task), (2) making semantic decisions (categorial and inferential judgements), (3) making semantic decisions and reading the letter strings immediately afterwards (semantic-reading tasks), (4) reading letter strings again (final basic reading tasks) and (5) auditory control tasks. Of 23 patients with visual neglect, four showed neglect dyslexia for both words and non-words. Of these four patients, three showed a performance in the semantic tasks that was as good as in the auditory condition. Moreover, the reading of the patients improved dramatically in the semantic-reading tasks but this was not maintained in the final basic reading task. Non-words showed only a minor improvement. Findings are discussed in terms of an interaction between the attentional system and the different reading routes, and provide evidence that semantic routes are less affected by neglect.

  18. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arrangspan>ed along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  19. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  20. U.S. Books Abroad: Neglected Ambassadors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Curtis G.

    Emphasizing that books are keys to cultural development, catalysts to trade, and unparalleled (but "neglected") ambassadors of American culture, this report points out the need for a new international outlook on the part of the entire United States publishing community. The report calls for a renewed cooperative approach, which would bring…

  1. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  2. Mirror neuron therapy for hemispatial neglect patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Xiangtong; Ye, Qian; Chen, Wenli; Ni, Jun; Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Bing; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neuron system(MNS) based therapy has been employed to treat stroke induced movement disorders. However, its potential effects on patients with hemispatial neglect were uninvestigated. The present study set out to test the therapeutic efficiency of video watching of series of hand actions/movements (protocol A) in two patients with left hemispatial neglect, due to the right hemisphere stroke. The video containing dynamic landscape of natural scene or cities but not human/animals was used as the protocol B. The “ABA” training procedure for 3 weeks therefore allows us to internally control the individual differences. Before and after each week of training, the Chinese behavioral inattention test- Hongkong version (CBIT-HK) was implemented to evaluate the hemispatial neglect severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment was implemented in two health subjects to reveal the difference of brain activation between protocol A and B. The results showed that protocol A rather than protocol B significantly improved the CBIT-HK scores at first and third weeks, respectively. Protocol A induced more bilateral activations including right inferior parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus), which belongs to MNS and is also critical region resulting to hemineglect. Conclusion: MNS activation can provide a novel therapy for hemispatial neglect patients. PMID:25727354

  3. Altered dopamine signaling in naturally occurring maternal neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Gammie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, yet the biological basis of maternal neglect is poorly understood and a rodent model is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study characterizes a population of mice (MaD1 which naturally exhibit maternal neglect (little or no care of offspring at an average rate of 17% per generation. We identified a set of risk factors that can predict future neglect of offspring, including decreased self-grooming and elevated activity. At the time of neglect, neglectful mothers swam significantly more in a forced swim test relative to nurturing mothers. Cross-fostered offspring raised by neglectful mothers in turn exhibit increased expression of risk factors for maternal neglect and decreased maternal care as adults, suggestive of possible epigenetic contributions to neglect. Unexpectedly, offspring from neglectful mothers elicited maternal neglect from cross-fostered nurturing mothers, suggesting that factors regulating neglect are not solely within the mother. To identify a neurological pathway underlying maternal neglect, we examined brain activity in neglectful and nurturing mice. c-Fos expression was significantly elevated in neglectful relative to nurturing mothers in the CNS, particularly within dopamine associated areas, such as the zona incerta (ZI, ventral tegmental area (VTA, and nucleus accumbens. Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker for dopamine production was significantly elevated in ZI and higher in VTA (although not significantly in neglectful mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase levels were unaltered, suggesting a dysregulation of dopamine activity rather than cell number. Phosphorylation of DARPP-32, a marker for dopamine D1-like receptor activation, was elevated within nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen in neglectful versus nurturing dams. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that atypical dopamine activity within the maternal brain

  4. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  5. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time establishes a causal connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  6. Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Selen Acehan; Aysegul Bilen; Mehmet Oguzhan Ay; Muge Gulen; Akkan Avci; Ferhat Icme

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the...

  7. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  8. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  9. EAN Syndrom - Elder Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    HANZELOVÁ, Jiřina

    2007-01-01

    Thesis named ,,EAN Syndrom {--} Elder Abuse and Neglect`` is divided into two parts, they are theoretical and research ones. The theoretical part defines the torture and abuse, the syndrome of the maltreatment with seniors (EAN), the domestic violence, the institutional care, ageing, etc..These definitions are followed by the legislation containing legal amendments concerning the torture and abuse. The thesis also includes the statistical data showing the situation of the senescent population...

  10. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  11. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data System Glossary Listen Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives National Adoption ... Month National Foster Care Month Publications Publications Series ...

  13. Acts of Omission: An Overview of Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives National Adoption ... Month National Foster Care Month Publications Publications Series ...

  14. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools ...

  15. Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J Hotez

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongy...

  16. 1978 Annual Review of Child Abuse and Neglect Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.

    The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…

  17. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  18. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  19. Is there a critical lesion site for unilateral spatial neglect? A meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eMolenberghs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The critical lesion site responsible for the syndrome of unilateral spatial neglect has been debated for more than a decade. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE to provide for the first time an objective quantitative index of the consistency of lesion sites across anatomical group studies of spatial neglect. The analysis revealed several distinct regions in which damage has consistently been associated with spatial neglect symptoms. Lesioned clusters were located in several cortical and subcortical regions of the right hemisphere, including the middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, caudate nucleus and posterior insula, as well as in the white matter pathway corresponding to the posterior part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Further analyses suggested that separate lesion sites are associated with impairments in different behavioural tests, such as line bisection and target cancellation. Similarly, specific subcomponents of the heterogeneous neglect syndrome, such as extinction and allocentric and personal neglect, are associated with distinct lesion sites. Future progress in delineating the neuropathological correlates of spatial neglect will depend upon the development of more refined measures of perceptual and cognitive functions than those currently available in the clinical setting.

  20. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  1. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  2. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  3. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pierre Raccurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  4. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  5. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  6. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  7. Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Acehan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the light of the latest information. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 591-614

  8. Kinas ambitioner i det Indiske Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Morten Hetmar

    2014-01-01

    The article examines China's strategic and maritime interests and behaviour in the Indian Ocean and the Sino-Indian rivalry in Asia, as both countries vie for political and economic influnce in the countries dotting the Indian Ocean littoral from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca....

  9. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans. PMID:27018020

  10. Unilateral neglect and perceptual parsing: a large-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Savazzi, Silvia; Ricci, Raffaella; Genero, Rosanna; Berruti, Giuseppina; Pepi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Array-centred and subarray-centred neglect were disambiguated in a group of 116 patients with left neglect by means of a modified version of the Albert test in which the central column of segments was deleted so as to create two separate sets of targets grouped by proximity. The results indicated that neglect was more frequent in array- than subarray-centred coordinates and that, in a minority of cases, neglect co-occurred in both coordinate-systems. The two types of neglect were functionally but not anatomically dissociated. Presence of visual field defects was not prevalent in one type of neglect with respect to the other. These data contribute further evidence to previous single-case and small-group studies by showing that neglect can occur in single or multiple reference frames simultaneously, in agreement with current neuropsychological, neurophysiological and computational concepts of space representation.

  11. Using narratives and discourses in neglect-prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2013-06-01

    Training in neglect prevention for healthcare professionals should incorporate understanding of who is at risk, what represents neglect, how signs might be identified quickly and what should be done to rectify neglectful practice and minimise further risk. It must also cover accurate reporting in line with safeguarding vulnerable adults legislation and the evaluation of what healthcare systems have contributed to the risk of neglect. Neglect is an ambiguous term, so it is important to explore how it is understood and why sometimes it is not challenged. This article discusses various issues around neglect and suggests a new approach to training that involves the analysis of clients' and practitioners' narratives and discourses about care. Understanding these narratives and discourses can help identify situations of institutional neglect.

  12. Quantifying the impact of riverine particulate dissolution in seawater on ocean chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gislason, Sigurður R.; Burton, Kevin W.; Pearce, Christopher R.; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2014-06-01

    The quantification of the sources and sinks of elements to the oceans forms the basis of our understanding of global geochemical cycles and the chemical evolution of the Earth's surface. There is, however, a large imbalance in the current best estimates of the global fluxes to the oceans for many elements. In the case of strontium (Sr), balancing the input from rivers would require a much greater mantle-derived component than is possible from hydrothermal water flux estimates at mid-ocean ridges. Current estimates of riverine fluxes are based entirely on measurements of dissolved metal concentrations, and neglect the impact of riverine particulate dissolution in seawater. Here we present 87Sr/86Sr isotope data from an Icelandic estuary, which demonstrate rapid Sr release from the riverine particulates. We calculate that this Sr release is 1.1-7.5 times greater than the corresponding dissolved riverine flux. If such behaviour is typical of volcanic particulates worldwide, this release could account for 6-45% of the perceived marine Sr budget imbalance, with continued element release over longer timescales further reducing the deficit. Similar release from particulate material will greatly affect the marine budgets of many other elements, changing our understanding of coastal productivity, and anthropogenic effects such as soil erosion and the damming of rivers.

  13. Marine renewable energies. When researchers consider the ocean as an energy source. Offshore wind power. The thermal energy of seas, a solar resource to be no longer neglected. Lipid biofuels production by micro-algae; Energies Renouvelables marines. Quand les chercheurs voient l'ocean comme source d'energie. L'eolien offshore. L'energie thermique des mers, ressource solaire a ne plus negliger. La production de biocarburant lipidiques par des microalgues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruer, J. [Saipen SA, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Gauthier, M. [Ifremer, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France); Zaharia, R. [CNES, 75 - Paris (France); Cadoret, J.P. [IFREMER, Lab. de Physiologie et Biologie des Algues, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2008-03-15

    In the present day context of search for renewable energy sources, it is surprising that the oceans energy, potentially enormous, is poorly taken into consideration with respect to the other renewable energy sources, while France has been a pioneer in this domain with the construction of the Rance tidal power plant in the 1960's, and still in operation today. However, the scientific community, and in particular the IFREMER institute in France, is developing R and D programs on marine energy technologies. On the other hand, the development of wind power is growing up rapidly with a worldwide installed capacity exceeding today 94000 MW and supplying 3% of the electricity consumed in Europe. The development of offshore wind farms represents today 1122 MW and should grow up very fast in the coming years. The ocean is also a huge reservoir of thermal energy which can be exploited to generate electricity and desalinated water. Finally, the cultivation of micro-algae for the enhanced production of lipids may be a more ecological alternative to the terrestrial production of biofuels, strongly criticized today for its long term environmental impacts. (J.S.)

  14. R&D incentives for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Dimitri

    Full Text Available Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D, to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency.

  15. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  16. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jong Chung

    Full Text Available Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients.We made the computerized table setting test (CTST to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically.Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect.The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients.

  17. Tidal response of Europa's subsurface ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Özgür; Comblen, Richard; Toubeau, Jonathan; Deleersnijder, Eric; van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2010-05-01

    Observations of Cassini and Galileo spacecrafts suggest the presence of subsurface global water oceans under the icy shells of several satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Previous studies have shown that in the presence of subsurface oceans, time-variable tides cause large periodic surface displacements and that tidal dissipation in the icy shell becomes a major energy source that can affect long-term orbital evolution. However, in most studies so far, the dynamics of these satellite oceans have been neglected. In the present study, we investigate the tidal response of the subsurface ocean of Europa to a time-varying potential. Two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations are solved on a sphere by means of a finite element code. The resulting ocean tidal flow velocities and surface displacements will be presented.

  18. Model Testing - Bringing the Ocean into the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Hydrodynamic model testing, the principle of bringing the ocean into the laboratory to study the behaviour of the ocean itself and the response of man-made structures in the ocean in reduced scale, has been known for centuries. Due to an insufficient understanding of the physics involved, however...

  19. Sulfoximines: a neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group.

  20. Neglected isolated fracture of the trochlea humeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal Singh; Ish Kumar Dhammi; Anil Kumar Jain; Saurabh Jain

    2010-01-01

    A 15 years old girl was found to have isolated trochlea fracture 10 weeks after an injury caused by a fall on her left elbow. Movement of the elbow was severely restricted. Radiographs showed a half moon-shaped and anterosuperiorly displaced osteochondral fragment. Medial approach capsulotomy of the elbow and excision of the intraarticular adhesions were done to expose the isolated trochlea fracture. Headless screws were used for fixation,combined with bone grafting. The follow-up showed union and excellent functional recovery of the elbow. Isolated trochlea fracture in adults is rare and usually associated with capitellar fractures and/or elbow dislocations. A neglected trochlea fracture is rarely reported in the English language literature to the best of our knowledge. Recognition of isolated trochlea fracture is vital to apprehend the pathomechanics of the injury and to devise a suitable treatment approach.

  1. Battered, Abused and Neglected Children as social problem

    OpenAIRE

    KOPECKÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The theory will be developed with the basic concepts chapters on the selected topic. Equipment will be introduced in the Czech Republic to help battered, abused and neglected children, and access and the role of social worker on the issue of child battered, abuse and neglect. The practical part will be listed by case reports of cases of battered, abuse and neglect, which I collected in my completed practice. Using the table of comparison of results will be listed case reports.

  2. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. PMID:27450268

  3. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxy...

  4. Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia.

  5. Selection of acute stroke patients for treatment of visual neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, S P; Patel, P.; Greenwood, R J

    1993-01-01

    Although visual neglect is a predictor of poor outcome after stroke, some patients regain independence, whilst others take up considerable rehabilitation resources. Intensive treatment of visual neglect is available and a knowledge of the predictive features in the recovery of these patients would be helpful in the early selection of patients for treatment. A study was therefore carried out to determine the prognosis of patients presenting with visual neglect at two to three days after stroke...

  6. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect.

  7. running ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokenath Debnath

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory is presented of the generation and propagation of the two and the three dimensional tsunamis in a shallow running ocean due to the action of an arbitrary ocean floor or ocean surface disturbance. Integral solutions for both two and three dimensional problems are obtained by using the generalized Fourier and Laplace transforms. An asymptotic analysis is carried out for the investigation of the principal features of the free surface elevation. It is found that the propagation of the tsunamis depends on the relative magnitude of the given speed of the running ocean and the wave speed of the shallow ocean. When the speed of the running ocean is less than the speed of the shallow ocean wave, both the two and the three dimensional free surface elevation represent the generation and propagation of surface waves which decay asymptotically as t−12 for the two dimensional case and as t−1 for the three dimensional tsunamis. Several important features of the solution are discussed in some detail. As an application of the general theory, some physically realistic ocean floor disturbances are included in this paper.

  8. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Influence of ocean tide dynamics on the climate system from the Cretaceous to present day

    OpenAIRE

    T. Weber; M. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Global numerical ocean models used for paleo-climate reconstructions generally only consider the ocean’s general circulation, but neglect tidal dynamics. However, it has been demonstrated that tidally induced friction at the ocean bottom alters the mean ocean circulation and energy fluxes on timescales larger than one tidal period and up to climate timescales. Thereby the mean ocean circulation and temperature advection is altered and can thus affect climate. We simultaneously ...

  10. A simple model for the three-dimensional, thermally and wind-driven ocean circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Leo R. M.

    2011-01-01

    As a generalization to box models of the large-scale, thermally and wind-driven ocean circulation, nonlinear equations, describing the evolution of two vectors characterizing the state of the ocean, are derived for a rectangular ocean on an f-plane. These state vectors represent the basin-averaged density gradient and the overall angular momentum vector of the ocean. Neglecting rotation, the Howard-Malkus loop oscillation is retrieved, governed by the Lorenz equations. This has the equations ...

  11. Are drawing perseverations part of the neglect syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Lorenzo; Folegatti, Alessia; Guagliardo, Marilena; Genero, Rosanna; Gindri, Patrizia

    2009-03-01

    Unilateral neglect patients typically omit to cancel contralesional targets. Moreover, they can repeatedly cancel ipsilesional stimuli exhibiting what is termed 'perseverative behavior'. Two alternative accounts of this behavior have been proposed. According to one of them, it is considered as integral to neglect and due either to a perceptual (allochiria), or a premotor (directional hypokinesia) pathological mechanism leading to the ipsilesional displacement of contralesional responses. According to the other one, perseverations are interpreted as the consequence of motor-control-disinhibition co-occurring with, although independent of, spatial neglect. We compared some crucial predictions of these two hypotheses on a group of 10 right-brain-damaged patients, eight with neglect and two without neglect, showing a perseverative behavior in both conventional and experimental cancellation tasks. In our experiment, the spatial location and the numerosity of targets were manipulated to obtain different degrees of horizontal alignment between targets on the left and on the right of the central vertical axis of the sheet. We found that ipsilesional perseverations were not influenced by left neglected targets and were not correlated to neglect severity. Additionally, perseverative errors were associated with right basal ganglia lesions rather than with presence of neglect. These findings support the view that two different pathological mechanisms might be involved in left spatial neglect and ipsilesional perseverative behavior.

  12. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  13. Speech neglect: A strange educational blind spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine Safford

    2005-09-01

    Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.

  14. Neglected tropical diseases of Namibia: unsolved mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; van der Colf, Berta E

    2013-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are diseases most commonly found in settings of poverty and are responsible for the morbidity and/or mortality of millions each year. As an upper-middle income country, Namibia is not normally considered to have many NTDs but published reports indicate the possible presence of over 30. Because much of the data is buried in historical studies published before Independence in 1990, there is a risk of losing valuable information on which to build current and future integrated public health strategies. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to bring together these significant fragments to identify existing knowledge gaps which need to be addressed to build effective control, prevention, and even elimination strategies. The review focuses on intestinal helminthes, schistosomes/snail 'vectors', viruses (Rift Valley Fever, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, rabies), protozoa (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Amoeba, Giardia), bacteria (Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Leptospira, Coxiella, Brucella, and Borrelia), fungi (Pneumocystis) and myiasis. Each NTD speaks to the possible need for surveillance and the creation of integrated disease risk maps, linking prevalence of related NTDs with environmental and ecological factors to assist control and prevention efforts. The predominance of zoonotic disease suggests a need to integrate veterinary and public health components as the national public health surveillance system is established. PMID:23006744

  15. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  16. Cerebellar allocentric and action-intentional spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Nicholas J; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2014-09-01

    Contralesional hemispatial neglect most often results from lesions in the right posterior temporoparietal cortex. Less commonly, contralesional and ipsilesional neglect are caused by lesions in the frontal lobe. Although unilateral left cerebellar lesions have been reported to cause body-centered (egocentric) ipsilesional neglect, they have not been reported to cause left-side object-centered (allocentric) neglect together with a leftward action-intentional bias. We describe a patient who had these signs of neglect 7 months after a left cerebellar hemorrhage. This 61-year-old right-handed woman reported emotional lability and difficulty walking, frequently bumping into things on her left side. Neurologic examination revealed ocular dysmetria and left-side limb ataxia. Neuropsychological tests showed evidence of neglect. On a clock-drawing test, the patient accurately drew a circle but her number placement deviated to the left side. She showed the same leftward deviation when she tried to draw a circle composed of small triangles. Although her line bisection was normal, on an allocentric task of open-triangle cancellation she was most likely to neglect triangles with a left-side opening. Her performance on this task indicated left allocentric neglect. Her leftward deviation on the clock and figure drawing tasks seems to be a form of an action-intentional grasp, which may have been induced by right frontal dysfunction superimposed on a deficit of global attention. PMID:25237748

  17. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  18. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the...

  19. Child Abuse and Neglect: The Responsibilities of Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchak, Rosann K.

    This annotated bibliography of resources about child abuse and neglect begins with an introduction to the problem and causes of child abuse, legal definitions of abuse and neglect, and statistics illustrating the incidence of abuse. Designed to serve as an informational resource for educators, these resources are classified by categories…

  20. Innocent Victims: NCJW Manual on Child Abuse and Neglect Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY.

    The manual was written by the National Council of Jewish Women to provide guidelines for volunteer legislative action and community service for individuals in the area of child abuse and neglect. After an overview which details some of the causes of child abuse, information on child abuse and neglect legislation in each state is presented.…

  1. Motor Response Deficits of Unilateral Neglect: Assessment, Therapy, and Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevarsson, Styrmir

    2013-04-16

    The clinical impact of the motor deficits of unilateral neglect is indisputable. The diagnosis criteria are confusing and complicated, and assessment has been extended and modified gradually during the last few decades, which has led to inconsistency and confusion. Many different attempts have been made to overcome various assessment shortcomings. In this article, different examinations of previous studies and analyses are discussed in a systematic and critical way. Research databases were used to identify 254 reports, including 26 different empirical studies on motor neglect and 44 studies on premotor neglect. Most of the studies address the gross neuroanatomical location of lesions. The main findings indicate that frontal lesions are more common in motor neglect than in premotor neglect, and parietal lesions are more common in premotor neglect than in motor neglect. Few studies have evaluated therapeutic programs for the motor deficits of neglect. Unfortunately, most studies suffer from various diagnostic problems that result in inconsistent and controversial findings. Different assessment issues need to be addressed systematically in future studies in light of current findings to increase our understanding and awareness of these important neuropsychological motor deficits. Implications of and possible solutions to the current assessment shortcomings are discussed.

  2. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  3. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  4. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  5. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  6. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. PMID:25535250

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect.

  8. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  9. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Horstick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD. But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D (2003-2013. NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a poverty related, b endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c lacking public health attention, d having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.

  10. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  11. (Un)awareness of unilateral spatial neglect: a quantitative evaluation of performance in visuo-spatial tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Bolognini, Nadia; Gallucci, Marcello; Chiapella, Laura; Algeri, Lorella; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral spatial neglect are usually unaware (anosognosic) about their spatial deficits. However, in the scientific literature there is a lack of systematic and quantitative evaluation of this kind of unawareness, despite the negative impact of anosognosia on rehabilitation programs. This study investigated anosognosia for neglect-related impairments at different clinical tasks, by means of a quantitative assessment. Patients were tested in two different conditions (before and after execution of each task), in order to evaluate changes in the level of awareness of neglect-related behaviours triggered by task execution. Twenty-nine right-brain-damaged patients (17 with left spatial neglect) and 27 neurologically unimpaired controls entered the study. Anosognosia for spatial deficits is not pervasive, with different tasks evoking different degrees of awareness about neglect symptoms. Indeed, patients showed a largely preserved awareness about their performance in complex visuo-motor spatial and reading tasks; conversely, they were impaired in evaluating their spatial difficulties in line bisection and drawing from memory, showing over-estimation of their performance. The selectivity of the patients' unawareness of specific manifestations of spatial neglect is further supported by their preserved awareness of performance at a linguistic task, and by the absence of anosognosia for hemiplegia. This evidence indicates that discrete processes are involved in the aware monitoring of cognitive and motor performance, which can be selectively compromised by brain damage. Awareness of spatial difficulties is supported by a number of distinct components, and influenced by the specific skills required to perform a given task.

  12. Factors Affecting the Clinical Measurement of Visuo-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzamiglio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined a battery of tests to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect; the tests included different tasks involving several modalities of spatial exploration mapping perceptual, motor, attentional and personal or extrapersonal space dimensions. The subjects, 121 right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral neglect, were studied in seven laboratories in four European countries. Relationships among the various tests were examined by correlations, a cluster analysis and by an analysis of individual cases. Different sensitivity was found among various tests for detecting neglect performances. Both the cluster analysis and the single case analysis clearly showed a segregation between personal and extrapersonal neglect. Analysis of the large cluster, including a variety of tests of extra personal neglect, together with the study of single cases, suggests the possibility of differentiating the various manifestations of spatial neglect which can be interpreted on the basis of the descriptions of other individual cases previously reported in the literature. Finally, the present study indicated the relative stability of neglect following the acute phase and its independence from age.

  13. Horizontal stirring in the global ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, I; Hernández-García, E; Turiel, A

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal mixing and the distribution of coherent structures in the global ocean are analyzed using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), computed for the surface velocity field derived from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES). FSLEs measure horizontal stirring and dispersion; additionally, the transport barriers which organize the oceanic flow can roughly be identified with the ridges of the FSLE field. We have performed a detailed statistical study, particularizing for the behaviour of the two hemispheres and different ocean basins. The computed Probability Distributions Functions (PDFs) of FSLE are broad and asymmetric. Horizontal mixing is generally more active in the northern hemisphere than in the southern one. Nevertheless the Southern Ocean is the most active ocean, and the Pacific the less active one. A striking result is that the main currents can be classified in two 'activity classes': Western Boundary Currents, which have broad PDFs with large FSLE values, and Eas...

  14. Statistical learning as a tool for rehabilitation in spatial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena eShaqiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect.

  15. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  16. Child abuse and neglect--recognition and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The dental profession has a legal, ethical and moral responsibility to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect. The risk to the child is significant. In non-fatal cases of abuse, 35 percent will be abused again within one year. To this end, dentists should discuss child abuse and neglect at staff meetings and establish office procedures if a case is identified. Encourage staff to discuss concerns they have regarding possible abuse they suspect in the office. Keep the child abuse hotline number or local agency responsible for receiving reports in the office rolodex. Abuse and neglect is a real problem in all neighborhoods and dentistry can make a difference. PMID:8051332

  17. Integrated dataset of screening hits against multiple neglected disease pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Nwaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New chemical entities are desperately needed that overcome the limitations of existing drugs for neglected diseases. Screening a diverse library of 10,000 drug-like compounds against 7 neglected disease pathogens resulted in an integrated dataset of 744 hits. We discuss the prioritization of these hits for each pathogen and the strong correlation observed between compounds active against more than two pathogens and mammalian cell toxicity. Our work suggests that the efficiency of early drug discovery for neglected diseases can be enhanced through a collaborative, multi-pathogen approach.

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of applications of the self-report habit index to nutrition and physical activity behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Gardner; G.-J. de Bruijn; P. Lally

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health behaviour models typically neglect habitual action. The Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) permits synthesis of evidence of the influence of habit on behaviour. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review evidence around mean habit strength, habit-behaviour correlations, and habit

  19. Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  20. Behavioral intervention with child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, E D

    1983-01-01

    promising. Attention to enhancement of child management skills is supported by research that shows that most abuse occurs as an extension of parental discipline attempts. A focus on describing the relationships between behaviors of concern and what happens before and afterward has yielded valuable information concerning interaction patterns in abusive, neglectful, and normal families. Advantages of viewing child abuse in the general context of family interaction are illustrated by the work of Patterson and his colleagues and by Gelles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6679065

  1. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  2. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  3. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  4. Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eMarzoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.

  5. RELATIONAL GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY: THE HEALING OF STRESS, NEGLECT AND TRAUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2010-01-01

    This article is the Keynote Address given at the 4th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, April 17, 2009. In speaking to the conference theme of “Acute Trauma, Cumulative Neglect, and Chronic Stress” the article describes some of the principles of Relational Group Psychotherapy. The theory of methods is based on the concept that the healing of trauma, neglect and stress occurs through a contactful therapeutic relationship. Relational group psychotherapy draws from s...

  6. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Improves Arm Position Sense in Spatial Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lena; Keller, Ingo; Kathrin S. Utz; Artinger, Frank; Stumpf, Oliver; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background. Disturbed arm position sense (APS) is a frequent and debilitating condition in patients with hemiparesis after stroke. Patients with neglect, in particular, show a significantly impaired contralesional APS. Currently, there is no treatment available for this disorder. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) may ameliorate neglect and extinction by activating the thalamocortical network. Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the immediate effects and aftereffects (AEs; 20...

  7. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Hemi-Spatial Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    David Wilkinson; Mohamed Sakel

    2014-01-01

    Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduc...

  8. Galvanic vestibular stimulation in hemi-spatial neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, David; Zubko, Olga; Sakel, Mohamed; Coulton, Simon; Higgins, Tracy; Pullicino, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduc...

  9. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease.

  10. Neglected diseases amid wealth in the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are not exclusive to low-income countries. In the United States, such infections account for a sizable but largely hidden disease burden among minority populations living in poverty and among people of African descent in particular. Similar infections also occur in Europe. As efforts to control neglected tropical diseases expand throughout Africa, parallel efforts should also target poor and forgotten people in wealthy nations.

  11. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and lower alpha (8-10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  12. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada León

    Full Text Available Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz and lower alpha (8-10 Hz bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  13. Combining language and space: sentence bisection in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias.

  14. Walking and wheelchair navigation in patients with left visual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; Dewar, Sophie J; Lievesley, Alex; O'Leary, Kelly; Gabb, Jude; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2009-04-01

    Patients with neglect veer to one side when walking or driving a wheelchair, however there is a contradiction in the literature about the direction of this deviation. The study investigated the navigational trajectory of a sample of neglect patients of mixed mobility status in an ecological setting. Fifteen patients with left-sided neglect after right hemisphere stroke were recorded walking or driving a powered wheelchair along a stretch of corridor. Their position in the corridor and the number of collisions was recorded. The results showed that the patients' path was dependent on their mobility status: wheelchair patients with neglect consistently deviated to the left of the centre of the corridor and walking patients with neglect consistently deviated to the right. A further two ambulant patients with neglect were recorded both walking and using the wheelchair to determine whether the differences were task or patient dependent. These two patients also exhibited leftward deviation when driving the wheelchair, but a rightward deviation when walking. These results suggest that the direction of the deviation is task dependent. Further work will be required to identify what features of the two modes of navigation lead to this dissociation.

  15. A new simple concept for ocean colour remote sensing using parallel polarisation radiance

    OpenAIRE

    Xianqiang He; Delu Pan; Yan Bai; Difeng Wang; Zengzhou Hao

    2014-01-01

    Ocean colour remote sensing has supported research on subjects ranging from marine ecosystems to climate change for almost 35 years. However, as the framework for ocean colour remote sensing is based on the radiation intensity at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), the polarisation of the radiation, which contains additional information on atmospheric and water optical properties, has largely been neglected. In this study, we propose a new simple concept to ocean colour remote sensing that uses para...

  16. Near and far space neglect: task sensitivity and anatomical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola, Lina; Schindler, Igor; Simone, Anna Maria; Venneri, Annalena

    2012-05-01

    Most group studies which have investigated neglect for near and far space have found an increased severity of symptoms in far space compared to near space. However, the majority of these studies used relatively small samples and based their findings almost exclusively on line bisection performance. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the occurrence of neglect for near and far space in a larger group of unselected right brain damaged patients and to evaluate whether neglect specific to near and far space is a task-related deficit or generalises across distance irrespective of task. In addition, a lesion overlap analysis was carried out to identify critical lesion sites associated with distance specific neglect deficits. Thirty-eight right hemisphere damaged patients carried out a line bisection and a cancellation task by using a pen in near space (40 cm) and a laser pointer in far space (320 cm). The results showed that both the number of left-sided omissions and rightward bisection errors were significantly increased in near compared to far space. Distance specific dissociations, albeit less common, were more frequently observed for cancellation than line bisection. These results suggest that space representation in neglect is more severely impaired in near than in far space. In addition, distance related dissociations in neglect may depend on task demands. Although the anatomical findings were broadly consistent with a dorsal and ventral stream dichotomy for near and far space processing, they also suggest the involvement of intermediate structures in distance related neglect phenomena. PMID:22306826

  17. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  18. The impact of neglect on initial adaptation to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Lynch, Michael; Oshri, Assaf; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne N

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the impact of child neglect during the first 4 years of life on adaptation to school during kindergarten and first grade in the context of neighborhood poverty (NP). Processes related to the development of school competencies were examined, including the mediational role of cognitive functioning and ego-resiliency (ER) in shaping children's school outcomes. A total of 170 low-income urban children were followed prospectively for 2 years (ages 4-6). Results indicated that neglected children had significantly lower scores on kindergarten classroom behavior and first-grade academic performance than nonneglected children. Children's cognitive performance at age 4, controlling for maternal intelligence quotient, mediated the relation between severity of neglect and children's behavior in kindergarten as well as their academic performance in first grade. Moreover, severity of neglect was related to children's ER at age 4. However, additional ecological adversity in the form of NP moderated the link between ER and classroom behavior, such that at lower levels of poverty, ER mediated the relation between severity of neglect and school adaptation. Conversely, when NP was extreme, the effects of ER were attenuated and ER ceased to predict behavioral performance in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  19. The impact of neglect on initial adaptation to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Lynch, Michael; Oshri, Assaf; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne N

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the impact of child neglect during the first 4 years of life on adaptation to school during kindergarten and first grade in the context of neighborhood poverty (NP). Processes related to the development of school competencies were examined, including the mediational role of cognitive functioning and ego-resiliency (ER) in shaping children's school outcomes. A total of 170 low-income urban children were followed prospectively for 2 years (ages 4-6). Results indicated that neglected children had significantly lower scores on kindergarten classroom behavior and first-grade academic performance than nonneglected children. Children's cognitive performance at age 4, controlling for maternal intelligence quotient, mediated the relation between severity of neglect and children's behavior in kindergarten as well as their academic performance in first grade. Moreover, severity of neglect was related to children's ER at age 4. However, additional ecological adversity in the form of NP moderated the link between ER and classroom behavior, such that at lower levels of poverty, ER mediated the relation between severity of neglect and school adaptation. Conversely, when NP was extreme, the effects of ER were attenuated and ER ceased to predict behavioral performance in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:23843472

  20. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening) to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:18575621

  1. Elder neglect and abuse. A primer for primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jeffrey M

    2003-10-01

    Elder neglect and abuse represent a widespread, largely undiagnosed problem in the United States. Factors contributing to misdiagnosis and underreporting include denial by both the victim and the perpetrator, clinicians' reluctance to report victims, disbelief by medical providers, and clinicians' lack of awareness of warning signs. Physical abuse is most recognizable, yet neglect is most common. Psychological and financial abuse may be more easily missed. Elder neglect and abuse have many clinical presentations, ranging from the overt appearance of bruises and fractures, to the subtle appearance of dehydration, depression, and apathy. Risk factors are varied and may be categorized by victim or perpetrator. Dependency, on the part of the victim or perpetrator, and caregiver stress are frequent common denominators in abusive situations. Increasingly, Institutionalization is recognized as a risk factor for neglect and abuse. Most states require primary care providers to report suspected elder abuse. Awareness of the risk factors and clinical manifestations allows primary care physicians to provide early detection and intervention for elder neglect and abuse. PMID:14569641

  2. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  3. Monitoring Ocean Carbon and Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Toste; Orr, James C.; Lorenzoni, Laura; Hansson, Lina

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 continues to increase, more and more CO2 enters the ocean, which reduces pH (pH is a measure of acidity, the lower the pH, the more acidic the liquid) in a process referred to as ocean acidification. Declines in surface ocean pH due to ocean acidification are already detectable and accelerating.

  4. Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, K M; Schwartz, H D; Watson, R T

    1978-03-01

    Physiologic theories of emotion suggest that activation is important in the experience of emotion; patients exhibiting "neglect" as a consequence of right parietotemporal of dysfunction show flattened affect. We studied arousal in patients with lesions of the right hemisphere who also exhibited emotional indifference, in aphasic patients with lesions of the left hemisphere, and in non-brain-damaged controls, by stimulating the forearm ipsilateral to the side of the brain lesion while recording galvanic skin responses (GSRs) from the fingers on the same side. The group exhibiting neglect had lower GSRs than aphasic patients or non-brain-damaged controls. Aphasic patients had higher GSRs than non-brain-damaged controls. These results suggest that neglect is associated with disturbances in bilateral arousal and that this disorder of arousal may be responsible in part for flattened affect. The heightened GSR in aphasic patients may reflect disinhibition, which might be partly responsible for increased emotionality in these patients. PMID:564476

  5. Is Iatrogenic Cushing s a New Form of Child Neglect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Almis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasingly important issue. One of the main types of abuse is child neglect, that is, behavior in which the child is knowingly or unknowingly injured. In this article; we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing%u2019s syndrome due to clobetasol 17-propionate treatment that was used inappropriately, in order to discuss whether or not this is a form of child neglect. It is one of the basic tasks of families to protect the health of the child and learn how to treat that child when he or she is ill. We believe that by being adequately informed by the health professionals, families may reduce the risk of child neglect.

  6. Object-centred neglect for non-verbal visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savazzi, Silvia; Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Zettin, Marina; Gindri, Patrizia; Posteraro, Luciano

    2004-02-01

    In a first experiment, 11 neglect patients repeatedly bisected the elongated caricature of a basset hound with head on the right and tail on the left side with respect to the viewer. On the last (critical) trial, in which the figure was left-right reversed, the bisection error towards the ipsilesional side reversed its direction in three patients and significantly decreased in one patient. In a second experiment, 13 different neglect patients had to bisect the elongated caricature of the basset hound with head on the left and tail on the right side. On the last trial, the bisection error reversed its direction in three patients and significantly decreased in three patients. These results suggest that object-centred neglect (OCN) may affect newly established knowledge about the canonical orientation of a non-verbal visual stimulus.

  7. [Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahasanoğlu, İlker; Yoloğlu, Osman; Kerimoğlu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome.

  8. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Martin Müri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living (ADL measures such as the Barthel Index or more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in 3 studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence.The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  9. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René Martin; Cazzoli, Dario; Nef, Tobias; Mosimann, Urs P; Hopfner, Simone; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies) fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living measures such as the Barthel Index or, more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in three studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence. The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta-burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  10. ETHICAL, SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CHILD NEGLECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Diaconescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child neglect was and continues to be a matter of both professional and public interest, thoroughly debated by child protection researchers and specialists, sociologists, psychologists and social workers, specialists in education and health. Drawing on some examples encountered in current medical practice, we tried to identify the causal factors of child neglect from a medical point of view and the attitude that healthcare professionals should adopt towards such situations. The correct and efficient management of medical neglect cases requires an assessment of the child’s needs, the identification of the parents’ resources and guidance of their efforts so as to properly cater to the child’s needs for the purpose of ensuring the optimum health of the latter.

  11. Analysis of primary and secondary influences on spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, J C; Na, D L; Schwartz, R L; Heilman, K M

    1998-08-01

    When attempting to determine the middle of a line, patients with neglect deviate from true center. Deviation may be induced by perceptual-attentional bias, premotor-intentional bias, or both. Using a video-based apparatus, we decoupled perceptual from premotor influences on line bisection performance in patients with hemispatial neglect to examine (a) the relationship between primary and secondary bias and (b) the relationship of bias type to lesion location. The same video-based procedure was applied to target cancellation to determine if neglect type varied as a function of task. Primary attentional-perceptual bias was found using line bisection in 14/26 subjects, most of whom had lesions involving the posterior hemisphere. Primary premotor-intentional bias on line bisection was more often associated with lesions of frontal-subcortical structures. The neglect type determined by the bisection task agreed with the results of target cancellation in most cases. Secondary bias was determined based upon whether decoupling decreased the magnitude of bisection error (concordant), increased error (discordant), or produced no significant change. Most patients showed a secondary bias, with 12/26 in the discordant group and 11/26 in the concordant group. Discordant secondary bias was more common in premotor-intentional neglect (10/12) than in perceptual-attentional neglect (2/14), whereas concordant bias was more common in the latter group (10/14) compared to the former (1/12). The nonrandom relationship between primary and secondary bias may provide a more detailed description of ways in which anatomically separate components of a cortical network contribute to spatial processing under conditions of perceptuomotor incongruity. PMID:9733554

  12. Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia O'Campo; Cheryl Pedersen; Heidi Borenstein; Sarah Hamilton-Wright; Nihaya Daoud; Anita Minh; Matheson, Flora I

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experien...

  13. Neglected Distal Humeral Epiphyseal Injury - Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Pankaj Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury in children, which can be missed or misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Awareness of this injury and appropriate radiological assessment helps in proper management. Neglected cases because of inappropriate diagnosis can result in cubitus varus deformity. Full range of movements of elbow can be achieved if properly diagnosed and managed. We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management.

  14. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998

  15. Behaviour of domestic violence in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abused elderly. The predominant groups were: ages between 70 – 79 years. (75.0%, the female sex (59.3%, those with marital links (65.6% dissatisfaction with their lives like a psychological symptom (53,2% psychological abused (50,0% and children as principles aggressors. The adult persons studied were a victim of any kind of domestic abused and as a consequence was presented second psychological manifestations.

  16. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  17. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  18. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  19. Sorrow and Solace: Neglected Areas in Bereavement Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that in its focus on finding positive outcomes, bereavement research has neglected or denigrated central phenomena in intense and long-term grief: sorrow and solace. Sorrow has two elements: yearning for the dead person and grief's depression. Consolation comes into sorrow in human relationships and from inner resources. The…

  20. Child Abuse and Neglect: Training Needs of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…

  1. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe.

  2. Unilateral neglect syndrome after stroke: the role of Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pereira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral Neglect Syndrome is one of the consequences of cerebral vascular accident (CVA generally following right parietal lobe lesion, leading to the impairment of perceptive visual, spatial and attention functions. The patient affected does not realize the environmental stimuli on the contralesional hemibody. Occupational therapy plays an important role in caring for this patient, seeking the recovery of perception, attention and social engagement. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the results of occupational therapy intervention and treatment in a single Unilateral Neglect Syndrome post CVA patient. Data were obtained from a survey of the patient’s medical records and interviews of his therapist and caretaker. The analysis of the patient’s medical records and his therapist’s report showed that the patient responded satisfactorily to treatment, presenting a decrease of the left unilateral neglect at the end of the study period. The favorable outcome of the patient outlined the relevance of evaluating the effects of Occupational Therapy interventions for clinical unilateral neglect syndrome.

  3. The Policy Context: Reversing a State of Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the neglect of families within previous UK policy documents relating to drugs and alcohol, and discusses the significant progress that has been made in focusing on the family over the past decade. Although substance misuse causes major problems for many family members, this was not even recognized across the Western…

  4. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  5. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  6. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  7. In the best of families: crossing the line into neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadworny, S W

    1994-11-01

    Home care professionals are in a good spot to identify abuse of their elderly patients; unfortunately, this is a delicate issue because so many of the caregivers are family members and the abuse arises out of unintentional neglect. What can nurses and social workers do when they identify such a situation?

  8. Teachers' Responsibilities when Adolescent Abuse and Neglect Are Suspected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy W.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    As institutions collectively serving young adolescents of every race, creed, ethnic, and socioeconomic group, middle level schools provide an ideal environment for combating adolescent abuse and neglect. Additionally, because of their frequent, recurring, and long-term contact with the young adolescents they teach, middle level teachers are in an…

  9. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2006-01-01

    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  10. Staphylococcal disease in Africa : another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  11. Goal-neglect links Stroop interference with working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, C.C.; Elliott, E.M.; Wiggers, J.; Eaves, S.L.; Shelton, J.T.; Mall, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between Stroop interference and working memory capacity may reflect individual differences in resolving conflict, susceptibility to goal neglect, or both of these factors. We compared relationships between working memory capacity and three Stroop tasks: a classic, printed color-word St

  12. Severe Neglect and Computer-based Home Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cognitive rehabilitation from a functional perspective often requires intensive training over a longer period of time. In the case of rehabilitation of unilateral neglect, the frequency and intensity needed is expensive and difficult to implement both for the therapists and the patients...

  13. Sexual identity group differences in child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; Hughes, Tonda L; Kristjanson, Arlinda F; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2013-07-01

    Childhood abuse and neglect are pervasive problems among girls and young women that have numerous health consequences. Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and neglect, but little is known about which sexual minority women are at greatest risk for these early adverse experiences. Using data from a pooled sample of women in a national probability study and in a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study's methodology (pooled n = 953), we investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women from five sexual identity groups. As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse and neglect than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. We found considerable variability across the sexual minority subgroups, including severity of abuse, highlighting the need for research that distinguishes among these groups. To the extent that differences reported by women in the sample reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity group differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications.

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect Programs: Practice and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Monica B.

    Presented are detailed reports of eight child abuse and neglect programs, and a synthesis of the information obtained through onsite visits to programs and a review of the literature. Provided in Part I are the descriptive case studies of two hospital-based programs (Children's Trauma Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland,…

  15. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  16. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  17. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. The Effect of Childhood Supervisory Neglect on Emerging Adults' Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan M; Merritt, Darcey H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of childhood supervisory neglect on emerging adults' drinking. Child supervisory neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States, but few studies explore supervisory neglect separate from other forms of maltreatment among emerging adults, 18-25 years old. The study sample included (n = 11,117) emerging adults, 18-25 years old who participated in Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We conducted separate analyses for male and female emerging adults, because they have different rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol risk behaviors. Our study used latent class analysis to understand how patterns of alcohol risk behaviors clustered together. For males, we found the following four classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, (3) binge-drinkers, and (4) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For females, we found the following three classes: (1) multiple-risk drinkers, (2) moderate-risk drinkers, and (3) low-risk drinkers or abstainers. For both males and females, supervisory neglect increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class compared to the low-risk drinkers or abstainers' class. Single males who did not live with their parents, and who were white had increased odds of being in the multiple-risk drinkers. For females, being more educated, or in a serious romantic relationship increased the odds of membership in the multiple-risk drinkers' class. Practitioners should ask about histories of supervisory neglect among emerging adults who engage in alcohol risk behaviors. PMID:26771736

  19. A single blinded randomised controlled pilot trial of prism adaptation for improving self-care in stroke patients with neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; O'Leary, Kelly; Gabb, Judith; Woodward, Rebecca; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2010-04-01

    Prism adaptation has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect following stroke in single case and small group studies. The purposes of this single blinded pilot randomised controlled trial were to determine the feasibility of delivering prism adaptation treatment in a clinically valid sample and to assess its impact on self-care. Thirty seven right hemisphere stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect were randomised into either prism adaptation (using 10 dioptre, 6 degree prisms) or sham treatment (using plain glasses) groups. Treatment was delivered each weekday for two weeks. Pointing accuracy, without vision of the finger, was recorded each day before treatment. Outcome was measured, by blinded assessors, four days and eight weeks after the end of treatment using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) and the conventional neuropsychological tests from the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). Thirty four patients received treatment: 16 with prisms, 18 sham. Mean compliance was 99% and 97%, respectively. Over the treatment days only the prism treated group showed increased leftward bias in open loop pointing to targets on a touch screen. However, despite the group level changes in pointing behaviour no overall effect of the treatment on self-care or BIT were found.

  20. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  1. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice. Child Abuse and Neglect User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jill; Salus, Marsha K.; Wolcott, Deborah; Kennedy, Kristie Y.

    Child abuse and neglect is a community concern. Each community has a legal and moral obligation to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, which includes responding effectively to child maltreatment. At the State and local levels, professionals assume various roles and responsibilities ranging from prevention, identification,…

  2. The development of a typology of abusive coaching behaviours within youth sport

    OpenAIRE

    Raakman, E; Dorsch, K; Rhind, D

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 Multi-Science Publishing. The purpose of this article was to create the Typology of Coaching Transgressions model (TOCT), which is concerned with abuse, neglect and violence in youth sport. Comments provided by the Justplay Behaviour Management Program from two competitive hockey associations and one large soccer association were analyzed and sorted to assess the utility of the model to capture inappropriate coaching behaviours. A total of 540 comments were examined deduct...

  3. Neural bases of personal and extrapersonal neglect in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committeri, Giorgia; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Galati, Gaspare; Patria, Fabiana; Pelle, Gina; Sabatini, Umberto; Castriota-Scanderbeg, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2007-02-01

    Human awareness of left space may be disrupted by cerebral lesions to the right hemisphere (hemispatial neglect). Current knowledge on the anatomical bases of this complex syndrome is based on the results of group studies that investigated primarily the best known aspect of the syndrome, which is visual neglect for near extrapersonal (or peripersonal) space. However, another component-neglect for personal space-is more often associated with, than double-dissociated from, extrapersonal neglect, especially, in chronic patients. The present investigation aimed at exploring the anatomical substrate of both extrapersonal and personal neglect by using different advanced methodological approaches to lesion-function correlation. Fifty-two right ischaemic patients were submitted to neuropsychological assessment and in-depth MRI evaluation. The borders of each patient's lesion were delimited onto its own high-resolution anatomical image and then submitted to an automated spatial normalization algorithm. Besides conventional lesion density plots and subtraction analysis, region-based statistical analyses were performed on percentage values of the lesioned tissue also using a new parcellation of the white matter (WM). Data were finally submitted to voxelwise statistical analysis using a recently proposed method (voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping). Results converged in showing that awareness of extrapersonal space is based on the integrity of a circuit of right frontal (ventral premotor cortex and middle frontal gyrus) and superior temporal regions, whereas awareness of personal space is rooted in right inferior parietal regions (supramarginal gyrus, post-central gyrus and especially the WM medial to them). Common but less crucial regions for both neglect sub-types were located in the temporo-peri-Sylvian cortex. We suggest that extrapersonal space awareness critically involves a ventral circuit recently described for the exogenous allocation and reorienting of attention in

  4. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  5. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Cecilia; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Iaria, Giuseppe; Incoccia, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images) may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  6. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  7. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  8. Can soil respiration estimate neglect the contribution of abiotic exchange?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi CHEN; WenFeng WANG; GePing LUO; Hui YE

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that soil respiration can always be interpreted purely in terms of biotic processes, neglecting the contribution of abiotic exchange to CO2 fluxes in alkaline soils of arid areas that characterize 5%of the Earth’s total land surface. Analyses on flux data collected from previous studies suggested reconciling soil respiration as organic (root/microbial respiration) and inorganic (abiotic CO2 exchange) respiration, whose contributions in the total CO2 flux were determined by soil alkaline content. On the basis of utilizing mete-orological and soil data collected from the Xinjiang and Central Asia Scientific Data Sharing Platform, an incorpo-rated model indicated that inorganic respiration represents almost half of the total CO2 flux. Neglecting the abiotic module may result in overestimates of soil respiration in arid alkaline lands, which partly explains the long-sought“missing carbon sink”.

  9. Inattention, Working Memory, and Goal Neglect in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, Rebecca N.; Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Parris, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function deficits have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been theorized that the symptom inattention is specifically related to problems with complex verbal working memory (WM). Using the Conners Adult ADHD rating scale, adults aged 18–35 were assessed for ADHD symptoms, and completed tasks designed to tap verbal and spatial aspects of WM (Experiment 1). Results showed that high inattention predicted poor performance on both simple and complex verbal WM measures. Results relating to spatial WM were inconclusive. In a follow up experiment based on the theory that those with inattention have problems receiving verbal instructions, a measure of goal neglect assessing integration of information into a task model in WM was employed (Experiment 2). Results showed that high inattention uniquely predicted performance on this task, representing the first reported association between inattention and the phenomenon of goal neglect. The results from both experiments lend support to the WM theory of inattention. PMID:27713716

  10. Elder abuse and neglect: a relationship to health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, L

    1992-01-01

    Elder abuse is a complex problem that has received increasing attention in the social science literature and the media during the past 10 years. This descriptive study addresses the relationship between the type of abuse experienced and the demographic and health characteristics of elderly, abused individuals living in the community. Demographic data from this retrospective case review identify the most common victim of abuse as an elderly, widowed woman with some degree of chronic illness. The results also indicate that dependency needs of the individuals, including such health problems as mental confusion, immobility, and need for assistance with hygiene, are most often associated with neglect, a common form of maltreatment of the elderly. The recognition of risk factors for elder abuse or neglect can assist nurse practitioners in developing appropriate interventions for this serious health problem. PMID:1605994

  11. Lexical Processes and Eye Movements in Neglect Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe di Pellegrino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C. with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length.

  12. Autumn, the neglected season in climate change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinat, Amanda S; Primack, Richard B; Wagner, David L

    2015-03-01

    Autumn remains a relatively neglected season in climate change research in temperate and arctic ecosystems. This neglect occurs despite the importance of autumn events, including leaf senescence, fruit ripening, bird and insect migration, and induction of hibernation and diapause. Changes in autumn phenology alter the reproductive capacity of individuals, exacerbate invasions, allow pathogen amplification and higher disease-transmission rates, reshuffle natural enemy-prey dynamics, shift the ecological dynamics among interacting species, and affect the net productivity of ecosystems. We synthesize some of our existing understanding of autumn phenology and identify five areas ripe for future climate change research. We provide recommendations to address common pitfalls in autumnal research as well as to support the conservation and management of vulnerable ecosystems and taxa. PMID:25662784

  13. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  14. Court Appointed Volunteers for Abused and Neglected Children

    OpenAIRE

    Justin, Renate G.

    2002-01-01

    A court appointed special advocate (CASA) volunteer is a trained citizen who is appointed by a judge to represent the best interests of an abused and neglected child in court. An independent voice, the volunteer gathers information and reports to the court. The CASA volunteer works in close cooperation with other professionals, physicians, lawyers, social workers, and teachers to find the most suitable permanent placement for a victimized child, whether it be a foster home, parental home, or ...

  15. Neglected Traumatic Locked Anterior Shoulder Fracture-Dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Mehmet Serhan; Eroglu, Mehmet; Erten, Recep Abdullah; Metineren, Hasan; Altinel, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments and fractures of proximal humerus can accompany with dislocations. Although the treatment of acute isolated traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation is generally simple, the treatment of neglected fracture-dislocations becomes more complicated. In this report, a 22-year-old male patient who had posttraumatic locked, shoulder fracture-dislocation is presented. Open reduction and ...

  16. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  17. Child abuse and neglect: Training needs of student teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Bronagh Mc; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiplechoice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting; policies, procedures, and legislative frameworks; and direct work with children. Considerable gaps in knowledge were found. Results between student ...

  18. Galvanic vestibular stimulation in hemi-spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Zubko, Olga; Sakel, Mohamed; Coulton, Simon; Higgins, Tracy; Pullicino, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n = 52, mean age = 66 years). To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25 min, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude = 1 mA). Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioral Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change = 28%, SD = 18) was still evident 1 month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index (BI) score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study. PMID:24523679

  19. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  20. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  1. Right-Hemisphere (Spatial? Acalculia and the Influence of Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBenavides-Varela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  2. Right-hemisphere (spatial?) acalculia and the influence of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Pitteri, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD), focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients [12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+), 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-)], and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication, which do not require written visuo-spatial abilities. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought. PMID:25191257

  3. Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Mark; Josephi, Eberhard; Zweihoff, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120 (2001) 155-159]. With forensic entomology, and forensic entomologists being more and more present, even lower profile cases like the neglect of elderly people (without violence being used against them; i.e., natural death) comes to our attention. Furthermore, much more people grow older than in the past years which leads to increased awareness of malpractice of caregivers in the professional, and personal environment [DPA (German Press Agency), Studie an 17000 Leichen: Jeder Siebte vor Tod falsch gepflegt (Every seventh elderly person not cared for sufficiently), German Press Agency dpa # 051402, Jan 3, Jan 5, 2003] . We briefly sketch three cases in which forensic entomology helped to better understand the circumstances of death, and the type and intensity of neglect before death.

  4. Visual neglect following stroke: current concepts and future focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Darren S J; Pollock, Alex; Dutton, Gordon N; Doubal, Fergus N; Ting, Daniel S W; Thompson, Michelle; Dhillon, Baljean

    2011-01-01

    Visual neglect is a common, yet frequently overlooked, neurological disorder following stroke characterized by a deficit in attention and appreciation of stimuli on the contralesional side of the body. It has a profound functional impact on affected individuals. A assessment and management of this condition are hindered, however, by the lack of professional awareness and clinical guidelines. Recent evidence suggests that the underlying deficit in visual attention is due to a disrupted internalized representation of the outer world rather than a disorder of sensory inputs. Dysfunction of the cortical domains and white-matter tracts, as well as inter-hemispheric imbalance, have been implicated in the various manifestations of visual neglect. Optimal diagnosis requires careful history-taking from the patient, family, and friends, in addition to clinical assessment with the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, and the Catherine Bergego Scale. Early recognition and prompt rehabilitation employing a multidisciplinary approach is desirable. Although no treatment has been definitively shown to be of benefit, those with promise include prism adaptation, visual scanning therapy, and virtual reality-based techniques. Further high quality research to seek optimum short- and long-term rehabilitative strategies for visual neglect is required.

  5. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  6. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  7. Neglected Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder: is surgery necessary? A Rare Case with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kunal; Ubale, Tushar; Ugrappa, Harish; Pilankar, Samir; Bhaskar, Atul; Kale, Satishchandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated joint. However, it is rarely neglected and treatment is sought immediately. Delayed or neglected shoulder dislocations are difficult to manage and require extensive procedures to obtain good functional outcome. Very few cases are described in literature showing neglected shoulder dislocation with good functional range of movement. We report a case with 3 years of neglected anterior shoulder dislocation with preserved joint functio...

  8. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A s...

  9. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Rode; Yves Rossetti; Ling Li; Dominique Boisson

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from...

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect: An Informed Approach to a Shared Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides basic information on the nature of child abuse and neglect, including chapters on: (1) the definition of relevant terms (physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse); (2) the scope and magnitude of the problem of child abuse and neglect; (3) the causes of child maltreatment and the most common…

  11. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and...

  12. Themes from a Grounded Theory Analysis of Elder Neglect Assessment by Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Firpo, Adolfo; Guadagno, Lisa; Easter, Tara M.; Kahan, Fay; Paris, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes one program that has developed a screening procedure for assessing elder mistreatment, with a special focus on elder neglect. The aim is to understand how expert neglect assessment teams process and diagnose complex geriatric cases referred for suspected elder neglect. What are the key themes that must be understood…

  13. Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect in Stroke Patients Using Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, Michiel J. A.; Aznar, Miguel; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Peter; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is possible to assess neglect in the extrapersonal…

  14. Moving Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs Forward: Improving Program Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Arlene; McCloskey, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen evaluations of programs to prevent child abuse and neglect are reviewed. The evaluations were characterized by careful attention to methodologic detail but lacked definitions of abuse or neglect. Important topics are omitted, such as the consequences and costs of medical neglect. (Author/JDD)

  15. Mathematical Modeling of the Pressure Field Generated by Ocean Wave at the Bottom of the Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚沈光; 唐劲飞; 颜冰

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a new method for calculating the pressure-tirme processof the pressure field generated by ocean wave at sea bottom based on the surface wavespectrum of the ocean wave. The basic assumptions of modeling are that the surfaceocean wave pressure equals to the atmospheric pressure and that the viscidity of seawater is neglected. The steps of modeling are described below. First the power spectraldensity of ocean wave is discretized and the amplitude spectra of harmonic ocean waveare obtained. Then the amplitude spectra of harmonic pressure are obtained accordingto the amplitude spectrum of surface wave and the depth of the sea. Finally, based onthe oceanographic theory of representing a fixed wave surface by summing up random-phase sinusoids, the pressure-time process of pressure field at sea bottom is obtained bysumming up the amplitude spectrum of pressure. The paper also develops a method ofdetermining the relationship between mean wave period and wave heights undershallow water condition, thus the pressure-time process of pressure field produced bynon-well-developed ocean wave can be directly calculated once the mean wave heightand period are known.

  16. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  17. Evolutionary change during experimental ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pespeni, Melissa H; Sanford, Eric; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Hosfelt, Jessica D; Jaris, Hannah K; LaVigne, Michèle; Lenz, Elizabeth A; Russell, Ann D; Young, Megan K; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2013-04-23

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) conditions are driving unprecedented changes in seawater chemistry, resulting in reduced pH and carbonate ion concentrations in the Earth's oceans. This ocean acidification has negative but variable impacts on individual performance in many marine species. However, little is known about the adaptive capacity of species to respond to an acidified ocean, and, as a result, predictions regarding future ecosystem responses remain incomplete. Here we demonstrate that ocean acidification generates striking patterns of genome-wide selection in purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) cultured under different CO2 levels. We examined genetic change at 19,493 loci in larvae from seven adult populations cultured under realistic future CO2 levels. Although larval development and morphology showed little response to elevated CO2, we found substantial allelic change in 40 functional classes of proteins involving hundreds of loci. Pronounced genetic changes, including excess amino acid replacements, were detected in all populations and occurred in genes for biomineralization, lipid metabolism, and ion homeostasis--gene classes that build skeletons and interact in pH regulation. Such genetic change represents a neglected and important impact of ocean acidification that may influence populations that show few outward signs of response to acidification. Our results demonstrate the capacity for rapid evolution in the face of ocean acidification and show that standing genetic variation could be a reservoir of resilience to climate change in this coastal upwelling ecosystem. However, effective response to strong natural selection demands large population sizes and may be limited in species impacted by other environmental stressors.

  18. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  19. Self-neglect: a case study and implications for clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Day, Mary Rose

    2015-03-02

    Self-neglect is a worldwide and serious public health issue that can have serious adverse outcomes and is more common in older people. Cases can vary in presentation, but typically present as poor self-care, poor care of the environment and service refusal. Community nurses frequently encounter self-neglect cases and health and social care professionals play a key role in the identification, management and prevention of self-neglect. Self-neglect cases can give rise to ethical, personal and professional challenges. The aim of this article is to create a greater understanding of the concept of self-neglect among community nurses.

  20. Child homicide and neglect in France: 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, F; Rambaud, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the victims and the offenders in children homicide cases and to propose preventive measures. We retrospectively investigated homicides and deaths by neglect involving children aged 15 or less, which have been autopsied in the Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine of the Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France, during the 18-year period from 1991 to 2008. Cases included were analyzed for victims' age and gender, victim-assailant's relation, death cause and scenery, and offender's motivation. For the purposes of the study, victims were divided into four age groups: new born; infants (1-23 months); young children (2-5 years); and children (6-15 years). During the study period, 70 victims of homicide or fatal neglect were identified, which equates to a child homicide prevalence of 0.56 per 100,000 children per year. Slightly more than half of the victims (51.4%) were less than 1 year old. Neonaticide prevalence was 0.12 per 100,000 births with an equal distribution between genders. Neonates were most likely to be killed by their mothers while fathers were the most frequent assailants in both infants and children groups. Stepparents were involved in only one case. Familicide cases where children and spouses are killed were perpetrated only by fathers. The leading cause of death was blunt trauma (especially head trauma). In the neonaticide group, half of the victims died from passive neglect whereas gunshots were predominant in the children groups. PMID:24075615

  1. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  2. Letter. Late cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming1 and therefore records of past Arctic change are of a premium for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the late Cretaceous, yet records from such times may yield important clues to its future behaviour given current global warming trends. Here we present the first seasonally resolved sedimentary record from the Cretaceous from...

  3. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  4. ADVANZ - Neglected zoonotc disease control through a One Health approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2013-01-01

    conditions such as hygiene and biosecurity can have an important effect on reducing the risks of transmission. In addition some of the endemic zoonotic diseases can be controlled by interventions such as mass vaccination (e.g rabies), treatment (echinococcosis) and/or creating a simple but effective change...... and marginalized populations. Although the One Health approach initially concentrated on addressing emerging zoonotic diseases and especially pandemic threats, the One Health approach is gaining recognition for addressing endemic/neglected zoonotic diseases as they arise from infections transmitted from...

  5. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA), Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis a...

  6. Neglected waterborne parasitic protozoa and their detection in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutzer, Judit; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-09-15

    Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available. This present paper discusses the detection tools applied for the water surveillance of the neglected waterborne protozoa mentioned above and provides future perspectives. PMID:27281375

  7. Reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon ruptures using the quadriceps graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João Luiz Ellera; de Oliveira Alves, Jairo André; Zimmermann, José Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Several techniques using different grafts have been described for reconstruction of the patellar tendon after a neglected rupture. Retraction of the quadriceps tendon may compromise repair integrity due to progressive stretching of the graft. The authors present a surgical technique using the central one-third of the quadriceps tendon. This is supported by the fact that the resistance to traction of this segment of the quadriceps tendon equals that of a double-looped semitendinosus graft and that the harvesting of this specific graft promotes muscle inhibition, thus protecting the reconstruction during the recovery period.

  8. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  9. Opportunity Cost Neglect Attenuates the Effect of Choices on Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Adam Eric; Spiller, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The idea that choices alter preferences has been widely studied in psychology, yet prior research has focused primarily on choices for which all alternatives were salient at the time of choice. Opportunity costs capture the value of the best forgone alternative and should be considered as part of any decision process, yet people often neglect them. How does the salience of opportunity costs at the time of choice influence subsequent evaluations of chosen and forgone options? In three experiments, we found that there was a larger postchoice spread between evaluations of focal options and opportunity costs when opportunity costs were explicit at the time of choice than when they remained implicit. PMID:26573905

  10. Are gender effects being neglected in schizophrenia research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, O F; Hunter, J

    1992-01-01

    Research on schizophrenia published in four professional journals--Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Archives of General Psychiatry, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, and American Journal of Psychiatry--over a 5-year period from January 1985 through December 1989 was examined for gender composition of subject samples and gender analyses of findings. Results indicate a continued predominance of male subjects in schizophrenia research, with males outnumbering females two to one, and frequent neglect of possible gender differences within mixed-sex samples. Possible explanations for the male bias are considered and greater research and editorial attention to possible gender effects are urged. PMID:1621076

  11. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational and technical feasibility of the penetrator option for HGW disposal has been reviewed and the areas where research is required to confirm feasibility have been identified. The research requirements have been presented against the Department's ocean disposal programme timescale on a series of bar charts. The bar charts show the need for theoretical and experimental studies of the basic mechanisms governing hole closure and the development of suitable instrumentation to assess the actual behaviour of the remoulded sediment in deep ocean trials. Detailed planning of deep ocean trials in sufficient time to develop strategy, models and instrumentation, identification of site investigation requirements and thermal response studies of sediments are also required. (author)

  12. Integrated health messaging for multiple neglected zoonoses: Approaches, challenges and opportunities in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L

    2015-12-01

    Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change. PMID:26299194

  13. Health care provision for older persons: the interplay between ageism and elder neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the link between neglect and ageism in health care provision for older persons. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 registered nurses with at least 2 years' experience in 10 long-term care facilities in Israel. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was performed according to the qualitative method. Three main themes emerged: ageism and neglect as the everyday routine (neglect is built into institution life on the platform of ageism); how the institutional system promotes neglect--between institutional and personal ageism (the ways institutions promote neglect in the shadow of ageism); from vision to reality--how neglect can be prevented in an ageist reality. The attempt to demonstrate the link between ageism and neglect and suggesting how to include them as interrelated phenomena in health care provision programs could promote older persons' quality of life.

  14. Effects of passive tactile and auditory stimuli on left visual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, M; Peres, B; Pollak, P; Memin, B; Besson, G; Gaio, J M; Perret, J

    1990-05-01

    Patients with left-sided visual neglect fail to copy the left part of drawings or the drawings on the left side of a sheet of paper. Our aim was to study the variations in copying drawings induced by passive stimulation in patients with left-sided visual neglect. No stimulation at all, tactile unilateral and bilateral, binaural auditory verbal, and nonverbal stimuli were randomly applied to 14 patients with right-hemisphere strokes. Only nonverbal stimuli decreased the neglect. As nonverbal stimuli mainly activate the right hemisphere, the decrease in neglect suggests right-hemispheric hypoactivity at rest in these patients. The absence of modification of neglect during verbal stimulation suggests a bilateral hemispheric activation and the persistence of interhemispheric imbalance. Our results showed that auditory pathways take part in the network involved with neglect. Passive nonverbal auditory stimuli may be of interest in the rehabilitation of patients with left visual neglect. PMID:2334306

  15. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air–sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty. This estimate includes a

  16. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data-assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on ocean forward models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of

  17. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwala, S.; Tanhua, T.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S.; Gerber, M.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.; McKinley, G. A.; Murata, A.; Ríos, A. F.; Sabine, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant), absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty). This estimate includes a broad range of

  18. Ocean acidification in the Western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, W.; Chen, B.; Chen, L.

    2011-12-01

    We report carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification status in the western Arctic Ocean from 65-88οN based on data collected in summer 2008 and 2010. In the marginal seas, surface waters have high pH and high carbonate saturation state (Ω) due to intensive biological uptake of CO2. In the southern Canada Basin, surface waters have low pH and low Ω due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and sea-ice melt. In the northern Arctic Ocean basin, there is no serious ocean acidification in surface water due to heavy ice-coverage but pH and Ω in the subsurface waters at the oxygen minimum and nutrient maximum zone (at 100-150 m) are low due mostly to respiration-derived CO2 and an increased biological production and export in surface waters. Such multitude responses of ocean carbonate chemistry (northern vs. southern basin, basins vs. margins, and surface vs. subsurface) to climate changes are unique to the Arctic Ocean system. We will explore biogeochemical control mechanisms on carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean environments in the context of recent warming and sea-ice retreat.

  19. Neglect and extinction in kinesthesia and thesesthesia: understanding proprioceptive inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgiou, Elissaios

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new observation of neglect and extinction of kinesthesia and thesesthesia (movement and position imperception), jointly reflecting proprioceptive inattention, in a series of patients with parietal lesions. A prototypical case is discussed in detail and unaddressed aspects of proprioceptive inattention are discussed through findings from four additional cases. Thesesthetic and kinesthetic extinction were tested through simultaneous antidromic vertical displacement of index fingers, while having patients report on finger proprioceptive perception with eyes closed. Patients had variable degrees of proprioceptive inattention affecting a specific limb, but without pallesthetic inattention or somatoagnosia, whereas symptoms often resolved with visual feedback or active limb movements. Findings support that kinesthesia and thesesthesia (a) are subserved by near-identical brain networks, (b) relate more to tactile perception than pallesthesia in higher order cortical areas, and (c) have a somatotopic cortical organization even in association brain areas. Furthermore, proprioceptive extinction and neglect involve (i) "attention network" structures, (ii) either hemisphere, (iii) gray or subcortical white matter damage, (iv) defective vigilance mechanisms possibly through premature habituation of spatiotemporally saturated neural capacitor circuits, and (v) are not the result of somatoagnosia, while (vi) their resolution is observed through reafferent motor-sensory or visual feedback.

  20. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  1. Neglect dyslexia: a review of the neuropsychological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Burani, Cristina; Arduino, Lisa S

    2010-10-01

    Neglect dyslexia (ND) is reviewed, based on published single-patient and group studies. ND is frequently associated with right hemispheric damage and unilateral spatial neglect (USN), and typically involves the left side of the letter string. Left-brain-damaged patients showing ND, ipsilateral (left) or contralateral (right) to the side of the left-sided hemispheric lesion, have also been reported, as well as a few patients with bilateral damage, with more frequently left than right ND. As USN, ND is temporarily ameliorated by lateralized stimulations (vestibular caloric, visual prism adaptation). ND may occur independent of USN, suggesting the damage to specific visuospatial representational/attentional systems, supporting reading. ND errors comprise omission, substitution, and, less frequently, addition of letters on one side of the stimulus, resulting in words or nonwords, also with reference to the stimulus' linguistic features. Patients with ND may show preserved lexical-morphological effects and implicit processing, up to the semantic level, of the misread string. This preserved processing is a feature of ND, shared with the USN syndrome. The mechanisms modulating error type and lexical-morphological effects are partly independent of each other. Different levels of representation of the letter string may be affected, giving rise to egocentric, stimulus-centred, and word-centred patterns of impairment. The anatomical correlates of ND include the temporo-parieto-occipital regions.

  2. Detecting elder abuse and neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Robert M; Polson, Michol

    2014-03-15

    Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is expected to increase. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence that screening for elder abuse reduces harm, physicians in most states have professional and legal obligations to appropriately diagnose, report, and refer persons who have been abused. Screening or systematic inquiry can detect abuse. A detailed medical evaluation of patients suspected of being abused is necessary because medical and psychiatric conditions can mimic abuse. Signs of abuse may include specific patterns of injury. Interviewing patients and caregivers separately is helpful. Evaluation for possible abuse should include assessment of cognitive function. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index is validated to screen for abuse in cognitively intact patients. A more detailed two-step process is used to screen patients with cognitive impairment. The National Center on Elder Abuse website provides detailed, state-specific reporting and resource information for family physicians.

  3. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  4. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  5. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  6. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  7. Ocean Disposal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  8. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  9. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  10. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...

  11. Ocean acidification accelerates reef bioerosion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Wisshak

    Full Text Available In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO(2 in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process - biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion - has largely been neglected. Unlike skeletal growth, we expect bioerosion by chemical means to be facilitated in a high-CO(2 world. This study focuses on one of the most detrimental bioeroders, the sponge Cliona orientalis, which attacks and kills live corals on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Experimental exposure to lowered and elevated levels of pCO(2 confirms a significant enforcement of the sponges' bioerosion capacity with increasing pCO(2 under more acidic conditions. Considering the substantial contribution of sponges to carbonate bioerosion, this finding implies that tropical reef ecosystems are facing the combined effects of weakened coral calcification and accelerated bioerosion, resulting in critical pressure on the dynamic balance between biogenic carbonate build-up and degradation.

  12. Ethical Consumerism and Techniques of Neutralisation in the Hybrid Electric Car Market: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Tom

    2008-01-01

    While there is a wealth of literature investigating ethical consumerism for many consumer products (fair trade, organic), but extant literature neglects applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) market. The dire market penetration of HEV's in the UK is currently 0.1%, with a Government target of 10% by 2012. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is applied to a young (16-25 years of age) sample (n = 180), into which preliminary exploration of techniques of...

  13. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  14. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  15. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  16. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  17. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...

  18. Behavioural hybrid process calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, H.; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in th

  19. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  20. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  1. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  2. Neglecting Primordial non-Gaussianity Threatens Future Cosmological Experiment Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Camera, Stefano; Fedeli, Cosimo; Moscardini, Lauro

    2014-01-01

    Future galaxy redshift surveys aim at probing the clustering of the cosmic large-scale structure with unprecedented accuracy, thus complementing cosmic microwave background experiments in the quest of delivering the most precise and accurate picture ever of our Universe. Analyses of such measurements are usually performed within the context of the so-called vanilla LCDM model - the six-parameter phenomenological model which, for instance, emerges from best fits against the recent data obtained by the Planck satellite. Here, we show that such an approach is prone to subtle systematics when the Gaussianity of primordial fluctuations is concerned. In particular, we demonstrate that, if we neglect even a tiny amount of primordial non-Gaussianity - fully consistent with current limits - we shall introduce spurious biases in the reconstruction of cosmological parameters. This is a serious issue that must be properly accounted for in the view of accurate - besides precise - cosmology.

  3. Two stage procedure for neglected transscaphoid perilunate dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Lal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a two-staged surgical procedure for neglected 3 month old volar transscaphoid, transcapitate perilunate fracture dislocation wrist in an 18 year old right handed male student. The lunate with proximal scaphoid and proximal capitate maintained its articulation with distal end radius while the rest of carpal bones had dislocated volarly. In the first stage, bilateral uniplanar wrist distractor was applied with the aim of stretching soft tissue. In the next stage open reduction and internal fixation was done by a combined volar and dorsal approach augmented by pronator quadratus flap. At 3 years followup the patient was pain free and had a full range of supination pronation of the forearms and radial and ulnar deviation of wrist with 10΀ dorsiflexion deficit.

  4. The untapped cell biology of neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization lists a constellation of 17 tropical diseases that afflict approximately one in six individuals on the planet and, until recently, few resources have been devoted to the treatment and eradication of those diseases. They are often referred to as the diseases of the “bottom billion,” because they are most prevalent among the poorest individuals in impoverished tropical nations. However, the few studies that have been performed reveal an extraordinary world of molecular and cellular adaptations that facilitate the pathogens’ survival in hosts ranging from insects to humans. A compelling case can be made that even a modest investment toward understanding the basic molecular and cell biology of these neglected pathogens has a high probability of yielding exciting new cellular mechanisms and insights into novel ways of combating these diseases. PMID:26915691

  5. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers: neglected tropical diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MacNeil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these outbreaks are a direct consequence of impoverished conditions. We will discuss aspects of EHF and MHF disease, in comparison to the "classic" NTDs, and examine potential ways forward in the prevention and control of EHF and MHF in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as examine the potential for application of novel vaccines or antiviral drugs for prevention or control of EHF and MHF among populations at highest risk for disease.

  6. Adolescent male peer sexual abuse: An issue often neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish H Banwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease.

  7. Neglected reverse Essex-Lopresti injury with ulnar nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajay Pal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A 45 year old woman was diagnosed as having anteromedial radial head dislocation and distal radius fracture five months after her injury on right forearm. The radial head dislocation led to ulnar nerve compression. She had severe restriction of her elbow movements. She was treated with arthrolysis, decompression of the ulnar nerve and radial head resection. The reverse Essex Lopresti injury and radial head dislocation compressing the ulnar nerve has not been reported in English language literature to the best of our knowledge. A mechanism is proposed for the injury. In acute presentations, restoration of both the radioulnar joints should be done and neglected nature of such injury leads to suboptimal outcomes. Key words: Radius fracture; Unar nerve; Elbow joint

  8. Neglected reverse Essex-Lopresti injury with ulnar nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal Singh; Ish Kumar Dhammi; Anil Kumar Jain

    2011-01-01

    A 45 year old woman was diagnosed as having anteromedial radial head dislocation and distal radius fracture five months after her injury on right forearm.The radial head dislocation led to ulnar nerve compression.She had severe restriction of her elbow movements. She was treated with arthrolysis, decompression of the ulnar nerve and radial head resection. The reverse Essex Lopresti injury and radial head dislocation compressing the ulnar nerve has not been reported in English language literature to the best of our knowledge. A mechanism is proposed for the injury. In acute presentations, restoration of both the radioulnar joints should be done and neglected nature of such injury leads to suboptimal outcomes.

  9. Reunifying abused or neglected children: Decision-making and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehal, Nina; Sinclair, Ian; Wade, Jim

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about decision-making regarding the reunification of children in care, or about the consequences of these decisions for the children concerned. This study compared decision-making and outcomes for 149 maltreated children in seven English authorities (68 reunified, 81 who remained in care). Children were followed up six months after their return home or, for those who were not reunified, six months after the 'effective decision' that they should remain in care. They were followed up again four years (on average) after the return or effective decision. Data were extracted from case files at baseline and six month follow-up and were gathered from surveys of social workers and teachers at final follow-up. The two key predictors of reunification were assessments that parental problems had improved and that risks to the child were not unacceptably high. Two-thirds returned to improved family circumstances, sometimes due to a change in the household they returned to, but others were reunified despite persisting concerns. However 35% re-entered care within six months and 63% re-entered at some point during the four-year follow-up period, often due to recurring abuse or neglect. At final follow-up remaining in care was the strongest predictor of positive outcomes on a range of dimensions, even once children's characteristics and histories were taken into account. Outcomes were especially poor for neglected children who were reunified, irrespective of whether reunification was stable or unstable. Results show the potential of the care system to produce positive outcomes for maltreated children. PMID:25975846

  10. Lexical processes and eye movements in neglect dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pellegrino, G; Làdavas, E; Galletti, C

    Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C.) with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length. F.C.'s ocular exploration of orthographic stimuli was highly sensitive to the lexical status of the letter string. We found that: (1) the location to which F.C. directed his initial saccade (obtained approximately 230 ms post-stimulus onset) differed between word and non-word stimuli; (2) the patient spent a greater amount of time fixating the contralesional side of word than non-word strings. Moreover, we also found that F.C. failed to identify the left letters of a string despite having fixated them, thus showing a clear dissociation between eye movement responses and conscious access to orthographic stimuli. Our data suggest the existence of multiple interactions between lexical, attentional and eye movement systems that occur from very initial stages of visual word recognition. PMID:12118151

  11. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alcides; Troncoso

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases(NTDs) are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa’s poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea,Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world′s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it′s a poverty crisis.The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  12. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  13. Memory, maternal representations and internalizing symptomatology among abused, neglected and nonmaltreated children

    OpenAIRE

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal-representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N= 33) and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children. Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreat...

  14. Preschool Educators’ Roles Views and Experiences About Child Abuse Neglect and Violence Towards Children

    OpenAIRE

    DEREOBALI, Nilay; KARADAĞ, Sevinç ÇIRAK; Sönmez, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the views and experiences of preschool teachers about child abuse, neglect, violence and their own roles using a questionnaire data for 197 teachers. The results shows that very few educators received training on the issues of violence, child abuse and neglect, and if, then during their pre-service education. While defining violence, child abuse and neglect, the educators used expressions compliant with the definitions in the relevant literature; however, the definitions o...

  15. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Luauté; Sophie Jacquin-Courtois; Jacinta O'Shea; Laure Christophe; Gilles Rode; Dominique Boisson; Yves Rossetti

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purpos...

  16. The role Kentucky's dentists must play in preventing child abuse & neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouden, L D

    1997-01-01

    Dentistry must become more aware of its moral, legal, and ethical responsibilities in recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect. All dental professionals must be aware of the seriousness of the problems of child maltreatment, and understand that children do not just get hurt in abuse and neglect, they often die as a direct result of their maltreatment. Unfortunately, victims of child abuse and neglect fall into only two categories--those who lived through it and those who did not. PMID:9573768

  17. Eye movements and verbal report in a single case of visual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Valerie; Ietswaart, Magdalena; Milner, David

    2012-01-01

    In this single case study, visuospatial neglect patient P1 demonstrated a dissociation between an intact ability to make appropriate reflexive eye movements to targets in the neglected field with latencies of eye movements appears to be disrupted for low-level orienting in P1. A comparable disruption was also found for high-level cognitive processing tasks, namely reading and scene scanning. The findings are discussed in relation to sampling, attention and awareness in neglect.

  18. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls foll...

  19. Implicit learning: A way to improve visual search in spatial neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansard, Murielle; Geurten, Marie; Colson, Catherine; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without being able to verbalize their knowledge. In order to better control for the involvement of explicit processes, the present study sought to test neglect patients' ability to detect more complex associations between stimuli using tasks similar to those used in implicit learning studies. Our results demonstrate that neglect patients had difficulties implicitly learning complex associations, contrary to what we found with controls. The possible influence of attentional and working memory impairments are discussed. PMID:27262690

  20. Long-Term Efficacy of Prism Adaptation on Spatial Neglect: Preliminary Results on Different Spatial Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Rusconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the long-term effectiveness on spatial neglect recovery of a 2-week treatment based on prism adaptation (PA. Seven right-brain-damaged patients affected by chronic neglect were evaluated before, after two weeks of the PA treatment and at a follow-up (variable between 8 and 30 months after the end of PA. Neglect evaluation was performed by means of BIT (conventional and behavioral, Fluff Test, and Comb and Razor Test. The results highlight an improvement, after the PA training, in both tasks performed using the hand trained in PA treatment and in behavioral tasks not requiring a manual motor response. Such effects extend, even if not significantly, to all BIT subtests. These results support previous findings, showing that PA improves neglect also on imagery tasks with no manual component, and provide further evidence for long-lasting efficacy of PA training. Dissociations have been found with regard to PA efficacy on peripersonal, personal, and representational neglect, visuospatial agraphia and neglect dyslexia. In particular, we found no significant differences between the pre-training and post-training PA session in personal neglect measures, and a poor recovery of neglect dyslexia after PA treatment. The recruitment of a larger sample could help to confirm the effectiveness of the prismatic lenses with regard to the different clinical manifestations of spatial neglect.

  1. Long-term efficacy of prism adaptation on spatial neglect: preliminary results on different spatial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Maria Luisa; Carelli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the long-term effectiveness on spatial neglect recovery of a 2-week treatment based on prism adaptation (PA). Seven right-brain-damaged patients affected by chronic neglect were evaluated before, after two weeks of the PA treatment and at a follow-up (variable between 8 and 30 months after the end of PA). Neglect evaluation was performed by means of BIT (conventional and behavioral), Fluff Test, and Comb and Razor Test. The results highlight an improvement, after the PA training, in both tasks performed using the hand trained in PA treatment and in behavioral tasks not requiring a manual motor response. Such effects extend, even if not significantly, to all BIT subtests. These results support previous findings, showing that PA improves neglect also on imagery tasks with no manual component, and provide further evidence for long-lasting efficacy of PA training. Dissociations have been found with regard to PA efficacy on peripersonal, personal, and representational neglect, visuospatial agraphia and neglect dyslexia. In particular, we found no significant differences between the pre-training and post-training PA session in personal neglect measures, and a poor recovery of neglect dyslexia after PA treatment. The recruitment of a larger sample could help to confirm the effectiveness of the prismatic lenses with regard to the different clinical manifestations of spatial neglect.

  2. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Seniors with Psychiatric Morbidity - Example from Central Moravia, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Luzny; Lubica Jurickova

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) comprises emotional, financial, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect by other individuals, and self-neglect. Elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity was not monitored in the Czech Republic at all, despite the literature shows mental morbidity as one of the important risk factor for developing elder abuse and neglect. Methods: We designed comparative cross sectional study comprising 305 seniors hospitalized in Mental Hospital Krome...

  3. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  4. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  5. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  6. Functional assessment of spatial neglect: a review of the Catherine Bergego scale and an introduction of the Kessler foundation neglect assessment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Hreha, Kimberly; Fortis, Paola; Goedert, Kelly M; Barrett, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a debilitating poststroke neurocognitive disorder associated with prolonged hospitalization and poor rehabilitation outcomes. The literature suggests a high prevalence of this disorder, but clinicians have difficulty reliably identifying affected survivors. This discrepancy may result from suboptimal use of validated neglect assessment procedures. In this article, we suggest use of a validated assessment tool that is sensitive to identification of neglect and its functional consequences - the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS). We provide detailed item-by-item instructions for observation and scoring - the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). Rehabilitation researchers may be able to use the CBS via the KF-NAP to measure ecological outcomes and specific, separable perceptual-attentional and motor-exploratory spatial behaviors.

  7. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  8. The effect of stimulus duration and motor response in hemispatial neglect during a visual search task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Jelsone-Swain

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect exhibit a myriad of profound deficits. A hallmark of this syndrome is the patients' absence of awareness of items located in their contralesional space. Many studies, however, have demonstrated that neglect patients exhibit some level of processing of these neglected items. It has been suggested that unconscious processing of neglected information may manifest as a fast denial. This theory of fast denial proposes that neglected stimuli are detected in the same way as non-neglected stimuli, but without overt awareness. We evaluated the fast denial theory by conducting two separate visual search task experiments, each differing by the duration of stimulus presentation. Specifically, in Experiment 1 each stimulus remained in the participants' visual field until a response was made. In Experiment 2 each stimulus was presented for only a brief duration. We further evaluated the fast denial theory by comparing verbal to motor task responses in each experiment. Overall, our results from both experiments and tasks showed no evidence for the presence of implicit knowledge of neglected stimuli. Instead, patients with neglect responded the same when they neglected stimuli as when they correctly reported stimulus absence. These findings thus cast doubt on the concept of the fast denial theory and its consequent implications for non-conscious processing. Importantly, our study demonstrated that the only behavior affected was during conscious detection of ipsilesional stimuli. Specifically, patients were slower to detect stimuli in Experiment 1 compared to Experiment 2, suggesting a duration effect occurred during conscious processing of information. Additionally, reaction time and accuracy were similar when reporting verbally versus motorically. These results provide new insights into the perceptual deficits associated with neglect and further support other work that falsifies the fast denial account of non

  9. SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY OF REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雅芙; 任艳; 李亚明

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To explore the correlations between the occurrence and severity of neglect and the region,range or extent of the decrease in regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF). Methods. Nineteen dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as unilateral stroke clinically and hemispatial neglect by a neglect test battery received single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) scans. Results. On images,the damages of patients with neglect were seen most frequently in the frontal cortex,and then in turn in the parietal cortex,occipital cortex,temporal cortex,basal ganglia and thalamus. Most patients with neglect had two or more regions damaged. The most significant region was temporal-parietal-occipi-tal(TPO)junction. The correlation coefficient between rCBF and the severity of neglect was -0.34(t=-1.5,P>0.05),and that between the decrease percentage of rCBF and the severity of neglect was 0.34(t=1.47,P>0.05). The correlation coefficients between the range,number of foci,the flow deficit size and the severity of neglect were 0.71(t=4.13,P<0.01),0.70(t=4.07,P<0.01)and 0.64(t=3.40, P<0.01),respectively. Conclusions. The severity of neglect correlates with rCBF and the decrease percentage of rCBF insignificantly,but correlates positively with the range,number of foci and the flow deficit size significantly. Hemispatial neglect is caused by the damage of multiple sites and combined damage results in more severe neglect.

  10. HIV/AIDS among pastoralists and refugees in north-east Africa: a neglected problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kassa, Afework; Alwan, Fathia; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since the late 1980s, the IGAD Regional HIV & AIDS Partnership Program was (IRAPP) established in 2007 to mitigate the challenges of HIV among neglected pastoral and refugee communities. This article assesses vulnerability of pastoralists and refugee communities to HIV and interventions targeting these groups in the IGAD countries. Outcomes from this study may serve as a baseline for further research and to improve interventions. Published articles were accessed through web searches using PubMed and Google Scholar engines and unpublished documents were collected manually. The search terms were HIV risk behaviour, vulnerability, HIV prevalence and interventions, under the headings pastoralists, refugees, IGAD and north-east Africa for the period 2001-2014. Of the 214 documents reviewed, 78 met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most HIV/AIDS related studies focusing of pastoral communities in IGAD countries were found to be limited in scope and coverage but reveal precarious situations. Sero-prevalence among various pastoral populations ranged from 1% to 21% in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda and from 1% to 5% among refugees in Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. Socioeconomic, cultural, logistic, infrastructure and programmatic factors were found to contribute to continuing vulnerability to HIV. Interventions need to be further contextualised to the needs of those impoverished populations and integrated into national HIV/AIDS programmes. HIV/AIDS remains a major public health concern among the pastoral and refugee communities of IGAD countries. This calls for IGAD to collaborate with national and international partners in

  11. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  12. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  13. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  14. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  15. Gender-specific linkages of parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect with children’s problem behaviour: evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    OSHIO, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. Methods A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged ...

  16. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. PMID:23578479

  17. [Current Trend of Drug Development for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    EBOLA hemorrhagic fever, a typical emerging infectious disease, began in December 2013 in the southern part of Guinea, and killed more than 11000 people by the end of June, 2015. In addition to emerging/re-emerging diseases and the 3 major infectious diseases i.e. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have recently become important tropical diseases of the poor. It is remarkable that Japan succeeded in the eradication of malaria and other tropical diseases, which include lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis. However, despite these achievements, it is important to sustain our efforts when we consider global health. This review highlights the significance of elimination and/or control of NTDs, and then introduces the current situation of drug development activities in Japan, which are aimed towards combating tropical infectious diseases. They include studies on a novel drug target, the "mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (Fumarate respiration)" composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II, which plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of many helminths such as Ascaris suum. An additional interesting finding highlighted herein is that ascofuranone, a recently developed anti-African trypanosome drug, shows specific inhibition of fumarate respiration in Echinococcus multilocularis mitochondria. PMID:26831795

  18. Consistent thermodynamic framework for interacting particles by neglecting thermal noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando D.; Curado, Evaldo M. F.; Souza, Andre M. C.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2015-02-01

    An effective temperature θ , conjugated to a generalized entropy sq, was introduced recently for a system of interacting particles. Since θ presents values much higher than those of typical room temperatures T ≪θ , the thermal noise can be neglected (T /θ ≃0 ) in these systems. Moreover, the consistency of this definition, as well as of a form analogous to the first law of thermodynamics, d u =θ d sq+δ W , were verified lately by means of a Carnot cycle, whose efficiency was shown to present the usual form, η =1 -(θ2/θ1) . Herein we explore further the heat contribution δ Q =θ d sq by proposing a way for a heat exchange between two such systems, as well as its associated thermal equilibrium. As a consequence, the zeroth principle is also established. Moreover, we consolidate the first-law proposal by following the usual procedure for obtaining different potentials, i.e., applying Legendre transformations for distinct pairs of independent variables. From these potentials we derive the equation of state, Maxwell relations, and define response functions. All results presented are shown to be consistent with those of standard thermodynamics for T >0 .

  19. Speckle Tracking Echocardiography of the Right Atrium: The Neglected Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan; Lima, Eduardo; Munir, Farrukh; Faisal Khan, Anum; Waqas, Ahmed; Bughio, Sara; ul Haq, Ehtesham; Attique, Hassan Bin; Rahman, Zia Ur

    2015-11-01

    The right atrium (RA) plays a pivotal role in electromechanical and endocrine regulation of the heart. Its peculiar anatomical features and phasic mechanical function make it distinct from ventricles. Various invasive and noninvasive techniques have been used to elucidate RA structure and function. Of these modalities, echocardiography has distinct advantages over others. Several conventional measures of RA function through echocardiography have been described in the literature, but they are load dependent. A relatively new technique is speckle tracking-derived strain, which is relatively less dependent on loading conditions. Speckle tracking echocardiography tracks acoustic scatters (speckles) of myocardium frame-by-frame to calculate strain or deformation of the myocardium. Speckle tracking echocardiography has been used extensively for strain assessment of the right and left ventricle to detect subtle disease pathology, to gain mechanistic insight, as a marker of ischemic metabolic memory, as an endpoint in clinical trials, and as a functional assessment tool. The RA is a relatively neglected chamber, as it is mostly studied for assessment of atrial mass lesions, for electrophysiological studies, and in animal models for physiological assessment. However, its role in the systolic and diastolic function of the right heart, pulmonary vascular pathology, congenital heart diseases, and combined electromechanical activation phenomena has been less explored or unexplored. Speckle tracking echocardiography is an ideal tool for the assessment of the RA because of its regional and global functional characterization, angle independence, and high temporal resolution. PMID:26418622

  20. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested in the literature; however, the model of Bachman and Palmer (1996 is the one considered in the present study. It includes two major nodes of organizational and pragmatic competences. Under the organizational competence are grammatical and textual competences, and pragmatic competence includes illocutionary and sociolinguistic competences. In this paper it is argued that among the many competences required to be considered proficient in a language, metaphorical competence is also central. As such, after illuminating the concept of metaphor and metaphorical competence, some models of communicative competence (CC are presented. Moreover, in line with Littlemore and Low (2006, it is emphasized that metaphorical competence which is present in most of the components of CC should receive more attention in L2 classrooms. In fact, it is concluded that having an acceptable metaphorical competence contributes to the learners’ overall communicative competence.Keywords: Metaphor, Metaphorical competence, Communicative competence, L2

  1. Earth Observation, Spatial Data Quality, and Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A S Hamm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation (EO is the use of remote sensing and in situ observations to gather data on the environment. It finds increasing application in the study of environmentally modulated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Obtaining and assuring the quality of the relevant spatially and temporally indexed EO data remain challenges. Our objective was to review the Earth observation products currently used in studies of NTD epidemiology and to discuss fundamental issues relating to spatial data quality (SDQ, which limit the utilization of EO and pose challenges for its more effective use. We searched Web of Science and PubMed for studies related to EO and echinococossis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Relevant literature was also identified from the bibliographies of those papers. We found that extensive use is made of EO products in the study of NTD epidemiology; however, the quality of these products is usually given little explicit attention. We review key issues in SDQ concerning spatial and temporal scale, uncertainty, and the documentation and use of quality information. We give examples of how these issues may interact with uncertainty in NTD data to affect the output of an epidemiological analysis. We conclude that researchers should give careful attention to SDQ when designing NTD spatial-epidemiological studies. This should be used to inform uncertainty analysis in the epidemiological study. SDQ should be documented and made available to other researchers.

  2. Earth Observation, Spatial Data Quality, and Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A S; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Clements, Archie C A

    2015-12-01

    Earth observation (EO) is the use of remote sensing and in situ observations to gather data on the environment. It finds increasing application in the study of environmentally modulated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Obtaining and assuring the quality of the relevant spatially and temporally indexed EO data remain challenges. Our objective was to review the Earth observation products currently used in studies of NTD epidemiology and to discuss fundamental issues relating to spatial data quality (SDQ), which limit the utilization of EO and pose challenges for its more effective use. We searched Web of Science and PubMed for studies related to EO and echinococossis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Relevant literature was also identified from the bibliographies of those papers. We found that extensive use is made of EO products in the study of NTD epidemiology; however, the quality of these products is usually given little explicit attention. We review key issues in SDQ concerning spatial and temporal scale, uncertainty, and the documentation and use of quality information. We give examples of how these issues may interact with uncertainty in NTD data to affect the output of an epidemiological analysis. We conclude that researchers should give careful attention to SDQ when designing NTD spatial-epidemiological studies. This should be used to inform uncertainty analysis in the epidemiological study. SDQ should be documented and made available to other researchers.

  3. Development assistance for neglected tropical diseases: progress since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bernhard H; Houghton, Natalia; Teplitskaya, Lyubov

    2014-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is an umbrella term for a diverse group of debilitating infections that represent the most common afflictions for 2.7 billion people living on less than US$2 per day. Major efforts have recently re-focused attention on NTDs, including structured advocacy by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, technical and political support by WHO and large-scale drug donation programs by pharmaceutical companies. An analysis of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) for NTDs in 2009 showed that Development Assistance Committee members and multilateral donors had largely ignored funding NTD control projects. This study reviews the changes since 2009 and finds an increased engagement by pharmaceutical manufacturers through drug donation programs substantially increased by the 'London Declaration' in 2012, a focused effort of 77 public and private partners on control or elimination of the 10 most common NTDs, but no increase in ODA for NTDs between 2008 and 2012. The allocation of ODA still does not reflect the respective importance of these diseases.

  4. Impact of vectorborne parasitic neglected tropical diseases on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Meagan A; Murray, Kristy O; Hotez, Peter J; Jones, Kathryn M

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are all vectorborne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are responsible for significant disease burden in impoverished children and adults worldwide. As vectorborne parasitic diseases, they can all be targeted for elimination through vector control strategies. Examples of successful vector control programmes for these diseases over the past two decades have included the Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease, the Kala-azar Control Scheme against leishmaniasis, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme and the lymphatic filariasis control programme in The Gambia. A common vector control component in all of these programmes is the use of adulticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and newer synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against the insect vectors of disease. Household spraying has been used against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, and insecticide-treated bed nets have helped prevent leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis. Recent trends in vector control focus on collaborations between programmes and sectors to achieve integrated vector management that addresses the holistic vector control needs of a community rather than approaching it on a disease-by-disease basis, with the goals of increased efficacy, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. As evidence of vector resistance to currently used insecticide regimens emerges, research to develop new and improved insecticides and novel control strategies will be critical in reducing disease burden. In the quest to eliminate these vectorborne NTDs, efforts need to be made to continue existing control programmes, further implement integrated vector control strategies and stimulate research into new insecticides and control methods. PMID:26921274

  5. Loa loa-does it deserve to be neglected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Wolfram Gottfried; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    More than 10 million people in western and central Africa are estimated to be infected with Loa loa filarial nematodes. Like most other infectious diseases, L loa filariasis (loiasis) covers a wide range of symptoms. Severe complications have been reported; however, most observations are anecdotal, typically in travellers. The widespread use of filaricidal drugs within eradication programmes of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti led to the observation that concomitant L loa infection increases the risk of severe treatment-associated, life-threatening complications. Initiatives were therefore launched to map the risk of loiasis. Insight about the epidemiology of L loa has advanced notably; however, its effect on the individual as well as on the community level has not been well studied. In the absence of appropriate studies, L loa is commonly judged a harmless nematode, and loiasis as a separate entity does not belong to the list of neglected tropical diseases to be controlled or eradicated in worldwide campaigns. We advocate reorientation of research efforts towards a patient-centric view of loiasis and, as a first step, to establish the disease burden in disability-adjusted life-years of this chronic infection, and to answer the question of whether loiasis should be included in future control programmes. PMID:24332895

  6. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation. PMID:24407144

  7. The moderating effect of relationships on intergenerational risk for infant neglect by young mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dym Bartlett, Jessica; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2015-07-01

    Infant neglect is the form of child maltreatment that occurs most often, yet has been least amenable to prevention. A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is a potent risk factor for child neglect, yet most maltreated mothers break intergenerational cycles of child abuse and neglect. Little is known about what protective factors support discontinuity in intergenerational transmission. This study examined whether certain factors (positive childhood care, older maternal age, social support) buffer intergenerational risk for neglect among the infants of young mothers, a population at high risk of being victimized. For young mothers in the sample (empathy. The results revealed that both infants and their mothers experienced neglect more often than any other maltreatment type. However, approximately 77% of maltreated mothers broke the cycle with their infants (childhood neglect and maternal empathy. Neglected mothers had considerably higher levels of parenting empathy when they had frequent access to social support than when they had less frequent support, whereas the protective effect of social support was not nearly as strong for non-maltreated mothers. Study findings highlight resilience in parenting despite risk for infant neglect, but underscore the context specificity of protective processes. PMID:25823793

  8. Reconsiderations of the Idea of Salutary Neglect and the Origins of the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David W.

    1974-01-01

    The essay is written primarily for social studies teachers, unfamiliar with the recent literature in the field of 18th century Anglo-American relations and the theory that the British neglected their colony until 1763. Evidence for modification of this "theory of neglect" and recent works that are beginning the revision are presented. (JR)

  9. Supervisory Neglect and Risk of Harm. Evidence from the Canadian Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Trocme, Nico; Fallon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explores prevalence and characteristics associated with supervisory neglect and physical harm in children in the child welfare system in Canada. Methods: The sample included all substantiated primary maltreatment investigations in the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect excluding cases where…

  10. Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

  11. The Contested Terrain of Teachers Detecting and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Schweitzer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article establishes the important role of early childhood teachers in child abuse and neglect and argues for empirical research into their practice of detecting, and reporting, known or suspected child abuse and neglect in a State with new and unique reporting obligations for teachers. It emphasizes the practical value of such research for…

  12. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  13. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Practical Guide for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem. Often professional school counselors (PSCs) express feelings of anxiety at the prospect of working with such cases. Indeed, one of educators' greatest fears is dealing with child abuse and neglect cases (Wilson, Ireton, & Wood, 1997). Rarely do ethical dilemmas confronting professional school…

  14. Dispositional Empathy in Neglectful Mothers and Mothers at High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…

  15. 76 FR 52958 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Developing World: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Neglected Tropical Diseases... sponsors in the clinical development of drugs for the treatment or prevention of neglected diseases of the... same as for approval of drugs for diseases endemic in the United States; and (4) FDA is committed...

  16. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  17. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  18. First Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C.; Thomas E Wellems; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E.; Guillen, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughp...

  19. Right Hemispatial Neglect: Frequency and Characterization Following Acute Left Hemisphere Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of various types of unilateral spatial neglect and associated areas of neural dysfunction after left hemisphere stroke are not well characterized. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in distinct spatial reference frames have been identified after acute right, but not left hemisphere stroke. We studied 47 consecutive right handed…

  20. Unilateral spatial neglect, global processing deficit and prosopagnosia following right hemisphere stroke: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xue-song; YE Jing; ZHOU Shu; LU Bing-xun; CHEN Xian-hong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Although unilateral spatial neglect, global processing deficit, or prosopagnosia following brain damage has been usually reported separately, to our knowledge, a report on a patient with the three mentioned syndromes has not been reported. We now present a case that developed unilateral spatial neglect, global processing deficit and prosopagnosia after right hemisphere stroke in September 2004.

  1. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  2. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  3. Benznidazole Shortage Makes Chagas Disease a Neglected Tropical Disease in Developed Countries: Data from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Miriam; Norman, Francesca F.; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease endemic in Latin America. The first-line treatment option is benznidazole, but stocks are expected to run out in the coming months. Spain would need around 5 million benznidazole tablets. This drug shortage could make Chagas disease a neglected tropical disease also in developed countries. PMID:22826485

  4. Cortical and subcortical anatomy of chronic spatial neglect following vascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Armin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior temporal gyrus (STG or subcortical pathways as possible anatomical correlates of spatial neglect is currently intensely discussed. Some of the conflicting results might have arisen because patients were examined in the acute stage of disease. Methods We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. Results The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. Conclusion Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections. Frontal structures or projections may be of particular relevance for spatial exploration, while the IPL may be important for object-based attention as required for line bisection.

  5. Recognizing Emotion in Faces: Developmental Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Seth D.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hornung, Katherine; Reed, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments assessed recognition of emotion among physically abused and neglected preschoolers. Results showed that neglected children had more difficulty discriminating emotional expressions that control or abused children. Abused children displayed response bias for angry facial expressions. Control children viewed discrete emotions as…

  6. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment in Rural Communities: Two Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    The two reports reprinted here address prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect in rural areas through self-help programs. The larger report, that of the Appalachian Citizens for Children's Rights (ACCR) Project, describes project purposes: to develop a community development model for child abuse/neglect using resources already existing…

  8. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  9. History of Abuse and Neglect in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Have a History of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…

  10. Gender differences in the impact of abuse and neglect victimization on adolescent offending behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Asscher; C.E. van der Put; G.J.J.M. Stams

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines gender differences in the association between abuse and neglect during childhood, and sexual and violent offending in juvenile delinquents. Female juvenile delinquents were more frequently victim of sexual and physical abuse and had a history of neglect and maltreatment th

  11. Assessment and functional impact of allocentric neglect: a reminder from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priyanka P; Spaldo, Nicole; Barrett, A M; Chen, Peii

    2013-01-01

    SR suffered a right hemispheric stroke more than 3 years ago, and now lives with left-sided hemiparesis and chronic spatial neglect due to damaged white matter pathways connecting the frontal, temporal and parietal regions. We report here that SR suffers from both viewer-centered (i.e., egocentric) and object-centered (i.e., allocentric) spatial neglect. Notably, unlike most neuropsychological and functional assessments that focus on egocentric deficits, a specialized neuropsychological figurative discrimination test (the Apples test) revealed SR's allocentric neglect. Further, using assessments sensitive to detect functional deficits related to allocentric neglect, we observed SR's difficulty in reading and using clocks, reflecting his object-centered errors in these everyday activities. SR's case suggests that allocentric-specific assessments, both neuropsychological and functional, are valuable in standard neglect examinations, particularly to predict daily function after stroke. We recommend that neglect-related functional disability be distinguished further with respect to allocentric spatial deficits, and functional assessments for allocentric neglect should be validated in future large sample studies. Identifying allocentric neglect early, and learning about its influence on daily function, may enhance care quality and facilitate effective rehabilitation planning for stroke recovery.

  12. When Knowledge Is Not Enough: The Phenomenon of Goal Neglect in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, John N.; Lewis, Charlie; Knowles, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We argue that the concept of goal neglect can be fruitfully applied to understand children's potential problems in experimental tasks and real-world settings. We describe an assessment of goal neglect developed for administration to preschool children and report data on two measures derived from this task alongside the Dimensional Change Card Sort…

  13. Assessment of visuospatial neglect in stroke patients using virtual reality: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, Michiel J.A.; Aznar, Miguel; Kort, de Alexander Cornelis; Vis, van de Wim; Veltink, Peter; Kooij, van der Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is pos

  14. How to Deal with Emotional Abuse and Neglect--Further Development of a Conceptual Framework (FRAMEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop further the understanding of emotional abuse and neglect. Methods: Building on previous work, this paper describes the further development of a conceptual framework for the recognition and management of emotional abuse and neglect. Training in this framework is currently being evaluated. The paper also briefly reviews more…

  15. Impairment in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and the Geriatric Syndrome of Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D.; Burnett, Jason; Pickens-Pace, Sabrina; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to characterize self-neglect definitively as a geriatric syndrome by identifying an association with functional impairment. Design and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional home evaluation of 100 community-living older adults referred by Adult Protective Services for geriatric self-neglect and 100 matched adults from a…

  16. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  17. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  18. Brain responses to detection of right or left somatic targets are symmetrical in unilateral Parkinson's disease: a case against the concept of "parkinsonian neglect'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Larrea, L; Brousolle, E; Gravejat, M F; Chazot, G; Mauguière, F

    1996-12-01

    Signs of attentional dysfunction mimicking spatial neglect have been described both in humans with lateralised Parkinson's Disease (PD) and in animals with MPTP-related hemiparkinsonism. Such deficits have been attributed to dopamine loss in basal ganglia and cortical targets. However, in previous studies the existence of neglect was assumed from behavioural tests which needed a motor output, thus entailing interpretation ambiguities due to effects of directional hypokinesia. We recorded brain event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by the presentation of target somatic stimuli to the affected and non-affected sides in 44 patients with unilateral or asymmetrical PD. The N2 and P3 ERP components were specifically analysed, since (a) they are triggered selectively by task-relevant, attended sensory stimuli; (b) their latency reflects stimulus evaluation time, independently from the execution of a motor response, and (c) they have proved to be abnormal in hemineglect syndromes due to focal brain lesions. Irrespective of the side (left or right) of motor symptom predominance there were no significant ERP differences to stimulation of the affected and non-affected limbs, nor was there any correlation between ERP latencies and the degree of dopamine-related motor impairment. The P3 latency was abnormally delayed in 23% of the patients, but there was no trend for abnormalities to concentrate on the affected side. This study does not confirm the existence of a significant attentional impairment toward the affected limb in lateralised PD, and suggests that previous clinical evidence of "neglect' behaviour in PD might be linked to directional hypokinesia, thus reflecting intentional, rather than attentional lateralised deficits.

  19. Economic rationalisation of health behaviours: the dangers of attempting policy discussions in a vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rachel; Rowley, Kevin; Luke, Joanne; Doyle, Joyce; Ritte, Rebecca; O'Shea, Rebekah; Brown, Alex

    2014-08-01

    When analysing the health behaviours of any group of people, understanding the constraints and possibilities for individual agency as shaped by the broader societal context is critical. In recent decades, our understanding of the ways in which physical and social environments influence health and health behaviours has expanded greatly. The authors of a recent analysis of Australian Aboriginal health data using an economic 'rational choice model,' published in this journal, claim to make a useful contribution to policy discussions relating to Aboriginal health, but neglect context. By doing so, they neglect the very factors that determine the success or failure of policy change. Notwithstanding the technical sophistication of the analyses, by ignoring most relevant determinants of health, the conclusions misrepresent the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and therefore risk perpetuating harm, rather than improving health.

  20. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  1. 卒中后单侧忽略%Unilateral neglect after stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李踔; 曾进胜

    2009-01-01

    单侧忽略是卒中的常见高级神经功能缺损之一.文章着重介绍卒中后单侧忽略的定义、发病率、导致忽略的病灶部位、可能的发病机制和临床表现,概述了卒中后单侧忽略的分型和合并症,指出了以上内容对单侧忽略评价和治疗的意义.%Unilateral neglect is one of the common advanced neurological deficits of stroke. This article highlights the post-stroke definition of unilateral neglect, incidence, sites of lesion resulting in neglect, possible mechanisms and clinical manifestation. It overviews the typing and complications of unilateral neglect, and points out that the significance on the assessment and treatment of unilateral neglect.

  2. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  3. The Living Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This teaching guide contains information, activities, and discussion questions and answers about oceans for grades nine and ten. The information section covers the following topics: studying global ocean color from space, what can be seen from space, phytoplankton, carbon dioxide, and the greenhouse effect of the earth. (MKR)

  4. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  5. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  6. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  7. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level-6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia-was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia. PMID:26528159

  8. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eReznick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia, and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level – 6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia - was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia.

  9. Rightward and leftward bisection biases in spatial neglect: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savazzi, Silvia; Posteraro, Lucio; Veronesi, Gianluigi; Mancini, Francesca

    2007-08-01

    Neglect patients, when asked to bisect a horizontal line, typically show large rightward errors with long lines and a decreased error with medium length lines. With very short lines the bisection bias reverses from the right to left side of the line physical centre (the so-called crossover effect). It is commonly pointed out that such a leftward bias is difficult to explain by traditional theories of neglect. Several accounts propose two distinct mechanisms, one that works for short lines and one that works for long. In the present study we demonstrated that the crossover effect can be explained by means of a unitary mechanism that derives from the space anisometry hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that in neglect patients representational space is progressively 'relaxed' contralesionally and progressively 'compressed' ipsilesionally. In a series of five experiments, we investigated the crossover effect in 26 right-brain damaged patients: 17 with neglect without hemianopia, 4 with neglect and hemianopia and 6 without neglect or hemianopia. Patients were to bisect or extend lines of objectively and subjectively different lengths. The modulation of subjective length was created by an Oppel-Kundt illusion that is thought to resemble the distortion of representational space that occurs with neglect. All groups, except for the patients with neglect and hemianopia, were prone to the illusion. The rightward bias was reduced when the illusion induced a perceptual distortion opposite to that thought to underlie neglect. Importantly, the strength of the illusion decreased with reducing the physical line length and reversed with very short lines. These results argue for a simple and unitary explanation of the crossover effect in spatial neglect within the framework of the space anisometry hypothesis. PMID:17584772

  10. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252

  11. Beyond Economics: a Behavioural Approach to Energy Efficiency in Domestic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Claudy, Marius; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the moderate success of policies aiming to stimulate the uptake of Sustainable Energy Systems (SES) in the domestic sector is grounded in a poor understanding of the ‘consumer’. The predominant economic approach behind most policies assumes that improving the cost-benefit ratio of technologies via grants and subsidies and providing sufficient information will automatically incentivise householders’ to invest into SES. Yet, policymakers often neglect behavioural determin...

  12. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  13. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  14. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  15. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  16. OW CCMP ocean surface wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of ocean...

  17. Biodiversity scenarios neglect future land-use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeux, Nicolas; Henle, Klaus; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Regos, Adrián; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R; Cramer, Wolfgang; Verburg, Peter H; Brotons, Lluís

    2016-07-01

    Efficient management of biodiversity requires a forward-looking approach based on scenarios that explore biodiversity changes under future environmental conditions. A number of ecological models have been proposed over the last decades to develop these biodiversity scenarios. Novel modelling approaches with strong theoretical foundation now offer the possibility to integrate key ecological and evolutionary processes that shape species distribution and community structure. Although biodiversity is affected by multiple threats, most studies addressing the effects of future environmental changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat only. We examined the studies published during the last 25 years that developed scenarios to predict future biodiversity changes based on climate, land-use and land-cover change projections. We found that biodiversity scenarios mostly focus on the future impacts of climate change and largely neglect changes in land use and land cover. The emphasis on climate change impacts has increased over time and has now reached a maximum. Yet, the direct destruction and degradation of habitats through land-use and land-cover changes are among the most significant and immediate threats to biodiversity. We argue that the current state of integration between ecological and land system sciences is leading to biased estimation of actual risks and therefore constrains the implementation of forward-looking policy responses to biodiversity decline. We suggest research directions at the crossroads between ecological and environmental sciences to face the challenge of developing interoperable and plausible projections of future environmental changes and to anticipate the full range of their potential impacts on biodiversity. An intergovernmental platform is needed to stimulate such collaborative research efforts and to emphasize the societal and political relevance of taking up this challenge. PMID:26950650

  18. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda--neglected or emerging human parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuchta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1 data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. CONCLUSIONS: The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic, where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of

  19. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of elder self-neglect in an US Chinese aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with prevalence and severity of elder self-neglect in an U.S. Chinese older population. The PINE study is a population-based epidemiological study in the greater Chicago area. In total, 3159 Chinese older adults were interviewed from 2011 to 2013. Elder self-neglect was assessed with systematic observations of a participant's personal and home environment across five domains: hoarding, personal hygiene, house in need of repair, unsanitary conditions, and inadequate utility. Elder self-neglect was prevalent among older adults aged 80 years or over (mild self-neglect: 34.6% 95% CI 30.9-38.4; moderate/severe: 15.6% 95% CI 12.8-18.6), men (mild: 28.6% 95% CI 26.1-31.3; moderate/severe: 13.1% 95% CI 11.2-15.1), those with 0-6 years of education (mild: 32.2% 95% CI 29.7-34.9; moderate/severe: 12.6% 95% CI 10.8-14.5), and those with an annual personal income between $5000 and $10,000 (mild: 30.8% 95% CI 28.4-33.2; moderate/severe: 11.8% 95% CI 10.2-13.5). Older age (mild self-neglect: OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03; moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) and lower education levels (mild self-neglect: OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08; moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.09) were associated with significantly increased odds of elder self-neglect. Women (moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93) had significantly decreased odds of moderate/severe elder self-neglect. No significant association was found between levels of income and overall elder-self-neglect of all severities. Future research is needed to examine risk/protective factors associated with elder self-neglect in U.S. Chinese older populations.

  20. Crustal control of dissipative ocean tides in Enceladus and other icy moons

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Could tidal dissipation within Enceladus' subsurface ocean account for the observed heat flow? Earthlike models of dynamical tides give no definitive answer because they neglect the influence of the crust. I propose here the first model of dissipative tides in a subsurface ocean, by combining the Laplace Tidal Equations with the membrane approach. For the first time, it is possible to compute tidal dissipation rates within the crust, ocean, and mantle in one go. I show that oceanic dissipation is strongly reduced by the crustal constraint, and thus contributes little to Enceladus' present heat budget. Tidal resonances could have played a role in a forming or freezing ocean less than 100 m deep. The model is general: it applies to all icy satellites with a thin crust and a shallow ocean. Scaling rules relate the resonances and dissipation rate of a subsurface ocean to the ones of a surface ocean. If the ocean has low viscosity, the westward obliquity tide does not move the crust. Therefore, crustal dissipation...

  1. Changing physician prescribing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    2006-01-01

    Didactic approaches to educating physicians and/or other health professionals do not produce changes in learner behaviour. Similarly, printed materials and practice guidelines have not been shown to change prescribing behaviour. Evidence-based educational approaches that do have an impact on provider behaviour include: teaching aimed at identified learning needs; interactive educational activities; sequenced and multifaceted interventions; enabling tools such as patient education programs, flow charts, and reminders; educational outreach or academic detailing; and audit and feedback to prescribers. Dr. Jean Gray reflects over the past 25 years on how there has been a transformation in the types of activities employed to improve prescribing practices in Nova Scotia. The evolution of Continuing Medical Education (CME) has resulted in the creation of the Drug Evaluation Alliance of Nova Scotia (DEANS) program, which is one exemplar of an evidence-based educational approach to improving physician prescribing in that province. Key words: Evidence-based, education, prescribing.

  2. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  3. Internal tide oceanic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  4. Ocean Science Educator Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research announces a program to identify and support academic ocean scientists (“Educators”) who have a distinguished record of educating high-quality doctoral and/or postdoctoral students and who will, under this program, draw postdoctoral scientists from other disciplines into the ocean sciences. Named “Educators” must be U.S. citizens with research and training experience in the ocean sciences and must have a current research and teaching position at a U.S. institution that confers doctoral degrees in ocean sciences.Participation is sought from U.S. institutions that confer doctoral degrees in one or more areas of ocean sciences; show a viable plan to identify, attract, and train, in the ocean sciences, U.S. citizen post-docs (Fellows) from other disciplines; and can show institutional commitment to ocean science education at the doctoral level. Three awards will be made via grants to institutions for a period of 3 years at $75,000 per year (at least $65,000 of these funds are intended for direct support of Fellows).

  5. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  6. Language Problems Among Abused and Neglected Children: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Bussières, Ève-Line; Bouchard, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Research data show that exposure to abuse and neglect has detrimental effects on a child's language development. In this meta-analysis, we analyze studies (k = 23), to compare the language skills (receptive language, expressive language, pragmatics) of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect with the language skills of children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect and to examine whether age or type of maltreatment moderate the relationship between maltreatment and language skills. Results confirm that the language skills of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect are delayed when compared to children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect. Compared to older children, young children seem particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. No significant differences were demonstrated concerning the type of maltreatment suffered by the child. These findings support the necessity of early detection of language problems in abused and neglected children as well as early intervention in order to implement interventions that will positively stimulate their development. PMID:26620719

  7. Language Problems Among Abused and Neglected Children: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Bussières, Ève-Line; Bouchard, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Research data show that exposure to abuse and neglect has detrimental effects on a child's language development. In this meta-analysis, we analyze studies (k = 23), to compare the language skills (receptive language, expressive language, pragmatics) of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect with the language skills of children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect and to examine whether age or type of maltreatment moderate the relationship between maltreatment and language skills. Results confirm that the language skills of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect are delayed when compared to children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect. Compared to older children, young children seem particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. No significant differences were demonstrated concerning the type of maltreatment suffered by the child. These findings support the necessity of early detection of language problems in abused and neglected children as well as early intervention in order to implement interventions that will positively stimulate their development.

  8. Integrity of medial temporal structures may predict better improvement of spatial neglect with prism adaptation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M; Shah, Priyanka; Foundas, Anne L; Barrett, A M

    2014-09-01

    Prism adaptation treatment (PAT) is a promising rehabilitative method for functional recovery in persons with spatial neglect. Previous research suggests that PAT improves motor-intentional "aiming" deficits that frequently occur with frontal lesions. To test whether presence of frontal lesions predicted better improvement of spatial neglect after PAT, the current study evaluated neglect-specific improvement in functional activities (assessment with the Catherine Bergego Scale) over time in 21 right-brain-damaged stroke survivors with left-sided spatial neglect. The results demonstrated that neglect patients' functional activities improved after two weeks of PAT and continued improving for four weeks. Such functional improvement did not occur equally in all of the participants: Neglect patients with lesions involving the frontal cortex (n = 13) experienced significantly better functional improvement than did those without frontal lesions (n = 8). More importantly, voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) revealed that in comparison to the group of patients without frontal lesions, the frontal-lesioned neglect patients had intact regions in the medial temporal areas, the superior temporal areas, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The medial cortical and subcortical areas in the temporal lobe were especially distinguished in the "frontal lesion" group. The findings suggest that the integrity of medial temporal structures may play an important role in supporting functional improvement after PAT.

  9. Efficacy of visual-scanning training and prism adaptation for neglect rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccavento, Simona; Cellamare, Fara; Cafforio, Elisabetta; Loverre, Anna; Craca, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect consists of the inability of a patient to respond, orient, and attend to stimuli on the left side of a space following a right-hemisphere lesion. Many rehabilitation approaches have been proposed to reduce neglect. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of visual-scanning training (VST) and prismatic adaptation (PA) on patients with neglect following a right-hemisphere lesion. Twenty patients with left neglect were enrolled in the study. Before and after training, a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of visuospatial abilities, evaluating personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal neglect, was performed. After assessment, patients were alternately assigned to 1 of 2 groups, VST or PA. Both trainings consisted of 20 sessions, 1 per day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The results showed that both treatments improved patient neglect, especially in personal and peripersonal spaces. No difference between pretreatment and posttreatment was found in extrapersonal subscales. This finding could be due to the fact that there were no exercises requiring the use of objects within reach in either training. In conclusion, no difference between the 2 approaches was found, and both are useful rehabilitation techniques that appear to improve neglect.

  10. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  11. Ocean margins workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  12. Spatial working memory deficits represent a core challenge for rehabilitating neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eStriemer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Left neglect following right hemisphere injury is a debilitating disorder that has proven extremely difficult to rehabilitate. Traditional models of neglect have focused on impaired spatial attention as the core deficit and as such, most rehabilitation methods have tried to improve attentional processes. However, many of these techniques (e.g., visual scanning training, caloric stimulation, neck muscle vibration produce only short-lived effects, or are too uncomfortable to use as a routine treatment. More recently, many investigators have begun examining the beneficial effects of prism adaptation for the treatment of neglect. Although prism adaptation has been shown to have some beneficial effects on both overt and covert spatial attention, it does not reliably alter many of the perceptual biases evident in neglect. One of the challenges of neglect rehabilitation may lie in the heterogeneous nature of the deficits. Most notably, a number of researchers have shown that neglect patients present with severe deficits in spatial working memory (SWM in addition to their attentional impairment. Given that SWM can be seen as a foundational cognitive mechanism, critical for a wide range of other functions, any deficit in SWM memory will undoubtedly have severe consequences. In the current review we examine the evidence for SWM deficits in neglect and propose that it constitutes a core component of the syndrome. We present preliminary data which suggest that at least one current rehabilitation method (prism adaptation has no effect on SWM deficits in neglect. Finally, we end by reviewing recent work that examines the effectiveness of SWM training and how SWM training may prove to be a useful avenue for future rehabilitative efforts in patients with neglect.

  13. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  14. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  15. Poverty-related and neglected diseases – an economic and epidemiological analysis of poverty relatedness and neglect in research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Philipsborn, Peter; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Bender, Max E.; Regmi, Sadie; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Economic growth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has raised interest in how disease burden patterns are related to economic development. Meanwhile, poverty-related diseases are considered to be neglected in terms of research and development (R&D). Objectives Developing intuitive and meaningful metrics to measure how different diseases are related to poverty and neglected in the current R&D system. Design We measured how diseases are related to economic development with the income relation factor (IRF), defined by the ratio of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100,000 inhabitants in LMIC versus that in high-income countries. We calculated the IRF for 291 diseases and injuries and 67 risk factors included in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. We measured neglect in R&D with the neglect factor (NF), defined by the ratio of disease burden in DALYs (as percentage of the total global disease burden) and R&D expenditure (as percentage of total global health-related R&D expenditure) for 26 diseases. Results The disease burden varies considerably with the level of economic development, shown by the IRF (median: 1.38; interquartile range (IQR): 0.79–6.3). Comparison of IRFs from 1990 to 2010 highlights general patterns of the global epidemiological transition. The 26 poverty-related diseases included in our analysis of neglect in R&D are responsible for 13.8% of the global disease burden, but receive only 1.34% of global health-related R&D expenditure. Within this group, the NF varies considerably (median: 19; IQR: 6–52). Conclusions The IRF is an intuitive and meaningful metric to highlight shifts in global disease burden patterns. A large shortfall exists in global R&D spending for poverty-related and neglected diseases, with strong variations between diseases. PMID:25623607

  16. Deep-ocean origin of the freshwater eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun G; Miya, Masaki; Miller, Michael J; Sado, Tetsuya; Hanel, Reinhold; Hatooka, Kiyotaka; Aoyama, Jun; Minegishi, Yuki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2010-06-23

    Of more than 800 species of eels of the order Anguilliformes, only freshwater eels (genus Anguilla with 16 species plus three subspecies) spend most of their lives in freshwater during their catadromous life cycle. Nevertheless, because their spawning areas are located offshore in the open ocean, they migrate back to their specific breeding places in the ocean, often located thousands of kilometres away. The evolutionary origin of such enigmatic behaviour, however, remains elusive because of the uncertain phylogenetic position of freshwater eels within the principally marine anguilliforms. Here, we show strong evidence for a deep oceanic origin of the freshwater eels, based on the phylogenetic analysis of whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 56 species representing all of the 19 anguilliform families. The freshwater eels occupy an apical position within the anguilliforms, forming a highly supported monophyletic group with various oceanic midwater eel species. Moreover, reconstruction of the growth habitats on the resulting tree unequivocally indicates an origination of the freshwater eels from the midwater of the deep ocean. This shows significant concordance with the recent collection of mature adults of the Japanese eel in the upper midwater of the Pacific, suggesting that they have retained their evolutionary origin as a behavioural trait in their spawning areas. PMID:20053660

  17. The Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on Emotional Schemas of Female Victims of Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    S Daneshmandi; Z Izadikhah; Kazemi, H.; H Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Development of emotional schemas is regarded as one of the long term effects of child abuse and neglect. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of Emotional Schema Therapy on emotional schemas of female victims of child abuse and neglect. Methods: In this quasi-experimental design, 30 women, who had the history of child abuse and neglect (according to the scores obtained in the child abuse and neglect questionnaire) and met entry criteria, were selected ...

  18. Coracoid syndrome: a neglected cause of anterior shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; BARBADORO, PAMELA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the present prospective open-label study was designed to gain further insights into a condition thought to constitute a neglected but not uncommon syndrome characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process, not related to rotator cuff or pectoralis minor tendinopathy, long head of the biceps tendon disorders, or instability. The aim was to clarify its prevalence, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and response to corticosteroid injections. Methods patients with primary anterior shoulder pain precisely reproduced by deep pressure on the apex of the coracoid process were recruited. Patients with clinical or instrumental signs of other shoulder disorders were excluded. Patients were given an injection of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg/ml 1 ml at the coracoid trigger point. They were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days and at 2 years using Equal Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) and the Italian version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Results between January 1 and December 31 2010, we treated 15 patients aged 26–66 years. The majority were women (86.67%). At 15 days, 6 (40%) patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms, while 9 (60%) complained of residual symptoms and received another injection. At 30 days, 14 (93.33%) patients were pain-free and very satisfied. At 2 years, the 14 patients who had been asymptomatic at 30 days reported that they had experienced no further pain or impaired shoulder function. The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of time on EQ-VAS and SST scores. Conclusions the present study documents the existence, and characteristics, of a “coracoid syndrome” characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process and showed that the pain is usually amenable to steroid treatment. This syndrome should be clearly distinguished from anterior shoulder pain due to other causes, in

  19. Microbial geomorphology: A neglected link between life and landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Heather A.

    2012-07-01

    Whilst recognition is increasing that life and landscapes are intimately related, as evidenced by growing research into ecosystem engineering, biogeomorphology and allied topics, the microbial contribution to such interactions has been relatively neglected. A revolution in environmental microbiology, based on molecular techniques, is now driving a reconsideration of the role of microbial processes in geomorphology at all scales. Recent research illustrates the hitherto unknown microbial diversity present in many extreme geomorphic environments, such as hyperarid deserts, subglacial lakes, hot springs, and much richer microbial life than previously suspected within the soils and sediments that blanket most other landscapes. Such microbial communities have been found to play important geomorphic roles across a wide range of environments, notably in weathering, precipitation of minerals and protecting surfaces from erosion. These geomorphic roles can also be conceptualised as examples of ecosystem engineering, and can pave the way for further plant-geomorphology and zoogeomorphology processes. Three key aspects which emerge from a review of microbial influences on Earth surface processes are a) that microbes play roles on a continuum from full control to passive involvement, b) that complex and widespread communities of microorganisms are involved and c) that microbial activity usually affects several Earth surface processes at once. Examples of the contribution of microbial life to geomorphology over long, medium and short timescales suggest that microorganisms play key geomorphological roles in two major situations; on the cusp between stable states, and in extreme environments where higher plant and animal life is limited and many abiotic processes are also constrained. The dominant link between microbial life and geomorphology appears to take on different forms depending on the timescale under consideration, with a stabilising microbial role apparent over short

  20. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish

  1. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  2. Behavioural Real Estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Salzman (Diego); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe behavioural approach to decision making under uncertainty combines insights from psychology and sociology into economic decision making. It steps away from the normative homo economicus and introduces a positive approach to human decision making under uncertainty. We provide an overv

  3. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  4. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  5. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  6. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  7. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  8. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  9. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 246 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  10. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  11. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  12. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  13. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  14. Ocean microbial metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Lee J.; Goodman, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    Technology for accessing the genomic DNA of microorganisms, directly from environmental samples without prior cultivation, has opened new vistas to understanding microbial diversity and functions. Especially as applied to soils and the oceans, environments on Earth where microbial diversity is vast, metagenomics and its emergent approaches have the power to transform rapidly our understanding of environmental microbiology. Here we explore select recent applications of the metagenomic suite to ocean microbiology.

  15. The role of gravity in ocean acoustics propagation and its implication to early tsunami detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic low frequency sound generated by submarine earthquake travels much faster than tsunamis and leaves pressure signatures that can act as tsunami precursors. In this regard, it is anticipated that the correct measurement and analysis of low frequency acoustics would enhance current early tsunami detection systems. In this work we model the low frequency acoustics generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake using the "Method of Normal Modes" and the "Acoustics-Gravity Wave" theory. Ocean acoustic theories usually neglect the effect of gravity. However, we show for rigid and elastic bottom conditions how gravity influences the acoustic normal mode propagation speed. Practically, our results can help in the real time characterization of low frequency sources in the ocean. This will enhance the robustness of early tsunami detection systems.

  16. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  17. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  18. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  19. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  20. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  1. Is There a Place for Ipsilesional Eye Patching in Neglect Rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Soroker

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglect behavior of experimental animals with unilateral posterior cortical lesions improves with the placement of a second lesion in the contralesional superior colliculus or in the intercollicular commissure. Given that the retinotectal fibers are mainly crossed, it has been speculated that ipsilesional eye patching, by depriving the contralesional superior colliculus of its main facilitatory visual input, might achieve similar results, and thus be used as a remediation maneuver in patients with neglect. From six patients with severe persistent neglect, only one showed an unequivocal beneficial effect from ipsilesional eye patching. We discuss the factors which possibly underlie success and failure with this procedure, and the place for it in neglect rehabilitation.

  2. Fourth National Incidende Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NIS–4 data were collected to provide updated estimates of the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States and measure changes in incidence from the...

  3. Normalization of Neglect: A Grounded Theory of RNs' Experiences as Family Caregivers of Hospitalized Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Tarnia; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Taipale, Priscilla

    2016-06-01

    Often older people, while maintaining a level of independence, rely on family members to provide care and assistance. Caregivers who are also registered nurses (RNs) may provide a different perspective around the experience when their older relative is admitted to acute care. The aim of our research was to investigate and develop theory regarding nursing care provision as described by RNs, who were family caregivers to older adults, when that older adult was admitted to acute care. Over a six-month period in 2011, RNs meeting this criterion (n = 12) were interviewed individually. We identified two central categories: "Culture of Neglect" and "Vigil by the Bedside". The core category "Normalization of Neglect" was identified as the theory, grounded in the data the participants provided which described a culture of neglect that had normalized poor nursing care. These findings highlight the issue of neglect and abuse, and further investigation is warranted.

  4. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rode

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.

  5. Eye movements and verbal report in a single case of visual neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Benson

    Full Text Available In this single case study, visuospatial neglect patient P1 demonstrated a dissociation between an intact ability to make appropriate reflexive eye movements to targets in the neglected field with latencies of <400 ms, while failing to report targets presented at such durations in a separate verbal detection task. In contrast, there was a failure to evoke the usually robust Remote Distractor Effect in P1, even though distractors in the neglected field were presented at above threshold durations. Together those data indicate that the tight coupling that is normally shown between attention and eye movements appears to be disrupted for low-level orienting in P1. A comparable disruption was also found for high-level cognitive processing tasks, namely reading and scene scanning. The findings are discussed in relation to sampling, attention and awareness in neglect.

  6. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...

  7. Neglected orthopedic oncology - Causes, epidemiology and challenges for management in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y S Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors remains an overwhelming confront to orthopedic surgeons. The challenge is discriminating in developing countries due to inadequate diagnostic and therapeutic amenities and unawareness. A lot has been discussed about the neglected orthopedic trauma, but the published literature on the causes and management of neglected bone and soft tissue tumors is sparse. Hence, current study was undertaken to highlight the causes of neglect and therapeutic challenges for managing these neglected tumors in developing countries. Aims And Objectives: To determine the causes of neglect of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, their epidemiology (including their relative frequencies, age, gender discrimination, anatomical sites of occurrence and histological characteristics and difficult aspect of management due to neglect or delayed presentation. Materials And Methods: This was an appraisal of the neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumors presented to J. N. Medical College and Hospital from June 2008 to May 2013. Criteria for labeling the tumor as neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumor was delayed presentation (>3 months, locally advanced disease, ulceration, sepsis, fungating mass or metastasis at the time of presentation. All the cases were reviewed and analyzed for age, gender, histological types, educational status and socioeconomic status of the family, any prior treatment by traditional bone setters or registered medical practitioner, cause of delay for seeking medical advice. We have also analyzed the treatment given at our institute and the outcome of the tumor. Observations And Results: Eighteen patients fulfilled the criteria for neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, hence were included in study. Eight cases were of osteosarcoma, five cases were of Ewing's sarcoma, three cases were of chondrosarcoma and 1 case each was of pleomorphic liposarcoma and primary lymphoma

  8. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  9. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  10. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  11. The perceived impact of publications on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses as measured by their impact factor

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Speybroeck, Sara; Speybroeck, Niko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether papers on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses are published in journals with lower impact factors than research on diseases with a similar global health burden. We found that, despite being cited equally often, the papers on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses were published in journals with lower impact factors. The scopes of these journals are mainly restricted to Tropical medicine. A clustering analysis revealed that The Lancet, a high impact general medical journal, does pay atten...

  12. Neglected Foreign Body, the Cause of Navicular Osteomyelitis in A Paediatric Foot: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekara C.M; George M.A; Bader Said Khamis Al-Marboi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body injuries with date thorns, metal and wooden splinters are common in Middle East region, as most of it is desert. Some of the injuries lead to cellulitis or abscess formation, if neglected or improperly managed results in osteomyelitis or septic arthritis of foot structures. This is the first report of isolated navicular osteomyelitis following neglected foreign body in a paediatric foot. Case Report: A 10 year old male patient presented with discharging sinus in...

  13. The Conditions of Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan : Difficulties and Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki, ISHIKAWA

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author purports to provide a brief description on the 10-year experience of the efforts for child abuse prevention in Japan. Describing our experience, 3 areas of child abuse and neglect will be focused. Firstly, current condition, secondly, the system and implementation for prevention and intervention, and at last, recent efforts for child abuse prevention in Japan, with some discussion on the factors that may hinder better treatment of child abuse and neglect cases.

  14. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  15. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from First Macedonian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Marijana Markovik; Dinesh Sethi; Eleonora Serafimovska; Tamara Jordanova

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One of the study objectives was to explore the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in the country. METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above (44.7% of male and 55.3%) in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study. Respondents were sampled through three staged national representative sampling procedure. Data were collected using a cognitively validated questionnaire for investigating elder abuse and neglect (psychological a...

  16. The EEG Profile of Hemispatial Neglect and Neurofeedback as an Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Brinson, Helen

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that interventions targeting alertness could be effective in the rehabilitation of hemispatial neglect. Alertness correlates in the EEG with decreased theta and increased beta activity and training up beta/theta ratios using EEG neurofeedback has resulted in particularly beneficial results in children with ADHD with recognised deficits of alertness. Experiment I showed that neglect patients had significantly reduced beta activity compared to age-matched controls...

  17. Child abuse and neglectÇocuk istismarı ve ihmal

    OpenAIRE

    İlyas Özgentürk

    2014-01-01

    Children's physical, emotional and sexual abuse and neglect are widespread social and health problem across societies. Child abuse covers all kinds of attitudes and neglects that affect and limit children physical and emotional development by the parents or child careers. Child abuse affects the children’s emotional and physical development negatively. A child whose emotional development is disturbed lives with very serious psychological and communication problems as well as decrease of life ...

  18. Pleasant music overcomes the loss of awareness in patients with visual neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, David; Funes, María J.; Guzmán-García, Azucena; Warbrick, Tracy; Rotshtein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-01-01

    During the past 20 years there has been much research into the factors that modulate awareness of contralesional information in neurological patients with visual neglect or extinction. However, the potential role of the individual's emotional state in modulating awareness has been largely overlooked. In the current study, we induced a pleasant and positive affective response in patients with chronic visual neglect by allowing them to listen to their pleasant preferred music. We report that th...

  19. The hospital child protection teams in approaching issues of child abuse and neglect Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beyazova, Ufuk; Şahin, Figen

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children A multidisciplinary approach like the “Child Protection Team” is strongly encouraged to ensure adequate evaluation treatment and follow up of a potentially abused child Recently the increasing interest in the community regarding child abuse and neglect and the construction of child protection services are nbsp; important improvements for our country Child abuse and neglect should be a part of graduate ...

  20. Effects of prism adaptation on motor-intentional spatial bias in neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Fortis, Paola; Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M.; Barrett, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Prism adaptation may alleviate some symptoms of spatial neglect. However, the mechanism through which this technique works is still unclear. The current study investigated whether prism adaptation differentially affects dysfunction in perceptual-attentional “where” versus motor-intentional “aiming” bias. Five neglect patients performed a line bisection task in which lines were viewed under both normal and right-left reversed viewing conditions, allowing for the fractionation of “where” and “a...

  1. Predicting functional outcome after stroke: the influence of neglect on basic activities in daily living

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Nijboer; Ingrid Van de Port

    2013-01-01

    One prominent deficit resulting from stroke is visuo-spatial neglect, which has been associated with slower and more attenuated recovery patterns of sensory-motor impairment as well as limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the current study was to further specify the relationship between neglect and recovery of different domains of ADL. 184 Patients were assessed with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) in the first week of inpatient rehabilitation, and again at 6, 12, a...

  2. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeka eBodak; Paresh eMalhotra; Nicolò Francesco Bernardi; Gianna eCocchini; Lauren eStewart

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere stroke at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterized by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space. Inspired by evidence of increased spatial exploration of patients’ left side achieved during keyboard scale-playing, the current study employed a music intervention that involved making sequential go...

  3. A Behavioral Analysis of Spatial Neglect and Its Recovery after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rengachary

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal study of recovery of left neglect following stroke using reaction time computerized assessment, we find that lateralized spatial deficits of attention and perception to be more severe than disturbance of action. Perceptual-attention deficits also show the most variability in the course of recovery, making them prime candidates for intervention. In an anatomical analysis of MRI findings, ventral frontal cortex damage was correlated with the most severe neglect, reflecting impaired fronto-parietal communication.

  4. Advancing the science of spatial neglect rehabilitation: an improved statistical approach with mixed linear modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Goedert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Valid research on neglect rehabilitation demands a statistical approach commensurate with the characteristics of neglect rehabilitation data: Neglect arises from impairment in distinct brain networks leading to large between-subject variability in baseline symptoms and recovery trajectories. Studies enrolling medically-ill, disabled patients, may suffer from missing, unbalanced data, and small sample sizes. Finally, assessment of rehabilitation requires a description of continuous recovery trajectories. Unfortunately, the statistical method currently employed in most studies of neglect treatment (repeated-measures ANOVA does not well-address these issues. Here we review an alternative, mixed linear modeling (MLM, that is more appropriate for assessing change over time. MLM better accounts for between-subject heterogeneity in baseline neglect severity and in recovery trajectory. MLM does not require complete or balanced data, nor does it make strict assumptions regarding the data structure. Furthermore, because MLM better models between-subject heterogeneity it often results in increased power to observe treatment effects with smaller samples. After reviewing current practices in the field, and the assumptions of repeated-measures ANOVA, we provide an introduction to MLM. We review its assumptions, uses, advantages and disadvantages. Using real and simulated data, we illustrate how MLM may improve the ability to detect effects of treatment over ANOVA, particularly with the small samples typical of neglect research. Furthermore, our simulation analyses result in recommendations for the design of future rehabilitation studies. Because between-subject heterogeneity is one important reason why studies of neglect treatments often yield conflicting results, employing statistical procedures that model this heterogeneity more accurately will increase the efficiency of our efforts to find treatments to improve the lives of individuals with neglect.

  5. Left Imaginal Neglect in Heminattention: Experimental Study with the O’Clock Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Grossi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Both sensory and imaginal defects have been reported in unilateral neglect, but their assessment based on the description of famous squares can be difficult in a clinical setting. The O'clock Test is an alternative tool for revealing imaginal defects. Our aim was to demonstrate imaginal neglect in patients with left heminattention. Ten patients were studied and a mild unilateral defect in imaginal processes was found with an increase in the defect when the patients were fatigued.

  6. Neglecting the Urban Poor in Bangladesh: Research, Policy and Action in the Context of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Banks, Manoj Roy and David Hulme

    2011-01-01

    In Bangladesh, urban poverty is neglected in research, policy and action on poverty reduction. This paper explores the underlying reasons for this relative neglect, which include national identity and image, the political economy of urban poverty and the structuring of knowledge creation. It argues for more comprehensive policy and programmes for the urban poor given Bangladesh’s increasingly urban future and the growing magnitude of urban poverty. The impact of climate change will accelerate...

  7. Neglecting the urban poor in Bangladesh: research, policy and action in the context of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Banks; Manoj Roy; David Hulme

    2011-01-01

    In Bangladesh, urban poverty is neglected in research, policy and action on poverty reduction. This paper explores the underlying foundations for this relative neglect, including national identity and image, the political economy of urban poverty, and the structuring of knowledge creation. It argues for more comprehensive policy and programmes for the urban poor given Bangladesh’s increasingly urban future and the growing magnitude of urban poverty. The impact of climate change will accelerat...

  8. Aphasia or neglect after thalamic stroke: the various ways they may be related to cortical hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani eSebastian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time to peak delays, but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. Aphasia or Neglect after Thalamic Stroke: The Various Ways They may be Related to Cortical Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rajani; Schein, Mara G; Davis, Cameron; Gomez, Yessenia; Newhart, Melissa; Oishi, Kenichi; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    Although aphasia and hemispatial neglect are classically labeled as cortical deficits, language deficits or hemispatial neglect following lesions to subcortical regions have been reported in many studies. However, whether or not aphasia and hemispatial neglect can be caused by subcortical lesions alone has been a matter of controversy. It has been previously shown that most cases of aphasia or hemispatial neglect due to acute non-thalamic subcortical infarcts can be accounted for by concurrent cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion, reversible by restoring blood flow to the cortex. In this study, we evaluated whether aphasia or neglect occur after acute thalamic infarct without cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Twenty patients with isolated acute thalamic infarcts (10 right and 10 left) underwent MRI scanning and detailed cognitive testing. Results revealed that 5/10 patients with left thalamic infarcts had aphasia and only 1 had cortical hypoperfusion, whereas 2/10 patients with right thalamic infarcts had hemispatial neglect and both had cortical hypoperfusion. These findings indicate that aphasia was observed in some cases of isolated left thalamic infarcts without cortical hypoerfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion (measured with time-to-peak delays), but neglect occurred after isolated right thalamic infarcts only when there was cortical hypoperfusion due to arterial stenosis or occlusion. Therefore, neglect after acute right thalamic infarct should trigger evaluation for cortical hypoperfusion that might improve with restoration of blood flow. Further investigation in a larger group of patients and with other imaging modalities is warranted to confirm these findings.

  10. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA

    1998-01-01

    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index score

  11. Childhood abuse or neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting among midlife women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce; Chang, Yuefang; Goldbacher, Edie; Brown, Charlotte; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that women exposed to childhood abuse or neglect would have an increased likelihood of reporting hot flashes and night sweats during the menopausal transition. Design This hypothesis was evaluated in 332 white and African American women participating in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study, a prospective investigation of women transitioning through menopause. Childhood abuse and neglect were measured once with the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Vasomotor symptoms (any/none hot flashes, night sweats) were reported annually over 8 years. Associations between maltreatment and vasomotor symptoms were estimated with generalized estimating equations. Results Childhood abuse or neglect was associated with increased reporting of hot flashes (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.23–2.43) and night sweats (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.43) in age-adjusted models. Results persisted in multivariable models and across several types of abuse and neglect. Conclusions The experience of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting in adulthood. The sequelae of childhood abuse and neglect may persist well into adulthood to influence the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms at midlife. PMID:18257140

  12. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka eBodak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.

  13. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-03-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed.

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of visual search tasks distinguish subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect: Comparison of two cases with viewer-centered and stimulus-centered neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kato, Kenji; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Liu, Meigen

    2016-08-01

    We developed a computerised test to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect (USN) using a touchscreen display, and estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of visual search in USN patients. The results between a viewer-centered USN patient and a stimulus-centered USN patient were compared. Two right-brain-damaged patients with USN, a patient without USN, and 16 healthy subjects performed a simple cancellation test, the circle test, a visuomotor search test, and a visual search test. According to the results of the circle test, one USN patient had stimulus-centered neglect and a one had viewer-centered neglect. The spatial and temporal patterns of these two USN patients were compared. The spatial and temporal patterns of cancellation were different in the stimulus-centered USN patient and the viewer-centered USN patient. The viewer-centered USN patient completed the simple cancellation task, but paused when transferring from the right side to the left side of the display. Unexpectedly, this patient did not exhibit rightward attention bias on the visuomotor and visual search tests, but the stimulus-centered USN patient did. The computer-based assessment system provided information on the dynamic visual search strategy of patients with USN. The spatial and temporal pattern of cancellation and visual search were different across the two patients with different subtypes of neglect.

  15. Ocean Physicochemistry versus Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Góralski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My today’s lecture will mark an attempt at ...

  16. Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin

    2011-01-01

    The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.

  17. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Drahokoupilová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1 activity during 24 hours and (2 specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of A. vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only.

  18. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Ocean City, Maryland. (b) Definition: For purposes of enforcement of this section, Captain of the Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  19. Study of neglect dyslexia in ten unilateral spatial neglect patients%单侧空间忽视患者十例阅读障碍的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦卉; 田仰华; 董文文; 汪凯

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究单侧空间忽视患者阅读汉字是否存在忽视性阅读障碍及忽视性阅读障碍类型,是否存在词长效应及语义效应.方法 采用汉字阅读材料对10例左侧空间忽视患者进行阅读能力检测.结果 单侧空间忽视患者在阅读汉字材料时出现阅读障碍,多为忽视性阅读障碍(202/215,94.0%).忽视性阅读障碍中最常见的类型是遗漏错误(148/202,73.3%),其次是替换错误,其余为添加错误.双字词的错误率为9.9%±8.4%,三字词的错误率为18.8%±16.2%,随着字数的增加,阅读错误率明显增加(T=-55,P<0.05);真词错误率为8.3%±7.5%,假词错误率为18.9%±16.6%,假词错误率明显高于真词(T=-55,P<0.05).结论 汉字忽视性阅读障碍最常见的类型是遗漏错误,阅读障碍表现出词长效应,单侧空间忽视患者对忽视侧的汉字存在语义加工.%Objective To explore neglect dyslexia in unilateral spatial neglect patients,the error type and whether there exists word length and semantic effect.Methods Ten left spatial neglect patients were investigated by Chinese characters reading material.Results Unilateral spatial patients showed neglect dyslexia (202 neglect errors,94.0% of the total 215 errors) when reading.The most common errors were omissions (148 errors,73.3% of the total 202 neglect errors),followed by substitutions and additions.The error rate of two words was 9.9% ± 8.4%,while the rate of three words was 18.8% ± 16.2%.Performance was worse with the increase of word length (T =-55,P < 0.05).The error rate of words was 8.3% ± 7.5%,while the rate of non-words was 18.9% ± 16.6%,and the rate of non-words was worse than that of words (T =-55,P < 0.05).Conclusions Our study has shown that omissions are the most common error type of neglect dyslexia in Chinese unilateral spatial neglect patients,and the impairment include word length effect.The patients with unilateral spatial neglect

  20. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...