WorldWideScience

Sample records for behaviour neglecting ocean

  1. Marine animal behaviour: neglecting ocean currents can lead us up the wrong track

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, P.; Georges, J.-Y.; Lenoble, A.; Ferraroli, S.; Fossette, S; Le Maho, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Tracks of marine animals in the wild, now increasingly acquired by electronic tagging of individuals, are of prime interest not only to identify habitats and high-risk areas, but also to gain detailed information about the behaviour of these animals. Using recent satellite-derived current estimates and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) tracking data, we demonstrate that oceanic currents, usually neglected when analysing tracking data, can substantially distort the observed trajectorie...

  2. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  3. Association between Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect and Health Risk Behaviours among Young Adolescents: Results from the National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a relationship between physical abuse and later manifestation of health risk behaviours such as: smoking and early pregnancy. Physical neglect increased the chances for drug abuse, drink-driving, having early sex, having more sexual partners.

  4. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D Simpson; Philip L Munday; Wittenrich, Matthew L.; Manassa, Rachel; Dixson, Danielle L; Gagliano, Monica; Hong Y Yan

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect marine ecosystems in many ways, including modification of fish behaviour. Previous studies have identified effects of CO2-enriched conditions on the sensory behaviour of fishes, including the loss of natural responses to odours resulting in ecologically deleterious decisions. Many fishes also rely on hearing for orientation, habitat selection, predator avoidance and communication. We used an auditory choice chamber to study the influence of CO2-enric...

  5. Association between Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect and Health Risk Behaviours among Young Adolescents: Results from the National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Marija Raleva; Izabela Filov; Dinesh Sethi; Tamara Jordanova; Kadri HazdiHamza; Fimka Tozija; Vesna Damchevska Ilievska

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One of the main objectives of this paper is to analyze the associations between physical abuse and neglect and health risk behaviours among young adolescents in the country. METHOD: A representative sample consisted of total 1277 students (58.6% female and 41.6%), aged 18 and above. About 664 of them are in last (fourth) year of secondary school and 613 respondents are first- and second-year university students. The data were obtained using Adverse Childhood Experiences Study ...

  6. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pistevos, Jennifer C. A.; Ivan Nagelkerken; Tullio Rossi; Maxime Olmos; Connell, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and ...

  7. Motor neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Laplane, D.; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection...

  8. Oceanic migration behaviour of tropical Pacific eels from Vanuatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabetsberger, R; Økland, F; Aarestrup, K;

    2013-01-01

    Information on oceanic migrations and spawning areas of tropical Pacific freshwater eels (genus Anguilla) is very limited. Lake Letas and its single outflowing river, Mbe Solomul on Gaua Island, Vanuatu, were surveyed for large migrating individuals. Twenty-four Anguilla marmorata (87 to 142 cm...

  9. The migration behaviour of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) released in open ocean conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wysujack, K.; Westerberg, H.; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    Despite some recent progress, there are still large gaps of knowledge about migration routes and behaviour of European eels, Anguilla anguilla, during their long-distance oceanic migration. To achieve a better understanding of the migration behaviour, 28 large female silver eels were equipped with...... pop-up satellite transmitters and released at three different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and in the Sargasso Sea. The study covers tracking periods between 7 and 92 days. The distance between release point and estimated pop-up position ranged from 40 to 1000 km, the mean minimum...... migration speeds from 1.5 to 17.0 km day 1. The eels consistently conducted distinct diel vertical movements (DVM) with daily amplitudes of more than 300m and maximum diving depths of more than 1000 m. Eels released in the Sargasso Sea used greater depths and a broader temperature range than individuals...

  10. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs. PMID:26559327

  11. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C. A.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs. PMID:26559327

  12. Behavioural impairment in reef fishes caused by ocean acidification at CO2 seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Philip L.; Cheal, Alistair J.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Rummer, Jodie L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2014-06-01

    Experiments have shown that the behaviour of reef fishes can be seriously affected by projected future carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the ocean. However, whether fish can acclimate to elevated CO2 over the longer term, and the consequences of altered behaviour on the structure of fish communities, are unknown. We used marine CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea as a natural laboratory to test these questions. Here we show that juvenile reef fishes at CO2 seeps exhibit behavioural abnormalities similar to those seen in laboratory experiments. Fish from CO2 seeps were attracted to predator odour, did not distinguish between odours of different habitats, and exhibited bolder behaviour than fish from control reefs. High CO2 did not, however, have any effect on metabolic rate or aerobic performance. Contrary to expectations, fish diversity and community structure differed little between CO2 seeps and nearby control reefs. Differences in abundances of some fishes could be driven by the different coral community at CO2 seeps rather than by the direct effects of high CO2. Our results suggest that recruitment of juvenile fish from outside the seeps, along with fewer predators within the seeps, is currently sufficient to offset any negative effects of high CO2 within the seeps. However, continuous exposure does not reduce the effect of high CO2 on behaviour in natural reef habitat, and this could be a serious problem for fish communities in the future when ocean acidification becomes widespread as a result of continued uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  13. Neglect and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role ... are mentally ill, or who have alcohol, substance abuse or other mental health ... Persons with physical or mental disabilities who depend on others for ...

  14. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. PMID:26700211

  15. Nano-tags for neonates and ocean-mediated swimming behaviours linked to rapid dispersal of hatchling sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rebecca; Biastoch, Arne; Roder, Christian; Stiebens, Victor A.; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal during juvenile life stages drives the life-history evolution and dynamics of many marine vertebrate populations. However, the movements of juvenile organisms, too small to track using conventional satellite telemetry devices, remain enigmatic. For sea turtles, this led to the paradigm of the ‘lost years' since hatchlings disperse widely with ocean currents. Recently, advances in the miniaturization of tracking technology have permitted the application of nano-tags to track cryptic organisms. Here, the novel use of acoustic nano-tags on neonate loggerhead turtle hatchlings enabled us to witness first-hand their dispersal and behaviour during their first day at sea. We tracked hatchlings distances of up to 15 km and documented their rapid transport (up to 60 m min−1) with surface current flows passing their natal areas. Tracking was complemented with laboratory observations to monitor swimming behaviours over longer periods which highlighted (i) a positive correlation between swimming activity levels and body size and (ii) population-specific swimming behaviours (e.g. nocturnal inactivity) suggesting local oceanic conditions drive the evolution of innate swimming behaviours. Knowledge of the swimming behaviours of small organisms is crucial to improve the accuracy of ocean model simulations used to predict the fate of these organisms and determine resultant population-level implications into adulthood. PMID:25339720

  16. Distribution, ecology and polymorphic behaviour of the genus Oxycephalus (Hyperiidea, Oxycephalidae) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.

    There have been many controversies on the number of valid, species under Oxycephalus including the studies made from Indian waters. This is the first comprehensive account on the distribution of this genus covering the entire Indian Ocean through...

  17. Child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, K

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realized. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in their treatment. Despite their frequent occurrence among dental patients, neglect is the least known and identified type of abuse. The present case reports a 3-year-old girl suffering from abuse and neglect. The girl had dental neglect and als...

  18. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  20. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people. PMID:26617444

  1. Hypermnesia in unilateral neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiach, E; Ricci, R; Silani, G; Cossa, F M; Crespi, M G

    1999-12-01

    Thirteen right brain-damaged patients who were found to neglect pictures presented on the left of a display were presented the same stimuli, intermixed with foils, in a yes-no recognition test. Fifty per cent of patients claimed to have already seen one or more of the previously neglected pictures. This demonstrates that visual information that fails to access consciousness in neglect patients does retain the ability to surface as explicit memory at a later stage. PMID:10656637

  2. Treating neglected tropical diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Director: Mectizan Donation Program, Georgia, USA. www.mectizan.org

    2013-01-01

    The name neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) covers a range of diseases that cause disability, early death, and slowed physical and mental development. The first two in entries Table 1 are diseases that cause blindness. These diseases of neglected and impoverished peoples maintain a cycle of poverty and delayed development of the populations affected. The diseases themselves have been neglected in the push to control malaria, TB and AIDS.

  3. Zooplankton distribution and behaviour in the Southern Ocean from surveys with a towed Optical Plankton Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, R. T.; Bathmann, U.; Dubischar, C.; Read, J. F.; Lucas, M.

    Spatial distributions of zooplankton with lengths between about 500 μm and 8 mm are described from surveys in the vicinity of the Antarctic Polar Front in austral summer 1995/6 using an Optical Plankton Counter mounted on a towed profiling SeaSoar. The distributions, split into several logarithmically spaced size classes, are compared and related to the physical environment south of the Polar Front in the Antarctic Zone and within the Polar Frontal Zone. They also are compared with phytoplankton distributions determined from surface chlorophyll data. Both phytoplankton and zooplankton carbon densities are low in the Antarctic Zone (2-3 g C m -2), but rise to larger values in the Polar Frontal Zone (5-7 g C m -2 for zooplankton and a maximum of 6 g C m -2 at fronts for phytoplankton). Calibration of OPC derived zooplankton biovolume to carbon was achieved by comparison with dry weights from multinet samples deployed in conjunction with CTD casts. The net data showed that over 98% of zooplankton counts were copepods. Diel behaviour also was examined. Only larger copepods (over 2 mm long) displayed significant diel migration, and then only 10-20% of the standing stock; the majority remained deeper than about 100 m and their distribution patterns suggest that they may be retained aside from the main frontal jets by ageostrophic circulations associated with the front. Copepods shorter than 2 mm rose from depth over the month-long survey to become concentrated in the surface layer (the top 70-100 m). The largest copepods that could be resolved, with lengths of about 4-8 mm (possibly Rhincalanus gigas), displayed unexpected behaviour in tending to migrate to the top 0-10 m by day, descending to 40-50 m each night.

  4. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones....

  5. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  6. Neglecting posture: differences in balance impairments between peripersonal and extrapersonal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Ten Brink, Antonia F; van der Stoep, Nathan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2014-12-01

    Neglect is a heterogeneous disorder and may be specific for only peripersonal or extrapersonal space. Behavioural consequences at the level of independency in basic activities of daily living differ between patients with peripersonal and those with extrapersonal neglect. One of the most important factors that determine independency in basic activities of daily living is balance. Here, potential differences in postural imbalance between patients with peripersonal and those with extrapersonal neglect were investigated. A total of 81 stroke patients were screened within the first 2 weeks after admission to the rehabilitation centre. Mediolateral (horizontal) and anteroposterior (vertical) displacements of the centre of pressure (CoP) were measured using a Nintendo Wii Balance Board in an eyes-open and eyes-closed condition. Patients with peripersonal neglect showed a significant displacement of mediolateral CoP from the ideal CoP, but not in the anteroposterior dimension or postural sway. Patients with extrapersonal neglect did not differ from the no-neglect patients in terms of displacement of both mediolateral and anteroposterior CoP and postural sway. There were no differences between the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in any of the groups. Consequences of region-specific neglect on postural imbalance appear to be very specific and cannot be accounted for by neglecting visual information only. The current findings might directly reflect a relation between body perception and body representation and (actions in) peripersonal space. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, when needed, to adjust the rehabilitation programme accordingly. PMID:25340562

  7. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  8. Seahorses under a changing ocean: the impact of warming and acidification on the behaviour and physiology of a poor-swimming bony-armoured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Santos, Catarina; Aurélio, Maria L; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Paula, José Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Seahorses are currently facing great challenges in the wild, including habitat degradation and overexploitation, and how they will endure additional stress from rapid climate change has yet to be determined. Unlike most fishes, the poor swimming skills of seahorses, along with the ecological and biological constraints of their unique lifestyle, place great weight on their physiological ability to cope with climate changes. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (ΔpH = -0.5 units) on the physiological and behavioural ecology of adult temperate seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus. Adult seahorses were found to be relatively well prepared to face future changes in ocean temperature, but not the combined effect of warming and acidification. Seahorse metabolism increased normally with warming, and behavioural and feeding responses were not significantly affected. However, during hypercapnia the seahorses exhibited signs of lethargy (i.e. reduced activity levels) combined with a reduction of feeding and ventilation rates. Nonetheless, metabolic rates were not significantly affected. Future ocean changes, particularly ocean acidification, may further threaten seahorse conservation, turning these charismatic fishes into important flagship species for global climate change issues. PMID:27293694

  9. The Neglect of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  10. Reaching the Neglected 95%

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors' comments focus on why American psychologists have become overreliant on American samples, and they provide alternative suggestions for broadening the scope…

  11. Neglected vaginal pessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal pessary may be opted for management of uterine prolapse as a safe option, but to avoid complications regular follow-up is a must. We are reporting a case of neglected vaginal pessary in a 72 year old female which got embedded in vaginal mucosa and required excision of vaginal band for its removal. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 291-292

  12. NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES IN BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Polman, Katja; Allen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs) points to the need for a biosocial perspective. Although 'diseases' are widely understood as biological phenomena, 'neglect' is inherently social. Social priorities, social relations and social behaviour profoundly influence the design, implementation and evaluation of control programmes. Yet, these dimensions of neglect are, themselves, neglected. Instead, emphasis is being placed on preventive chemotherapy - a technical, context-free approach which relies almost entirely on the mass distribution of drugs, at regular intervals, to populations living in endemic areas. This article reflects on the processes which have enabled an NTD 'brand' identity to emerge, and it comments on a disquieting disengagement with some of the more critical insights about the consequences of mass drug administration. Building on the work of biosocial scholars studying other aspects of health and disease, a more adequate, evidence-based approach is delineated. Developing such an approach is an iterative process, requiring on-going engagement with both biological and social insights as they emerge. Considerable theoretical, methodological and political challenges lie ahead, but it is essential they are overcome, if the sustainable control of NTDs is to become a reality. PMID:27428062

  13. Behaviour of oceanic 137Cs following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for four years simulated numerically by a regional ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Misumi, K.; Tateda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition.We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the regional ocean for four years by numerical model, such as a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model. Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for four years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly release was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. Decrease rate were quite small after 2013. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1010 Bq/day by the end of March 2015. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. There is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011. Observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. We reconstructed the history of 137Cs activity in this early period by considering atmospheric deposition, river input, rain water runoff from the 1F NPP site. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. The

  14. Electromagnetic induction in the oceans and the anomalous behaviour of coastal C-responses for periods up to 20 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.V.; Olsen, Nils; Avdeev, D.B.; Pankratov, O.V.

    2002-01-01

    [1] Electromagnetic transfer functions at coastal sites are known to be strongly distorted by the conductivity of the seawater. This ocean effect is generally considered to be small for periods greater than a few days. We revise this statement by detailed and systematic model studies in the period...... range from 1 to 64 days, with subsequent comparison of the modelled and observed electromagnetic responses. The conductivity model consists of a radial symmetric (1-D) section that is overlaid by a thin spherical surface shell, the conductance of which is compiled using the NOAA ETOPO topography...... conclude that peculiarities in the observed coastal responses in the period range from 1 to 20 days can be explained to a large amount by induction in the oceans. We show that correction for the ocean effect results in responses that are much better interpretable by 1-D conductivity models compared to the...

  15. Neglected hangman fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman′s fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients.

  16. A note on neglect defaulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Margolis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the notion of ``neglect defaulting,'' which labels the propensity to neglect possibilities which are ordinarily sensibly neglected. In familiar contexts we are well-tuned to recognize when to override the default. But outside the range of familiar experience --- here in the artificial context of puzzles --- these ordinarily benign defaults can make it difficult for even sophisticated subjects, such as readers of this note, to avoid responses which on reflection will be seen as obviously mistaken. A detail of particular importance is that, although subjects are easily prompted to take one step in the direction of reaching a sound response, the tendency to then neglect to consider that another step may be needed is remarkably strong. In each of the five examples the needed but usually neglected second step is quite trivial. Concluding remarks point to consequences for larger questions outside the range of familiar experience, in politics and other contexts out of scale with everyday experience.

  17. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  18. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  19. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  20. Child neglect: injuries of omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, P S

    1999-01-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States. Researchers have indicated that child neglect is strongly correlated with poverty, single-parent caretakers, unemployment, and multifaceted family problems. When neglect is present, it is usually pervasive in the lives of all family members, with both parents and children often perceiving themselves to be powerless and viewing attempts at goal achievement to be futile. Treatment for neglectful families requires multidisciplinary efforts to improve family functioning and promote a safe and supportive environment. Nurses have a variety of roles in the assessment of and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions for child neglect, with child safety and optimal family functioning as the desired outcomes. Early identification and intervention has the potential for reducing or preventing the developmental consequences associated with the deprivations of neglect. The nurse's role as child/family advocate is often the critical determinant of whether "at-risk" families are identified and receive the therapeutic interventions and tangible services they need. Additionally, nurses often have direct responsibilities for monitoring and remediating parenting patterns that have placed the child in hazardous conditions. PMID:12024360

  1. Marine renewable energies. When researchers consider the ocean as an energy source. Offshore wind power. The thermal energy of seas, a solar resource to be no longer neglected. Lipid biofuels production by micro-algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present day context of search for renewable energy sources, it is surprising that the oceans energy, potentially enormous, is poorly taken into consideration with respect to the other renewable energy sources, while France has been a pioneer in this domain with the construction of the Rance tidal power plant in the 1960's, and still in operation today. However, the scientific community, and in particular the IFREMER institute in France, is developing R and D programs on marine energy technologies. On the other hand, the development of wind power is growing up rapidly with a worldwide installed capacity exceeding today 94000 MW and supplying 3% of the electricity consumed in Europe. The development of offshore wind farms represents today 1122 MW and should grow up very fast in the coming years. The ocean is also a huge reservoir of thermal energy which can be exploited to generate electricity and desalinated water. Finally, the cultivation of micro-algae for the enhanced production of lipids may be a more ecological alternative to the terrestrial production of biofuels, strongly criticized today for its long term environmental impacts. (J.S.)

  2. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  3. Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter κ (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter κ featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median κ-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The κ-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, κ was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with κ-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low κ-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

  4. Does trust influence consumer behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Dierks, Leef H.

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of diverse food scandals this article investigates the role of trust as a determinant of consumer behaviour in Germany. As empirical analyses indicate, the impact of trust on consumer behaviour in a quotidian and presumably safe setting is to be neglected. In the environment of a food scandal, however, trust proves to be a crucial element with regard to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour under uncertainty. Moreover, it is analysed whether different valu...

  5. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed...

  6. Sequelae of neglected senile cataract

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. An attack of phacolytic and phacomorphic glaucoma as a result of neglected cataract constitutes a medical emergency that must be addressed immediately. Ocular emergencies such as these is challenging for the surgeon with guarded or poor prognosis. We describe the presentation, management and prognosis of three cases of phacomorphic and phacolytic glaucoma. All three patients underwent aggressive management of intraocular pressure. D...

  7. Psychosocial Determinants of Nutritional Neglect in a Developing Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. (author)

  8. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended. PMID:27455922

  9. Intermediate crust (IC); its construction at continent edges, distinctive epeirogenic behaviour and identification as sedimentary basins within continents: new light on pre-oceanic plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. The plate tectonics paradigm currently posits that the Earth has only two kinds of crust - continental and oceanic - and that the former may be stretched to form sedimentary basins or the latter may be modified by arc or collision until it looks continental. But global analysis of the dynamics of actual plate motions for the past 150 Ma indicates [1 - 3] that continental tectospheres must be immensely thicker and rheologically stiffer than previously thought; almost certainly too thick to be stretched with the forces available. In the extreme case of cratons, these tectospheric keels evidently extend to 600 km or more [2, 3]. This thick-plate behaviour is attributable, not to cooling but to a petrological 'stiffening' effect, associated with a loss of water-weakening of the mineral crystals, which also applies to the hitherto supposedly mobile LVZ below MORs [4, 5]. The corresponding thick-plate version of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) process [6 - 8], replacing the divergent mantle flow model, has a deep, narrow wall-accreting axial crack which not only provides the seismic anisotropy beneath the flanks but also brings two outstanding additional benefits:- (i) why, at medium to fast spreading rates, MOR axes become straight and orthogonally segmented [6], (ii) not being driven by body forces, it can achieve the sudden jumps of axis, spreading-rate and direction widely present in the ocean-floor record. Furthermore, as we will illustrate, the crack walls push themselves apart at depth by a thermodynamic mechanism, so the plates are not being pulled apart. So the presence of this process at a continental edge would not imply the application of extensional force to the margin. Intermediate Crust (IC). In seeking to resolve the paradox that superficially extensional structures are often seen at margins we will first consider how this MOR process would be affected by the heavy concurrent sedimentation to be expected when splitting a mature continent. I reason

  10. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  11. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  12. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome. PMID:26465369

  13. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio QUEIROZ-TELLES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYChromoblastomycosis (CMB is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome.

  14. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  15. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  16. The Medial Habenula: Still Neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humsini eViswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habenula is a small, bilateral brain structure located at the dorsal end of the diencephalon. This structure sends projections to the dopaminergic striatum and receives inputs from the limbic forebrain, making the habenula a unique modulator of cross-talk between these brain regions. Despite strong interest in the habenula during the seventies and eighties (1-5, interest waned due to lack of a clearly identifiable functional role. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka’s seminal work on the lateral habenula as a predictor of negative reward in monkeys, the habenula has undergone a resurgence of scientific interest. Matsumoto and Hikosaka demonstrated an increase in habenular neuron firing when monkeys did not receive an expected juice reward (6. Studies have shown that increased habenular activity inactivates dopaminergic cells in the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus (RMTg through GABAergic mechanisms (7, 8. Additional studies link habenular activity to the regulation of serotonin and norepinephrine, suggesting the habenula modulates multiple brain systems (9, 10. These discoveries ushered in a series of new studies that have refocused attention on the lateral habenula and the importance of this small brain structure (7, 11-14. Recently, Geisler and Trimble reviewed this renewed interest in: The Lateral Habenula: No Longer Neglected (15. While the lateral habenula (LHb has been extensively studied, the anatomically and histochemically distinct medial habenula (MHb remains largely understudied. This short review argues that the MHb is functionally important and should be studied more aggressively.

  17. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  18. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Legal Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews federal and state legal mandates to report child abuse. It addresses the issue of immunity from civil suit and criminal prosecution for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect, along with the criminal prosecution that may result if suspected child abuse or neglect is not reported. (CR)

  19. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  20. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Hemi-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n=52, mean age=66 years. To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25mins, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude=1mA. Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioural Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change=28%, SD=18 was still evident 1month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study.

  1. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  2. Towards a Definition of Serendipity in Information Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…

  3. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards About NAPSA Overview History Success Code of Ethics Strategic Plan Board & Staff Committees Partners NAPSRC National ... money inappropriately Dressing inappropriately for existing weather conditions * Definitions of self-neglect vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. ...

  4. Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — There are more than 6,500 identified rare and neglected diseases, yet only about 250 treatments are available for these conditions. The limited numbers of patients...

  5. Representational neglect in "invisible" drawing from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristinzio, Chiara; Bourlon, Clémence; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario; Chokron, Sylvie; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    We describe the case of a patient with right hemisphere damage and left unilateral neglect. The patient was asked to draw from memory common objects, either with or without visual feedback. In the conditions without visual feedback the patient was either blindfolded or he made "invisible" drawings using a pen with the cap on, the drawings being recorded with carbon paper underneath. Results showed more neglect without than with visual feedback, contrary to previously published cases. This patient's pattern of performance may result from the contribution of a deficit of spatial working memory. Alternatively or in addition, the patient, who was undergoing cognitive rehabilitation for neglect, may have found easier to compensate for his neglect with visual feedback, which allowed him to visually explore the left part of his drawings. PMID:18718580

  6. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Reidpath Daniel; Pokhrel Subhash; Allotey Pascale

    2011-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. BACKGROUND: The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. METHOD: A case study was ca...

  7. Mirror neuron therapy for hemispatial neglect patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Xiangtong; Ye, Qian; Chen, Wenli; Ni, Jun; Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Bing; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neuron system(MNS) based therapy has been employed to treat stroke induced movement disorders. However, its potential effects on patients with hemispatial neglect were uninvestigated. The present study set out to test the therapeutic efficiency of video watching of series of hand actions/movements (protocol A) in two patients with left hemispatial neglect, due to the right hemisphere stroke. The video containing dynamic landscape of natural scene or cities but not human/animals was use...

  8. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE data...

  9. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-05-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent-based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus-response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  10. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  11. Exploring Self-neglect in Older Adults: Preliminary Findings of the Self-Neglect Severity Scale and Next Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, P. Adam; Dyer, Carmel B.; Pavlik, Valory; Doody, Rachelle; Jogerst, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Despite the public health implications of self-neglect, no tool exists for characterizing this condition. Self-neglecters often have no caregivers or surrogates to interview regarding the neglect, and are often too cognitively impaired to provide valid self-reports. In response to this need, researchers from the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST), collaborated with other experts in the field of elder self-neglect to design the Self-neglect Severity Scale (SSS). The...

  12. Prodrugs for the Treatment of Neglected Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Blau

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, World Health Organization (WHO and Medicins San Frontieres (MSF proposed a classification of diseases as global, neglected and extremely neglected. Global diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and mental (CNS diseases represent the targets of the majority of the R&D efforts of pharmaceutical companies. Neglected diseases affect millions of people in the world yet existing drug therapy is limited and often inappropriate. Furthermore, extremely neglected diseases affect people living under miserable conditions who barely have access to the bare necessities for survival. Most of these diseases are excluded from the goals of the R&D programs in the pharmaceutical industry and therefore fall outside the pharmaceutical market. About 14 million people, mainly in developing countries, die each year from infectious diseases. From 1975 to 1999, 1393 new drugs were approved yet only 1% were for the treatment of neglected diseases [3]. These numbers have not changed until now, so in those countries there is an urgent need for the design and synthesis of new drugs and in this area the prodrug approach is a very interesting field. It provides, among other effects, activity improvements and toxicity decreases for current and new drugs, improving market availability. It is worth noting that it is essential in drug design to save time and money, and prodrug approaches can be considered of high interest in this respect. The present review covers 20 years of research on the design of prodrugs for the treatment of neglected and extremely neglected diseases such as Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis, malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  13. Neglect Dyslexia: Frequency, Association with Other Hemispatial Neglects, and Lesion Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Seo, Sang Won; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Na, Duk L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere injury often omit or misread words on the left side of a page or the beginning letters of single words (neglect dyslexia). Our study involving a large sample of acute right hemisphere stroke investigated (1) the frequency of neglect dyslexia (ND), (2) the association between ND and other types of contralesional…

  14. The General Theory : a neglected work?!

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, M G

    2012-01-01

    The General Theory (Keynes, 1936, hereafter G.T.) a neglected work? Am I joking? Few books have been subject to so much review, criticism and interpretation. Yet I suggest that its impact on modern economic theory, both neoClassical and Post Keynesian, has in fact been minimal. This theoretical neglect has also limited Keynes’s impact on policy, other than as a poster boy for a traditional policy of public works which predated The General Theory. My aim in this lecture is to tr...

  15. Neglect severity after left and right brain damage

    OpenAIRE

    Suchan, Julia; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    While unilateral spatial neglect after left brain damage is undoubtly less common than spatial neglect after a right hemisphere lesion, it is also assumed to be less severe. Here we directly test this latter hypothesis using a continuous measure of neglect severity: the so-called Center of Cancellation (CoC). Rorden and Karnath (2010) recently validated this index for right brain damaged neglect patients. A first aim of the present study was to evaluate this new measure for spatial neglect af...

  16. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers-Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun-are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  18. The Neglected Tools Can Work for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Mac M.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the resources and techniques available to the classroom teacher of English as a second or foreign language, none are more neglected than audiovisual aids. Properly planned, constructed, and employed, such aids can help not only to improve the overall language program but also to enhance the classroom atmosphere and to ensure greater student…

  19. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  20. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  1. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  2. U.S. Books Abroad: Neglected Ambassadors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Curtis G.

    Emphasizing that books are keys to cultural development, catalysts to trade, and unparalleled (but "neglected") ambassadors of American culture, this report points out the need for a new international outlook on the part of the entire United States publishing community. The report calls for a renewed cooperative approach, which would bring…

  3. Neuro-anatomical dissections of unilateral visual neglect symptoms: ALE meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chechlacz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visual neglect is commonly defined as impaired ability to attend to stimuli presented on the side of visual space contralateral to the brain lesion. However, behavioural analyses indicate that different neglect symptoms can dissociate. The neuroanatomy of the syndrome has been hotly debated. Some groups have argued that the syndrome is linked to posterior parietal cortex lesions, while others report damage within regions including the superior temporal gyrus, insula and basal ganglia. Several recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence that heterogeneity in the behavioural symptoms of neglect can be matched by variations in the brain lesions, and that some of the discrepancies across earlier findings might have resulted from the use of different neuropsychological tests and/or varied measures within the same task for diagnosing neglect. In this paper, we review the evidence for dissociations between both the symptoms and the neural substrates of unilateral visual neglect, drawing on ALE (anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analyses of lesion symptom mapping studies. Specifically, we examine dissociations between neglect symptoms associated with impaired control of attention across space (in an egocentric frame of reference and within objects (in an allocentric frame of reference. Results of ALE-meta analyses indicated that, while egocentric symptoms are associated with more anterior cortical damage and damage within sub-cortical structures, more posterior lesions are associated with allocentric symptoms. Furthermore, there was high concurrence in deficits associated with white matter lesions supporting a disconnection account of the syndrome. Using this evidence we argue that different forms of neglect link to both distinct and common patterns of grey and white matter lesions. The findings are discussed in terms of functional accounts of neglect and theoretical models based on computational studies of both normal and impaired

  4. Behaviour of domestic violence in the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry; Ester Lilian Cabrera; Madeleines Arguelles Pérez

    2013-01-01

    The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abus...

  5. BEHAVIOURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUPPLY CHAIN RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra-Codruta Popescu (Bîzoi); Cristian-Gabriel Bîzoi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has focused largely on the field of supply chain risk management. Numerous risks occur within supply chain management. Until lately, behavioural risks (implying large amount of losses) have been neglected and considered not relevant. In this paper we provide an analysis of the importance of including behavioural research in logistics and supply chain risk management, what has been written so far and potential future research directions. Until now, literature on logistics and supply...

  6. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  7. Reviewing Dengue: Still a Neglected Tropical Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Horstick, Olaf; Tozan, Yesim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD). But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R...

  8. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  9. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  10. The Neglected Arboviral Infections in Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Nasci, Roger; Liang, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    The major arboviral diseases in mainland China include Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever), and tick-borne encephalitis. These and other newly found arbovirus infections due to Banna virus and Tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in China. Here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland China with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vecto...

  11. Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Selen Acehan; Aysegul Bilen; Mehmet Oguzhan Ay; Muge Gulen; Akkan Avci; Ferhat Icme

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the...

  12. EAN Syndrom - Elder Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    HANZELOVÁ, Jiřina

    2007-01-01

    Thesis named ,,EAN Syndrom {--} Elder Abuse and Neglect`` is divided into two parts, they are theoretical and research ones. The theoretical part defines the torture and abuse, the syndrome of the maltreatment with seniors (EAN), the domestic violence, the institutional care, ageing, etc..These definitions are followed by the legislation containing legal amendments concerning the torture and abuse. The thesis also includes the statistical data showing the situation of the senescent population...

  13. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  14. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data System Glossary Listen Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives National Adoption ... Month National Foster Care Month Publications Publications Series ...

  16. Acts of Omission: An Overview of Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives National Adoption ... Month National Foster Care Month Publications Publications Series ...

  17. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, 2000 Categories: Reporting Systems Topics: ... and reference purposes only. This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data ...

  18. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools ...

  19. Neglected Infections of Poverty in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J Hotez

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongy...

  20. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  1. 1978 Annual Review of Child Abuse and Neglect Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.

    The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…

  2. Is there a critical lesion site for unilateral spatial neglect? A meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eMolenberghs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The critical lesion site responsible for the syndrome of unilateral spatial neglect has been debated for more than a decade. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE to provide for the first time an objective quantitative index of the consistency of lesion sites across anatomical group studies of spatial neglect. The analysis revealed several distinct regions in which damage has consistently been associated with spatial neglect symptoms. Lesioned clusters were located in several cortical and subcortical regions of the right hemisphere, including the middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, caudate nucleus and posterior insula, as well as in the white matter pathway corresponding to the posterior part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Further analyses suggested that separate lesion sites are associated with impairments in different behavioural tests, such as line bisection and target cancellation. Similarly, specific subcomponents of the heterogeneous neglect syndrome, such as extinction and allocentric and personal neglect, are associated with distinct lesion sites. Future progress in delineating the neuropathological correlates of spatial neglect will depend upon the development of more refined measures of perceptual and cognitive functions than those currently available in the clinical setting.

  3. Ethical Consumer Behaviour: Can Critical Incidents Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Farhangmehr, Minoo; Malheiro, Alexandra; Soares, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have been fruitful in the development of research into ethical consumer behaviour. Notwithstanding this growing interest, the majority of studies focuses on measuring consumers' ethical attitudes and beliefs, neglecting the understanding of actual behaviour. This investigation aims at a deeper understanding of ethical consumer behaviour. A qualitative approach, based on 20 interviews with Portuguese consumers was undertaken. Results reveal a typology of consumption issues...

  4. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  5. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  6. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pierre Raccurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  7. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  8. [Neglected children: birth, life and survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Stéphanie; Absil, Gaëtan; Vandoorne, Chantal; Lachaussée, Sophie; Vanmeerbeek, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Child neglect leads to numerous and serious consequences. The physical and neurophysiological development can be altered by the lack of stimulation or via a chronic stress which increases the production of cortisol. Gradually, psychomotor and cognitive deficits can appear. The emotions can be deeply touched and cause dysfunctional social relationship, ranging from withdrawal to aggressiveness. Primary care health practitioners have a role to play in the screening of risk situations and long term follow-up of the families. The interventions should ideally begin early, be participatory and based on an enhancement of the parent-child relationship. PMID:19168321

  9. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans. PMID:27018020

  10. Marine renewable energies. When researchers consider the ocean as an energy source. Offshore wind power. The thermal energy of seas, a solar resource to be no longer neglected. Lipid biofuels production by micro-algae; Energies Renouvelables marines. Quand les chercheurs voient l'ocean comme source d'energie. L'eolien offshore. L'energie thermique des mers, ressource solaire a ne plus negliger. La production de biocarburant lipidiques par des microalgues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruer, J. [Saipen SA, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Gauthier, M. [Ifremer, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France); Zaharia, R. [CNES, 75 - Paris (France); Cadoret, J.P. [IFREMER, Lab. de Physiologie et Biologie des Algues, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2008-03-15

    In the present day context of search for renewable energy sources, it is surprising that the oceans energy, potentially enormous, is poorly taken into consideration with respect to the other renewable energy sources, while France has been a pioneer in this domain with the construction of the Rance tidal power plant in the 1960's, and still in operation today. However, the scientific community, and in particular the IFREMER institute in France, is developing R and D programs on marine energy technologies. On the other hand, the development of wind power is growing up rapidly with a worldwide installed capacity exceeding today 94000 MW and supplying 3% of the electricity consumed in Europe. The development of offshore wind farms represents today 1122 MW and should grow up very fast in the coming years. The ocean is also a huge reservoir of thermal energy which can be exploited to generate electricity and desalinated water. Finally, the cultivation of micro-algae for the enhanced production of lipids may be a more ecological alternative to the terrestrial production of biofuels, strongly criticized today for its long term environmental impacts. (J.S.)

  11. Kinas ambitioner i det Indiske Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Morten Hetmar

    2014-01-01

    The article examines China's strategic and maritime interests and behaviour in the Indian Ocean and the Sino-Indian rivalry in Asia, as both countries vie for political and economic influnce in the countries dotting the Indian Ocean littoral from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca....

  12. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future. PMID:26795222

  13. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  14. Tidal response of Europa's subsurface ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Özgür; Comblen, Richard; Toubeau, Jonathan; Deleersnijder, Eric; van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2010-05-01

    Observations of Cassini and Galileo spacecrafts suggest the presence of subsurface global water oceans under the icy shells of several satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Previous studies have shown that in the presence of subsurface oceans, time-variable tides cause large periodic surface displacements and that tidal dissipation in the icy shell becomes a major energy source that can affect long-term orbital evolution. However, in most studies so far, the dynamics of these satellite oceans have been neglected. In the present study, we investigate the tidal response of the subsurface ocean of Europa to a time-varying potential. Two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations are solved on a sphere by means of a finite element code. The resulting ocean tidal flow velocities and surface displacements will be presented.

  15. Battered, Abused and Neglected Children as social problem

    OpenAIRE

    KOPECKÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The theory will be developed with the basic concepts chapters on the selected topic. Equipment will be introduced in the Czech Republic to help battered, abused and neglected children, and access and the role of social worker on the issue of child battered, abuse and neglect. The practical part will be listed by case reports of cases of battered, abuse and neglect, which I collected in my completed practice. Using the table of comparison of results will be listed case reports.

  16. Selection of acute stroke patients for treatment of visual neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, S P; Patel, P.; Greenwood, R J

    1993-01-01

    Although visual neglect is a predictor of poor outcome after stroke, some patients regain independence, whilst others take up considerable rehabilitation resources. Intensive treatment of visual neglect is available and a knowledge of the predictive features in the recovery of these patients would be helpful in the early selection of patients for treatment. A study was therefore carried out to determine the prognosis of patients presenting with visual neglect at two to three days after stroke...

  17. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxy...

  18. Left neglect dyslexia: Perseveration and reading error types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. PMID:27450268

  19. The Eddington approximation calculation of radiation flux in the atmosphere–ocean system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical approximation method is presented to calculate the radiation flux in the atmosphere–ocean system using the Eddington approximation when the upwelling radiation from the ocean body is negligibly small. Numerical experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of the method in two cases: flat and rough ocean surfaces. The results show good consistency for the reflectivity at the top of atmosphere and transmissivity just above the ocean surface, in comparison with the exact values calculated by radiative transfer models in each case. Moreover, an obvious error might be introduced for the calculation of radiation flux at larger solar zenith angles when the roughness of the ocean surface is neglected. - Highlights: • The Eddington approximation method is extended to the atmosphere–ocean system. • The roughness of ocean surface cannot be neglected at lager solar zenith angles. • Unidirectional reflectivity for rough ocean surface is proposed

  20. running ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokenath Debnath

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory is presented of the generation and propagation of the two and the three dimensional tsunamis in a shallow running ocean due to the action of an arbitrary ocean floor or ocean surface disturbance. Integral solutions for both two and three dimensional problems are obtained by using the generalized Fourier and Laplace transforms. An asymptotic analysis is carried out for the investigation of the principal features of the free surface elevation. It is found that the propagation of the tsunamis depends on the relative magnitude of the given speed of the running ocean and the wave speed of the shallow ocean. When the speed of the running ocean is less than the speed of the shallow ocean wave, both the two and the three dimensional free surface elevation represent the generation and propagation of surface waves which decay asymptotically as t−12 for the two dimensional case and as t−1 for the three dimensional tsunamis. Several important features of the solution are discussed in some detail. As an application of the general theory, some physically realistic ocean floor disturbances are included in this paper.

  1. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. A simple model for the three-dimensional, thermally and wind-driven ocean circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Leo R. M.

    2011-01-01

    As a generalization to box models of the large-scale, thermally and wind-driven ocean circulation, nonlinear equations, describing the evolution of two vectors characterizing the state of the ocean, are derived for a rectangular ocean on an f-plane. These state vectors represent the basin-averaged density gradient and the overall angular momentum vector of the ocean. Neglecting rotation, the Howard-Malkus loop oscillation is retrieved, governed by the Lorenz equations. This has the equations ...

  3. Influence of ocean tide dynamics on the climate system from the Cretaceous to present day

    OpenAIRE

    T. Weber; M. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Global numerical ocean models used for paleo-climate reconstructions generally only consider the ocean’s general circulation, but neglect tidal dynamics. However, it has been demonstrated that tidally induced friction at the ocean bottom alters the mean ocean circulation and energy fluxes on timescales larger than one tidal period and up to climate timescales. Thereby the mean ocean circulation and temperature advection is altered and can thus affect climate. We simultaneously ...

  4. Neglected tropical diseases of Namibia: unsolved mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; van der Colf, Berta E

    2013-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are diseases most commonly found in settings of poverty and are responsible for the morbidity and/or mortality of millions each year. As an upper-middle income country, Namibia is not normally considered to have many NTDs but published reports indicate the possible presence of over 30. Because much of the data is buried in historical studies published before Independence in 1990, there is a risk of losing valuable information on which to build current and future integrated public health strategies. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to bring together these significant fragments to identify existing knowledge gaps which need to be addressed to build effective control, prevention, and even elimination strategies. The review focuses on intestinal helminthes, schistosomes/snail 'vectors', viruses (Rift Valley Fever, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, rabies), protozoa (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Amoeba, Giardia), bacteria (Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Leptospira, Coxiella, Brucella, and Borrelia), fungi (Pneumocystis) and myiasis. Each NTD speaks to the possible need for surveillance and the creation of integrated disease risk maps, linking prevalence of related NTDs with environmental and ecological factors to assist control and prevention efforts. The predominance of zoonotic disease suggests a need to integrate veterinary and public health components as the national public health surveillance system is established. PMID:23006744

  5. Would Cholera become a Neglected Tropical Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Bhola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a serious public health problem, particularly in Africa, Asia, South and Central America. Similar to the neglected tropical diseases (NTD, it is common in places with unsafe water, poor sanitation and limited access to the basic health care. In the concurrent times when the world is shrinking into a Global village, the definition of NTD itself has lost significance owing to rapid transmission of such diseases. Even, the cholera non-endemic developed countries in Europe, Russia and Oceania have become vulnerable to imported cholera. The seventh pandemic of cholera is in its 51st year without any sign of abatement despite improvements in sanitation, safe drinking water supply, promotion of oral rehydration therapy and availability of alternative preventive interventions like oral cholera vaccines. Cholera is markedly under reported due to a myriad of reasons including economic ones. The under reporting is also resulted from weakening surveillance system across countries which in turn contributes to changing perceptions and attitudes on burden of the disease and deteriorating public health services. In addition to this, lack of evidence-based sector wide programmatic approach and inequitable resource allocation for prevention and control of cholera may also risk the disease to become a NTD in future.

  6. Speech neglect: A strange educational blind spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine Safford

    2005-09-01

    Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.

  7. Cerebellar allocentric and action-intentional spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Nicholas J; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2014-09-01

    Contralesional hemispatial neglect most often results from lesions in the right posterior temporoparietal cortex. Less commonly, contralesional and ipsilesional neglect are caused by lesions in the frontal lobe. Although unilateral left cerebellar lesions have been reported to cause body-centered (egocentric) ipsilesional neglect, they have not been reported to cause left-side object-centered (allocentric) neglect together with a leftward action-intentional bias. We describe a patient who had these signs of neglect 7 months after a left cerebellar hemorrhage. This 61-year-old right-handed woman reported emotional lability and difficulty walking, frequently bumping into things on her left side. Neurologic examination revealed ocular dysmetria and left-side limb ataxia. Neuropsychological tests showed evidence of neglect. On a clock-drawing test, the patient accurately drew a circle but her number placement deviated to the left side. She showed the same leftward deviation when she tried to draw a circle composed of small triangles. Although her line bisection was normal, on an allocentric task of open-triangle cancellation she was most likely to neglect triangles with a left-side opening. Her performance on this task indicated left allocentric neglect. Her leftward deviation on the clock and figure drawing tasks seems to be a form of an action-intentional grasp, which may have been induced by right frontal dysfunction superimposed on a deficit of global attention. PMID:25237748

  8. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  9. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  10. 25 CFR 11.424 - Neglect of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the...

  11. Neglected Children: Understanding, Identifying and Working with Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Bruce

    Children who experience neglect require immediate help because severe deprivation can affect all aspects of children's development. Parental behaviors indicative of child neglect include failure to (1) feed children adequately, (2) insure adequate medical care, (3) maintain good personal hygiene, (4) clothe children appropriately, (5) supervise…

  12. An ecological analysis of infant neglect by adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Raskin, Maryna; Kotake, Chie; Nearing, Kristen D; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2014-04-01

    To inform efforts to prevent child neglect, we investigated a wide range of risk factors that have been largely unexamined in relation to infant neglect, the most commonly occurring form of child maltreatment. Using an ecological model of child neglect, we assessed the influence of characteristics at the level of the child, the mother, the family, and broader childrearing contexts on adolescent mothers' likelihood of being a perpetrator in a substantiated case of neglect against their firstborn infants (n=383, M=12 months). Several factors were associated with infant neglect by young mothers: median block income, low infant birth weight, maternal smoking, maternal childhood history of neglect and of positive care, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by either the mother or her partner, and maternal use of mental health services. In multivariate models, income, a maternal childhood history of positive care, IPV by either a mother or her partner, and mental health service usage made significant contributions to the odds that a mother neglected her infant. Our findings suggest that these factors have particular salience to policymakers' and practitioners' efforts to identify high risk families and to intervene during the earliest months of life to prevent child neglect. PMID:24405556

  13. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  14. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. PMID:25535250

  15. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  16. Reviewing dengue: still a neglected tropical disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Horstick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD. But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D (2003-2013. NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a poverty related, b endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c lacking public health attention, d having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.

  17. Auditory lateralisation deficits in neglect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Alma; Clément, Sylvain; Senouci, Latifa; Pontzeele, Sylvain; Martin, Yves; Moroni, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Although visual deficits due to unilateral spatial neglect (USN) have been frequently described in the literature, fewer studies have been interested in directional hearing impairment in USN. The aim of this study was to explore sound lateralisation deficits in USN. Using a paradigm inspired by Tanaka et al. (1999), interaural time differences (ITD) were presented over headphones to give the illusion of a leftward or a rightward movement of sound. Participants were asked to respond "right" and "left" as soon as possible to indicate whether they heard the sound moving to the right or to the left side of the auditory space. We additionally adopted a single-case method to analyse the performance of 15 patients with right-hemisphere (RH) stroke and added two additional measures to underline sound lateralisation on the left side and on the right side. We included 15 patients with RH stoke (5 with a severe USN, 5 with a mild USN and 5 without USN) and 11 healthy age-matched participants. We expected to replicate findings of abnormal sound lateralisation in USN. However, although a sound lateralisation deficit was observed in USN, two different deficit profiles were identified. Namely, patients with a severe USN seemed to have left sound lateralisation impairment whereas patients with a mild USN seemed to be more influenced by a systematic bias in auditory representation with respect to body meridian axis (egocentric deviation). This latter profile was unexpected as sounds were manipulated with ITD and, thus, would not be perceived as coming from an external source of the head. Future studies should use this paradigm in order to better understand these two distinct profiles. PMID:27018451

  18. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  19. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  20. Factors Affecting the Clinical Measurement of Visuo-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzamiglio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined a battery of tests to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect; the tests included different tasks involving several modalities of spatial exploration mapping perceptual, motor, attentional and personal or extrapersonal space dimensions. The subjects, 121 right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral neglect, were studied in seven laboratories in four European countries. Relationships among the various tests were examined by correlations, a cluster analysis and by an analysis of individual cases. Different sensitivity was found among various tests for detecting neglect performances. Both the cluster analysis and the single case analysis clearly showed a segregation between personal and extrapersonal neglect. Analysis of the large cluster, including a variety of tests of extra personal neglect, together with the study of single cases, suggests the possibility of differentiating the various manifestations of spatial neglect which can be interpreted on the basis of the descriptions of other individual cases previously reported in the literature. Finally, the present study indicated the relative stability of neglect following the acute phase and its independence from age.

  1. A Long Neglected Damper in the El Niño--Typhoon Relationship: a 'Gaia-Like' Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe-Wen; Lin, I-I; Wang, Bin; Huang, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Chi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Proposed in the early 1970's, the Gaia hypothesis suggests that our planet earth has a self-regulating ability to maintain a stable condition for life. Tropical cyclone (TC) is one of the earth's most hazardous disasters; it is intriguing to explore whether 'Gaia-like' processes may exist in nature to regulate TC activities. El Niño can shift the forming position of the Western Pacific typhoons away from land. This shift enables typhoons to travel longer distances over ocean and is known to be a positive process to promote TCs to achieve higher intensity. What is neglected, however, is that there co-exists a negative process. Here we show that during El Niño, typhoons intensify over region undergoing strong ocean subsurface shoaling where upper ocean heat content can drop by 20-50%. This 'worsen' ocean pre-condition can effectively reduce ocean's energy supply for typhoon intensification during typhoon-ocean interaction. We find this an elegant, 'Gaia-like' process demonstrating nature's self-regulating ability. Though during El Niño, typhoons can take advantage of the longer travelling distance over ocean to achieve higher intensity, nature is also providing a damper to partially cancel this positive impact. Without the damper, the situation could be even worse. PMID:26194789

  2. Statistical learning as a tool for rehabilitation in spatial neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena eShaqiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect.

  3. Eastchester clapping sign: a novel test of parietal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Lyle W; Llinás, Rafael H

    2009-07-01

    Hand clapping is a motor program mastered in infancy. Inspired by a question posed by an Eastchester High School AP Psychology class, we present a case series of 14 patients with hemispatial neglect who, when asked to clap, repeatedly performed one-handed motions stopping abruptly at the midline of the visual hemispace, as if pantomiming slapping an invisible board. In contrast, hemiplegic patients without neglect will reach across and clap against their plegic hands. This phenomenon provides an easy, rapid, and unambiguous test for neglect, applicable to patients of any ethnicity or age. Ann Neurol 2009;66:114-117. PMID:19670437

  4. Child abuse and neglect--recognition and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The dental profession has a legal, ethical and moral responsibility to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect. The risk to the child is significant. In non-fatal cases of abuse, 35 percent will be abused again within one year. To this end, dentists should discuss child abuse and neglect at staff meetings and establish office procedures if a case is identified. Encourage staff to discuss concerns they have regarding possible abuse they suspect in the office. Keep the child abuse hotline number or local agency responsible for receiving reports in the office rolodex. Abuse and neglect is a real problem in all neighborhoods and dentistry can make a difference. PMID:8051332

  5. Statistical Learning as a Tool for Rehabilitation in Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqiri, Albulena; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James

    2013-01-01

    We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect. PMID:23754998

  6. Behavioral intervention with child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, E D

    1983-01-01

    promising. Attention to enhancement of child management skills is supported by research that shows that most abuse occurs as an extension of parental discipline attempts. A focus on describing the relationships between behaviors of concern and what happens before and afterward has yielded valuable information concerning interaction patterns in abusive, neglectful, and normal families. Advantages of viewing child abuse in the general context of family interaction are illustrated by the work of Patterson and his colleagues and by Gelles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6679065

  7. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  8. Horizontal stirring in the global ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, I; Hernández-García, E; Turiel, A

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal mixing and the distribution of coherent structures in the global ocean are analyzed using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), computed for the surface velocity field derived from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES). FSLEs measure horizontal stirring and dispersion; additionally, the transport barriers which organize the oceanic flow can roughly be identified with the ridges of the FSLE field. We have performed a detailed statistical study, particularizing for the behaviour of the two hemispheres and different ocean basins. The computed Probability Distributions Functions (PDFs) of FSLE are broad and asymmetric. Horizontal mixing is generally more active in the northern hemisphere than in the southern one. Nevertheless the Southern Ocean is the most active ocean, and the Pacific the less active one. A striking result is that the main currents can be classified in two 'activity classes': Western Boundary Currents, which have broad PDFs with large FSLE values, and Eas...

  9. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  10. Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanieleMarzoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.

  11. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Improves Arm Position Sense in Spatial Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lena; Keller, Ingo; Kathrin S. Utz; Artinger, Frank; Stumpf, Oliver; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background. Disturbed arm position sense (APS) is a frequent and debilitating condition in patients with hemiparesis after stroke. Patients with neglect, in particular, show a significantly impaired contralesional APS. Currently, there is no treatment available for this disorder. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) may ameliorate neglect and extinction by activating the thalamocortical network. Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the immediate effects and aftereffects (AEs; 20...

  12. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Hemi-Spatial Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    David Wilkinson; Mohamed Sakel

    2014-01-01

    Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduc...

  13. Galvanic vestibular stimulation in hemi-spatial neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, David; Zubko, Olga; Sakel, Mohamed; Coulton, Simon; Higgins, Tracy; Pullicino, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduc...

  14. RELATIONAL GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY: THE HEALING OF STRESS, NEGLECT AND TRAUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Erskine

    2010-01-01

    This article is the Keynote Address given at the 4th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, April 17, 2009. In speaking to the conference theme of “Acute Trauma, Cumulative Neglect, and Chronic Stress” the article describes some of the principles of Relational Group Psychotherapy. The theory of methods is based on the concept that the healing of trauma, neglect and stress occurs through a contactful therapeutic relationship. Relational group psychotherapy draws from s...

  15. Self-neglect in Older Adults: a Primer for Clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlou, Maria P.; Lachs, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Self-neglect in older adults is an increasingly prevalent, poorly understood problem, crossing both the medical and social arenas, with public health implications. Although lacking a standardized definition, self-neglect is characterized by profound inattention to health and hygiene. In light of the aging demographic, physicians of all specialties will increasingly encounter self-neglectors. We outline here practical strategies for the clinician, and suggestions for the researcher. Clinical e...

  16. Importer Behavior: the neglected Counterpart of International Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Neng Liang; Arvind Parkhe

    1997-01-01

    International exchange is a two-sided coin, involving exporters and importers. However, a systematic search of the academic literature reveals a striking imbalance: while exporter behavior has been extensively studied, importer behavior remains a largely neglected area of study, even though importers are playing an even more important (often dominant) role in consummating trade transactions. In this article, we assert that this neglect stems from two critical – but flawed – assumptions. The f...

  17. Statistical Learning as a Tool for Rehabilitation in Spatial Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Albulena Shaqiri; Britt Anderson; James Danckert

    2013-01-01

    We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and...

  18. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  19. A Long Neglected Damper in the El Niño—Typhoon Relationship: a ‘Gaia-Like’ Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe-Wen; Lin, I.-I.; Wang, Bin; Huang, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Chi-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Proposed in the early 1970’s, the Gaia hypothesis suggests that our planet earth has a self-regulating ability to maintain a stable condition for life. Tropical cyclone (TC) is one of the earth’s most hazardous disasters; it is intriguing to explore whether ‘Gaia-like’ processes may exist in nature to regulate TC activities. El Niño can shift the forming position of the Western Pacific typhoons away from land. This shift enables typhoons to travel longer distances over ocean and is known to be a positive process to promote TCs to achieve higher intensity. What is neglected, however, is that there co-exists a negative process. Here we show that during El Niño, typhoons intensify over region undergoing strong ocean subsurface shoaling where upper ocean heat content can drop by 20-50%. This ‘worsen’ ocean pre-condition can effectively reduce ocean’s energy supply for typhoon intensification during typhoon-ocean interaction. We find this an elegant, ‘Gaia-like’ process demonstrating nature’s self-regulating ability. Though during El Niño, typhoons can take advantage of the longer travelling distance over ocean to achieve higher intensity, nature is also providing a damper to partially cancel this positive impact. Without the damper, the situation could be even worse.

  20. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of applications of the self-report habit index to nutrition and physical activity behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Gardner; G.-J. de Bruijn; P. Lally

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health behaviour models typically neglect habitual action. The Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) permits synthesis of evidence of the influence of habit on behaviour. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review evidence around mean habit strength, habit-behaviour correlations, and habit

  2. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  3. Near and far space neglect: task sensitivity and anatomical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola, Lina; Schindler, Igor; Simone, Anna Maria; Venneri, Annalena

    2012-05-01

    Most group studies which have investigated neglect for near and far space have found an increased severity of symptoms in far space compared to near space. However, the majority of these studies used relatively small samples and based their findings almost exclusively on line bisection performance. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the occurrence of neglect for near and far space in a larger group of unselected right brain damaged patients and to evaluate whether neglect specific to near and far space is a task-related deficit or generalises across distance irrespective of task. In addition, a lesion overlap analysis was carried out to identify critical lesion sites associated with distance specific neglect deficits. Thirty-eight right hemisphere damaged patients carried out a line bisection and a cancellation task by using a pen in near space (40 cm) and a laser pointer in far space (320 cm). The results showed that both the number of left-sided omissions and rightward bisection errors were significantly increased in near compared to far space. Distance specific dissociations, albeit less common, were more frequently observed for cancellation than line bisection. These results suggest that space representation in neglect is more severely impaired in near than in far space. In addition, distance related dissociations in neglect may depend on task demands. Although the anatomical findings were broadly consistent with a dorsal and ventral stream dichotomy for near and far space processing, they also suggest the involvement of intermediate structures in distance related neglect phenomena. PMID:22306826

  4. A new simple concept for ocean colour remote sensing using parallel polarisation radiance

    OpenAIRE

    Xianqiang He; Delu Pan; Yan Bai; Difeng Wang; Zengzhou Hao

    2014-01-01

    Ocean colour remote sensing has supported research on subjects ranging from marine ecosystems to climate change for almost 35 years. However, as the framework for ocean colour remote sensing is based on the radiation intensity at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), the polarisation of the radiation, which contains additional information on atmospheric and water optical properties, has largely been neglected. In this study, we propose a new simple concept to ocean colour remote sensing that uses para...

  5. Impact of variable seawater conductivity on motional induction simulated with an ocean general circulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Irrgang; J. Saynisch; M. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As seawater flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for ocean-induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of seawater conductivity is often neglected and the effect on the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field unknown. To model magnetic fields that are induced by non-tidal glob...

  6. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  7. The impact of neglect on initial adaptation to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Lynch, Michael; Oshri, Assaf; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne N

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the impact of child neglect during the first 4 years of life on adaptation to school during kindergarten and first grade in the context of neighborhood poverty (NP). Processes related to the development of school competencies were examined, including the mediational role of cognitive functioning and ego-resiliency (ER) in shaping children's school outcomes. A total of 170 low-income urban children were followed prospectively for 2 years (ages 4-6). Results indicated that neglected children had significantly lower scores on kindergarten classroom behavior and first-grade academic performance than nonneglected children. Children's cognitive performance at age 4, controlling for maternal intelligence quotient, mediated the relation between severity of neglect and children's behavior in kindergarten as well as their academic performance in first grade. Moreover, severity of neglect was related to children's ER at age 4. However, additional ecological adversity in the form of NP moderated the link between ER and classroom behavior, such that at lower levels of poverty, ER mediated the relation between severity of neglect and school adaptation. Conversely, when NP was extreme, the effects of ER were attenuated and ER ceased to predict behavioral performance in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:23843472

  8. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening) to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:18575621

  9. Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, K M; Schwartz, H D; Watson, R T

    1978-03-01

    Physiologic theories of emotion suggest that activation is important in the experience of emotion; patients exhibiting "neglect" as a consequence of right parietotemporal of dysfunction show flattened affect. We studied arousal in patients with lesions of the right hemisphere who also exhibited emotional indifference, in aphasic patients with lesions of the left hemisphere, and in non-brain-damaged controls, by stimulating the forearm ipsilateral to the side of the brain lesion while recording galvanic skin responses (GSRs) from the fingers on the same side. The group exhibiting neglect had lower GSRs than aphasic patients or non-brain-damaged controls. Aphasic patients had higher GSRs than non-brain-damaged controls. These results suggest that neglect is associated with disturbances in bilateral arousal and that this disorder of arousal may be responsible in part for flattened affect. The heightened GSR in aphasic patients may reflect disinhibition, which might be partly responsible for increased emotionality in these patients. PMID:564476

  10. Is Iatrogenic Cushing s a New Form of Child Neglect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Almis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an increasingly important issue. One of the main types of abuse is child neglect, that is, behavior in which the child is knowingly or unknowingly injured. In this article; we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing%u2019s syndrome due to clobetasol 17-propionate treatment that was used inappropriately, in order to discuss whether or not this is a form of child neglect. It is one of the basic tasks of families to protect the health of the child and learn how to treat that child when he or she is ill. We believe that by being adequately informed by the health professionals, families may reduce the risk of child neglect.

  11. Analysis of primary and secondary influences on spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, J C; Na, D L; Schwartz, R L; Heilman, K M

    1998-08-01

    When attempting to determine the middle of a line, patients with neglect deviate from true center. Deviation may be induced by perceptual-attentional bias, premotor-intentional bias, or both. Using a video-based apparatus, we decoupled perceptual from premotor influences on line bisection performance in patients with hemispatial neglect to examine (a) the relationship between primary and secondary bias and (b) the relationship of bias type to lesion location. The same video-based procedure was applied to target cancellation to determine if neglect type varied as a function of task. Primary attentional-perceptual bias was found using line bisection in 14/26 subjects, most of whom had lesions involving the posterior hemisphere. Primary premotor-intentional bias on line bisection was more often associated with lesions of frontal-subcortical structures. The neglect type determined by the bisection task agreed with the results of target cancellation in most cases. Secondary bias was determined based upon whether decoupling decreased the magnitude of bisection error (concordant), increased error (discordant), or produced no significant change. Most patients showed a secondary bias, with 12/26 in the discordant group and 11/26 in the concordant group. Discordant secondary bias was more common in premotor-intentional neglect (10/12) than in perceptual-attentional neglect (2/14), whereas concordant bias was more common in the latter group (10/14) compared to the former (1/12). The nonrandom relationship between primary and secondary bias may provide a more detailed description of ways in which anatomically separate components of a cortical network contribute to spatial processing under conditions of perceptuomotor incongruity. PMID:9733554

  12. Visual Analysis of Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Shaogang

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of visual analysis of behaviour from computational-modelling and algorithm-design perspectives. This title: covers learning-group activity models, unsupervised behaviour profiling, hierarchical behaviour discovery, learning behavioural context, modelling rare behaviours, and 'man-in-the-loop' active learning; examines multi-camera behaviour correlation, person re-identification, and 'connecting-the-dots' for abnormal behaviour detection; discusses Bayesian information criterion, Bayesian networks, 'bag-of-words' representation, canonical correlation

  13. Medical implications of elder abuse: self-neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Burnett, Jason; Flores, David V; Halphen, John M; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo

    2014-11-01

    Self-neglect, the most common form of elder mistreatment seen by Adult Protective Service Agencies across the United States, is an often unrecognized geriatric syndrome characterized by squalor and unsafe living circumstances. It is a result of medical, neurologic, or psychiatric disorders coupled with lack of capacity for self-care and self-protection in the absence of necessary services or medical care, and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Clinicians should evaluate self-neglecters and plan interventions based on comprehensive geriatric assessment and capacity assessment. State and federal policies are needed to address the pressing needs of this vulnerable population of seniors. PMID:25439643

  14. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998

  15. Neglected Distal Humeral Epiphyseal Injury - Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Pankaj Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury in children, which can be missed or misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Awareness of this injury and appropriate radiological assessment helps in proper management. Neglected cases because of inappropriate diagnosis can result in cubitus varus deformity. Full range of movements of elbow can be achieved if properly diagnosed and managed. We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management.

  16. Is Iatrogenic Cushing s a New Form of Child Neglect?

    OpenAIRE

    Habip Almis

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse is an increasingly important issue. One of the main types of abuse is child neglect, that is, behavior in which the child is knowingly or unknowingly injured. In this article; we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing%u2019s syndrome due to clobetasol 17-propionate treatment that was used inappropriately, in order to discuss whether or not this is a form of child neglect. It is one of the basic tasks of families to protect the health of the child and learn how to treat that child whe...

  17. Can childhood neglect be prevented through parenting skills training?

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Benny; Dillenburger, Karola

    2007-01-01

    Child neglect continues to be the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, yet it has received less specific research attention than other forms of maltreatment (Zuravin, 1999). It is only in recent years that neglect has been seen as a phenomenon that needs to be conceptualised separately to other forms of abuse (Gershater- Molko et al., 2002). Although the term ‘neglect’ is used generally when children do not receive minimal physical and/or emotional care, there is no single agreed defini...

  18. Monitoring Ocean Carbon and Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Toste; Orr, James C.; Lorenzoni, Laura; Hansson, Lina

    2015-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 continues to increase, more and more CO2 enters the ocean, which reduces pH (pH is a measure of acidity, the lower the pH, the more acidic the liquid) in a process referred to as ocean acidification. Declines in surface ocean pH due to ocean acidification are already detectable and accelerating.

  19. Model Testing - Bringing the Ocean into the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Hydrodynamic model testing, the principle of bringing the ocean into the laboratory to study the behaviour of the ocean itself and the response of man-made structures in the ocean in reduced scale, has been known for centuries. Due to an insufficient understanding of the physics involved, however......, the early model tests often gave incomplete or directly misleading results.This keynote lecture deals with some of the possibilities and problems within the field of hydrodynamic and hydraulic model testing....

  20. What do the Numbers Say? The Influence of Motivation and Peer Feedback on Students' Behaviour in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kui

    2013-01-01

    Students' non-posting behaviour in online discussions is often neglected in educational research. However, it can be a potential indicator of student learning. This study examined the relationships between motivation, peer feedback and students’ posting and non-posting behaviours in online discussions in a distance learning class. Fifty-seven…

  1. Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia O'Campo; Cheryl Pedersen; Heidi Borenstein; Sarah Hamilton-Wright; Nihaya Daoud; Anita Minh; Matheson, Flora I

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experien...

  2. Severe Neglect and Computer-based Home Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cognitive rehabilitation from a functional perspective often requires intensive training over a longer period of time. In the case of rehabilitation of unilateral neglect, the frequency and intensity needed is expensive and difficult to implement both for the therapists and the patients...

  3. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  4. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  5. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  6. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect: Training Needs of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…

  8. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Martin Müri

    2013-06-01

    The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  9. The Neglected "R" in a Time of Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ya; Kopke, Rachel A.; Hawkins, Lisa K.; Troia, Gary A.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the need for writing competence in and out of school, writing has been deemed the neglected "R" in educational practice. Moreover, many students do not meet expected standards of writing performance. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS), adopted by 45 states, provides an opportunity to change the state of writing instruction on…

  10. Unilateral neglect syndrome after stroke: the role of Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pereira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral Neglect Syndrome is one of the consequences of cerebral vascular accident (CVA generally following right parietal lobe lesion, leading to the impairment of perceptive visual, spatial and attention functions. The patient affected does not realize the environmental stimuli on the contralesional hemibody. Occupational therapy plays an important role in caring for this patient, seeking the recovery of perception, attention and social engagement. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the results of occupational therapy intervention and treatment in a single Unilateral Neglect Syndrome post CVA patient. Data were obtained from a survey of the patient’s medical records and interviews of his therapist and caretaker. The analysis of the patient’s medical records and his therapist’s report showed that the patient responded satisfactorily to treatment, presenting a decrease of the left unilateral neglect at the end of the study period. The favorable outcome of the patient outlined the relevance of evaluating the effects of Occupational Therapy interventions for clinical unilateral neglect syndrome.

  11. Teachers' Responsibilities when Adolescent Abuse and Neglect Are Suspected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy W.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    As institutions collectively serving young adolescents of every race, creed, ethnic, and socioeconomic group, middle level schools provide an ideal environment for combating adolescent abuse and neglect. Additionally, because of their frequent, recurring, and long-term contact with the young adolescents they teach, middle level teachers are in an…

  12. School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

  13. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe.

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect Programs: Practice and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Monica B.

    Presented are detailed reports of eight child abuse and neglect programs, and a synthesis of the information obtained through onsite visits to programs and a review of the literature. Provided in Part I are the descriptive case studies of two hospital-based programs (Children's Trauma Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland,…

  15. Staphylococcal disease in Africa : another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  16. Goal-neglect links Stroop interference with working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, C.C.; Elliott, E.M.; Wiggers, J.; Eaves, S.L.; Shelton, J.T.; Mall, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between Stroop interference and working memory capacity may reflect individual differences in resolving conflict, susceptibility to goal neglect, or both of these factors. We compared relationships between working memory capacity and three Stroop tasks: a classic, printed color-word St

  17. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. Visual search in spatial neglect studied with a preview paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Blanche-Durbec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Impaired visual search is a hallmark of spatial neglect. When searching for a unique feature (e.g., colour neglect patients often show only slight visual field asymmetries. In contrast, when the target is defined by a combination of features (e.g., colour and form they exhibit a severe deficit of contralesional search. This finding suggests a selective impairment of the serial deployment of spatial attention. Here, we examined this deficit with a preview paradigm. Neglect patients searched for a target defined by the conjunction of shape and colour, presented together with varying numbers of distracters. The presentation time was varied such that on some trials participants previewed the target together with same-shape/different-colour distracters, for 300 or 600 ms prior to the appearance of additional different-shape/same-colour distracters. On the remaining trials the target and all distracters were shown simultaneously. Healthy participants exhibited a serial search strategy only when all items were presented simultaneously, whereas in both preview conditions a pop-out effect was observed. Neglect patients showed a similar pattern when the target was presented in the right hemifield. In contrast, when searching for a target in the left hemifield they showed serial search in the no-preview condition, as well as with a preview of 300 ms, and partly even at 600 ms. The failure to fully benefit from item preview was independent of explicit judgments of simultaneity. We conclude that the visual search deficit in neglect reflects two additive factors: a biased representation of attentional priority in favour of ipsilesional information and exaggerated capture of attention by ipsilesional abrupt onsets.

  19. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  20. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice. Child Abuse and Neglect User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jill; Salus, Marsha K.; Wolcott, Deborah; Kennedy, Kristie Y.

    Child abuse and neglect is a community concern. Each community has a legal and moral obligation to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, which includes responding effectively to child maltreatment. At the State and local levels, professionals assume various roles and responsibilities ranging from prevention, identification,…

  1. Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffies, Stephen M.; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus; Bryan, Frank; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Chassignet, Eric P.; England, Matthew H.; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Haak, Helmuth; Hallberg, Robert W.; Hazeleger, Wilco; Jungclaus, Johann; Large, William G.; Madec, Gurvan; Pirani, Anna; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Gupta, Alex Sen; Severijns, Camiel A.; Simmons, Harper L.; Treguier, Anne Marie; Winton, Mike; Yeager, Stephen; Yin, Jianjun

    Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs) are presented as a tool to explore the behaviour of global ocean-ice models under forcing from a common atmospheric dataset. We highlight issues arising when designing coupled global ocean and sea ice experiments, such as difficulties formulating a consistent forcing methodology and experimental protocol. Particular focus is given to the hydrological forcing, the details of which are key to realizing simulations with stable meridional overturning circulations. The atmospheric forcing from [Large, W., Yeager, S., 2004. Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: the data sets and flux climatologies. NCAR Technical Note: NCAR/TN-460+STR. CGD Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research] was developed for coupled-ocean and sea ice models. We found it to be suitable for our purposes, even though its evaluation originally focussed more on the ocean than on the sea-ice. Simulations with this atmospheric forcing are presented from seven global ocean-ice models using the CORE-I design (repeating annual cycle of atmospheric forcing for 500 years). These simulations test the hypothesis that global ocean-ice models run under the same atmospheric state produce qualitatively similar simulations. The validity of this hypothesis is shown to depend on the chosen diagnostic. The CORE simulations provide feedback to the fidelity of the atmospheric forcing and model configuration, with identification of biases promoting avenues for forcing dataset and/or model development.

  2. Behaviour of domestic violence in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abused elderly. The predominant groups were: ages between 70 – 79 years. (75.0%, the female sex (59.3%, those with marital links (65.6% dissatisfaction with their lives like a psychological symptom (53,2% psychological abused (50,0% and children as principles aggressors. The adult persons studied were a victim of any kind of domestic abused and as a consequence was presented second psychological manifestations.

  3. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  4. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  5. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  6. Lexical Processes and Eye Movements in Neglect Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe di Pellegrino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C. with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length.

  7. Illegitimacy, child abuse and neglect, and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A

    1990-09-01

    This study explored the relationship between illegitimate birth and cognitive development among 513 boys on probation. Prior research has shown that being part of a single-parent household leads to diminished verbal capacities and often puts a child in greater danger of abuse and neglect. Frequent abuse is thought to lead to the enhancement of visual and spatial skills relative to verbal skills through a process of "frozen watchfulness". I hypothesized that illegitimate boys from one-parent homes would have greater verbal-performance discrepancy scores than would boys from other combinations of birth status and family structure. These boys had the lowest verbal IQ and highest performance IQ scores and, hence, the largest discrepancy. These boys also suffered the highest degree of abuse and neglect of all four birth status/family structure combinations studied. PMID:2266355

  8. Can soil respiration estimate neglect the contribution of abiotic exchange?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi CHEN; WenFeng WANG; GePing LUO; Hui YE

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that soil respiration can always be interpreted purely in terms of biotic processes, neglecting the contribution of abiotic exchange to CO2 fluxes in alkaline soils of arid areas that characterize 5%of the Earth’s total land surface. Analyses on flux data collected from previous studies suggested reconciling soil respiration as organic (root/microbial respiration) and inorganic (abiotic CO2 exchange) respiration, whose contributions in the total CO2 flux were determined by soil alkaline content. On the basis of utilizing mete-orological and soil data collected from the Xinjiang and Central Asia Scientific Data Sharing Platform, an incorpo-rated model indicated that inorganic respiration represents almost half of the total CO2 flux. Neglecting the abiotic module may result in overestimates of soil respiration in arid alkaline lands, which partly explains the long-sought“missing carbon sink”.

  9. RELATIONAL GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY: THE HEALING OF STRESS, NEGLECT AND TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 4th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, April 17, 2009. In speaking to the conference theme of “Acute Trauma, Cumulative Neglect, and Chronic Stress” the article describes some of the principles of Relational Group Psychotherapy. The theory of methods is based on the concept that the healing of trauma, neglect and stress occurs through a contactful therapeutic relationship. Relational group psychotherapy draws from several developments in group therapy, particularly the cybernetic feedback and other-centered models. It emphasizes the healing power of relationships between group members and the importance of phenomenological inquiry, affective attunement, identification, and relational-needs. The leader’s tasks are to stimulate the flow of contactful dialogue and to teach about human needs and healthy relationships.

  10. Toward a definition of neglect in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Diana J; Thompson, Richard; Graham, J Christopher; Briggs, Ernestine C

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between child experiences identified conceptually as "neglectful" prior to age 4 and child outcomes at age 4. This was done using measures from two sites collected as part of LONGSCAN. Child needs were included within categories of physical and psychological safety and security. Problems with residence safety or cleanliness and untreated behavioral problems predicted child impairments in language. CPS reports of failure to provide shelter predicted impairments in several developmental outcomes. A stimulating home environment predicted less impairment in cognitive development. Multiple changes in residence predicted externalizing behavior problems. Exposure to verbally aggressive discipline predicted more behavioral problems overall. Conversely, some indicators (such as caregiver transitions and lack of medical care) predicted less developmental impairment or fewer behavior problems in certain domains. The approach supports a conceptualization of neglect based on child developmental needs. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:15798012

  11. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  12. Determinants of Export Behaviour of German Business Services Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Eickelpasch, Alexander; Vogel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The determinants of export behaviour at firm level have been widely investigated for manufacturing companies. By contrast, what has remained largely neglected is a detailed investigation in the service sector. As aggregate statistics show, international trade in services has grown significantly over the last few years. However, it is unclear why some companies export and others do not. This paper presents some initial results about the German business services sector at firm level. Using a un...

  13. Galvanic vestibular stimulation in hemi-spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Zubko, Olga; Sakel, Mohamed; Coulton, Simon; Higgins, Tracy; Pullicino, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n = 52, mean age = 66 years). To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25 min, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude = 1 mA). Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioral Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change = 28%, SD = 18) was still evident 1 month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index (BI) score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study. PMID:24523679

  14. Is adenomyosis the neglected phenotype of an endomyometrial dysfunction syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Brosens, Ivo; Kunz, Georg; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Since the dissociation between adenomyoma and endometriosis in the 1920s and the laparoscopic progress in the diagnosis and surgery of endometriosis, the literature has been greatly focused on the disease endometriosis. The study of adenomyosis, on the other hand, has been neglected as the diagnosis remained based on hysterectomy specimens. However, since the introduction of magnetic resonance and sonographic imaging techniques in the 1980s, the myometrial junctional zone has been identified ...

  15. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  16. Court Appointed Volunteers for Abused and Neglected Children

    OpenAIRE

    Justin, Renate G.

    2002-01-01

    A court appointed special advocate (CASA) volunteer is a trained citizen who is appointed by a judge to represent the best interests of an abused and neglected child in court. An independent voice, the volunteer gathers information and reports to the court. The CASA volunteer works in close cooperation with other professionals, physicians, lawyers, social workers, and teachers to find the most suitable permanent placement for a victimized child, whether it be a foster home, parental home, or ...

  17. Seeing and imagining the "same" objects in unilateral neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourlon, Clémence; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Duret, Christophe; Azouvi, Philippe; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Dissociations between perceptual and imaginal neglect are typically investigated by using very different tasks (e.g. visual target cancellation vs. place descriptions). Here we report patients' performance on imaginal and perceptual tasks which shared identical stimuli and procedure, except for the modality of stimulus presentation. In different tasks, participants either saw towns/regions on a map of France or heard their names, and pressed one of two keys according to the stimulus location ...

  18. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  19. Tuberculosis Immunopathology: The Neglected Role of Extracellular Matrix Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Elkington, Paul T.; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Friedland, Jon S

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix in the lung must be destroyed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis— the agent that causes tuberculosis (TB)—to spread. The current paradigm proposes that this destruction occurs as a result of the action of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, and lipids that mediate TB-associated necrosis in the lung. However, this view neglects the fact that lung matrix can only be degraded by proteases. We propose an original conceptual framework of TB immunopathology th...

  20. On having a 200% chance: Additivity neglect in probability estimates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that when people are asked to estimate the probabilities for a set of exclusive and exhaustive events they often produce probabilities that add up to more than 1 or 100% (Robinson & Hastie, 1985; Teigen, 1974, 1983), thus violating the additivity principle stated by formal probability theory. The present dissertation aims to further investigate the determining factors of additivity neglect and the underlying cognitive processes. Paper I investigated the notion t...

  1. Unilateral neglect syndrome after stroke: the role of Occupational Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Pereira de Oliveira; Rita de Cássia Tibério Araújo; Edvaldo Soares

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral Neglect Syndrome is one of the consequences of cerebral vascular accident (CVA) generally following right parietal lobe lesion, leading to the impairment of perceptive visual, spatial and attention functions. The patient affected does not realize the environmental stimuli on the contralesional hemibody. Occupational therapy plays an important role in caring for this patient, seeking the recovery of perception, attention and social engagement. This study aimed to describe and evalua...

  2. A neglected topic in relativistic electrodynamics: transformation of electromagnetic integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Jefimenko, Oleg D.

    2005-01-01

    Although relativistic electrodynamics is more than 100 year old, there is one neglected topic in its presentation and application: relativistic transformations of electromagnetic integrals. Whereas in theoretical and applied electrodynamics electric and magnetic fields are mainly expressed in terms of integrals over charge and current distributions, relativistic transformations are traditionally applied to point charges and elementary currents. The purpose of this paper is to show that relati...

  3. Child abuse and neglect: Training needs of student teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Bronagh Mc; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiplechoice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting; policies, procedures, and legislative frameworks; and direct work with children. Considerable gaps in knowledge were found. Results between student ...

  4. Monocular patching affects inattention but not perseveration in spatial neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Khurshid, S.; Longin, H; Crucian, GP; Barrett, AM

    2009-01-01

    Monocular patching might improve perceptual-attentional, not motor-intentional deficits in a patient with chronic post-stroke left spatial neglect. Performing a line-cancellation task, his omission errors were associated with a perceptual-attentional “where” deficit, while perseverative errors were associated with “aiming” motor-intentional bias. Contralesional patching had no effect on the omissions (p=0.871), whereas ipsilesional patching reduced left-sided omissions compared with the unpat...

  5. Neglected Traumatic Locked Anterior Shoulder Fracture-Dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Mehmet Serhan; Eroglu, Mehmet; Erten, Recep Abdullah; Metineren, Hasan; Altinel, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments and fractures of proximal humerus can accompany with dislocations. Although the treatment of acute isolated traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation is generally simple, the treatment of neglected fracture-dislocations becomes more complicated. In this report, a 22-year-old male patient who had posttraumatic locked, shoulder fracture-dislocation is presented. Open reduction and ...

  6. The Neglected Ethical and Spiritual Motivations in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Guillén; Ignacio Ferrero; W. Michael Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Managing other people's work is filled with challenges, and among them, understanding what motivates people is essential. In order to pursue organizational objectives effectively and to develop skills and virtues that lead to flourishing in the workplace, motivation has to be properly understood and explained. This paper contends that the classical and most popular taxonomies describing employee motives and needs have either neglected or minimized the importance of the ethical and spiritual d...

  7. Abused and Neglected Elderly: What Can the Family Physician Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Niels H.

    1986-01-01

    Family abuse involving children and spouses is estimated to occur with one Canadian child or spouse in 10. The same figures probably apply to elderly persons cared for by a family member. This paper defines and describes abuse and neglect of the elderly, reviews the stress factors that often underlie it and profiles high-risk candidates for giving and receiving abuse. It provides guidance in detecting the occurrence of abuse of the elderly and suggests means of handling such occurrences in a ...

  8. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Rode; Yves Rossetti; Ling Li; Dominique Boisson

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from...

  9. Early neglect is associated with alterations in white matter integrity and cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, JL; Adluru, N; Chung, MK; Alexander, AL; Davidson, RJ; Pollak, SD

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in children who experienced early neglect, especially children raised in institutionalized settings. Previous research suggests early neglect may differentially affect the directional organization of white matter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This may be one mechanism to explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. To test this idea, properties of white matter and neurocognitive performance was assessed in children who suffered early neglect and ...

  10. Neglected Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder: is surgery necessary? A Rare Case with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kunal; Ubale, Tushar; Ugrappa, Harish; Pilankar, Samir; Bhaskar, Atul; Kale, Satishchandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated joint. However, it is rarely neglected and treatment is sought immediately. Delayed or neglected shoulder dislocations are difficult to manage and require extensive procedures to obtain good functional outcome. Very few cases are described in literature showing neglected shoulder dislocation with good functional range of movement. We report a case with 3 years of neglected anterior shoulder dislocation with preserved joint functio...

  11. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A s...

  12. The development of a typology of abusive coaching behaviours within youth sport

    OpenAIRE

    Raakman, E; Dorsch, K; Rhind, D

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 Multi-Science Publishing. The purpose of this article was to create the Typology of Coaching Transgressions model (TOCT), which is concerned with abuse, neglect and violence in youth sport. Comments provided by the Justplay Behaviour Management Program from two competitive hockey associations and one large soccer association were analyzed and sorted to assess the utility of the model to capture inappropriate coaching behaviours. A total of 540 comments were examined deduct...

  13. Reconstruction of neglected traumatic Achilles tendon rupture in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    Tudisco, C; Bisicchia, S.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic neglected Achilles tendon ruptures in a young patient have not been described in the literature to our knowledge; indeed, neglected ruptures of the Achilles tendon have only rarely been described in adults. We present the case of a 7 year old girl with posttraumatic neglected rupture of the Achilles tendon that was operated on 8 weeks after the trauma.

  14. Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect in Stroke Patients Using Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, Michiel J. A.; Aznar, Miguel; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Peter; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is possible to assess neglect in the extrapersonal…

  15. 75 FR 40838 - Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation AGENCY... Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation is authorized under section 2021, Subtitle H--Elder... establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, as directed by section...

  16. Transmission of Neglect in Substance Abuse Families: The Role of Child Dysregulation and Parental SUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marija G.; Mezzich, Ada; Janiszewski, Susan; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2001-01-01

    Paternal and maternal models of transmission of child neglect were tested separately in offspring of men with a substance use disorder (SUD). Child dysregulation was independently related to neglect severity. SUD in the mother directly correlated with severity of neglectful parenting. (Contains 51 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  17. Preventing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidance for School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Cindy

    This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect: An Informed Approach to a Shared Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides basic information on the nature of child abuse and neglect, including chapters on: (1) the definition of relevant terms (physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse); (2) the scope and magnitude of the problem of child abuse and neglect; (3) the causes of child maltreatment and the most common…

  19. Child homicide and neglect in France: 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, F; Rambaud, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the victims and the offenders in children homicide cases and to propose preventive measures. We retrospectively investigated homicides and deaths by neglect involving children aged 15 or less, which have been autopsied in the Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine of the Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France, during the 18-year period from 1991 to 2008. Cases included were analyzed for victims' age and gender, victim-assailant's relation, death cause and scenery, and offender's motivation. For the purposes of the study, victims were divided into four age groups: new born; infants (1-23 months); young children (2-5 years); and children (6-15 years). During the study period, 70 victims of homicide or fatal neglect were identified, which equates to a child homicide prevalence of 0.56 per 100,000 children per year. Slightly more than half of the victims (51.4%) were less than 1 year old. Neonaticide prevalence was 0.12 per 100,000 births with an equal distribution between genders. Neonates were most likely to be killed by their mothers while fathers were the most frequent assailants in both infants and children groups. Stepparents were involved in only one case. Familicide cases where children and spouses are killed were perpetrated only by fathers. The leading cause of death was blunt trauma (especially head trauma). In the neonaticide group, half of the victims died from passive neglect whereas gunshots were predominant in the children groups. PMID:24075615

  20. Self-neglect: a case study and implications for clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Day, Mary Rose

    2015-03-02

    Self-neglect is a worldwide and serious public health issue that can have serious adverse outcomes and is more common in older people. Cases can vary in presentation, but typically present as poor self-care, poor care of the environment and service refusal. Community nurses frequently encounter self-neglect cases and health and social care professionals play a key role in the identification, management and prevention of self-neglect. Self-neglect cases can give rise to ethical, personal and professional challenges. The aim of this article is to create a greater understanding of the concept of self-neglect among community nurses.

  1. Opportunity Cost Neglect Attenuates the Effect of Choices on Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Adam Eric; Spiller, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The idea that choices alter preferences has been widely studied in psychology, yet prior research has focused primarily on choices for which all alternatives were salient at the time of choice. Opportunity costs capture the value of the best forgone alternative and should be considered as part of any decision process, yet people often neglect them. How does the salience of opportunity costs at the time of choice influence subsequent evaluations of chosen and forgone options? In three experiments, we found that there was a larger postchoice spread between evaluations of focal options and opportunity costs when opportunity costs were explicit at the time of choice than when they remained implicit. PMID:26573905

  2. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  3. Are gender effects being neglected in schizophrenia research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, O F; Hunter, J

    1992-01-01

    Research on schizophrenia published in four professional journals--Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Archives of General Psychiatry, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, and American Journal of Psychiatry--over a 5-year period from January 1985 through December 1989 was examined for gender composition of subject samples and gender analyses of findings. Results indicate a continued predominance of male subjects in schizophrenia research, with males outnumbering females two to one, and frequent neglect of possible gender differences within mixed-sex samples. Possible explanations for the male bias are considered and greater research and editorial attention to possible gender effects are urged. PMID:1621076

  4. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA), Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis a...

  5. Neglecting Demand and Cycle in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marterbauer, Markus; Walterskirchen, Ewald

    2006-01-01

    The stagnation of the economy in the Euro area since 2000 is closely connected to the dominance of purely long-run supply-side oriented policies in the Euro area. While exports and profits soared, domestic demand has been weak. The neglect of cyclical and demand factors appears to be the major deficiency of the EU policy guidelines, the Lisbon strategy and the Brussels/Paris (European Commission–OECD) consensus on growth policy. Monetary policy in the Euro area is only slightly expansionary, ...

  6. Neglected waterborne parasitic protozoa and their detection in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutzer, Judit; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-09-15

    Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available. This present paper discusses the detection tools applied for the water surveillance of the neglected waterborne protozoa mentioned above and provides future perspectives. PMID:27281375

  7. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  8. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 3: Investment in social science research in neglected diseases of poverty: a case study of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidpath Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of funding provides a good proxy for the level of commitment or prioritisation given to a particular issue. While the need for research relevant to social, economic, cultural and behavioural aspects of neglected tropical diseases (NTD control has been acknowledged, there is limited data on the level of funding that supports NTD social science research. Method A case study was carried out in which the spending of a major independent funder, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF - was analysed. A total of 67 projects funded between October 1998 and November 2008 were identified from the BMGF database. With the help of keywords within the titles of 67 grantees, they were categorised as social science or non-social science research based on available definition of social science. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of 67 projects analysed, 26 projects (39% were social science related while 41 projects (61% were basic science or other translational research including drug development. A total of US$ 697 million was spent to fund the projects, of which 35% ((US$ 241 million went to social science research. Although the level of funding for social science research has generally been lower than that for non-social science research over 10 year period, social science research attracted more funding in 2004 and 2008. Conclusion The evidence presented in this case study indicates that funding on NTD social science research compared to basic and translational research is not as low as it is perceived to be. However, as there is the acute need for improved delivery and utilisation of current NTD drugs/technologies, informed by research from social science approaches, funding priorities need to reflect the need to invest significantly more in NTD social science research.

  9. Effects of passive tactile and auditory stimuli on left visual neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, M; Peres, B; Pollak, P; Memin, B; Besson, G; Gaio, J M; Perret, J

    1990-05-01

    Patients with left-sided visual neglect fail to copy the left part of drawings or the drawings on the left side of a sheet of paper. Our aim was to study the variations in copying drawings induced by passive stimulation in patients with left-sided visual neglect. No stimulation at all, tactile unilateral and bilateral, binaural auditory verbal, and nonverbal stimuli were randomly applied to 14 patients with right-hemisphere strokes. Only nonverbal stimuli decreased the neglect. As nonverbal stimuli mainly activate the right hemisphere, the decrease in neglect suggests right-hemispheric hypoactivity at rest in these patients. The absence of modification of neglect during verbal stimulation suggests a bilateral hemispheric activation and the persistence of interhemispheric imbalance. Our results showed that auditory pathways take part in the network involved with neglect. Passive nonverbal auditory stimuli may be of interest in the rehabilitation of patients with left visual neglect. PMID:2334306

  10. Integrated health messaging for multiple neglected zoonoses: Approaches, challenges and opportunities in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L

    2015-12-01

    Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change. PMID:26299194

  11. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  12. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  13. The Clean Development Mechanism and neglected environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an institutional framework for developed countries to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Are the technologies promoted those most needed by the recipient countries? We address this question by first reviewing Technology Needs Assessments prepared by developing countries, and then comparing the stated needs to the technologies most frequently promoted via CDM. While there appears to be a good match between requested technologies and those used in CDM, desired technologies such as solar energy for remote locations, biofuels, improved cooking stoves, and efficient lighting appear “neglected” by CDM. Nonetheless, a review of costs for these technologies suggests that many could be cost effective for developing countries. For projects requiring wide dispersal of household items, such as cooking stoves or lighting, the administrative burdens of CDM provide a hurdle. In other cases, difficulties quantifying the ancillary benefits of these projects hinder the promotion of these technologies. We conclude with possible explanations for why these technologies are neglected and suggestions for future research. - Highlights: ► We identify technologies desired by developing countries but not provided via CDM. ► Solar PV is neglected due to high costs. ► The CDM process provides a hurdle for improved cooking stoves and efficient lighting. ► Implications for CDM and climate policy are discussed

  14. The Impact of Nurses on Neglected Tropical Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Zeantoe, G Clinton; Evans, Lauren J; Bondo, John; Forstner, James R; Wood, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Although Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are largely endemic in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South and Central America, they are reemerging with increasing frequency in developed countries. Their diagnosis, treatment, and control are an increasing public health concern that requires a different awareness by health care providers. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are chronic infectious diseases which disproportionately burden poor, rural, and marginalized populations with significant mortality and high morbidity (disability, disfigurement, impaired childhood growth and cognitive development, increased vulnerability to coinfection) that reinforces their poverty. What can we learn from the nurses in developing countries already battling NTD's that could be useful in the developed world? This article provides an overview of distribution, pathophysiology, symptoms, and management of 13 NTDs, with particular attention to the role of nurses in delivering cost-effective integrated interventions. Case studies of schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis address recognition and treatment of infected individuals in developed nations where NTD infection is limited primarily to immigrants and travelers. PMID:25229995

  15. Neglect and extinction in kinesthesia and thesesthesia: understanding proprioceptive inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgiou, Elissaios

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a new observation of neglect and extinction of kinesthesia and thesesthesia (movement and position imperception), jointly reflecting proprioceptive inattention, in a series of patients with parietal lesions. A prototypical case is discussed in detail and unaddressed aspects of proprioceptive inattention are discussed through findings from four additional cases. Thesesthetic and kinesthetic extinction were tested through simultaneous antidromic vertical displacement of index fingers, while having patients report on finger proprioceptive perception with eyes closed. Patients had variable degrees of proprioceptive inattention affecting a specific limb, but without pallesthetic inattention or somatoagnosia, whereas symptoms often resolved with visual feedback or active limb movements. Findings support that kinesthesia and thesesthesia (a) are subserved by near-identical brain networks, (b) relate more to tactile perception than pallesthesia in higher order cortical areas, and (c) have a somatotopic cortical organization even in association brain areas. Furthermore, proprioceptive extinction and neglect involve (i) "attention network" structures, (ii) either hemisphere, (iii) gray or subcortical white matter damage, (iv) defective vigilance mechanisms possibly through premature habituation of spatiotemporally saturated neural capacitor circuits, and (v) are not the result of somatoagnosia, while (vi) their resolution is observed through reafferent motor-sensory or visual feedback. PMID:26275162

  16. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  17. Crystal settling and crystal growth caused by Ostwald Ripening in a terrestrial magma ocean under rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, C.; Moeller, A.; Hansen, U.

    2013-12-01

    About 4.5 billion years ago the earth was covered by a heavily convecting and rotating global magma ocean which was caused by an impact of a mars-sized impactor in a later stage of the earth's accretion. After the separation of metal and silicate (see A. Möller, U. Hansen (2013)) and the formation of the earth's core it began to crystallize. Small silicate crystals emerge and grow by Ostwald Ripening when the fluid is supersaturated. This process results in shrinking of small crystals and growing of large crystals on behalf of the smaller ones. This leads to an altering of the crystal settling time. One question which is still under great debate is whether fractional or equilibrium crystallization occurred in the magma ocean. Fractional crystallization means that different mineral fractions settle one after the other which would lead to a strongly differentiated mantle after solidification of the magma ocean. In contrast to that equilibrium crystallization would result in a well mixed mantle. Whether fractional or equilibrium crystallization occurred is for example important for the starting model of plate tectonics or the understanding of the mantle development until today. To study the change of crystal radius in a convecting and rotating magma ocean we employed a 3D numerical model. Due to the low viscosity and strong rotation the influence of rotation on the early magma Ocean cannot be neglected. In the model the crystals are able to influence each other and the fluid flow. They are able to grow, shrink, vanish and form and gravitational, Coriolis and drag forces due to the fluid act on them. In our present work we study the crystal settling depending on different rotation rates and rotation axes with two configurations. For the polar setting the rotation axis is parallel, at the equator it is perpendicular to gravity. Low rotation at the pole leads to a large fraction of suspended crystals. With increasing rotation the crystals settle and form a thick layer

  18. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air–sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty. This estimate includes a

  19. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant, absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data-assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on ocean forward models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of

  20. Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwala, S.; Tanhua, T.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S.; Gerber, M.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.; McKinley, G. A.; Murata, A.; Ríos, A. F.; Sabine, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    The global ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon (Cant), absorbing roughly a third of human CO2 emitted over the industrial period. Robust estimates of the magnitude and variability of the storage and distribution of Cant in the ocean are therefore important for understanding the human impact on climate. In this synthesis we review observational and model-based estimates of the storage and transport of Cant in the ocean. We pay particular attention to the uncertainties and potential biases inherent in different inference schemes. On a global scale, three data-based estimates of the distribution and inventory of Cant are now available. While the inventories are found to agree within their uncertainty, there are considerable differences in the spatial distribution. We also present a review of the progress made in the application of inverse and data assimilation techniques which combine ocean interior estimates of Cant with numerical ocean circulation models. Such methods are especially useful for estimating the air-sea flux and interior transport of Cant, quantities that are otherwise difficult to observe directly. However, the results are found to be highly dependent on modeled circulation, with the spread due to different ocean models at least as large as that from the different observational methods used to estimate Cant. Our review also highlights the importance of repeat measurements of hydrographic and biogeochemical parameters to estimate the storage of Cant on decadal timescales in the presence of the variability in circulation that is neglected by other approaches. Data-based Cant estimates provide important constraints on forward ocean models, which exhibit both broad similarities and regional errors relative to the observational fields. A compilation of inventories of Cant gives us a "best" estimate of the global ocean inventory of anthropogenic carbon in 2010 of 155 ± 31 PgC (±20% uncertainty). This estimate includes a broad range of

  1. Letter. Late cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E.S.; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming1 and therefore records of past Arctic change are of a premium for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the late Cretaceous, yet records from such times may yield important clues to its future behaviour given current global warming trends. Here we present the first seasonally resolved sedimentary record from the Cretaceous from...

  2. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational and technical feasibility of the penetrator option for HGW disposal has been reviewed and the areas where research is required to confirm feasibility have been identified. The research requirements have been presented against the Department's ocean disposal programme timescale on a series of bar charts. The bar charts show the need for theoretical and experimental studies of the basic mechanisms governing hole closure and the development of suitable instrumentation to assess the actual behaviour of the remoulded sediment in deep ocean trials. Detailed planning of deep ocean trials in sufficient time to develop strategy, models and instrumentation, identification of site investigation requirements and thermal response studies of sediments are also required. (author)

  3. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  4. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  5. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  6. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  7. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  8. Ocean, Spreading Centre

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    the lithospheric plates on either side in order to accommodate newly accreted crust. Many of the oceanic ridges in the world oceans have been abandoned in the geologic past and led to resume the activity elsewhere either in the intra-oceanic or intracontinental...

  9. Mandatory reporting by nurses of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Walsh, Kerryann; Fraser, Jennifer A

    2006-05-01

    Most Australian jurisdictions have mandatory reporting legislation to compel members of selected professional groups, including nurses, to report suspicions that a child has been or is likely to be subjected to abuse or neglect. This article details the legal obligations of nurses in each jurisdiction, and highlights differences between jurisdictions. Problematic features of the laws are identified, including the use of ambiguous concepts like "reasonable" suspicion and "significant" harm. Literature is reviewed to identify what is known about nurses' legal knowledge, actual reporting practice, and the practical problems that arise for nurses in this context. It is concluded that empirical research needs to be conducted, because it is not known if the laws are practically effective, whether nurses have sufficient training in, and knowledge of, their reporting duties, or what factors influence sound reporting. Such research can inform both the development of sound training systems and recommendations for legal reform. PMID:16756219

  10. Two stage procedure for neglected transscaphoid perilunate dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Lal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a two-staged surgical procedure for neglected 3 month old volar transscaphoid, transcapitate perilunate fracture dislocation wrist in an 18 year old right handed male student. The lunate with proximal scaphoid and proximal capitate maintained its articulation with distal end radius while the rest of carpal bones had dislocated volarly. In the first stage, bilateral uniplanar wrist distractor was applied with the aim of stretching soft tissue. In the next stage open reduction and internal fixation was done by a combined volar and dorsal approach augmented by pronator quadratus flap. At 3 years followup the patient was pain free and had a full range of supination pronation of the forearms and radial and ulnar deviation of wrist with 10΀ dorsiflexion deficit.

  11. Adolescent male peer sexual abuse: An issue often neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish H Banwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease.

  12. Security of supply: a neglected fossil fuel externality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various groups have attempted to set a monetary value on the externalities of fossil fuel usage based on damages caused by emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and carbon. One externality that has been neglected in this type of analysis, however, is the cost of maintaining a secure supply of fossil fuels. Military expenditures for this purpose are relatively easy to quantify based on US Department of Defense and Office of Management and Budget figures, and amount to between $1 and more than $3 per million Btu, based on total fossil fuel consumption in the US. Open acknowledgment of such expenses would, at the very least, have a profound effect on the perceived competitiveness of all non-fossil fuel technologies. It should also provide a simple and easily comprehended rationale for an energy content (Btu) charge on all fossil fuels. (Author)

  13. The untapped cell biology of neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization lists a constellation of 17 tropical diseases that afflict approximately one in six individuals on the planet and, until recently, few resources have been devoted to the treatment and eradication of those diseases. They are often referred to as the diseases of the "bottom billion," because they are most prevalent among the poorest individuals in impoverished tropical nations. However, the few studies that have been performed reveal an extraordinary world of molecular and cellular adaptations that facilitate the pathogens' survival in hosts ranging from insects to humans. A compelling case can be made that even a modest investment toward understanding the basic molecular and cell biology of these neglected pathogens has a high probability of yielding exciting new cellular mechanisms and insights into novel ways of combating these diseases. PMID:26915691

  14. The neglected role of copper ions in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblatt, Allison Paige; Nicoletti, Vincenzo Giuseppe; Travaglia, Alessio

    2016-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process that aims to repair damaged tissue. Even though many biological and biochemical mechanisms associated with the steps of physiological wound healing are known, there is still significant morbidity and mortality due to dysregulation of physiological mechanisms. It might be useful to revise the activity of old players and their links with new, often neglected, molecular entities. This review revises new findings supporting the hypothesis that copper ions regulate the activity and/or the expression of proteins crucially involved in the wound repair process. A better understanding of these interactions might suggest potential new targets for therapeutic intervention on scars or non-healing wounds. PMID:26920228

  15. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  16. Unplugging the Universe: the neglected electromagnetic consequence of decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan A

    2007-01-01

    This letter concentrates on the non-equilibrium evolution of magnetic field structures at the onset of recombination, when the charged particle current densities decay as neutrals are formed. We consider the effect that a decaying magnetic flux has on the acceleration of particles via the transient induced electric field. Since the residual charged-particle number density is small as a result of decoupling, we shall consider the magnetic and electric fields essentially to be imposed, neglecting the feedback from any minority accelerated population. We find that the electromagnetic treatment of this phase transition can produce energetic electrons scattered throughout the Universe. Such particles could have a significant effect on cosmic evolution in several ways: (i) their presence could delay the effective end of the recombination era; (ii) they could give rise to plasma concentrations that could enhance early gravitational collapse of matter by opposing cosmic expansion to a greater degree than neutral matt...

  17. Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Post-Genomic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Carlos A; Kissinger, Jessica C; Agüero, Fernán

    2015-10-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic parasitic diseases that are especially endemic in low-income populations, with a large health and economic impact on both the developing and developed world. The structure and dynamics of the genomes of the organisms causing these diseases, as well as the modes of expression, exchange, and transmission of their genetic information, often deviate from those found in classical, model organism-centric textbooks. We assess the role of basic and applied genetic research in our understanding of key aspects of their biology and evolution, and discuss the impact of novel high-throughput approaches spawned by the post-genomic era on the development of next-generation drugs, vaccines, molecular epidemiology, and/or diagnostic tools for these important pathogens. PMID:26450337

  18. Neglected reverse Essex-Lopresti injury with ulnar nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajay Pal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A 45 year old woman was diagnosed as having anteromedial radial head dislocation and distal radius fracture five months after her injury on right forearm. The radial head dislocation led to ulnar nerve compression. She had severe restriction of her elbow movements. She was treated with arthrolysis, decompression of the ulnar nerve and radial head resection. The reverse Essex Lopresti injury and radial head dislocation compressing the ulnar nerve has not been reported in English language literature to the best of our knowledge. A mechanism is proposed for the injury. In acute presentations, restoration of both the radioulnar joints should be done and neglected nature of such injury leads to suboptimal outcomes. Key words: Radius fracture; Unar nerve; Elbow joint

  19. Reunifying abused or neglected children: Decision-making and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehal, Nina; Sinclair, Ian; Wade, Jim

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about decision-making regarding the reunification of children in care, or about the consequences of these decisions for the children concerned. This study compared decision-making and outcomes for 149 maltreated children in seven English authorities (68 reunified, 81 who remained in care). Children were followed up six months after their return home or, for those who were not reunified, six months after the 'effective decision' that they should remain in care. They were followed up again four years (on average) after the return or effective decision. Data were extracted from case files at baseline and six month follow-up and were gathered from surveys of social workers and teachers at final follow-up. The two key predictors of reunification were assessments that parental problems had improved and that risks to the child were not unacceptably high. Two-thirds returned to improved family circumstances, sometimes due to a change in the household they returned to, but others were reunified despite persisting concerns. However 35% re-entered care within six months and 63% re-entered at some point during the four-year follow-up period, often due to recurring abuse or neglect. At final follow-up remaining in care was the strongest predictor of positive outcomes on a range of dimensions, even once children's characteristics and histories were taken into account. Outcomes were especially poor for neglected children who were reunified, irrespective of whether reunification was stable or unstable. Results show the potential of the care system to produce positive outcomes for maltreated children. PMID:25975846

  20. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alcides; Troncoso

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases(NTDs) are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa’s poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea,Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world′s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it′s a poverty crisis.The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  1. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  2. Does Neglect Moderate the Impact of an Efficacious Preventive Intervention for Maltreated Children in Foster Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward; Knudtson, Michael D.; Petrenko, Christie L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Physically neglected youth are at increased risk for mental health problems, but there are few interventions that have demonstrated efficacy in reducing mental health symptoms for this vulnerable population. The Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) program, which consists of mentoring and skills groups, was developed for preadolescent youth in foster care. In a published randomized controlled trial with 156 youth, FHF demonstrated positive impacts on mental health functioning. The current study sought to determine whether FHF might be particularly effective in ameliorating the impact of neglectful family environments. Because it was not possible to isolate a neglected-only subgroup, as most children with physical neglect histories had experienced other types of maltreatment, we tested the hypothesis that intervention effects would be stronger among children with more severe physical neglect. Findings did not support this hypothesis, however, as severity of physical neglect did not significantly moderate the impact of the intervention on psychosocial outcomes PMID:23076837

  3. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  4. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  5. Introduction to the Research Topic Novel Insights in Rehabilitation of Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Van Der Stigchel; Tanja Nijboer

    2014-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is the failure to report, respond to, or orient to novel or meaningful stimuli presented in the contralesional visual field. This failure cannot be attributed to motor or sensory defects (Heilman and Valenstein, 1979). It constitutes one of the most invalidating neurological disorders that can occur after stroke. As discussed in this Research Topic, patients with neglect are less independent in various activities of daily living compared to patients without neglect (Nijboe...

  6. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Luauté; Sophie Jacquin-Courtois; Jacinta O'Shea; Laure Christophe; Gilles Rode; Dominique Boisson; Yves Rossetti

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purpos...

  7. Memory, maternal representations and internalizing symptomatology among abused, neglected and nonmaltreated children

    OpenAIRE

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal-representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N= 33) and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children. Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreat...

  8. Preschool Educators’ Roles Views and Experiences About Child Abuse Neglect and Violence Towards Children

    OpenAIRE

    DEREOBALI, Nilay; KARADAĞ, Sevinç ÇIRAK; Sönmez, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the views and experiences of preschool teachers about child abuse, neglect, violence and their own roles using a questionnaire data for 197 teachers. The results shows that very few educators received training on the issues of violence, child abuse and neglect, and if, then during their pre-service education. While defining violence, child abuse and neglect, the educators used expressions compliant with the definitions in the relevant literature; however, the definitions o...

  9. The role Kentucky's dentists must play in preventing child abuse & neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouden, L D

    1997-01-01

    Dentistry must become more aware of its moral, legal, and ethical responsibilities in recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect. All dental professionals must be aware of the seriousness of the problems of child maltreatment, and understand that children do not just get hurt in abuse and neglect, they often die as a direct result of their maltreatment. Unfortunately, victims of child abuse and neglect fall into only two categories--those who lived through it and those who did not. PMID:9573768

  10. Association Between Elder Self-Neglect and Hospice Utilization in a Community Population

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is associated with substantial 1-year mortality. However, hospice utilization among those with self-neglect remain unclear. The objective of this study is to quantify the prospective relation between self-neglect and risk for hospice utilization in a community population of older adults. Prospective population-based study in a geographically-defined community in Chicago of older adults who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Of the 8,669 participants in th...

  11. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  12. DTI-MR tractography of white matter damage in stroke patients with neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, M; Thiebaut de Schotten, M; Rodrigo, S; Oppenheim, C; Touzé, E; Méder, J-F; Moreau, K; Loeper-Jeny, C; Dubois, B; Bartolomeo, P

    2011-02-01

    Left visual neglect is a dramatic neurological condition that impairs awareness of left-sided events. Neglect has been classically reported after strokes in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. However, the precise lesional correlates of neglect within this territory remain discussed. Recent evidence strongly suggests an implication of dysfunction of large-scale perisylvian networks in chronic neglect, but the quantitative relationships between neglect signs and damage to white matter (WM) tracts have never been explored. In this prospective study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in twelve patients with a vascular stroke in the right hemisphere. Six of these patients showed signs of neglect. Nonparametric voxel-based comparisons between neglect and controls on fractional anisotropy maps revealed clusters in the perisylvian WM and in the external capsule. Individual DTI tractography identified specific disconnections of the fronto-parietal and fronto-occipital pathways in the neglect group. Voxel-based correlation statistics highlighted correlations between patients' performance on two visual search tasks and damage to WM clusters. These clusters were located in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and in the WM underlying the inferior frontal gyrus, along the trajectory of the anterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus (asAF). These results indicate that chronic visual neglect can result from, and correlate with, damage to fronto-parietal connections in the right hemisphere, within large-scale cortical networks important for orienting of spatial attention, arousal and spatial working memory. PMID:21113581

  13. Implicit learning: A way to improve visual search in spatial neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansard, Murielle; Geurten, Marie; Colson, Catherine; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without being able to verbalize their knowledge. In order to better control for the involvement of explicit processes, the present study sought to test neglect patients' ability to detect more complex associations between stimuli using tasks similar to those used in implicit learning studies. Our results demonstrate that neglect patients had difficulties implicitly learning complex associations, contrary to what we found with controls. The possible influence of attentional and working memory impairments are discussed. PMID:27262690

  14. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina;

    2011-01-01

    After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitor......After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark...

  15. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Seniors with Psychiatric Morbidity - Example from Central Moravia, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Luzny; Lubica Jurickova

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) comprises emotional, financial, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect by other individuals, and self-neglect. Elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity was not monitored in the Czech Republic at all, despite the literature shows mental morbidity as one of the important risk factor for developing elder abuse and neglect. Methods: We designed comparative cross sectional study comprising 305 seniors hospitalized in Mental Hospital Krome...

  16. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking perspec...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  17. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possible relations between nutrients and behaviour were investigated. In the first study, levels of nutrients in blood samples of forensic psychiatric patients were measured. Low levels of omega-3 fatty a...

  18. Ethical Consumerism and Techniques of Neutralisation in the Hybrid Electric Car Market: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Tom

    2008-01-01

    While there is a wealth of literature investigating ethical consumerism for many consumer products (fair trade, organic), but extant literature neglects applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) market. The dire market penetration of HEV's in the UK is currently 0.1%, with a Government target of 10% by 2012. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is applied to a young (16-25 years of age) sample (n = 180), into which preliminary exploration of techniques of...

  19. The effect of stimulus duration and motor response in hemispatial neglect during a visual search task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Jelsone-Swain

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect exhibit a myriad of profound deficits. A hallmark of this syndrome is the patients' absence of awareness of items located in their contralesional space. Many studies, however, have demonstrated that neglect patients exhibit some level of processing of these neglected items. It has been suggested that unconscious processing of neglected information may manifest as a fast denial. This theory of fast denial proposes that neglected stimuli are detected in the same way as non-neglected stimuli, but without overt awareness. We evaluated the fast denial theory by conducting two separate visual search task experiments, each differing by the duration of stimulus presentation. Specifically, in Experiment 1 each stimulus remained in the participants' visual field until a response was made. In Experiment 2 each stimulus was presented for only a brief duration. We further evaluated the fast denial theory by comparing verbal to motor task responses in each experiment. Overall, our results from both experiments and tasks showed no evidence for the presence of implicit knowledge of neglected stimuli. Instead, patients with neglect responded the same when they neglected stimuli as when they correctly reported stimulus absence. These findings thus cast doubt on the concept of the fast denial theory and its consequent implications for non-conscious processing. Importantly, our study demonstrated that the only behavior affected was during conscious detection of ipsilesional stimuli. Specifically, patients were slower to detect stimuli in Experiment 1 compared to Experiment 2, suggesting a duration effect occurred during conscious processing of information. Additionally, reaction time and accuracy were similar when reporting verbally versus motorically. These results provide new insights into the perceptual deficits associated with neglect and further support other work that falsifies the fast denial account of non

  20. SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY OF REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雅芙; 任艳; 李亚明

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To explore the correlations between the occurrence and severity of neglect and the region,range or extent of the decrease in regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF). Methods. Nineteen dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as unilateral stroke clinically and hemispatial neglect by a neglect test battery received single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) scans. Results. On images,the damages of patients with neglect were seen most frequently in the frontal cortex,and then in turn in the parietal cortex,occipital cortex,temporal cortex,basal ganglia and thalamus. Most patients with neglect had two or more regions damaged. The most significant region was temporal-parietal-occipi-tal(TPO)junction. The correlation coefficient between rCBF and the severity of neglect was -0.34(t=-1.5,P>0.05),and that between the decrease percentage of rCBF and the severity of neglect was 0.34(t=1.47,P>0.05). The correlation coefficients between the range,number of foci,the flow deficit size and the severity of neglect were 0.71(t=4.13,P<0.01),0.70(t=4.07,P<0.01)and 0.64(t=3.40, P<0.01),respectively. Conclusions. The severity of neglect correlates with rCBF and the decrease percentage of rCBF insignificantly,but correlates positively with the range,number of foci and the flow deficit size significantly. Hemispatial neglect is caused by the damage of multiple sites and combined damage results in more severe neglect.

  1. HIV/AIDS among pastoralists and refugees in north-east Africa: a neglected problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kassa, Afework; Alwan, Fathia; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since the late 1980s, the IGAD Regional HIV & AIDS Partnership Program was (IRAPP) established in 2007 to mitigate the challenges of HIV among neglected pastoral and refugee communities. This article assesses vulnerability of pastoralists and refugee communities to HIV and interventions targeting these groups in the IGAD countries. Outcomes from this study may serve as a baseline for further research and to improve interventions. Published articles were accessed through web searches using PubMed and Google Scholar engines and unpublished documents were collected manually. The search terms were HIV risk behaviour, vulnerability, HIV prevalence and interventions, under the headings pastoralists, refugees, IGAD and north-east Africa for the period 2001-2014. Of the 214 documents reviewed, 78 met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most HIV/AIDS related studies focusing of pastoral communities in IGAD countries were found to be limited in scope and coverage but reveal precarious situations. Sero-prevalence among various pastoral populations ranged from 1% to 21% in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda and from 1% to 5% among refugees in Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. Socioeconomic, cultural, logistic, infrastructure and programmatic factors were found to contribute to continuing vulnerability to HIV. Interventions need to be further contextualised to the needs of those impoverished populations and integrated into national HIV/AIDS programmes. HIV/AIDS remains a major public health concern among the pastoral and refugee communities of IGAD countries. This calls for IGAD to collaborate with national and international partners in

  2. Giant neglected squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Francesco; Paradisi, Andrea; Fossati, Barbara; Mancini, Monica; Curatolo, Pietro; Guerriero, Cristina; Capizzi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common type of skin tumor, representing about one-third of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide each year. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common form of NMSCs and the risk of cSCC invasiveness should be assessed on the basis of tumor size, anatomical location, and histological subtype. Although most cSCCs are early diagnosed and successfully treated, in a small percentage of patients with giant cSCC (maximum diameter >5 cm), metastases may occur; treatment options are limited and not really effective. We report the case of a giant metastatic cSCC that had been neglected for more than 20 years. Radiotherapy or surgery were not feasible and polichemotherapy (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and paclitaxel) was not effective. Therefore, the patient was treated with palliative electrochemotherapy (ECT) achieving a partial reduction of cutaneous metastasis and pain relief but unfortunately the patient died 3 months after the second ECT treatment. PMID:25754304

  3. Loa loa-does it deserve to be neglected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Wolfram Gottfried; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    More than 10 million people in western and central Africa are estimated to be infected with Loa loa filarial nematodes. Like most other infectious diseases, L loa filariasis (loiasis) covers a wide range of symptoms. Severe complications have been reported; however, most observations are anecdotal, typically in travellers. The widespread use of filaricidal drugs within eradication programmes of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti led to the observation that concomitant L loa infection increases the risk of severe treatment-associated, life-threatening complications. Initiatives were therefore launched to map the risk of loiasis. Insight about the epidemiology of L loa has advanced notably; however, its effect on the individual as well as on the community level has not been well studied. In the absence of appropriate studies, L loa is commonly judged a harmless nematode, and loiasis as a separate entity does not belong to the list of neglected tropical diseases to be controlled or eradicated in worldwide campaigns. We advocate reorientation of research efforts towards a patient-centric view of loiasis and, as a first step, to establish the disease burden in disability-adjusted life-years of this chronic infection, and to answer the question of whether loiasis should be included in future control programmes. PMID:24332895

  4. Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. PMID:25087071

  5. Current Trend of Drug Development for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

      EBOLA hemorrhagic fever, a typical emerging infectious disease, began in December 2013 in the southern part of Guinea, and killed more than 11000 people by the end of June, 2015. In addition to emerging/re-emerging diseases and the 3 major infectious diseases i.e. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have recently become important tropical diseases of the poor. It is remarkable that Japan succeeded in the eradication of malaria and other tropical diseases, which include lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis. However, despite these achievements, it is important to sustain our efforts when we consider global health. This review highlights the significance of elimination and/or control of NTDs, and then introduces the current situation of drug development activities in Japan, which are aimed towards combating tropical infectious diseases. They include studies on a novel drug target, the "mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (Fumarate respiration)" composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II, which plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of many helminths such as Ascaris suum. An additional interesting finding highlighted herein is that ascofuranone, a recently developed anti-African trypanosome drug, shows specific inhibition of fumarate respiration in Echinococcus multilocularis mitochondria. PMID:26831795

  6. Speckle Tracking Echocardiography of the Right Atrium: The Neglected Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sultan; Lima, Eduardo; Munir, Farrukh; Faisal Khan, Anum; Waqas, Ahmed; Bughio, Sara; ul Haq, Ehtesham; Attique, Hassan Bin; Rahman, Zia Ur

    2015-11-01

    The right atrium (RA) plays a pivotal role in electromechanical and endocrine regulation of the heart. Its peculiar anatomical features and phasic mechanical function make it distinct from ventricles. Various invasive and noninvasive techniques have been used to elucidate RA structure and function. Of these modalities, echocardiography has distinct advantages over others. Several conventional measures of RA function through echocardiography have been described in the literature, but they are load dependent. A relatively new technique is speckle tracking-derived strain, which is relatively less dependent on loading conditions. Speckle tracking echocardiography tracks acoustic scatters (speckles) of myocardium frame-by-frame to calculate strain or deformation of the myocardium. Speckle tracking echocardiography has been used extensively for strain assessment of the right and left ventricle to detect subtle disease pathology, to gain mechanistic insight, as a marker of ischemic metabolic memory, as an endpoint in clinical trials, and as a functional assessment tool. The RA is a relatively neglected chamber, as it is mostly studied for assessment of atrial mass lesions, for electrophysiological studies, and in animal models for physiological assessment. However, its role in the systolic and diastolic function of the right heart, pulmonary vascular pathology, congenital heart diseases, and combined electromechanical activation phenomena has been less explored or unexplored. Speckle tracking echocardiography is an ideal tool for the assessment of the RA because of its regional and global functional characterization, angle independence, and high temporal resolution. PMID:26418622

  7. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested in the literature; however, the model of Bachman and Palmer (1996 is the one considered in the present study. It includes two major nodes of organizational and pragmatic competences. Under the organizational competence are grammatical and textual competences, and pragmatic competence includes illocutionary and sociolinguistic competences. In this paper it is argued that among the many competences required to be considered proficient in a language, metaphorical competence is also central. As such, after illuminating the concept of metaphor and metaphorical competence, some models of communicative competence (CC are presented. Moreover, in line with Littlemore and Low (2006, it is emphasized that metaphorical competence which is present in most of the components of CC should receive more attention in L2 classrooms. In fact, it is concluded that having an acceptable metaphorical competence contributes to the learners’ overall communicative competence.Keywords: Metaphor, Metaphorical competence, Communicative competence, L2

  8. Consistent thermodynamic framework for interacting particles by neglecting thermal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando D; Curado, Evaldo M F; Souza, Andre M C; Andrade, Roberto F S

    2015-02-01

    An effective temperature θ, conjugated to a generalized entropy s(q), was introduced recently for a system of interacting particles. Since θ presents values much higher than those of typical room temperatures T≪θ, the thermal noise can be neglected (T/θ≃0) in these systems. Moreover, the consistency of this definition, as well as of a form analogous to the first law of thermodynamics, du=θds(q)+δW, were verified lately by means of a Carnot cycle, whose efficiency was shown to present the usual form, η=1-(θ(2)/θ(1)). Herein we explore further the heat contribution δQ=θds(q) by proposing a way for a heat exchange between two such systems, as well as its associated thermal equilibrium. As a consequence, the zeroth principle is also established. Moreover, we consolidate the first-law proposal by following the usual procedure for obtaining different potentials, i.e., applying Legendre transformations for distinct pairs of independent variables. From these potentials we derive the equation of state, Maxwell relations, and define response functions. All results presented are shown to be consistent with those of standard thermodynamics for T>0. PMID:25768486

  9. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation. PMID:24407144

  10. Impact of vectorborne parasitic neglected tropical diseases on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Meagan A; Murray, Kristy O; Hotez, Peter J; Jones, Kathryn M

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are all vectorborne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are responsible for significant disease burden in impoverished children and adults worldwide. As vectorborne parasitic diseases, they can all be targeted for elimination through vector control strategies. Examples of successful vector control programmes for these diseases over the past two decades have included the Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease, the Kala-azar Control Scheme against leishmaniasis, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme and the lymphatic filariasis control programme in The Gambia. A common vector control component in all of these programmes is the use of adulticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and newer synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against the insect vectors of disease. Household spraying has been used against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, and insecticide-treated bed nets have helped prevent leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis. Recent trends in vector control focus on collaborations between programmes and sectors to achieve integrated vector management that addresses the holistic vector control needs of a community rather than approaching it on a disease-by-disease basis, with the goals of increased efficacy, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. As evidence of vector resistance to currently used insecticide regimens emerges, research to develop new and improved insecticides and novel control strategies will be critical in reducing disease burden. In the quest to eliminate these vectorborne NTDs, efforts need to be made to continue existing control programmes, further implement integrated vector control strategies and stimulate research into new insecticides and control methods. PMID:26921274

  11. Environmental neglect that fuels migration. Regional report 3: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the impact of environmental neglect on the Mexican population. Despite its participation in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Mexico is experiencing an environmental crisis. Being the first developing country to engage in the Green Revolution during the 1950s, the country experienced a four-fold increase in grain production. The population increased rapidly from 27 million to 92 million in the 1990s. Due to the increase in population and because the government was too preoccupied with its economic endeavors, the environment suffered, which in a way counteracted the benefits of the Green Revolution. Furthermore, environmental degradation (like loss of forests, less water supply to agricultural lands) had a chain effect. Large farmers engaging in capital-intensive cash cropping for export are buying out small farmers, which leads to many landless or near-landless peasants. Also, many marginalized farmers have long been forced to migrate into marginal lands. Because of the increase in migration in addition to the present population of 92 million, Mexico is showing inadequacy in securing food, employment, and houses. A realistic prognosis is that many Mexicans in the year 2000 could be poorer than they were in 1985; but with the help of the NAFTA free-trade zone, Mexico is hopeful to increase its employment opportunities and reverse its present situation. PMID:12319112

  12. Earth Observation, Spatial Data Quality, and Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A S; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Clements, Archie C A

    2015-12-01

    Earth observation (EO) is the use of remote sensing and in situ observations to gather data on the environment. It finds increasing application in the study of environmentally modulated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Obtaining and assuring the quality of the relevant spatially and temporally indexed EO data remain challenges. Our objective was to review the Earth observation products currently used in studies of NTD epidemiology and to discuss fundamental issues relating to spatial data quality (SDQ), which limit the utilization of EO and pose challenges for its more effective use. We searched Web of Science and PubMed for studies related to EO and echinococossis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Relevant literature was also identified from the bibliographies of those papers. We found that extensive use is made of EO products in the study of NTD epidemiology; however, the quality of these products is usually given little explicit attention. We review key issues in SDQ concerning spatial and temporal scale, uncertainty, and the documentation and use of quality information. We give examples of how these issues may interact with uncertainty in NTD data to affect the output of an epidemiological analysis. We conclude that researchers should give careful attention to SDQ when designing NTD spatial-epidemiological studies. This should be used to inform uncertainty analysis in the epidemiological study. SDQ should be documented and made available to other researchers. PMID:26678393

  13. Consistent thermodynamic framework for interacting particles by neglecting thermal noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando D.; Curado, Evaldo M. F.; Souza, Andre M. C.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2015-02-01

    An effective temperature θ , conjugated to a generalized entropy sq, was introduced recently for a system of interacting particles. Since θ presents values much higher than those of typical room temperatures T ≪θ , the thermal noise can be neglected (T /θ ≃0 ) in these systems. Moreover, the consistency of this definition, as well as of a form analogous to the first law of thermodynamics, d u =θ d sq+δ W , were verified lately by means of a Carnot cycle, whose efficiency was shown to present the usual form, η =1 -(θ2/θ1) . Herein we explore further the heat contribution δ Q =θ d sq by proposing a way for a heat exchange between two such systems, as well as its associated thermal equilibrium. As a consequence, the zeroth principle is also established. Moreover, we consolidate the first-law proposal by following the usual procedure for obtaining different potentials, i.e., applying Legendre transformations for distinct pairs of independent variables. From these potentials we derive the equation of state, Maxwell relations, and define response functions. All results presented are shown to be consistent with those of standard thermodynamics for T >0 .

  14. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  15. Reconsiderations of the Idea of Salutary Neglect and the Origins of the American Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David W.

    1974-01-01

    The essay is written primarily for social studies teachers, unfamiliar with the recent literature in the field of 18th century Anglo-American relations and the theory that the British neglected their colony until 1763. Evidence for modification of this "theory of neglect" and recent works that are beginning the revision are presented. (JR)

  16. Supervisory Neglect and Risk of Harm. Evidence from the Canadian Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Trocme, Nico; Fallon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explores prevalence and characteristics associated with supervisory neglect and physical harm in children in the child welfare system in Canada. Methods: The sample included all substantiated primary maltreatment investigations in the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect excluding cases where…

  17. Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

  18. The Contested Terrain of Teachers Detecting and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Schweitzer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article establishes the important role of early childhood teachers in child abuse and neglect and argues for empirical research into their practice of detecting, and reporting, known or suspected child abuse and neglect in a State with new and unique reporting obligations for teachers. It emphasizes the practical value of such research for…

  19. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  20. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Practical Guide for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem. Often professional school counselors (PSCs) express feelings of anxiety at the prospect of working with such cases. Indeed, one of educators' greatest fears is dealing with child abuse and neglect cases (Wilson, Ireton, & Wood, 1997). Rarely do ethical dilemmas confronting professional school…

  1. Assessment of visuospatial neglect in stroke patients using virtual reality: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, Michiel J.A.; Aznar, Miguel; Kort, de Alexander Cornelis; Vis, van de Wim; Veltink, Peter; Kooij, van der Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is pos

  2. First Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C.; Thomas E Wellems; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E.; Guillen, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughp...

  3. Right Hemispatial Neglect: Frequency and Characterization Following Acute Left Hemisphere Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of various types of unilateral spatial neglect and associated areas of neural dysfunction after left hemisphere stroke are not well characterized. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in distinct spatial reference frames have been identified after acute right, but not left hemisphere stroke. We studied 47 consecutive right handed…

  4. Cortical and subcortical anatomy of chronic spatial neglect following vascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Armin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior temporal gyrus (STG or subcortical pathways as possible anatomical correlates of spatial neglect is currently intensely discussed. Some of the conflicting results might have arisen because patients were examined in the acute stage of disease. Methods We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. Results The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. Conclusion Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections. Frontal structures or projections may be of particular relevance for spatial exploration, while the IPL may be important for object-based attention as required for line bisection.

  5. Recognizing Emotion in Faces: Developmental Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Seth D.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hornung, Katherine; Reed, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments assessed recognition of emotion among physically abused and neglected preschoolers. Results showed that neglected children had more difficulty discriminating emotional expressions that control or abused children. Abused children displayed response bias for angry facial expressions. Control children viewed discrete emotions as…

  6. Early Neglect Is Associated with Alterations in White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in children who experienced early neglect, especially children raised in institutionalized settings. Previous research suggests that early neglect may differentially affect the directional organization of white matter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This may be one mechanism to explain cognitive deficits…

  7. History of Abuse and Neglect in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Have a History of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…

  8. Gender differences in the impact of abuse and neglect victimization on adolescent offending behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Asscher; C.E. van der Put; G.J.J.M. Stams

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines gender differences in the association between abuse and neglect during childhood, and sexual and violent offending in juvenile delinquents. Female juvenile delinquents were more frequently victim of sexual and physical abuse and had a history of neglect and maltreatment th

  9. How to Deal with Emotional Abuse and Neglect--Further Development of a Conceptual Framework (FRAMEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop further the understanding of emotional abuse and neglect. Methods: Building on previous work, this paper describes the further development of a conceptual framework for the recognition and management of emotional abuse and neglect. Training in this framework is currently being evaluated. The paper also briefly reviews more…

  10. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  11. Dispositional Empathy in Neglectful Mothers and Mothers at High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…

  12. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  13. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  14. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  15. ASSO : Behavioural specialization modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Andolina, Rosanna; Locuratolo, Elvira

    1996-01-01

    An approach of behavioural modelling based on the specialization concept is proposed within ASSO, a formal database design methodology which combines features from database design with formal methods. This approach preserves the semantics of the current behavioural modelling while producing benefits on the phases of the methodology.

  16. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  17. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  18. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. PMID:24928252

  19. Gender-specific linkages of parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect with children’s problem behaviour: evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    OSHIO, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. Methods A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged ...

  20. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  1. Biodiversity scenarios neglect future land-use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeux, Nicolas; Henle, Klaus; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Regos, Adrián; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R; Cramer, Wolfgang; Verburg, Peter H; Brotons, Lluís

    2016-07-01

    Efficient management of biodiversity requires a forward-looking approach based on scenarios that explore biodiversity changes under future environmental conditions. A number of ecological models have been proposed over the last decades to develop these biodiversity scenarios. Novel modelling approaches with strong theoretical foundation now offer the possibility to integrate key ecological and evolutionary processes that shape species distribution and community structure. Although biodiversity is affected by multiple threats, most studies addressing the effects of future environmental changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat only. We examined the studies published during the last 25 years that developed scenarios to predict future biodiversity changes based on climate, land-use and land-cover change projections. We found that biodiversity scenarios mostly focus on the future impacts of climate change and largely neglect changes in land use and land cover. The emphasis on climate change impacts has increased over time and has now reached a maximum. Yet, the direct destruction and degradation of habitats through land-use and land-cover changes are among the most significant and immediate threats to biodiversity. We argue that the current state of integration between ecological and land system sciences is leading to biased estimation of actual risks and therefore constrains the implementation of forward-looking policy responses to biodiversity decline. We suggest research directions at the crossroads between ecological and environmental sciences to face the challenge of developing interoperable and plausible projections of future environmental changes and to anticipate the full range of their potential impacts on biodiversity. An intergovernmental platform is needed to stimulate such collaborative research efforts and to emphasize the societal and political relevance of taking up this challenge. PMID:26950650

  2. Male fertility attitudes: a neglected dimension in Nigerian fertility research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchak, D J; Adebayo, A

    1987-01-01

    A sample of 202 male Nigerians enrolled in colleges and graduate schools in the state of Kansas were surveyed to determine their perceptions of population problems in Nigeria; attitudes toward family planning, divorce, and male children; and attitudes toward family size. A major limitation of Nigerian-based fertility research has been the neglect of the role of men in couples' reproductive behavior. The majority of Nigerian students surveyed in this study did not think overpopulation is an impending crisis in Nigeria: 40% thought there are just enough people and 13% indicated there are not enough people. 53% supported the concept of a government population policy, but 67% felt the government should not interfere with family size decisions. Although 84% endorsed the idea that family planning services and information should be available, 69% felt women should not practice family planning without the consent of their husbands. 43% believed a man should divorce his wife if the woman is infertile, unable to produce a male child, or unable to bear the number of children demanded by her husband; in addition, 35% indicated a man should marry a second wife or continue to have children if the couple has 5 daughters and no son. In terms of the value of children, 62% stated that children are wealth or better than wealth, whereas 38% claimed that children use up wealth. Duration of stay in the US was inversely correlated with the number of children considered too many, and the number of male children already born was an important determinant of future family size expectations. In general, it appears that level of education and exposure to US standards do not have a major impact on fertility values among Nigerians, particularly the desire for male children. Educated Nigerian men are an important target for population education, however, because they dominate and control many of the structural, behavioral, and cultural dimensions of fertility behavior. PMID:3686071

  3. Behavioural therapy of suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057

  4. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  5. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  6. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  7. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  8. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of elder self-neglect in an US Chinese aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with prevalence and severity of elder self-neglect in an U.S. Chinese older population. The PINE study is a population-based epidemiological study in the greater Chicago area. In total, 3159 Chinese older adults were interviewed from 2011 to 2013. Elder self-neglect was assessed with systematic observations of a participant's personal and home environment across five domains: hoarding, personal hygiene, house in need of repair, unsanitary conditions, and inadequate utility. Elder self-neglect was prevalent among older adults aged 80 years or over (mild self-neglect: 34.6% 95% CI 30.9-38.4; moderate/severe: 15.6% 95% CI 12.8-18.6), men (mild: 28.6% 95% CI 26.1-31.3; moderate/severe: 13.1% 95% CI 11.2-15.1), those with 0-6 years of education (mild: 32.2% 95% CI 29.7-34.9; moderate/severe: 12.6% 95% CI 10.8-14.5), and those with an annual personal income between $5000 and $10,000 (mild: 30.8% 95% CI 28.4-33.2; moderate/severe: 11.8% 95% CI 10.2-13.5). Older age (mild self-neglect: OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03; moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) and lower education levels (mild self-neglect: OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08; moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.09) were associated with significantly increased odds of elder self-neglect. Women (moderate/severe self-neglect: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93) had significantly decreased odds of moderate/severe elder self-neglect. No significant association was found between levels of income and overall elder-self-neglect of all severities. Future research is needed to examine risk/protective factors associated with elder self-neglect in U.S. Chinese older populations. PMID:26952381

  9. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  10. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  11. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science. PMID:4041702

  12. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  13. Language Problems Among Abused and Neglected Children: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Bussières, Ève-Line; Bouchard, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Research data show that exposure to abuse and neglect has detrimental effects on a child's language development. In this meta-analysis, we analyze studies (k = 23), to compare the language skills (receptive language, expressive language, pragmatics) of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect with the language skills of children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect and to examine whether age or type of maltreatment moderate the relationship between maltreatment and language skills. Results confirm that the language skills of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect are delayed when compared to children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect. Compared to older children, young children seem particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. No significant differences were demonstrated concerning the type of maltreatment suffered by the child. These findings support the necessity of early detection of language problems in abused and neglected children as well as early intervention in order to implement interventions that will positively stimulate their development. PMID:26620719

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea. PMID:24956921

  15. OW CCMP ocean surface wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of ocean...

  16. Spatial working memory deficits represent a core challenge for rehabilitating neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eStriemer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Left neglect following right hemisphere injury is a debilitating disorder that has proven extremely difficult to rehabilitate. Traditional models of neglect have focused on impaired spatial attention as the core deficit and as such, most rehabilitation methods have tried to improve attentional processes. However, many of these techniques (e.g., visual scanning training, caloric stimulation, neck muscle vibration produce only short-lived effects, or are too uncomfortable to use as a routine treatment. More recently, many investigators have begun examining the beneficial effects of prism adaptation for the treatment of neglect. Although prism adaptation has been shown to have some beneficial effects on both overt and covert spatial attention, it does not reliably alter many of the perceptual biases evident in neglect. One of the challenges of neglect rehabilitation may lie in the heterogeneous nature of the deficits. Most notably, a number of researchers have shown that neglect patients present with severe deficits in spatial working memory (SWM in addition to their attentional impairment. Given that SWM can be seen as a foundational cognitive mechanism, critical for a wide range of other functions, any deficit in SWM memory will undoubtedly have severe consequences. In the current review we examine the evidence for SWM deficits in neglect and propose that it constitutes a core component of the syndrome. We present preliminary data which suggest that at least one current rehabilitation method (prism adaptation has no effect on SWM deficits in neglect. Finally, we end by reviewing recent work that examines the effectiveness of SWM training and how SWM training may prove to be a useful avenue for future rehabilitative efforts in patients with neglect.

  17. Elementarity and quantum behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of elementarity is considered as a concept on which a motivation of quantum behaviour may be founded. The definition of velocity of an elementary body, in particular, is examined in comparison with the classical situation. (author)

  18. Behavioural Biometrics in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    Prague, 2013, nestr. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-19.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  20. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and...... the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for...

  1. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching...

  2. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  3. Crustal control of dissipative ocean tides in Enceladus and other icy moons

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Could tidal dissipation within Enceladus' subsurface ocean account for the observed heat flow? Earthlike models of dynamical tides give no definitive answer because they neglect the influence of the crust. I propose here the first model of dissipative tides in a subsurface ocean, by combining the Laplace Tidal Equations with the membrane approach. For the first time, it is possible to compute tidal dissipation rates within the crust, ocean, and mantle in one go. I show that oceanic dissipation is strongly reduced by the crustal constraint, and thus contributes little to Enceladus' present heat budget. Tidal resonances could have played a role in a forming or freezing ocean less than 100 m deep. The model is general: it applies to all icy satellites with a thin crust and a shallow ocean. Scaling rules relate the resonances and dissipation rate of a subsurface ocean to the ones of a surface ocean. If the ocean has low viscosity, the westward obliquity tide does not move the crust. Therefore, crustal dissipation...

  4. Constraints on Multilayered Anisotropy beneath Ocean Islands from Harmonic Decomposition of Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. J.; Olugboji, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    Receiver functions have been used to provide, with improved resolution, velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle for oceans and continents. For oceanic regions, receiver function results are only possible were there is station coverage - ocean island stations and ocean bottom seismometers. Receiver function studies of oceanic crustal and upper mantle structure have provided constraints on Moho depth, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth, and show evidence for magmatic underplating. Until recently, these receiver functions have focused on the radial RFs, neglecting information available from transverse RFs. We provide new results that suggest the prevalence of multi-layered crustal anisotropy using azimuthal variation in the amplitudes of radial and transverse receiver functions, reconstructed via harmonic decomposition. The harmonic components give information on the dip and trend of the axis of symmetry within the anisotropic layers above and below interfaces that generate Ps converted waves. Information from preliminary study of ten ocean island stations shows that azimuthal RF variation is largely two-lobed for most of the ocean-island stations, consistent with anisotropy with a tilted symmetry axis in the oceanic crust, including the underplated layers. Using sequential H-K stacks to model the isotropic velocity and the number of layers, we can guide harmonic decomposition to specify the presence and orientation of anisotropy within the specific layers. We will use this to evaluate hypothetical models for ocean-island crustal fabric.

  5. Investigating garment drape behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Sanad,, R; Cassidy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Drapeability is one of the most important visual properties affecting garment appearance. Even though there are many studies concerned with fabric drape, understanding about the drape behaviour of garments is very limited. This study analyzes the key properties affecting the drape behaviour of garments to provide prediction equations. Results are statistically analyzed. From multiple regression analysis, drape rank scores obtained from subjective analyses are predicted using weight, bending m...

  6. Mechanism underlying the development of unilateral spatial neglect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that functional disturbance of the neural network involving the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), dorsolateral frontal lobe (DLF), and thalamus (TH) as components of the right hemisphere underlies the development of unilateral spatial neglect (USN), cerebral perfusion was measured by 123I-IMP SPECT in 32 patients with cerebrovascular right brain damage, 20 of whom had USN and 12 of whom did not. In analyzing the SPECT data, RI uptake in the four component regions and cerebellum (serving as a control) were estimated by symmetrically placing 'regions of interest' from both hemispheres on SPECT slices, most suitable for each region. The 'regional to cerebellar ratio' (R/CE ratio) for each component region was calculated and the values were compared. In the USN group, R/CE ratio values for each component region in the right hemisphere were significantly lower than those in the left, whereas in the non-USN group there was no right-left difference. When R/CE ratio values for each component region in the right hemisphere were compared between the USN and non-USN group, those for the IPL, ACG and TH were significantly lower in the USN group; the value for the DLF was also lower in the USN group, although the difference was not significant. Significantly lower values of R/CE for each component region in the right hemisphere were noticed when the regions showed apparent involvement on X-ray CT/MRI. Furthermore, in seven of the USN patients where lesions revealed by CT/MRI did not involve network components, the R/CE ratio values for the components in the right hemisphere were lower than those in the left; the difference was significant for the IPL, ACG and TH, but not for the DLF. It is suggested that functional disturbance of the neural network involving the IPL, ACG, DLF and TH in the right hemisphere might underlie the development of USN. (author)

  7. Coracoid syndrome: a neglected cause of anterior shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; BARBADORO, PAMELA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the present prospective open-label study was designed to gain further insights into a condition thought to constitute a neglected but not uncommon syndrome characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process, not related to rotator cuff or pectoralis minor tendinopathy, long head of the biceps tendon disorders, or instability. The aim was to clarify its prevalence, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and response to corticosteroid injections. Methods patients with primary anterior shoulder pain precisely reproduced by deep pressure on the apex of the coracoid process were recruited. Patients with clinical or instrumental signs of other shoulder disorders were excluded. Patients were given an injection of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg/ml 1 ml at the coracoid trigger point. They were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days and at 2 years using Equal Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) and the Italian version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Results between January 1 and December 31 2010, we treated 15 patients aged 26–66 years. The majority were women (86.67%). At 15 days, 6 (40%) patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms, while 9 (60%) complained of residual symptoms and received another injection. At 30 days, 14 (93.33%) patients were pain-free and very satisfied. At 2 years, the 14 patients who had been asymptomatic at 30 days reported that they had experienced no further pain or impaired shoulder function. The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of time on EQ-VAS and SST scores. Conclusions the present study documents the existence, and characteristics, of a “coracoid syndrome” characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process and showed that the pain is usually amenable to steroid treatment. This syndrome should be clearly distinguished from anterior shoulder pain due to other causes, in

  8. Microbial geomorphology: A neglected link between life and landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Heather A.

    2012-07-01

    Whilst recognition is increasing that life and landscapes are intimately related, as evidenced by growing research into ecosystem engineering, biogeomorphology and allied topics, the microbial contribution to such interactions has been relatively neglected. A revolution in environmental microbiology, based on molecular techniques, is now driving a reconsideration of the role of microbial processes in geomorphology at all scales. Recent research illustrates the hitherto unknown microbial diversity present in many extreme geomorphic environments, such as hyperarid deserts, subglacial lakes, hot springs, and much richer microbial life than previously suspected within the soils and sediments that blanket most other landscapes. Such microbial communities have been found to play important geomorphic roles across a wide range of environments, notably in weathering, precipitation of minerals and protecting surfaces from erosion. These geomorphic roles can also be conceptualised as examples of ecosystem engineering, and can pave the way for further plant-geomorphology and zoogeomorphology processes. Three key aspects which emerge from a review of microbial influences on Earth surface processes are a) that microbes play roles on a continuum from full control to passive involvement, b) that complex and widespread communities of microorganisms are involved and c) that microbial activity usually affects several Earth surface processes at once. Examples of the contribution of microbial life to geomorphology over long, medium and short timescales suggest that microorganisms play key geomorphological roles in two major situations; on the cusp between stable states, and in extreme environments where higher plant and animal life is limited and many abiotic processes are also constrained. The dominant link between microbial life and geomorphology appears to take on different forms depending on the timescale under consideration, with a stabilising microbial role apparent over short

  9. The Neglected Patent Controversies in the Twenty First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na virada do século, assistimos a um reforço do sistema de patentes. No entanto, os gestores de políticas deixam sistematicamente de lado as controvérsias sobre patentes. Este artigo examina criticamente as complexas relações entre, por um lado, as razões para os direitos de patente e, por outro lado, seus efeitos sociais e econômicos. Só quando entendermos essa relação, seremos capazes de projetar regimes adequados de Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual (DPI para o novo paradigma tecnoeconômico de microeletrônica baseada em conhecimento e invenções de amplo alcance implementadas por computador. O foco se concentra nas razões morais, nas razões de incentivo econômico, e nas razões de aumento da concorrência e "proteção do talento empresarial no mercado", e nas razões econômicas para organizar ciência, tecnologia e criatividade. Afirma-se aqui que os sistemas de patentes não são neutros, eles estabelecem as regras do jogo em que indivíduos e organizações são os jogadores.At the turn of the century we have seen a tightening of the patent system. However, policy makers systematically neglect the patent controversies. This article critically reviews the complex relationships between the rationales for patent rights on the one hand, and the social and economic effects of such on the other hand. Only when we understand this relationship, will we be able to design appropriate Intellectual Property Right (IPR regimes for the new technoeconomic paradigm of knowledge-based micro-electronics and computer implemented pervasive inventions. Focus is on moral rationales, economic incentive rationales, increased competition and "market protection of entrepreneurial talent" rationales, and the economic rationales for organizing science, technology and creativity. It is argued that patent systems are not neutral, but set the rules of the game in which individuals and organizations are the players.

  10. Poverty-related and neglected diseases – an economic and epidemiological analysis of poverty relatedness and neglect in research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Philipsborn, Peter; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Bender, Max E.; Regmi, Sadie; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Economic growth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has raised interest in how disease burden patterns are related to economic development. Meanwhile, poverty-related diseases are considered to be neglected in terms of research and development (R&D). Objectives Developing intuitive and meaningful metrics to measure how different diseases are related to poverty and neglected in the current R&D system. Design We measured how diseases are related to economic development with the income relation factor (IRF), defined by the ratio of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100,000 inhabitants in LMIC versus that in high-income countries. We calculated the IRF for 291 diseases and injuries and 67 risk factors included in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. We measured neglect in R&D with the neglect factor (NF), defined by the ratio of disease burden in DALYs (as percentage of the total global disease burden) and R&D expenditure (as percentage of total global health-related R&D expenditure) for 26 diseases. Results The disease burden varies considerably with the level of economic development, shown by the IRF (median: 1.38; interquartile range (IQR): 0.79–6.3). Comparison of IRFs from 1990 to 2010 highlights general patterns of the global epidemiological transition. The 26 poverty-related diseases included in our analysis of neglect in R&D are responsible for 13.8% of the global disease burden, but receive only 1.34% of global health-related R&D expenditure. Within this group, the NF varies considerably (median: 19; IQR: 6–52). Conclusions The IRF is an intuitive and meaningful metric to highlight shifts in global disease burden patterns. A large shortfall exists in global R&D spending for poverty-related and neglected diseases, with strong variations between diseases. PMID:25623607

  11. Ocean Science Educator Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research announces a program to identify and support academic ocean scientists (“Educators”) who have a distinguished record of educating high-quality doctoral and/or postdoctoral students and who will, under this program, draw postdoctoral scientists from other disciplines into the ocean sciences. Named “Educators” must be U.S. citizens with research and training experience in the ocean sciences and must have a current research and teaching position at a U.S. institution that confers doctoral degrees in ocean sciences.Participation is sought from U.S. institutions that confer doctoral degrees in one or more areas of ocean sciences; show a viable plan to identify, attract, and train, in the ocean sciences, U.S. citizen post-docs (Fellows) from other disciplines; and can show institutional commitment to ocean science education at the doctoral level. Three awards will be made via grants to institutions for a period of 3 years at $75,000 per year (at least $65,000 of these funds are intended for direct support of Fellows).

  12. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  13. The Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on Emotional Schemas of Female Victims of Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    S Daneshmandi; Z Izadikhah; Kazemi, H.; H Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Development of emotional schemas is regarded as one of the long term effects of child abuse and neglect. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of Emotional Schema Therapy on emotional schemas of female victims of child abuse and neglect. Methods: In this quasi-experimental design, 30 women, who had the history of child abuse and neglect (according to the scores obtained in the child abuse and neglect questionnaire) and met entry criteria, were selected ...

  14. Child Neglect and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Associations with Maternal Drug Dependence and Neighborhood Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages four-nine years) and their mothers, this five-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and matern...

  15. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  16. OCEAN BRIDGE; THE HISTORY OF THE RAF FERRY COMMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Bridge is undoubtedly the best military-history book I have had the pleasure of reading all year. It presents a fresh body of knowledge on a neglected topic of an otherwise much-described Second World War. The body of the work – an authoritative and well-referenced text of 306 pages - is vastly enhanced by an extremely attractive cover; four detailed maps; dozens of meaningful photographs; and a good, particular and accurate index of no less than 43 pages! The fact that Ocean Bridge is printed on acid-free paper is an added bonus: it will literally be enjoyed by generations of future historians and aviation enthusiasts.

  17. Beyond Economics: a Behavioural Approach to Energy Efficiency in Domestic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Claudy, Marius; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the moderate success of policies aiming to stimulate the uptake of Sustainable Energy Systems (SES) in the domestic sector is grounded in a poor understanding of the ‘consumer’. The predominant economic approach behind most policies assumes that improving the cost-benefit ratio of technologies via grants and subsidies and providing sufficient information will automatically incentivise householders’ to invest into SES. Yet, policymakers often neglect behavioural determin...

  18. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  19. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  20. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rode

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.

  1. Fourth National Incidende Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NIS–4 data were collected to provide updated estimates of the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States and measure changes in incidence from the...

  2. Neglected foreign body in oesophagus with an unusual presentation: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, P. C.; Gaur, Ashish; Singhal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Foreign body in oesophagus is not an unusual finding, we report here a case of neglected foreign body in oesophagus with an unusual presentation which remained almost asymptomatic for three years before removal.

  3. Is There a Place for Ipsilesional Eye Patching in Neglect Rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Soroker

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglect behavior of experimental animals with unilateral posterior cortical lesions improves with the placement of a second lesion in the contralesional superior colliculus or in the intercollicular commissure. Given that the retinotectal fibers are mainly crossed, it has been speculated that ipsilesional eye patching, by depriving the contralesional superior colliculus of its main facilitatory visual input, might achieve similar results, and thus be used as a remediation maneuver in patients with neglect. From six patients with severe persistent neglect, only one showed an unequivocal beneficial effect from ipsilesional eye patching. We discuss the factors which possibly underlie success and failure with this procedure, and the place for it in neglect rehabilitation.

  4. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with self-neglect associated with severe depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocksedge, Karen A; Flynn, Adrian

    2014-02-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency and commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, but we describe the first case report resulting from self-neglect associated with depression. PMID:25057374

  5. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  6. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  7. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 246 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  8. Neglected orthopedic oncology - Causes, epidemiology and challenges for management in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y S Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors remains an overwhelming confront to orthopedic surgeons. The challenge is discriminating in developing countries due to inadequate diagnostic and therapeutic amenities and unawareness. A lot has been discussed about the neglected orthopedic trauma, but the published literature on the causes and management of neglected bone and soft tissue tumors is sparse. Hence, current study was undertaken to highlight the causes of neglect and therapeutic challenges for managing these neglected tumors in developing countries. Aims And Objectives: To determine the causes of neglect of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, their epidemiology (including their relative frequencies, age, gender discrimination, anatomical sites of occurrence and histological characteristics and difficult aspect of management due to neglect or delayed presentation. Materials And Methods: This was an appraisal of the neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumors presented to J. N. Medical College and Hospital from June 2008 to May 2013. Criteria for labeling the tumor as neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumor was delayed presentation (>3 months, locally advanced disease, ulceration, sepsis, fungating mass or metastasis at the time of presentation. All the cases were reviewed and analyzed for age, gender, histological types, educational status and socioeconomic status of the family, any prior treatment by traditional bone setters or registered medical practitioner, cause of delay for seeking medical advice. We have also analyzed the treatment given at our institute and the outcome of the tumor. Observations And Results: Eighteen patients fulfilled the criteria for neglected malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, hence were included in study. Eight cases were of osteosarcoma, five cases were of Ewing's sarcoma, three cases were of chondrosarcoma and 1 case each was of pleomorphic liposarcoma and primary lymphoma

  9. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  10. Ocean microbial metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Lee J.; Goodman, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    Technology for accessing the genomic DNA of microorganisms, directly from environmental samples without prior cultivation, has opened new vistas to understanding microbial diversity and functions. Especially as applied to soils and the oceans, environments on Earth where microbial diversity is vast, metagenomics and its emergent approaches have the power to transform rapidly our understanding of environmental microbiology. Here we explore select recent applications of the metagenomic suite to ocean microbiology.

  11. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian E; Subhagya B; Muthu M; Sivakumar N

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  12. Neglected Foreign Body, the Cause of Navicular Osteomyelitis in A Paediatric Foot: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekara C.M; George M.A; Bader Said Khamis Al-Marboi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body injuries with date thorns, metal and wooden splinters are common in Middle East region, as most of it is desert. Some of the injuries lead to cellulitis or abscess formation, if neglected or improperly managed results in osteomyelitis or septic arthritis of foot structures. This is the first report of isolated navicular osteomyelitis following neglected foreign body in a paediatric foot. Case Report: A 10 year old male patient presented with discharging sinus in...

  13. Effects of prism adaptation on motor-intentional spatial bias in neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Fortis, Paola; Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M.; Barrett, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Prism adaptation may alleviate some symptoms of spatial neglect. However, the mechanism through which this technique works is still unclear. The current study investigated whether prism adaptation differentially affects dysfunction in perceptual-attentional “where” versus motor-intentional “aiming” bias. Five neglect patients performed a line bisection task in which lines were viewed under both normal and right-left reversed viewing conditions, allowing for the fractionation of “where” and “a...

  14. The Conditions of Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan : Difficulties and Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki, ISHIKAWA

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author purports to provide a brief description on the 10-year experience of the efforts for child abuse prevention in Japan. Describing our experience, 3 areas of child abuse and neglect will be focused. Firstly, current condition, secondly, the system and implementation for prevention and intervention, and at last, recent efforts for child abuse prevention in Japan, with some discussion on the factors that may hinder better treatment of child abuse and neglect cases.

  15. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  16. Pleasant music overcomes the loss of awareness in patients with visual neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, David; Funes, María J.; Guzmán-García, Azucena; Warbrick, Tracy; Rotshtein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-01-01

    During the past 20 years there has been much research into the factors that modulate awareness of contralesional information in neurological patients with visual neglect or extinction. However, the potential role of the individual's emotional state in modulating awareness has been largely overlooked. In the current study, we induced a pleasant and positive affective response in patients with chronic visual neglect by allowing them to listen to their pleasant preferred music. We report that th...

  17. Updating the criminal law on child neglect: protecting children from severe emotional abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Gill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paper by Abigail Gill (Policy and Research Assistant at the charity Action for Children concerned with updating the law on child neglect to protect children from emotional neglect. The author highlights the problem, the need for legislation, the detail of that legislation and the mechanism for bringing forward that legislative change. This paper gives the perspective of a body campaigning for a change in the law.

  18. Predicting functional outcome after stroke: the influence of neglect on basic activities in daily living

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Nijboer; Ingrid Van de Port

    2013-01-01

    One prominent deficit resulting from stroke is visuo-spatial neglect, which has been associated with slower and more attenuated recovery patterns of sensory-motor impairment as well as limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the current study was to further specify the relationship between neglect and recovery of different domains of ADL. 184 Patients were assessed with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) in the first week of inpatient rehabilitation, and again at 6, 12, a...

  19. The EEG Profile of Hemispatial Neglect and Neurofeedback as an Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Brinson, Helen

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that interventions targeting alertness could be effective in the rehabilitation of hemispatial neglect. Alertness correlates in the EEG with decreased theta and increased beta activity and training up beta/theta ratios using EEG neurofeedback has resulted in particularly beneficial results in children with ADHD with recognised deficits of alertness. Experiment I showed that neglect patients had significantly reduced beta activity compared to age-matched controls...

  20. The perceived impact of publications on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses as measured by their impact factor

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Speybroeck, Sara; Speybroeck, Niko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether papers on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses are published in journals with lower impact factors than research on diseases with a similar global health burden. We found that, despite being cited equally often, the papers on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses were published in journals with lower impact factors. The scopes of these journals are mainly restricted to Tropical medicine. A clustering analysis revealed that The Lancet, a high impact general medical journal, does pay atten...

  1. Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; de Himpsl, Maiti Laserna; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Laizer, Nassor; Camenzind, Lukas; Pasquale, Aurelio Di; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Simoonga, Christopher; Mushinge, Gabriel; Saarnak, Christopher Florian Larsen; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized b...

  2. Child abuse and neglectÇocuk istismarı ve ihmal

    OpenAIRE

    İlyas Özgentürk

    2014-01-01

    Children's physical, emotional and sexual abuse and neglect are widespread social and health problem across societies. Child abuse covers all kinds of attitudes and neglects that affect and limit children physical and emotional development by the parents or child careers. Child abuse affects the children’s emotional and physical development negatively. A child whose emotional development is disturbed lives with very serious psychological and communication problems as well as decrease of life ...

  3. Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Economic Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967–1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003–2004 (N = 807). Results indicate that adult...

  4. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeka eBodak; Paresh eMalhotra; Nicolò Francesco Bernardi; Gianna eCocchini; Lauren eStewart

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere stroke at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterized by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space. Inspired by evidence of increased spatial exploration of patients’ left side achieved during keyboard scale-playing, the current study employed a music intervention that involved making sequential go...

  5. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from First Macedonian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Marijana Markovik; Dinesh Sethi; Eleonora Serafimovska; Tamara Jordanova

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One of the study objectives was to explore the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in the country. METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above (44.7% of male and 55.3%) in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study. Respondents were sampled through three staged national representative sampling procedure. Data were collected using a cognitively validated questionnaire for investigating elder abuse and neglect (psychological a...

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration: A Prospective Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0–11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with children without such histories (n = 395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage = 39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psycholog...

  7. The hospital child protection teams in approaching issues of child abuse and neglect Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beyazova, Ufuk; Şahin, Figen

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children A multidisciplinary approach like the “Child Protection Team” is strongly encouraged to ensure adequate evaluation treatment and follow up of a potentially abused child Recently the increasing interest in the community regarding child abuse and neglect and the construction of child protection services are nbsp; important improvements for our country Child abuse and neglect should be a part of graduate ...

  8. Neglecting the Urban Poor in Bangladesh: Research, Policy and Action in the Context of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Banks, Manoj Roy and David Hulme

    2011-01-01

    In Bangladesh, urban poverty is neglected in research, policy and action on poverty reduction. This paper explores the underlying reasons for this relative neglect, which include national identity and image, the political economy of urban poverty and the structuring of knowledge creation. It argues for more comprehensive policy and programmes for the urban poor given Bangladesh’s increasingly urban future and the growing magnitude of urban poverty. The impact of climate change will accelerate...

  9. Neglecting the urban poor in Bangladesh: research, policy and action in the context of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Banks; Manoj Roy; David Hulme

    2011-01-01

    In Bangladesh, urban poverty is neglected in research, policy and action on poverty reduction. This paper explores the underlying foundations for this relative neglect, including national identity and image, the political economy of urban poverty, and the structuring of knowledge creation. It argues for more comprehensive policy and programmes for the urban poor given Bangladesh’s increasingly urban future and the growing magnitude of urban poverty. The impact of climate change will accelerat...

  10. The role of gravity in ocean acoustics propagation and its implication to early tsunami detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic low frequency sound generated by submarine earthquake travels much faster than tsunamis and leaves pressure signatures that can act as tsunami precursors. In this regard, it is anticipated that the correct measurement and analysis of low frequency acoustics would enhance current early tsunami detection systems. In this work we model the low frequency acoustics generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake using the "Method of Normal Modes" and the "Acoustics-Gravity Wave" theory. Ocean acoustic theories usually neglect the effect of gravity. However, we show for rigid and elastic bottom conditions how gravity influences the acoustic normal mode propagation speed. Practically, our results can help in the real time characterization of low frequency sources in the ocean. This will enhance the robustness of early tsunami detection systems.

  11. Deep-ocean origin of the freshwater eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun G; Miya, Masaki; Miller, Michael J; Sado, Tetsuya; Hanel, Reinhold; Hatooka, Kiyotaka; Aoyama, Jun; Minegishi, Yuki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2010-06-23

    Of more than 800 species of eels of the order Anguilliformes, only freshwater eels (genus Anguilla with 16 species plus three subspecies) spend most of their lives in freshwater during their catadromous life cycle. Nevertheless, because their spawning areas are located offshore in the open ocean, they migrate back to their specific breeding places in the ocean, often located thousands of kilometres away. The evolutionary origin of such enigmatic behaviour, however, remains elusive because of the uncertain phylogenetic position of freshwater eels within the principally marine anguilliforms. Here, we show strong evidence for a deep oceanic origin of the freshwater eels, based on the phylogenetic analysis of whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 56 species representing all of the 19 anguilliform families. The freshwater eels occupy an apical position within the anguilliforms, forming a highly supported monophyletic group with various oceanic midwater eel species. Moreover, reconstruction of the growth habitats on the resulting tree unequivocally indicates an origination of the freshwater eels from the midwater of the deep ocean. This shows significant concordance with the recent collection of mature adults of the Japanese eel in the upper midwater of the Pacific, suggesting that they have retained their evolutionary origin as a behavioural trait in their spawning areas. PMID:20053660

  12. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  13. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  14. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka eBodak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.

  15. Childhood abuse or neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting among midlife women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce; Chang, Yuefang; Goldbacher, Edie; Brown, Charlotte; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that women exposed to childhood abuse or neglect would have an increased likelihood of reporting hot flashes and night sweats during the menopausal transition. Design This hypothesis was evaluated in 332 white and African American women participating in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study, a prospective investigation of women transitioning through menopause. Childhood abuse and neglect were measured once with the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Vasomotor symptoms (any/none hot flashes, night sweats) were reported annually over 8 years. Associations between maltreatment and vasomotor symptoms were estimated with generalized estimating equations. Results Childhood abuse or neglect was associated with increased reporting of hot flashes (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.23–2.43) and night sweats (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.43) in age-adjusted models. Results persisted in multivariable models and across several types of abuse and neglect. Conclusions The experience of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting in adulthood. The sequelae of childhood abuse and neglect may persist well into adulthood to influence the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms at midlife. PMID:18257140

  16. Spatial and temporal dynamics of visual search tasks distinguish subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect: Comparison of two cases with viewer-centered and stimulus-centered neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kato, Kenji; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Liu, Meigen

    2016-08-01

    We developed a computerised test to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect (USN) using a touchscreen display, and estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of visual search in USN patients. The results between a viewer-centered USN patient and a stimulus-centered USN patient were compared. Two right-brain-damaged patients with USN, a patient without USN, and 16 healthy subjects performed a simple cancellation test, the circle test, a visuomotor search test, and a visual search test. According to the results of the circle test, one USN patient had stimulus-centered neglect and a one had viewer-centered neglect. The spatial and temporal patterns of these two USN patients were compared. The spatial and temporal patterns of cancellation were different in the stimulus-centered USN patient and the viewer-centered USN patient. The viewer-centered USN patient completed the simple cancellation task, but paused when transferring from the right side to the left side of the display. Unexpectedly, this patient did not exhibit rightward attention bias on the visuomotor and visual search tests, but the stimulus-centered USN patient did. The computer-based assessment system provided information on the dynamic visual search strategy of patients with USN. The spatial and temporal pattern of cancellation and visual search were different across the two patients with different subtypes of neglect. PMID:26059555

  17. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  18. Study of neglect dyslexia in ten unilateral spatial neglect patients%单侧空间忽视患者十例阅读障碍的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦卉; 田仰华; 董文文; 汪凯

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究单侧空间忽视患者阅读汉字是否存在忽视性阅读障碍及忽视性阅读障碍类型,是否存在词长效应及语义效应.方法 采用汉字阅读材料对10例左侧空间忽视患者进行阅读能力检测.结果 单侧空间忽视患者在阅读汉字材料时出现阅读障碍,多为忽视性阅读障碍(202/215,94.0%).忽视性阅读障碍中最常见的类型是遗漏错误(148/202,73.3%),其次是替换错误,其余为添加错误.双字词的错误率为9.9%±8.4%,三字词的错误率为18.8%±16.2%,随着字数的增加,阅读错误率明显增加(T=-55,P<0.05);真词错误率为8.3%±7.5%,假词错误率为18.9%±16.6%,假词错误率明显高于真词(T=-55,P<0.05).结论 汉字忽视性阅读障碍最常见的类型是遗漏错误,阅读障碍表现出词长效应,单侧空间忽视患者对忽视侧的汉字存在语义加工.%Objective To explore neglect dyslexia in unilateral spatial neglect patients,the error type and whether there exists word length and semantic effect.Methods Ten left spatial neglect patients were investigated by Chinese characters reading material.Results Unilateral spatial patients showed neglect dyslexia (202 neglect errors,94.0% of the total 215 errors) when reading.The most common errors were omissions (148 errors,73.3% of the total 202 neglect errors),followed by substitutions and additions.The error rate of two words was 9.9% ± 8.4%,while the rate of three words was 18.8% ± 16.2%.Performance was worse with the increase of word length (T =-55,P < 0.05).The error rate of words was 8.3% ± 7.5%,while the rate of non-words was 18.9% ± 16.6%,and the rate of non-words was worse than that of words (T =-55,P < 0.05).Conclusions Our study has shown that omissions are the most common error type of neglect dyslexia in Chinese unilateral spatial neglect patients,and the impairment include word length effect.The patients with unilateral spatial neglect

  19. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  20. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  1. Impact of variable seawater conductivity on motional induction simulated with an ocean general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, C.; Saynisch, J.; Thomas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As seawater flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for ocean-induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of seawater conductivity is often neglected and the effect on the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field unknown. To model magnetic fields that are induced by non-tidal global ocean currents, an electromagnetic induction model is implemented into the Ocean Model for Circulation and Tides (OMCT). This provides the opportunity to not only model ocean-induced magnetic signals but also to assess the impact of oceanographic phenomena on the induction process. In this paper, the sensitivity of the induction process due to spatial and temporal variations in seawater conductivity is investigated. It is shown that assuming an ocean-wide uniform conductivity is insufficient to accurately capture the temporal variability of the magnetic signal. Using instead a realistic global seawater conductivity distribution increases the temporal variability of the magnetic field up to 45 %. Especially vertical gradients in seawater conductivity prove to be a key factor for the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field. However, temporal variations of seawater conductivity only marginally affect the magnetic signal.

  2. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  3. Tax Compliance Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    ªtefura Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    To every state it is essential to ensure that the public budget copes with the public expenditure, in other words, to make sure that it collects sufficient revenues in order to have a stable economy. These revenues come especially from the collecting of taxes and fees. In order to have a functional fiscal system, it is important to understand both the fiscal component and the behaviour of its contributors. That is why the taxpayer behaviour has grown as a subject of research, in many fields b...

  4. Values and behaviour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational injuries, accidents, trips of equipment, emergencies, and idle times represent a loss from each megawatt hour which we could have supplied to the network, or other costs related to settlement or compensation for damages. All of it can be caused by short lack of attention while doing a routine job, ignoring safety indicators, and rules. Such behaviour would not be a characteristic of a professional. People working at the nuclear power plants are the first ones to learn about the Values and Behaviour Model. (author)

  5. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  6. Ocean Physicochemistry versus Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Góralski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My today’s lecture will mark an attempt at ...

  7. Impacts of tropical cyclone inflow angle on ocean surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HONG Xin

    2011-01-01

    The inflow angle of tropical cyclones (TC) is generally neglected in numerical studies of ocean surface waves induced by TC. In this study, the impacts of TC inflow angle on ocean surface waves were investigated using a high-resolution wave model. Six numerical experiments were conducted to examine, in detail, the effects of inflow angle on mean wave parameters and the spectrum of wave directions. A comparison of the waves simulated in these experiments shows that inflow angle significantly modifies TC-induced ocean surface waves. As the inflow angle increases, the asymmetric axis of the significant wave height (SWH) field shifts 30° clockwise, and the maximum SWH moves from the front-right to the rear-right quadrant. Inflow angle also affects other mean wave parameters, especially in the rear-left quadrant, such as the mean wave direction, the mean wavelength, and the peak direction. Inflow angle is a key factor in wave models for the reproduction of double-peak or multi-peak patterns in the spectrum of wave directions. Sensitivity experiments also show that the simulation with a 40° inflow angle is the closest to that of the NOAA statistical SLOSH inflow angle. This suggests that 40° can be used as the inflow angle in future TC-induced ocean surface wave simulations when SLOSH or observed inflow angles are not available.

  8. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Ocean City, Maryland. (b) Definition: For purposes of enforcement of this section, Captain of the Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  9. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana E Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]; drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]; suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]; and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of the evidence

  10. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  11. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  12. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  13. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  14. Observing behaviour categorically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Cheng, Allan

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the relationships and differences between the extensive amount of research within the field of bisimulation equivalences, Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel recently proposed an abstract category-theoretic definition of bisimulation. They identify spans of morphisms satisfyin......, in fact, captures not only bisimulations but many other behavioural equivalences. We also briefly present presheaf models as an abstract model of computation....

  15. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  16. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  17. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  18. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  19. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  20. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Sharon Davidson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

  1. Ocean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems that are to provide synthetic fuels or an energy intensive product such as ammonia or aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC plants. The laboratory also has a technical advisory role with respect to DOE/DOET's management of the preliminary design activity of an industry team headed by Ocean Thermal Corporation that is designing an OTEC pilot plant that could be built in shallow water off the shore of Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, the Laboratory is now taking part in a program to evaluate and test the pneumatic wave energy conversion system, an ocean energy device consisting of a turbine that is air driven as a result of wave action in a chamber.

  2. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  3. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  4. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  5. Inter-ocean asynchrony in whale shark occurrence patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sequieira, A.M.M.; Mellin, C.; Floch, Laurent; Williams, P G; Bradshaw, C. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The whale shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith, 1828) is a migratory species (classed as Vulnerable by the IUCN) with genetic and circumstantial evidence for inter-ocean connectivity. Given this migratory behaviour, populationwide occurrence trends can only be contextualized by examining the synchrony in occurrence patterns among locations where they occur. We present a two-step modelling approach of whale shark spatial and temporal probability of occurrence in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocea...

  6. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  7. Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia O'Campo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.

  8. Linking childhood and adult criminality: using a life course framework to examine childhood abuse and neglect, substance use and adult partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O'Campo, Patricia

    2013-11-01

    Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children's life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410

  9. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  10. The Character-line Bisection Task: a new test for hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B H; Kang, S J; Park, J M; Son, Y; Lee, K H; Adair, J C; Heilman, K M; Na, D L

    2004-01-01

    A failure to report or respond to stimuli presented in a portion of space is termed hemispatial neglect. Line bisection and line cancellation are two of the tests used most commonly to assess for neglect. Perhaps, because neglect can be induced by a variety of deficits, neither of these tests used alone is as sensitive as both used together. Hence, the primary purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity, reliability and validity of a new test called the Character-line Bisection Task (CLBT) that combines features of both the bisection and cancellation tests. Since local attention and language are primarily mediated by and activate the left hemisphere, our second goal was to learn if the CLBT and especially the letter version induce a greater rightward bias than the solid-line bisection task. Eighty patients with acute right hemisphere stroke and 81 controls performed the CLBT that consists of two subtests, the Letter-line and Star-line Bisection tasks. All subjects also completed four conventional tests for neglect (Standard solid-line bisection, line cancellation, Star Cancellation, and figure copying). In the bisection tasks both patients and controls bisected to the right with the CLBT than with the solid-line bisection task, suggesting the CLBT induces asymmetrical hemispheric activation. This enhanced rightward deviation with the CLBT was the same for the Letter-line and Star-line Bisection tasks. In regard to sensitivity, we defined the presence of neglect syndrome based on a total score derived from performance of controls on all six tests. This total score detected 55 (68.8%) patients with neglect. Within this group, the Letter-line and Star-line tasks diagnosed neglect in 50 and 48 patients, respectively, resulting in the highest sensitivities (90.9, 87.3%) of the six tests. Thus, the CLBTs demonstrated higher sensitivities than the other commonly used neglect tests and these new tests can be useful for the detection and quantification of unilateral

  11. Surgical Removal of Neglected Soft Tissue Foreign Bodies by Needle-Guided Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The phenomenon of neglected foreign bodies is a significant cause of morbidity in soft tissue injuries and may present to dermatologists as delayed wound healing, localized cellulitis and inflammation, abscess formation, or foreign body sensation. Localization and removal of neglected soft tissue foreign bodies (STFBs is complex due to possible inflammation, indurations, granulated tissue, and fibrotic scar. This paper describes a simple method for the quick localization and (surgical removal of neglected STFBs using two 23-gauge needles without ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic guidance.  Materials and Methods: A technique based on the use of two 23-gauge needles was used in 41 neglected STFBs in order to achieve proper localization and fixation of foreign bodies during surgery.  Results:    Surgical removal was successful in 38 of 41 neglected STFBs (ranging from 2–13mm in diameter.  Conclusion: The cross-needle-guided technique is an office-based procedure that allows the successful surgical removal of STFBs using minimal soft tissue exploration and dissection via proper localization, fixation, and propulsion of the foreign body toward the surface of the skin.

  12. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  13. The Forensic Lens: Bringing Elder Neglect Into Focus in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiema, Marguerite; Homeier, Diana C; Anglin, Deirdre; Li, Danielle; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2016-09-01

    We present 2 case studies of older patients who were brought to the emergency department (ED) in severely debilitated states. Both presented with severe malnutrition, contractures, and decubitus ulcers, and were nonverbal, with histories of dementia and end-stage disease. Their primary caregivers, adult children, were uncooperative with Adult Protective Services and disregarded treatment recommendations. Although both elders had signs suspicious for neglect, a comprehensive review revealed many layers of complexity. We use these cases to illustrate an approach to the assessment of possible elder neglect in ED settings and how to intervene to ensure patient safety. We begin with a discussion of the differences between willful, unintentional, and unsubstantiated neglect by a caregiver and then describe when to suspect neglect by evaluating the elder, interviewing the caregiver and first responders, assessing the caregiver's ability to meet the elder's needs, and, if possible, obtaining medical history and information about the home care environment. These cases illustrate the importance of careful documentation in cases of suspected neglect to assist investigative agencies, reduce the risk of further harm, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:27005449

  14. Treatment of neglected elbow dislocations with the help of hinged external fixator: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Karakoyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dislocations are cases that have to be treated in emergency conditions. Neglected elbow dislocations are seen very rarely and the treatment of such cases are more complicated than acute cases. We present two cases of neglected elbow dislocations treated with open reduction and hinged external fixators. Case 1: 23 year old female patient had a neglected posterior dislocation of left elbow with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture caused by car accident. The patient was treated after 3 months of initial trauma. We have performed open reduction for the joint. After that we fixed the joint whit a hinged external fixator. The humeral shaft fracture was also fixed with the components of the external fixator. Case 2: 33 year male patient had a large bone and soft tissue defect around the left elbow accompanying with neglected medial elbow dislocation. He presented to our clinic with a delay of 2 months. The patient was treated with open reduction and hinged external fixator after reconstruction of bone defect of distal humerus. Conclusion: The treatment of neglected cases is quite challenging. Open reduction and external fixation has satisfactory results in treatment of late cases of elbow dislocation with the possibility of early rehabilitation. This method can be considered as an option for such cases. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  15. Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-05-01

    Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003-2004 (N 1/4 807). Results indicate that adults with documented histories of childhood abuse and/or neglect have lower levels of education, employment, earnings, and fewer assets as adults, compared to matched control children. There is a 14% gap between individuals with histories of abuse/neglect and controls in the probability of employment in middle age, controlling for background characteristics. Maltreatment appears to affect men and women differently, with larger effects for women than men. These new findings demonstrate that abused and neglected children experience large and enduring economic consequences. PMID:20425881

  16. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives: The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods: In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys. We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results: Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans.

  17. The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse. PMID:26774530

  18. On the movement behaviours of tropical tuna in modern commercial fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt Phillps, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of tropical tunas in the western and central Pacific Ocean constitutes an industry generating over US$5 billion annually. As concern for the sustainability of fishing operations grows, there is an increasing need to explore the potential effects that small-scale movement behaviours, typically ignored in stock assessment, may have on larger scale population dynamics. In this thesis, I examine a variety of individual movement behaviours exhibited by skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), y...

  19. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  20. Near coastal ocean attributes of salmon - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  1. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated. PMID:25462876

  2. Clouds over Open Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The heavy concentration of these cirrocumulus and nimbostratus clouds over open ocean - location unknown, indicate that a heavy downpouring of rain is occuring on the Earth's surface below. Towering anvils, seen rising high above the base cloud cover and casting long shadows, also indicate high winds and possible tornado activity.

  3. Fukushima and the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. The earthquake was the fourth largest ever recorded; the tsunami resulted in over 20,000 dead or missing and destroyed entire towns; and the radiation releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants created the largest accidental release of man-made radionuclides to the oceans in history— a release that continues to this day. Compared to monitoring on land, studies of the ocean are far fewer, yet the area impacted and quantity delivered- 80% of all radioactivity released- is far greater. For oceanographers, this presents a challenge of unprecedented scope and complexity: to understand exactly how these events played out, how radiation continues to move through the marine system (including important seafood items), and, in turn, how best to communicate scientific findings that will inform public policy decisions far into the future. This presentation will provide an overview of the sources and fate of radionuclides released from Fukushima to the ocean. An emphasis will be given on the sources of cesium, its transport in waters, and fluxes associated with sinking particles and accumulation in sediments.

  4. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  5. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  6. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  7. An Ocean of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Doug

    2010-01-01

    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  8. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.

    2015-01-01

    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to meas

  9. Ocean Thermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovsky, Boris

    1987-01-01

    Describes Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) as a method for exploiting the temperature difference between warm surface waters of the sea and its cold depths. Argues for full-scale demonstrations of the technique for producing energy for coastal regions. (TW)

  10. The Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    by satellite-derived ocean color images (Banse and English, 2000; Wiggert et al., 2005, and references therein). Fertilization of comparable magnitude also occurs along the west coast of India, albeit within a much narrower coastal belt (Fig. 14.3F; Jayakumar...

  11. Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutfelt, Fredrik; Bresolin de Souza, Karine; Vuylsteke, Amandine; Sturve, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern. PMID:23750274

  12. Eddy heat flux in the Southern Ocean: response to variable wind forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, Andrew Mcc.; Meredith, Michael P; Blundell, Jeffrey R.; Wilson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We assess the role of time-dependent eddy variability in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in influencing warming of the Southern Ocean. For this, we use an eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic model of the wind-driven circulation, and quantify the response of circumpolar transport, eddy kinetic energy and eddy heat transport to changes in winds. On interannual timescales, the model exhibits the behaviour of an "eddy saturated" ocean state, where increases in wind stress do not signicantly ...

  13. Riverine transfer of heavy metals from Patagonia to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiero, Diego M.; Probst, Jean-Luc; Pedro J. Depetris; Lelyter, L.; Kempe, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence and geochemical behaviour of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn and Co are studied in riverine detrital materials transported by Patagonian rivers. Their riverine inputs have been estimated and the nature of these inputs to the Atlantic Ocean is discussed. Most of the metals are transported to the ocean via the suspended load; there is evidence that Fe oxides and organic matter are important phases controlling their distribution in the detrital non-residual fraction. Most heavy metal c...

  14. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Zinke, J; Hoell, A.; Lough, J.M.; M. Feng; Kuret, A. J.; Clarke, H.; Ricca, V; Rankenburg, K.; M. T. McCulloch

    2015-01-01

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795–2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pa...

  15. Will krill fare well under Southern Ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, So; Kurihara, Haruko; King, Robert; Hale, Lillian; Berli, Thomas; Robinson, James P.; Ishida, Akio; Wakita, Masahide; Virtue, Patti; Nicol, Stephen; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill embryos and larvae were experimentally exposed to 380 (control), 1000 and 2000 µatm pCO2 in order to assess the possible impact of ocean acidification on early development of krill. No significant effects were detected on embryonic development or larval behaviour at 1000 µatm pCO2; however, at 2000 µatm pCO2 development was disrupted before gastrulation in 90 per cent of embryos, and no larvae hatched successfully. Our model projections demonstrated that Southern Ocean sea water pCO2 could rise up to 1400 µatm in krill's depth range under the IPCC IS92a scenario by the year 2100 (atmospheric pCO2 788 µatm). These results point out the urgent need for understanding the pCO2-response relationship for krill developmental and later stages, in order to predict the possible fate of this key species in the Southern Ocean. PMID:20943680

  16. "Death Is Better Than Misery": Elders' Accounts of Abuse and Neglect in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chane, Samson; Adamek, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    As the proportion of elders in developing nations increases and the ability of families to meet their needs is stretched thin, the risk of elder abuse will grow. This study examined the types and nature of abuse and neglect from the perspective of elders in Ethiopia who experienced abuse in noninstitutional settings. A qualitative design guided by hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of abuse and neglect of 15 Ethiopian elders. Nine women and six men ranging in age from 64 to 93 years were interviewed. Most were victims of multiple forms of abuse, especially financial exploitation, emotional abuse, and neglect. Economic vulnerability was a clear underlying factor contributing to elders' risk for encountering abuse. Effective prevention efforts must address the societal level factors that ultimately contribute to elder abuse while also holding individuals responsible for their harmful behaviors against elders. PMID:26738998

  17. Study on the diagnosis and mechanism of hemispatial neglect using different imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemispatial neglect is a kind of cognitive impairment characterized by failure to report, respond or orient to stimuli presented in ipsi- or contra-lateral space after brain injury, which cannot be attributed to sensory or motor defects. Although there are various diagnosis and assessment methods, none is regarded as standard. The paper and pencil test is commonly used in routine clinical workup. The mechanism is controversial and the most accepted opinion is due to visuospatial attention defect. Imaging study focuses on exploring the functional regions leading to the hemispatial neglect. As functional imaging, SPECT and PET have capability to evaluate the perfusion, glucose metabolism and cellular vitality, which have been found increasingly useful and applicable clinically in the field of diagnosis for cognitive impairment diseases. They are likely to have potential for contribution in the study of hemispatial neglect. (authors)

  18. Understanding care-related abuse and neglect in the lives of women with SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh-Phillips, Dena Saadat; McNeff, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Abuse and neglect of women with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious health issue. To begin to understand the nature of this problem an interpretive phenomenological study of abuse of women with SCI was conducted. A sample of 13 women who had experienced abuse post-injury participated in a total of 24 in-depth interviews. Analytic strategies employed included thematic analysis, exemplars, biographical comparisons, and paradigm cases. The analysis yielded four major categories including (a) abuse and neglect-definitions and types, (b) vulnerability factors, (c) behavioral responses to abuse, and (d) health effects. This research report reviews findings from the first category, abuse definitions and types. Findings indicate that care-related forms of abuse and neglect are particularly common in the lives of women with SCI. PMID:15553077

  19. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  20. The oceanic response to carbon emissions over the next century: investigation using three ocean carbon cycle models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study of coupled atmospheric carbon dioxide and the biosphere found alarming sensitivity of next-century atmospheric pCO2 (and hence planetary temperature) to uncertainties in terrestrial processes. Here we investigate whether there is similar sensitivity associated with uncertainties in the behaviour of the ocean carbon cycle. We investigate this important question using three models of the ocean carbon cycle of varying complexity: (1) a new three-box oceanic carbon cycle model; (2) the HILDA multibox model with high vertical resolution at low latitudes; (3) the Hadley Centre ocean general circulation model (HadOCC). These models were used in combination to assess the quantitative significance (to year 2100 pCO2) of potential changes to the ocean stimulated by global warming and other anthropogenic activities over the period 2000-2100. It was found that an increase in sea surface temperature and a decrease in the mixing rate due to stratification give rise to the greatest relative changes in pCO2, both being positive feedbacks. We failed to find any comparable large sensitivity due to the ocean

  1. Influenza A virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-05-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  2. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  3. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions......, human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...... management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials and...

  4. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own......Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected to...

  5. The frequency and significance of the word length effect in neglect dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Stefan; Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Adams, Michaela; Leonhardt, Eva; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-06-01

    Neglect patients often omit or misread initial letters of single words, a phenomenon termed neglect dyslexia (ND). Omissions of whole words on the contralesional side of the page during paragraph reading are generally considered as egocentric or space-based errors, whereas misreading of the left part of a word can be viewed as a type of stimulus-centred or word-based, neglect-related error. The research of the last decades shed light on several effects of word features (such as written word frequency, grammatical class or concreteness) that modulate the severity of ND. Nevertheless, almost all studies about those modulating factors were case studies and some of them have not been replicated yet. Therefore, to date we do not know how relevant such effects of different word stimuli are for a population of ND patients. Knowing their incidence would improve our theoretical understanding of ND and promote the development of standardized ND assessments, which are lacking so far. In particular, case studies have shown that ND error frequency increases systematically with word length (word length effect, WLE) while other single case studies found contrary results. Hence, the existence of the WLE in ND is unsettled and its incidence and significance in stroke patients is unknown. To clarify this issue we evaluated the relation between word length and the extent (number) of neglected or substituted letters within single words in ND (neglect dyslexia extent, NDE) in a group of 19 consecutive ND patients with right hemisphere lesions. We found a clear WLE in 79% (15 of 19) of our ND patients, as indicated by significant correlations between word length and NDE. Concurrent visual field defects had no effect on the WLE in our sample, thus showing no influence of early visual cortical processing stages on the WLE in neglect dyslexia. In conclusion, our results suggest a clear relationship between word length and reading errors in ND and show that the WLE is a frequent phenomenon

  6. Association between the related characters of hemispatial neglect and prognosis in stroke patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai Wang; Lianzhong Wang; Shiwen Liu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To recognize the significances of the classification, evaluation, treatment, pathogenesis, etiological factors and related foci of hemispatial neglect (HSN) in the treatment and prognosis of stroke patients.DATA SOURCES: Articles related to HSN in stroke published in English from January 1985 to December 2002 were searched in Medline database by using the keywords of "stroke, hemispatial neglect (HSN), rehabilitation". Chinese relevant professional works and articles were also referred to.STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily checked. Inclusive criteria: ① articles about the HSN symptoms in stroke; ② articles about the classification, evaluation, treatment, pathogenesis, etiological factors and related foci of HSN, as well as the treatment and prognosis of stroke. The repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 474 articles related to HSN in stroke were collected, 43 of them were involved,and 431 repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: HSN can be classified as sensory neglect and motor neglect. Because HSN is caused by the injury of network structure which mediated directed attention, it is generally believed that the inferior parietal Iobule of dominant hemisphere is the most closely correlated with neglect. The main theories related to the pathogenesis of HSN at present include "internal instruction", "directed bradykinesia", "sensory attention", etc. The main clinical manifestations are setover in drawing lines, picture drawing towards one side, imitation towards one side, picture description towards one side, etc., which can be evaluated by the line bisection test, target cancellation test, picture drawing test and pegboard test. The most important thing for the treatment is to make the patients continuously concentrate on the neglected side.CONCLUSION: HSN is an indicator for the bad outcome of cerebrovascular disease, the symptoms take longer time to rehabilitate with slow recovery, but quite a

  7. Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2014-10-01

    Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

  8. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...

  9. e-Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, C.; Merrilees, B; Jayawardhena, C; Wright, L T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to bring together apparently disparate and yet interconnected strands of research and present an integrated model of e-consumer behaviour. It has a secondary objective of stimulating more research in areas identified as still being underexplored. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on analysis and synthesis of econsumer literature. Findings – Despite a broad spectrum of disciplines that investigate e-cons...

  10. Modelling of soil behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feda, Jaroslav

    Lisse: Balkema, 2003 - (Natau, O.; Fecker, E.; Pimentel, E.), s. 457-460 ISBN 90-5809-603-3. [Geotechnical measurements and modelling. Karlsruhe (DE), 23.09.2003-25.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2111301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : standard and nonstandard behaviour * silica gel * lime and mixture Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  11. Suicidal ideation and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Korczak, Daphne J

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Canadian adolescents. The present practice point provides paediatricians and child health professionals with a framework for assessing the adolescent with suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours. The epidemiological context, general considerations and practical suggestions for how to approach the suicidal adolescent are reviewed. Paediatricians can and should screen youth for mental illness and significant psychosocial stressors. Early identification and ...

  12. Web seminar: Behaviour change

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, V

    2012-01-01

    The IDEAS project runs web seminars as part of its Technical Resource Centre. The IDEAS web seminar series aims to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. Seminar description: On 7 November 2012, join the IDEAS team for a varied presentation and discussion on behaviour change.This web seminar is part of a series IDEAS is running to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. There will be an opportunity for questions and comme...

  13. Internet user behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  14. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  15. Essays on Behavioural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Traditional economic theory assumes that individuals are self-interested. They only care about their own well-being and disregard the impact of their actions on the others. However, the assumption of selfish individuals is unable to explain a number of important phenomena and puzzles. Individuals frequently engage in actions that are costly to themselves with noapparent reward. Behavioural economics provides plausible explanations for these actions.Individuals can be “boundedly rational" (Sim...

  16. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2dry matter and 4.96-16.57, respectively. Constant k was between 0.85 and 0.93, and GAB equation was determined to fit very well for bulgur adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  17. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  18. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  19. ocean_city_md.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission...

  20. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...