WorldWideScience

Sample records for behaviour control aspects

  1. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  2. Temperature control of CMS Barrel ECAL (EB) : computational thermo-hydraulic model for dynamic behaviour, control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2010-01-01

    The current design foresees a central heat exchanger followed by a controlled post heater, for all ECAL. We discuss the scheme and try to assess its performance, from a Barrel viewpoint. This is based on computational work. The coolant transfer pipes play an essential role in building a dynamical model. After some studies on the behaviour of the cooling circuit itself, a strong yet simple controller is proposed. Then, the system with feedback control is scrutinized, with emphasis on disturbance rejection. The most relevant disturbances are cooling ripple, pipe heat attack, and electronics’ switching.

  3. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing eff

  4. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR. SOME BASIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav NEKORANEC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience has shown that it is necessary to focus more on organizational behaviour. This requires managers to get familiar with several social and psychological scientific disciplines which can help them answer the questions related to the impact of the organization and organizational philosophy on the behaviour of managers and employees. In addition, organizational behaviour includes knowing individual differences between people in the organization and their impact on fulfilling organization’s objectives. It also explains the relationships between people in connection to organizational culture, functioning of work teams, communication, etc. Analysis and interpretation of organizational behaviour should become part of managers’ training so that they are able to explain and predict behaviour of people in the organization they manage.

  5. SELECTED ASPECTS OF ETHNOCENTRIC BEHAVIOUR OF VEGETABLE CONSUMERS IN WARSAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Olewnicki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse certain aspects of ethnocentric behaviour of vegetable purchasers in Warsaw. The research, in the form of a survey, was carried out among the adult population in 2015. Among the studied factors were consumers’ attitudes in relation to domestic and imported vegetables, depending on selected demographic characteristics. The analysis of empirical material has indicated ethnocentrism among vegetable buyers. Domestic vegetable purchases are primarily determined by practical advantages of the products. The choice of domestic products for mainly rational reasons points towards intentional ethnocentrism.

  6. Religiosity Aspect in Consumer Behaviour: Determinants of Halal Meat Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusmaliani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that religion may influence consumer attitude and behavior in general, especially in food purchasing decisions and eating habits. There are limited studies that examined the role of religiosity in consumer behaviour; especially in relations to halal meat consumption. Due to gaps found in the literature, this study investigates the determinants of intention to eat halal meat. It also examines the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta and Melbourne. Respondents were personally and electronically contacted. In total, 160 questionnaires were completed for this initial study. The results indicate that behavioural control and availability of halal meat have significant impact on intention to eat halal meat. The results further suggest that in general there are no significant differences in the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta compared to those of in Melbourne, except for availability of halal meat. This study contributes to the marketing literature focuses on the impacts of religion on consumer behaviour which is still under researched.

  7. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  8. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  9. Computational aspects of linear control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Many devices (we say dynamical systems or simply systems) behave like black boxes: they receive an input, this input is transformed following some laws (usually a differential equation) and an output is observed. The problem is to regulate the input in order to control the output, that is for obtaining a desired output. Such a mechanism, where the input is modified according to the output measured, is called feedback. The study and design of such automatic processes is called control theory. As we will see, the term system embraces any device and control theory has a wide variety of applications in the real world. Control theory is an interdisci­ plinary domain at the junction of differential and difference equations, system theory and statistics. Moreover, the solution of a control problem involves many topics of numerical analysis and leads to many interesting computational problems: linear algebra (QR, SVD, projections, Schur complement, structured matrices, localization of eigenvalues, computation of the...

  10. Accounting control and organizational behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Otley, David

    1987-01-01

    This book goes beyond the material usually included in traditional management accounting texts and provides both managers and management accountants with a simple guide to the major issues involved in developing and using accounting systems for management control. Attention is focused particularly on budgetary control systems because these form the basis for management control in most organisation of any size.

  11. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamilya F. Ismailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of internal financial control, summarizes the definition formulated by scientists and experts, analyzed for differences between incompany and intrafarm control. The article discusses the collapse of Enron, notes the general provisions of various types of financial control.

  12. Aspects of control measures in occupational hygiene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumens, M.E.G.L.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on two aspects which are of major importance in the broad field of control measures in occupational hygiene: the selection of control measures in a structured way and the impact of factors modifying the effectiveness of these control measures.The main objectives of the thesis are

  13. Conditions for time-controllability of behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasane, A; Cotroneo, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a behavioural framework to study controllability of systems whose dynamics are described by systems of linear, constant coefficient partial differential equations. Questions about the notion of controllability are addressed with special importance given to the time-evolution. Alg

  14. Materials and NDE aspects in the RPV operating conditions behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupa, Nathalie [EDF, CEIDRE, 2 rue Ampere, F- 93206 Saint-Denis (France); Churier-Bossennec, Henriette [Electricite de France, SEPTEN, 12 - 14 av. Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bezdikian, Georges [EDF CAPE, 1 place Pleyel, 93282 St Denis Cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    The demonstration of the in-service resistance of the PWR vessels is based on the toughness evaluation of the materials constituting the vessels. The objective is indeed to compare the toughness to the solicitations applied on a crack, resulting from the different loading potentially experienced by the component. This article aims at presenting the in-service inspections - NDE aspects - as well as the toughness assessment method, closely linked with different materials aspects. The potential defects in the welded, cladded shells of the PWR vessels are only fabrication flaws. To date every core zone vessel has been entirely examined by a non destructive process. The implemented Ultrasonic Techniques are qualified according to the RSEM code since 1999. Thus, EDF has a reliable and exhaustive knowledge of the manufacturing defects to be found under the cladding of the PWR vessel core zones. The toughness of the materials is determined according to an indirect method. It is based on a codified lower bound curve associating the minimum K{sub IC} to a reference temperature, the RT{sub NDT}. RT{sub NDT} is characteristic for a material and integrates the evolutions due to neutronic bombardment through specific irradiation formulae. The Pressure Vessel Surveillance Program allows to verify that the formulae are conservative. The PVSP results and an analysis of the toughness assessment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  15. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D.; Jackson, G.; Walker, M.; Welander, A. [General Atomics P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A. [CREATE/University of Naples Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Vries, P. de; Kim, S. H.; Snipes, J.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, St. Paul Lez durance Cedex (France); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kallenbach, A.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lister, J.; Sauter, O. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moreau, D. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St. Paul-lez Durance (France); Schuster, E. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-15

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  16. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Godin Gaston; Amireault Steve; Vohl Marie-Claude; Pérusse Louis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC)- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, parti...

  17. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  18. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  19. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  20. Circulation control STOL aircraft design aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Since Davidson patented Circulation Control Airfoils in 1960, there have been only 2 aircraft designed and flown with circulation control (CC). Designing with CC is complex for the following reasons: the relation between lift increase and blowing momentum is nonlinear; for good cruise performance one must change the wing geometry in flight from a round to a sharp trailing edge. The bleed air from the propulsion engines or an auxiliary compressor, must be used efficiently. In designing with CC, the propulsion and control aspects are just as important as aerodynamics. These design aspects were examined and linearized equations are presented in order to facilitate a preliminary analysis of the performance potential of CC. The thrust and lift requirements for takeoff make the calculated runway length very sensitive to the bleed air ratio. Thrust vectoring improves performance and can offset nose down pitching moments. The choice of blowing jet to free stream velocity ratio determines the efficiency of applying bleed air power.

  1. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots : A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R. A.; Spruit, Berry M.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Riedstra, Bernd; van Hierden, Yvonne M.; Buitenhuis, Bart; Korte, S. Mechiel; Lumeij, Johannes T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  2. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeland, van Y.R.A.; Spruit, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Hierden, van Y.M.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  3. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Spruit, Berry M; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to d...

  4. Cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking in loose housing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this study of cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking, the emphasis was on implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) in cubicle houses in a way that suits cows and farmer. The starting points of the research were that the cows would visit the AMS voluntarily and that th

  5. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: a review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Spruijt, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Buitenhuis, B.; van Hierden, Y.M.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects Yvonne R.A. van Zeelanda, , , Berry M. Spruitb, T. Bas Rodenburgc, Bernd Riedstrad, Yvonne M. van Hierdene, Bart Buitenhuisf, S. Mechiel Korteg, h and Johannes T. Lumeija aDivision of Zoological Medicine, Depar

  6. Predicting behaviour from perceived behavioural control: tests of the accuracy assumption of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Armitage, Christopher J

    2003-09-01

    The theory of planned behaviour assumes that the accuracy of perceived behavioural control (PBC) determines the strength of the PBC-behaviour relationship. However, this assumption has never been formally tested. The present research developed and validated a proxy measure of actual control (PMAC) in order to test the assumption. In two studies, participants completed measures of intention and PBC, and subsequently completed measures of behaviour and the PMAC. Validity of the PMAC was established by findings showing; (a). that the PMAC moderated the intention-behaviour relation, and (b). that PMAC scores did not reflect attributions for participants' failure to enact their stated intentions. Accuracy was operationalized as the difference between PBC and PMAC scores. Consistent with theoretical expectations, several analyses indicated that greater accuracy of PBC was associated with improved prediction of behaviour by PBC.

  7. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  8. Power system damping - Structural aspects of controlling active power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, O.

    1997-04-01

    Environmental and economical aspects make it difficult to build new power lines and to reinforce existing ones. The continued growth in demand for electric power must therefore to a great extent be met by increased loading of available lines. A consequence is that power system damping is reduced, leading to a risk of poorly damped power oscillations between the generators. This thesis proposes the use of controlled active loads to increase damping of such electro-mechanical oscillations. The focus is on structural aspects of controller interaction and of sensor and actuator placement. On-off control based on machine frequency in a single machine infinite bus system is analysed using energy function analysis and phase plane plots. An on-off controller with estimated machine frequency as input has been implemented. At a field test it damped oscillations of a 0.9 MW hydro power generator by controlling a 20kW load. The linear analysis uses two power system models with three and twenty-three machines respectively. Each damper has active power as output and local bus frequency or machine frequency as input. The power system simulator EUROSTAG is used both for generation of the linearized models and for time simulations. Measures of active power mode controllability and phase angle mode observability are obtained from the eigenvectors of the differential-algebraic models. The geographical variation in the network of these quantities is illustrated using the resemblance to bending modes of flexible mechanical structures. Eigenvalue sensitivities are used to determine suitable damper locations. A spring-mass equivalent to an inter-area mode provides analytical expressions, that together with the concept of impedance matching explain the structural behaviour of the power systems. For large gains this is investigated using root locus plots. 64 refs, 99 figs, 20 tabs

  9. The impact of behavioural screening on intervention outcomes in a randomised, controlled multiple behaviour intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing research focus on multiple health behaviour change interventions, a methodological issue requiring further investigation is whether or not to employ pre-trial behavioural screening to exclude participants who are achieving a pre-specified level of one or more behaviours. Behavioural screening can be used to direct limited resources to participants most in need of a behaviour change intervention; but may reduce the representativeness of the sample and limit comparability with trials that do not employ pre-trial behavioural screening. Furthermore, the impact of this type of screening on intervention participation and intervention effects is unknown. Methods Data for this study come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a randomised, controlled telephone counselling lifestyle intervention trial which did not employ behavioural screening prior to randomisation. Screening for physical activity, diet or the combination was simulated using baseline trial data. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention participation (in terms of participant characteristics, intervention dose received and retention, characteristics of participants included an excluded under the various screening scenarios were compared. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention effects, results from the main trial analysis were compared with results obtained from the same analyses performed separately for each of the screened groups. Results Simulated pre-trial behavioural screening impacted minimally on intervention dose received and trial retention rate. Beyond the anticipated effect of reducing baseline levels of the behaviours being screened for, behavioural screening affected baseline levels of behaviours not targeted by screening, and participants' demographic and health-related characteristics. Behavioural screening impacted on intervention effects in ways that were anticipated and positive, but also

  10. Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R.; Roberts, A.C.; Robbins, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) has long been implicated in a wide variety of emotional, cognitive and behavioural control processes. However, its precise contribution is still not well understood. Depletion of 5-HT enhances behavioural and brain responsiveness to punishment or other aversive

  11. Some Aspects Concerning the Behaviour of Friction Materials at Low and Very Low Sliding Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Stoica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribological aspects concerning the behaviour of friction materials in the range of low and very low sliding speeds (0.2 – 200 mm/min are essentially different of those in the high sliding speeds range. This paper aims to study the stick-slip phenomenon which occurs in the range of low and very low speeds. Typically, for the stick-slip phenomenon to occur, the static friction coefficient between the two contact surfaces of the friction materials must be larger than the kinetic friction coefficient. For disc brakes, the stick-slip phenomenon is mentioned in many specialized scientific papers. The phenomenon is manifested through self-induced vibrations. The experimental results were obtained on a dedicated testing machine where the parasite stick-slip motion is reduced through the use of bearings.

  12. The behavioural aspect of green technology investments: a general positive model in the context of heterogeneous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Knobloch, F.; Mercure, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Elsevier. Studies report that firms do not invest in cost-effective green technologies. While economic barriers can explain parts of the gap, behavioural aspects cause further under-valuation. This could be partly due to systematic deviations of decision-making agents’ perceptions from normative benchmarks, and partly due to their diversity. This paper combines available behavioural k...

  13. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  14. Dynamic aspects of segmented mirror position control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, Hans J.

    2006-02-01

    Extreme large optical telescopes will operate in an open environment and may be excited by wind effects. The position control of the mirror segments may need fast control, and the position actuators and the related control loops may be separated in a conventional slow, iso-static and a fast reaction-mass type system. There exists some experience with wind excitations of airborne telescopes, e.g. the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA. The pointing control system of that telescope is equipped with several dedicated design features, as a vibration isolations system, a flexible body control system and an active mass damper system to handle excitations in different frequency ranges. These features may be transferred to the position control systems of segmented mirrors. The paper will give some system engi-neers recommendations for designing those systems.

  15. [Ethical aspects of tuberculosis control under fascism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S

    1983-05-01

    At the instance of the development of the tuberculosis control in the period from 1933 to 1945 is tried to elaborate the ethical principles which are the basis of the medical care of the German population in fascist Germany. The utilitaristic and biologistic opinions of the value dominating at this time proved as altogether characterized by the social aims of fascism and at the same time serve for their realization in the field of health politics. Also in the tuberculosis control--like in other social fields--transitory progress in organisation and prophylaxis and finally to be paid with deranging setbacks which reveal the inhumanity of fascism also in this field.

  16. IT Security Aspects of Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holecko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a set of general network system architectures for industrial process control systems as well as vulnerabilities related to these systems and the IT threats these systems are exposed to from the point of view of Common Criteria methodology and ITU-T recommendation X.805.

  17. Aspects of modelling and control of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiachang

    1995-12-31

    The modelling and control of bioprocesses are the main subjects in this thesis. Different modelling approaches are proposed for different purposes in various bioprocesses. A conventional global model was constructed for a very complex mammalian cell culture process. A new concept of functional state and a multiple model (local models) approach were used for modelling the fed-batch baker`s yeast process for monitoring and control purposes. Finally, a combination of conventional electrical and biological models was used to simulate and to control a microbial fuel cell process. In the thesis, a yeast growth process was taken as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of the functional state concept and local models. The functional states were first defined according to the yeast metabolism. The process was then described by a set of simple local models. In different functional states, different local models were used. On the other hand, the on-line estimation of functional state and biomass of the process was discussed for process control purpose. As a consequence, both the functional state concept and the multiple model approach were applied for fuzzy logic control of yeast growth process. A fuzzy factor was calculated on the basis of a knowledge-based expert system and fuzzy logic rules. The factor was used to correct an ideal substrate feed rate. In the last part of the thesis, microbial fuel cell processes were studied. A microbial fuel cell is a device for direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by using micro-organisms as catalysts. A combined model including conventional electrical and biological models was constructed for the process based on the biological and electrochemical phenomena

  18. The behavioural aspect of green technology investments: A general positive model in the context of heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch, F.; Mercure, J.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that firms do not invest in cost-effective green technologies. While economic barriers can explain parts of the gap, behavioural aspects cause further under-valuation. This could be partly due to systematic deviations of decision-making agents’ perceptions from normative benchmarks, a

  19. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags) and an enha...

  20. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  1. Anticipating behaviour in supervisory vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van

    1999-01-01

    Vehicle control may be considered as a hierarchically structured set of functions. Plan conception and plan selection activities are performed in the navigation function, verification and adjustment of the short-term voyage progress are performed in the guidance function, and typical closed-loop con

  2. Phase Behaviour and Structural Aspects of Ternary Clathrate Hydrate Systems. The Role of Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijer-Van den Heuvel, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study an experimental and modelling approach is applied to obtain fundamental insight into the phase behaviour of ternary systems, in which clathrate hydrates are formed. Proper interpretation of the phase behaviour requires knowledge on the clathrate hydrate structure in these systems, whic

  3. Expanding the concept of parental control: a role for overt and covert control in children's snacking behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Reynolds, Rebecca; Smith, Andrea

    2006-07-01

    The existing literature on parental control and children's diets is confusing. The present paper reports two studies to explore an expanded conceptualisation of parental control with a focus on overt control which 'can be detected by the child' and covert control which 'cannot be detected by the child'. In study 1, 297 parents of children aged between 4 and 11 completed a measure of overt control and covert control alongside ratings of their child's snacking behaviour as a means to assess who uses either overt or covert control and how these aspects of parental control relate to a child's snacking behaviour. The results showed that lighter parents and those with children perceived as heavier were more likely to use covert control and those from a higher social class were more likely to use overt control. Further, whilst greater covert control predicted a decreased intake of unhealthy snacks, greater overt control predicted an increased intake of healthy snacks. In study 2, 61 parents completed the same measure of overt and covert control alongside the three control subscales of the Child Feeding Questionnaire [Birch, L.L., Fisher, J.O., Grimm-Thomas, Markey, C.N., Sawyer, R. (2001). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: A measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness. Appetite, 36, 201-210] to assess degrees of overlap between these measures. The results showed that although these five measures of control were all positively correlated, the correlations between the new and existing measures indicated a maximum of 21% shared variance suggesting that covert and overt control are conceptually and statistically separate from existing measures of control. To conclude, overt and covert control may be a useful expansion of existing ways to measure and conceptualise parental control. Further, these constructs may differentially relate to snacking behaviour which may help to explain some of the

  4. Selected Aspects Of Modelling Of Non-Linear Behaviour Of Concrete During Tensile Test Using Multiplas Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokeš Filip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to describe some of the aspects manifesting in the use of the elastoplastic material model library multiPlas, which was developed to support non-linear computations in the ANSYS system. The text focuses on the analysis of numerical simulations of a virtual tension test in several case studies, thereby the text endeavours to describe the problems connected with modelling non-linear behaviour of concrete in a tensile area.

  5. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  6. Geometric, control and numeric aspects of nonholonomic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés Monforte, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Nonholonomic systems are a widespread topic in several scientific and commercial domains, including robotics, locomotion and space exploration. This work sheds new light on this interdisciplinary character through the investigation of a variety of aspects coming from several disciplines. The main aim is to illustrate the idea that a better understanding of the geometric structures of mechanical systems unveils new and unknown aspects to them, and helps both analysis and design to solve standing problems and identify new challenges. In this way, separate areas of research such as Classical Mechanics, Differential Geometry, Numerical Analysis or Control Theory are brought together in this study of nonholonomic systems.

  7. Limiting Behaviour in Parameter Optimal Iterative Learning Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David H. Owens; Maria Tomas-Rodriguez; Jari J. Hat(o)nen

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the concept of a Limit Set in Parameter Optimal Iterative Learning Control (ILC). We investigate the existence of stable and unstable parts of Limit Set and demonstrates that they will often exist in practice.This is illustrated via a 2-dimensional example where the convergence of the learning algorithm is analyzed from the error's dynamic behaviour. These ideas are extended to the N-dimensional cases by analogy and example.

  8. The Social and Behavioural Aspects of Climate Change. Linking Vulnerability, Adaptation and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, P.; Chang, Chiung Ting (eds.) [International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development ICIS, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Over the past few years, and certainly since the publication of the Stern Report , there has been increasing recognition that climate change is not only an environmental crisis, but one with important social and economic dimensions. There is now a growing need for multi-disciplinary research and for the science of climate change to be usefully translated for policy-makers. Until very recently, scientific and policy emphasis on climate change has focused almost exclusively on mitigation efforts: mechanisms and regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The success of such efforts to date is debatable. In fact, the impact of ever more stringent emission control programmes could potentially have enormous social consequences. Little effort has been expended on the exploration of a systematic evaluation of climate stabilisation benefits or the costs of adapting to a changed climate, let alone attempting to integrate different approaches. There is an increasing recognition that the key actors in the climate crisis also need to be preparing for change that is unavoidable. This has resulted in a greater consideration of vulnerability and adaptation. The book, based on the research programme 'Vulnerability, Adaptation and Mitigation' (VAM) which ran from 2004 to 2010, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), presents a cluster of case studies of industries, communities and institutions which each show how vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation analyses can be integrated using social behavioural sciences. Each chapter makes specific recommendations for the studied industry sector, community or institution, analyses the latest research developments of the field and identifies priorities for future research. The book argues that the inherent complexity of climate change will ultimately require a much more integrated response both scientifically - to better understand multiple causes and impacts - as well as at the scientific

  9. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  10. Structural Aspects of Flexible Aircraft Control (les Aspects structuraux du controle actif et flexible des aeronefs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    bodies of longitudinal accelerations must be included in the water and many other problems. In our application, if flexibility equations. the radial...energy due to gravity will come from our MW [0+1 - f q 1+V -wp PQ -(P’ + R) gravitational model. In the case of a "flat earth ": [V -S 0 R VP -UQ] 1 QR...electronic flight control system apparition [GAF (M, m/V)] ,z [gaf (M, p)] p = j.m The first historical model of the flexible aircraft consists Where in

  11. Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chiam, Sher-Yi; Zhang, Weili; Bettiol, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    We study ways to enhance the sensitivity and dynamic tuning range of the fundamental inductor-capacitor (LC) resonance in split ring resonators (SRRs) by controlling the aspect ratio of the SRRs and their substrate thickness. We conclude that both factors can significantly affect the LC resonance. We show that metafilms consisting of low height SRRs on a thin substrate are most sensitive to changes in their dielectric environment and thus show excellent potential for sensing applications.

  12. Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N

    2011-02-06

    Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles.

  13. Relationships between perceived teachers' controlling behaviour, psychological need thwarting, anger and bullying behaviour in high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Koka, Andre; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-07-01

    We tested a model of the associations between students' perceptions of their physical education teacher's controlling behaviour, perceptions of basic psychological need thwarting, anger and bullying behaviour. School students (N = 602; M age = 12.88, SD = 1.37) from 10 schools completed measures of perceived teachers' controlling behaviour and perceived thwarting of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in physical education context and self-reported bullying and anger. A well-fitting structural equation model demonstrated that students' perceptions of the negative conditional regard and intimidation exhibited by the teacher had significant indirect effect on students' feelings of anger and bullying behaviour through the perceived psychological need thwarting in physical education. Findings suggest that physical education teachers who avoid the use of negative conditional regard and intimidation in their classes have students who perceive less need thwarting and report less bullying behaviour.

  14. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Jo Sawka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years, achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.. For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96. Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49. Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design.

  15. Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, J

    1991-12-01

    A 10-month prospective study was carried out which examined changes in behaviour and health status in 71 adult subjects following the acquisition of a new pet (either dogs or cats). A group of 26 subjects without pets served as a comparison over the same period. Both pet-owning groups reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition, and this effect was sustained in dog owners through to 10 months. The pet-acquiring groups also showed improvements in their scores on the 30-item General Health Questionnaire over the first 6 months and, in dog owners, this improvement was maintained until 10 months. In addition, dog owners took considerably more physical exercise while walking their dogs than the other two groups, and this effect continued throughout the period of study. The group without pets exhibited no statistically significant changes in health or behaviour, apart from a small increase in recreational walking. The results provide evidence that pet acquisition may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that in some cases these effects are relatively long term.

  16. Motivational control of sign-tracking behaviour: A theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Learning and motivation are two psychological processes allowing animals to form and express Pavlovian associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). However, most models have attempted to capture the mechanisms of learning while neglecting the role that motivation (or incentive salience) may actively play in the expression of behaviour. There is now a body of neurobehavioural evidence showing that incentive salience represents a major determinant of Pavlovian performance. This article presents a motivational model of sign-tracking behaviour whose aim is to explain a wide range of behavioural effects, including those related to partial reinforcement, physiological changes, competition between CSs, and individual differences in responding to a CS. In this model, associative learning is assumed to determine the ability to produce a Pavlovian conditioned response rather than to control the strength and the quality of that response. The model is in keeping with the incentive salience hypothesis and will therefore be discussed in the context of dopamine's role in the brain.

  17. AN INVESTIGATION ON SWITCHING BEHAVIOURS OF VECTOR CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Korkmaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Field oriented control and direct torque control are the most popular methods in high performance industrial control applications for induction motors. Naturally, the strengths and weaknesses of each control method are available. Therefore, the selection of optimum control method is vitally important for many industrial applications. So, the advantages and the disadvantages of both control methods have to be well defined. In this paper, a new and different perspective has been presented regarding the comparison of the inverter switching behaviours on the FOC and the DTC drivers. For this purpose, the experimental studies have been carried out to compare the inverter switching frequencies and torque responses of induction motors in the FOC and the DTC systems. The dSPACE 1103 controller board has been programmed with Matlab/Simulink software. As expected, the experimental studies have showed that the FOC controlled motors have had a lessened torque ripple. On the other hand, the FOC controlled motor switching frequency has about 75% more than the DTC controlled.

  18. Behavioural aspects of impulsivity in alcoholics with and without a cluster-B personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dom; B. de Wilde; W. Hulstijn; W. van den Brink; B. Sabbe

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Studies have shown that alcoholics with a cluster-B personality disorder (cluster-B PD) are characterized by high levels of impulsivity. However, impulsivity has mainly been studied as a broad concept without its different aspects being considered. The present study compared abstinent alcoholi

  19. Optimal control of tokamak and stellarator plasma behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastovic, Danilo [Control Systems Group, Nehajska 62, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: drastovi@tesla.vtszg.hr

    2007-04-15

    The control of plasma transport, laminar and turbulent, is investigated, using the methods of scaling, optimal control and adaptive Monte Carlo simulations. For this purpose, the asymptotic behaviour of kinetic equation is considered in order to obtain finite-dimensional invariant manifolds, and in this way the finite-dimensional theory of control can be applied. We imagine the labyrinth of open doors and after applying self-similarity, the motion moved through all the desired doors in repeatable ways as Brownian motions. We take local actions for each piece of contractive ergodic motion, and, after self-organization in adaptive invariant measures, the optimum movement of particles is obtained according to the principle of maximum entropy. This is true for deterministic and stochastic cases that serve as models for plasma dynamics.

  20. Aspects regarding wearing behaviour in case of aluminium composite materials reinforced with carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliman, R.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a study regarding wear comportment of sintered composite materials obtained by mixture of aluminium with short carbon fibers. The necessity to satisfying more and more the specific functions during design of high performance structures leads to perform multi-materials such as reinforced composite parts. The wear tests were made on three different orientations of fibers on a standard machine of tribology, pin disk type. Counter-disk was made of cast iron with a superficial hardness of 92 HB. The wear rate and friction coefficient decreased exponentially with time of friction and reached a stationary value. This behaviour was attributed to the development of a lubricating film on the friction surface. To conduct this work was performed measurements on samples from the Al matrix composites and carbon fiber 43%, wear mechanism was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. In addition to fiber orientation, the tribological behaviour of metal matrix composites reinforced with fiber is influenced by the interfacial reaction of fiber-matrix. The characteristics and the dimensions of the interface depend on the cycle of temperature and time at which the material has been subjected during the manufacturing process and thereafter.

  1. Representation of people with intellectual disabilities in randomised controlled trials on antipsychotic treatment for behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheifes, A.; Stolker, J.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Heerdink, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioural problems are common in people with intellectual disability (ID) and are often treated with antipsychotics. Aim To establish the frequency and characteristics of people with ID included in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on antipsychotic treatment for behavioural problems

  2. An Investigation For Control Aspect Towards Modeled Dexterous Hand System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Roy ,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The research domain of prosthetic technology has always remained a dialectic zone of creativity, yoking together technology and biomedical necessity. Any part of the human body replication procedure commences the prosthetic control science. Dexterity, adroitness in using the hands or body, is the prime or essential aspect in modeling dexterous hand. Simulation procedure implies to build up stability of the reference transfer function of Dexterous Hand. The present work deals with the discussion of stability criteria and simulation in discrete domain of Dexterous Hand.

  3. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  4. Reflection of Bratislava Retail Network in Selected Aspects of Consumer Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Kita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the retail network of the capital city of Slovakia Bratislava affecting buying behavior and lifestyle of its consumers. From the marketing point of view, it characterizes the current retail network in Bratislava and presents the main trends in the development of retail stores in Bratislava. It shows, on the one hand, how the importance of consumer behaviour rise in the decline economic prosperity during last years, while on the other hand, how the concentration in retail declines the chances for success of small independant food retail stores during last recent years. The authors used methodes, e. g. multidimentional scaling, GIS, for testing assesses the significance of these changes on the sample involving 11.389 repondents interviewed. The paper presents the results of research project VEGA No. 1/0039/11 Geographical Information System as a Source of Strategic Innovation of Enterprise from the Point of View of Strengthening its Competitiveness.

  5. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation.

  6. Social and epidemiological aspects of guinea worm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, M; Coulibaly, D; Doumbo, O; Kodio, B; Soula, G; Traore, S

    1993-02-01

    Dracunculiasis prevention should be simple: in a population at risk, everyone may be protected by the filtration of drinking water. The research described in this paper allowed the authors to follow the acceptance of new information by villagers in nine localities in Mali. Two strategies were studied: safe water supply (bore-hole or cement lined wells) plus health education on the one hand, and health education alone (based on filtration) on the other. Safe water supply is undoubtedly an effective strategy whereas the success of the health education intervention is uncertain. This experience showed that health education as the only means of control failed due to a lack of social cohesion or of coordinated group-action. Also, when dracunculiasis control is not a population's priority goal, the constraints on systematic filtration are too great and a tendency to discontinue the filtration process occurs. On the other hand, when dracunculiasis is considered to be a serious problem by the population, new information about systematic filtration is better assimilated and leads to behavioural changes. In order that the goal of eradicating dracunculiasis by 1995 should not be an utopic dream, it is necessary to prioritize the allocation of clean rural water supply projects only to those endemic villages where the conditions that allow for health education to be successful are met.

  7. Transient receptor potential ion channels control thermoregulatory behaviour in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Murray, Shauna A

    2007-03-14

    Biological functions are governed by thermodynamics, and animals regulate their body temperature to optimise cellular performance and to avoid harmful extremes. The capacity to sense environmental and internal temperatures is a prerequisite for the evolution of thermoregulation. However, the mechanisms that enable ectothermic vertebrates to sense heat remain unknown. The recently discovered thermal characteristics of transient receptor potential ion channels (TRP) render these proteins suitable to act as temperature sensors. Here we test the hypothesis that TRPs are present in reptiles and function to control thermoregulatory behaviour. We show that the hot-sensing TRPV1 is expressed in a crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), an agamid (Amphibolurus muricatus) and a scincid (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii) lizard, as well as in the quail and zebrafinch (Coturnix chinensis and Poephila guttata). The TRPV1 genes from all reptiles form a unique clade that is delineated from the mammalian and the ancestral Xenopus sequences by an insertion of two amino acids. TRPV1 and the cool-sensing TRPM8 are expressed in liver, muscle (transversospinalis complex), and heart tissues of the crocodile, and have the potential to act as internal thermometer and as external temperatures sensors. Inhibition of TRPV1 and TRPM8 in C. porosus abolishes the typically reptilian shuttling behaviour between cooling and heating environments, and leads to significantly altered body temperature patterns. Our results provide the proximate mechanism of thermal selection in terrestrial ectotherms, which heralds a fundamental change in interpretation, because TRPs provide the mechanism for a tissue-specific input into the animals' thermoregulatory response.

  8. Fundamental aspects of the Ti-H system: theoretical and experimental behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, R.J. [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria; Corso, H.L.; Gervasoni, J.L. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Rio Negro (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro

    2002-01-01

    We study the interaction of hydrogen with titanium in order to characterize some important microscopic and macroscopic properties of this system. It is technologically important because, among other applications, the Ti-H system is used as structural material in many applications due to the combination of two important mechanical properties, which are resistance to the corrosion and hardness. Using a calculus program based on the jellium model for the material, we obtain values of properties that are important in the determination of the macroscopic behaviour of the Ti-H system, such as the variation of the electronic density and of the induced density of states due to the presence of the hydrogen in the matrix of Ti. From an experimental point of view, we hydride a titanium matrix in order to determine the effects of the process on the properties of the material structure. The general features of these theoretical and experimental methods are discussed and the corresponding results are compared with experimental data. (author)

  9. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Stefanie M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  10. Bifurcation behaviours of peak current controlled PFC boost converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Hai-Peng; Liu Ding

    2005-01-01

    Bifurcation behaviours of the peak current controlled power-factor-correction (PFC) boost converter, including fast-scale instability and low-frequency bifurcation, are investigated in this paper. Conventionally, the PFC converter is analysed in continuous conduction mode (CCM). This prevents us from recognizing the overall dynamics of the converter. It has been pointed out that the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) can occur in the PFC boost converter, especially in the light load condition. Therefore, the DCM model is employed to analyse the PFC converter to cover the possible DCM operation. By this way, the low-frequency bifurcation diagram is derived, which makes the route from period-double bifurcation to chaos clear. The bifurcation diagrams versus the load resistance and the output capacitance also indicate the stable operation boundary of the converter, which is useful for converter design.

  11. Neural aspects of second language representation and language control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutalebi, Jubin

    2008-07-01

    A basic issue in the neurosciences of language is whether an L2 can be processed through the same neural mechanism underlying L1 acquisition and processing. In the present paper I review data from functional neuroimaging studies focusing on grammatical and lexico-semantic processing in bilinguals. The available evidence indicates that the L2 seems to be acquired through the same neural structures responsible for L1 acquisition. This fact is also observed for grammar acquisition in late L2 learners contrary to what one may expect from critical period accounts. However, neural differences for an L2 may be observed, in terms of more extended activity of the neural system mediating L1 processing. These differences may disappear once a more 'native-like' proficiency is established, reflecting a change in language processing mechanisms: from controlled processing for a weak L2 system (i.e., a less proficient L2) to more automatic processing. The neuroimaging data reviewed in this paper also support the notion that language control is a crucial aspect specific to the bilingual language system. The activity of brain areas related to cognitive control during the processing of a 'weak' L2 may reflect competition and conflict between languages which may be resolved with the intervention of these areas.

  12. Predicting automaticity in exercise behaviour: the role of perceived behavioural control, affect, intention, action planning, and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Gardner, B.; van Osch, L.; Sniehotta, F.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Habit formation has been proposed as a way to maintain behaviour over time. Purpose Recent evidence suggests that constructs additional to repeated performance may predict physical automaticity, but no research has yet explored possible direct impacts of intention, planning, affect, and p

  13. Management Control Systems, Evaluative Style, and Behaviour : Exploring the Concept and Behavioural Consequences of Evaluative Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Noeverman (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganisations develop and implement performance measurement and performance evaluation systems to motivate employees to take actions that -in the end- improve organisational (financial) performance. But do these systems really influence employee behaviour as intended? This thesis shows

  14. Transient receptor potential ion channels control thermoregulatory behaviour in reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seebacher

    Full Text Available Biological functions are governed by thermodynamics, and animals regulate their body temperature to optimise cellular performance and to avoid harmful extremes. The capacity to sense environmental and internal temperatures is a prerequisite for the evolution of thermoregulation. However, the mechanisms that enable ectothermic vertebrates to sense heat remain unknown. The recently discovered thermal characteristics of transient receptor potential ion channels (TRP render these proteins suitable to act as temperature sensors. Here we test the hypothesis that TRPs are present in reptiles and function to control thermoregulatory behaviour. We show that the hot-sensing TRPV1 is expressed in a crocodile (Crocodylus porosus, an agamid (Amphibolurus muricatus and a scincid (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii lizard, as well as in the quail and zebrafinch (Coturnix chinensis and Poephila guttata. The TRPV1 genes from all reptiles form a unique clade that is delineated from the mammalian and the ancestral Xenopus sequences by an insertion of two amino acids. TRPV1 and the cool-sensing TRPM8 are expressed in liver, muscle (transversospinalis complex, and heart tissues of the crocodile, and have the potential to act as internal thermometer and as external temperatures sensors. Inhibition of TRPV1 and TRPM8 in C. porosus abolishes the typically reptilian shuttling behaviour between cooling and heating environments, and leads to significantly altered body temperature patterns. Our results provide the proximate mechanism of thermal selection in terrestrial ectotherms, which heralds a fundamental change in interpretation, because TRPs provide the mechanism for a tissue-specific input into the animals' thermoregulatory response.

  15. Spasmodic Torticollis—A Multicentre Study on Behavioural Aspects IV: Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Scheidt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The GSI (General Symptom Index of the Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL 90 R (as a global indicator of the severity of psychiatric symptoms of 27% of the spasmodic torticollis (ST sample fell outside the 95% range of the normal control group (two standard deviations. Patients with a higher GSI were younger, more functionally disabled and subject to higher psychosocial stress due to the illness. The highest scores were reached on the subscales of somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and depression. On the depression scale, 23% of the patients' scores were abnormal. This scale correlated significantly with the neurological signs, particularly the TSUI-index and laterocollis. A statistically significant correlation also existed between psychiatric morbidity and a family history of mental disorder. More than 50% of the patients reported that stressful life events had triggered their illness. In order of frequency, a death came first, followed by marital strife, changes in employment and family arguments. The data suggest that psychopathology in ST should generally be considered as a result of a variety of interacting factors, biological, psychological and social.

  16. Modelling of agricultural combination driver behaviour from the aspect of safety of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Tadeusz; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Statistics show that the travel of agricultural machinery to a work area and their movement during labour is the source of many serious accidents. The most dangerous in consequences prove to be those that occur during transport and associated with maneuvering tractors and machinery (about 30% of all fatal accidents). It can be assumed that at least some of these accidents were caused indirectly by the specific design features of agricultural machines which adversely affect the driveability. The single- and multi-loop structures of the driver-vehicle system models are formulated to study the contributions of various preview and prediction strategies to the path tracking and dynamic performance of the articulated vehicle. In the presented study the compensatory model of driver utilizes the lateral acceleration of the tractor, roll angle of trailer sprung mass and the articulation rate as the internal motion feedback variables. The control model of steering of an agricultural set has been implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The model has been constructed with the use of stochastic methods and operational transmittances describing the various components of the system. The model operational transmittances has been estimated using Box-Jenkins and continuous-time process models from input-output data. The model has been tested using experimental data from road investigation of the agricultural set.

  17. Alter ego, state of the art on user profiling: an overview of the most relevant organisational and behavioural aspects regarding User Profiling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.A.G.M.; Ebbers, W.E.; Fennis, B.M.; Geest, van der T.M.; Loorbach, N.R.; Pieterson, W.J.; Steehouder, M.F.; Taal, E.; Vries, de P.W.

    2005-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the most relevant organisational and behavioural aspects regarding user profiling. It discusses not only the most important aims of user profiling from both an organisation’s as well as a user’s perspective, it will also discuss organisational motives and barriers fo

  18. The question of representation in the psychoanalytical and cognitive-behavioural approaches. Some theoretical aspects and therapy considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eDe Timary

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the cognitive-behavioural and psychoanalytical approaches with respect to the way in which each of them conceives of representation and deals with the issues that this involves. In both of them conscious and latent (unconscious representations play a crucial role. Highlighting similarities and differences facilitate communication on a theoretical level but also prove helpful to the clinical practitioners involved. We try to put forward an attempt at comparison, with the idea of going beyond the -- obviously important -- differences in vocabulary. In this attempt at comparison, we have successively compared the definitions of representation and the respective therapeutic interventions proposed by each approach. There are no doubt many overlapping elements in the way in which the workings of the mind are conceived of in these approaches, particularly as regards their links with affects. We next developed the implications of representation deficits in pathology, suggesting the important role played by elements that are avoided, suppressed from memory or repressed, and with respect to the need to treat such material in a specific manner so as to ensure some progress as to the symptoms presented. We finally summarized common and distinct aspects of the two perspectives. The very fact that two approaches that follow very distinct methodologies reach the same conclusion concerning the importance of distortions and failures of representation in generating mental distress strengthens, in our view, the epistemological reliability of the role of representation in psychopathology.

  19. Explaining the intention-behaviour gap in gluten-free diet adherence: The moderating roles of habit and perceived behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Emily J; Sainsbury, Kirby; Smith, Lauren; Mullan, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet is the only treatment for coeliac disease. Nonetheless, many individuals with the disease struggle to achieve and maintain strict adherence. While the theory of planned behaviour is useful for predicting gluten-free diet adherence, an intention-behaviour gap remains. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of habit and perceived behavioural control in moderating the intention-behaviour relationship in gluten-free diet adherence. A significant three-way interaction was found such that the association between intention and adherence was dependent on both perceived behavioural control and habit. Implications for both theory and intervention design are discussed.

  20. Occupant Behaviour with regard to Control of the Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther

    effect on the behaviour patterns in the investigated dwellings. This effect was significant at similar environmental conditions, suggesting that environmental variables alone can not explain all the variance in the observed behaviour. The results showed that the behaviour of the occupants was driven......A large proportion of the world’s energy consumption is spent in an effort to maintain a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. As a consequence reductions in the energy consumed to climatise buildings are instrumental to the efforts of reducing energy related CO2 emissions and alleviating...... the European energy import dependencies. Whole building simulations of indoor environment and energy consumption are becoming more and more used in the design phase of buildings. Previously the simulation of physical factors such as transmission and ventilation heat losses has received a lot of attention...

  1. Autonomy and control: augmenting the validity of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Tracey A; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Pretty, Grace M

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) along with additional constructs in predicting exercise, and explored the motivational antecedents of exercise intentions. Participants included 162 Canadian University College students (61% females). Measures of TPB, autonomous and controlling intention, perceived autonomy support and core autonomous intention were completed during phase 1 of data collection. Two and three weeks later behaviour was assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: (a) attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted TPB intention and core autonomous intention; (b) subjective norm predicted controlling intention; and (c) perceived autonomy support predicted autonomous and core autonomous intention. TPB intention significantly predicted behaviour. TPB is a fairly useful model for predicting behaviour and important information can be gained when other measures of intention are explored.

  2. Determination of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviour in rodents: methodological aspects and role of nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In various areas of the bio-medical, pharmacological and psychological research a multitude of behavioural tests have been used to investigate the effects of environmental, genetic and epi-genetic factors as well as pharmacological substances or diseased states on behaviour and thus on the physiological and psycho-social status of experimental subjects. This article is reviewing the most frequently used behavioural tests in animal research (open field, elevated plus maze, zero maze, and black...

  3. Modelling and controlling of behaviour for autonomous mobile robots

    CERN Document Server

    Skubch, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    As research progresses, it enables multi-robot systems to be used in more and more complex and dynamic scenarios. Hence, the question arises how different modelling and reasoning paradigms can be utilised to describe the intended behaviour of a team and execute it in a robust and adaptive manner. Hendrik Skubch presents a solution, ALICA (A Language for Interactive Cooperative Agents) which combines modelling techniques drawn from different paradigms in an integrative fashion. Hierarchies of finite state machines are used to structure the behaviour of the team such that temporal and causal re

  4. Exercise habit strength, planning and the theory of planned behaviour: an action control approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Action control refers to the successful translation of intention into behaviour. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of extending intention-exercise profiles with past exercise behaviour and exercise habit strength and the potential discriminative effect of a

  5. CYCLIC PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF UFG COPPER UNDER CONTROLLED STRESS AND STRAIN LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Navrátilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stress- and strain-controlled loading on microstructure and cyclic plastic behaviour of ultrafine-grained copper prepared by equal channel angular pressing was examined. The stability of microstructure is a characteristic feature for stress-controlled test whereas grain coarsening and development of bimodal structure was observed after plastic strain-controlled tests. An attempt to explain the observed behaviour was made.

  6. Pre-school Teachers’ Perceived Control and Behaviour Problems in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarberg, Annie

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, pre-school teachers’ perceived control, is examined in relation to problem behaviours of children and the actions of teachers in the classroom. In addition, other factors that are thought to relate to teachers’ perceived control were studied. The results of Study I indicate that pre-school teachers’ high perceived control was related to high intentions to act in the event of child behaviour problems. Teachers’ high satisfaction with their work was also related to high perceive...

  7. Longitudinal control behaviour: Analysis and modelling based on experimental surveys in Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariota, Luigi; Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola; Galante, Francesco; Montella, Alfonso; Brackstone, Mark

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses driving behaviour in car-following conditions, based on extensive individual vehicle data collected during experimental field surveys carried out in Italy and the UK. The aim is to contribute to identify simple evidence to be exploited in the ongoing process of driving assistance and automation which, in turn, would reduce rear-end crashes. In particular, identification of differences and similarities in observed car-following behaviours for different samples of drivers could justify common tuning, at a European or worldwide level, of a technological solution aimed at active safety, or, in the event of differences, could suggest the most critical aspects to be taken into account for localisation or customisation of driving assistance solutions. Without intending to be exhaustive, this paper moves one step in this direction. Indeed, driving behaviour and human errors are considered to be among the main crash contributory factors, and a promising approach for safety improvement is the progressive introduction of increasing levels of driving automation in next-generation vehicles, according to the active/preventive safety approach. However, the more advanced the system, the more complex will be the integration in the vehicle, and the interaction with the driver may sometimes become unproductive, or risky, should the driver be removed from the driving control loop. Thus, implementation of these systems will require the interaction of human driving logics with automation logics and then an enhanced ability in modelling drivers' behaviour. This will allow both higher active-safety levels and higher user acceptance to be achieved, thus ensuring that the driver is always in the control loop, even if his/her role is limited to supervising the automatic logic. Currently, the driving mode most targeted by driving assistance systems is longitudinal driving. This is required in various driving conditions, among which car-following assumes key importance

  8. Intelligent control aspects of fuzzy logic and neural nets

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, C J; Brown, M

    1993-01-01

    With increasing demands for high precision autonomous control over wide operating envelopes, conventional control engineering approaches are unable to adequately deal with system complexity, nonlinearities, spatial and temporal parameter variations, and with uncertainty. Intelligent Control or self-organising/learning control is a new emerging discipline that is designed to deal with problems. Rather than being model based, it is experiential based. Intelligent Control is the amalgam of the disciplines of Artificial Intelligence, Systems Theory and Operations Research. It uses most recent expe

  9. Locus of control, hardiness, and emotional intelligence as predictors of waste prevention behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is an economic and environmental problem for nations and governments, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge on the etiology of waste prevention behaviours. This study aimed to investigate about the relationships between the locus of control, hardiness, emotional intelligence, and waste prevention behaviours. Four hundred and forty participants (226 females and 214 males from Universiti Putra Malaysia completed a survey questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated that individuals who were high in emotional intelligence and hardiness showed better waste prevention behaviours as well as those individuals with internal locus of control. Also, the results showed that older students tend to have better waste prevention behaviours. These findings reinforce the importance of personality traits and emotional intelligence in waste prevention behaviours.

  10. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  11. Safety aspects of fuel behaviour during faults and accidents in pressurised water reactors and in liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H. (UKAEA Information Services Branch, London); Matthews, J.R. (UKAEA Harwell Lab. (UK). Theoretical Physics Div.); Potter, P.E. (UKAEA Harwell Lab. (UK). Chemistry Div.)

    1989-07-01

    The good safety record of electrical power generating reactors in the European Community is based on a substantial effort to understand the safety characteristics of the reactors and their fuel. In this paper the present state of knowledge of oxide fuels used in current European reactors is reviewed. The main theme of the paper is the importance of the role of fission products and the chemical state of the fuel on all aspects of fuel behaviour. The paper is split into two parts. The first part deals with those aspects specific to water reactors using UO{sub 2} based fuels. The second part of the paper deals with mixed-oxide fuels and the sodium cooled reactors. In each part the following aspects are described: Chemical constitution of the fuel; fuel performance and failure limits; failed fuel behaviour; fuel behaviour in accidents; and the interactions in degraded cores after hypothetical accidents. Future directions of safety related fuel work in Europe are identified. (orig.).

  12. Community participation for malaria elimination in tafea province, vanuatu: part ii. social and cultural aspects of treatment-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Ian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD, 12 key informant interviews (KII and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP. An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in

  13. Accounting VS Non-Accounting Majors: Perception on Tax Knowledge, Fairness and Perceived Behavioural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Marziana Mohamad; Norsalihah Mohd Nor; Norshiela Bakar; Winnie Lemi Anak Nanta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the level of tax knowledge, fairness and perceived behaviour control between the accounting and non-accounting students. The study also investigates the significant differences between tax knowledge, fairness perception and perceived behavioural control among the students, and to examine the significant differences of demographic variable towards tax knowledge. The sample comprises all accounting and non-accounting students at College of Business Managemen...

  14. Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects Of a Resilient Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig. G. Rieger

    2010-08-01

    Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

  15. First- and higher-order models of attitudes, normative influence, and perceived behavioural control in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of an augmented version of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour (TPB), adopting second-order latent factors to explain relationships between the differentiated components of the theory constructs. This model was tested on data from two independent samples, for exercise and dieting behaviours, respectively. The affective and instrumental attitude, injunctive and descriptive norms, and perceived controllability and self-efficacy constructs all exhibited discriminant validity in the first instance. First- and second-order confirmatory factor analyses exhibited satisfactory fit with the observed data from both samples. There were no substantial differences in the fit indices across the first- and second-order models, and the second-order models exhibited the most optimal parsimony-corrected fit indices. The higher-order models could therefore not be rejected on the grounds of inferior fit or parsimony. First- and second-order structural equation models accounted for significant variance in intentions and behaviour. These results corroborate Ajzen's (2002a) and Bagozzi, Lee, and van Loo's (2001) premise that recent augmentations of the TPB that differentiate the model components can be subsumed by global, higher-order factors while still making the distinction at the subordinate level.

  16. Spared and impaired aspects of motivated cognitive control in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Claire L; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-08-01

    The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and 39 healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with nonreward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and nonreward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between nonreward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared with baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the nonreward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both nonreward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of "just-in-time," reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms.

  17. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reacti

  18. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    -up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n=86) and Asperger's syndrome (n=114) the percentages were 8.1% and 18.......4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (p= .0009)....

  19. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    -up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8.......1% and 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  20. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending 5000...... heating had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with the heating on. The outdoor solar radiation and the perceived illumination had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on. The most frequent reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain...

  1. Control aspects of motor neural prosthesis: sensory interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Dejan B; Dosen, Strahinja; Popović, Mirjana B; Stefanović, Filip; Kojović, Jovana

    2007-01-01

    A neural prosthesis (NP) has two applications: permanent assistance of function, and temporary assistance that contributes to long-term recovery of function. Here, we address control issues for a therapeutic NP which uses surface electrodes. We suggest that the effective NP for therapy needs to implement rule-based control. Rule-based control relies on the triggering of preprogrammed sequences of electrical stimulation by the sensory signals. The sensory system in the therapeutic NP needs to be simple for installation, allow self-calibration, it must be robust, and sufficiently redundant in order to guarantee safe operation. The sensory signals need to generate control signals; hence, sensory fusion is needed. MEMS technology today provides sensors that fulfill the technical requirements (accelerometers, gyroscopes, force sensing resistors). Therefore, the task was to design a sensory signal processing method from the mentioned solid state sensors that would recognize phases during the gait cycle. This is necessary for the control of multi channel electrical stimulation. The sensory fusion consists of the following two phases: 1) estimation of vertical and horizontal components of the ground reaction force, center of pressure, and joint angles from the solid-state sensors, and 2) fusion of the estimated signals into a sequence of command signals. The first phase was realized by the use of artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, while the second by the use of inductive learning described in our earlier work [1].

  2. Some aspects of doping and medication control in equine sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Ed; Maynard, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes that underpin these procedures. The chapter also addresses four specific topics relevant to equestrian sports: substances controlled by threshold values, the approach adopted recently by European racing authorities to control some therapeutic substances, anabolic steroids in the horse and LC-MS analysis in drug testing in animal sports and metabolism studies. The purpose of discussing these specific topics is to emphasise the importance of research and development and collaboration to further global harmonisation and the development and support of international rules.

  3. Brief Report: Impact of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) on Carer Burden and Community Participation in Challenging Behaviour--Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…

  4. Stability Aspects in One-Cycle Controlled Buck Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURBINA, M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate issues related to one cycle controlled buck converters stability, in the situation when the integration capacitor discharging is performed through a non-zero value resistor, as it happens in practice. It is known that in this case the exponential discharge makes capacitor voltage theoretically never reach zero. Under these conditions, instability phenomena are expected when the discharge time is short, that is at high duty cycles. The stability condition is analytically derived with respect to the control voltage. It is shown that instability occurs with period doubling leading to a half switching frequency subharmonic. Computer simulations confirm the validity of theoretical considerations.

  5. Aspects of the Control and Production of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohala, John J.

    The dominant trend in phonetics today--due to a large extent to generative phonology--is to discover the brain mechanisms underlying the observed behavior in speech. Among other things there is interest in attempting to find out how motor programs are stored latently, selected, activated into muscular contractions, controlled, and tailored for…

  6. Metrological aspects to quality control for natural gas analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudia Cipriano; Borges, Cleber Nogueira; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Marco Ignazio [Companhia Estadual de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Product's Quality and Services are fundamental topics in the globalized commercial relationship inclusive concern the measurements in natural gas. Considerable investments were necessary for industry especially about the quality control in the commercialized gas with an inclusion of the natural gas in Brazilian energetic resources The Brazilian Regulatory Agency, ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis - created the Resolution ANP no.16. This Resolution defines the natural gas specification, either national or international source, for commercialization in Brazil and list the tolerance concentration for some components. Between of this components are the inert compounds like the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The presence of this compounds reduce the calorific power, apart from increase the resistance concern the detonation in the case of vehicular application, and occasion the reduction in the methane concentration in the gas. Controls charts can be useful to verify if the process are or not under Statistical Control. The process can be considerate under statistical control if the measurements have it values between in lower and upper limits stated previously The controls charts can be approach several characteristics in each subgroup: means, standard deviations, amplitude or proportion of defects. The charts are draws for a specific characteristic and to detect some deviate in the process under specific environment conditions. The CEG - Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas do Rio de Janeiro and the DQUIM - Chemical Metrology Division has an agreement for technical cooperation in research and development of gas natural composition Concern the importance of the natural gas in the Nation development, as well as the question approaching the custody transference, the objective of this work is demonstrate the control quality of the natural gas composition between the CEG laboratory and the DQUIM laboratory aiming the quality increase of the

  7. Controlled-release melatonin, singly and combined with cognitive behavioural therapy, for persistent insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Sebastiani, Teresa; Panunzi, Sara; Valente, Donatella

    2012-12-01

    Although melatonin and cognitive-behavioural therapy have shown efficacy in treating sleep disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. One hundred and sixty children with autism spectrum disorders, aged 4-10 years, suffering from sleep onset insomnia and impaired sleep maintenance, were assigned randomly to either (1) combination of controlled-release melatonin and cognitive-behavioural therapy; (2) controlled-release melatonin; (3) four sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy; or (4) placebo drug treatment condition for 12 weeks in a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 ratio. Children were studied at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment response was assessed with 1-week actigraphic monitoring, sleep diary and sleep questionnaire. Main outcome measures, derived actigraphically, were sleep latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset and number of awakenings. The active treatment groups all resulted in improvements across all outcome measures, with moderate-to-large effect sizes from baseline to a 12-week assessment. Melatonin treatment was mainly effective in reducing insomnia symptoms, while cognitive-behavioural therapy had a light positive impact mainly on sleep latency, suggesting that some behavioural aspects might play a role in determining initial insomnia. The combination treatment group showed a trend to outperform other active treatment groups, with fewer dropouts and a greater proportion of treatment responders achieving clinically significant changes (63.38% normative sleep efficiency criterion of >85% and 84.62%, sleep onset latency melatonin treatment seems to result in a better treatment response, at least in the short term.

  8. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2012-10-13

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.

  9. REPLACEMENT CONTROL OF INNOVATION MANAGERS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gurina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates phases of specialists’ replacement ensuring innovation development of the national economy in Belarus, i.e. managers of innovation activity. Realization of replacement phases is presented within the system consisting of four blocks – objective, managing, controllable and providing. Analysis results of the current state of the innovation activity managers replacement system reveal main problems in interaction of its basic agents. The paper considers solution of specified problems in the context of formation of organizational and economic approaches to managing the innovation activity managers replacement system which presupposes modernization of organizational interrelations between state- run public authorities in the managing block and micro-incentive structures in the controllable block as well as the usage of the process approach in every phase of the replacement process. 

  10. Integration and control of metabolic systems: Pure and applied aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.T.H.; Kon, O.L.; Chung, M.C.M.; Hwang, P.L.H.; Leong, S.F.; Loke, K.H.; Thiyagarajah, P.

    1987-01-01

    This volume brings together recent findings in many growing areas of biochemical research including molecular mechanisms of disease, drug design, gene structure and function, chemical signaling, metabolic control mechanisms, neurochemistry, immunology, the molecular biology of plants, marine biochemistry, oncogenes, growth factors, membrane functions, novel enzymes, applied biochemistry, and molecular engineering. It also contains contributions on powerful research techniques such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, automated DNA sequencing, photoaffinity labeling, recent advances in plant cell culture, and high performance liquid chromatography.

  11. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Roermund, H J W van; Bergevoet, R H M

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reactive strategies were initiated after PCR positive bulk tank milk or after an abortion storm (abortion percentage in the herd of 5% or more). Preventive vaccination eradicates Q fever in a herd on average within 2 and 7 years (depending on breeding style and vaccination strategy). Economic outcomes reveal that preventive vaccination is always the preferred Q fever control strategy on infected farms and this even holds for a partial analysis if only on-farm costs and benefits are accounted for and human health costs are ignored. Averted human health costs depend to a large extend on the number of infected human cases per infected farm or animal. Much is yet unknown with respect to goat-human transmission rates. When the pathogen is absent in both livestock and farm environment then the "freedom of Q fever disease" is achieved. This would enable a return to non-vaccinated herds but more insight is required with respect to the mechanisms and probability of re-infection.

  12. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

  13. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour and perceived behavioural control among college students in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of enzyme control and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Johann M; Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S

    2010-12-16

    This paper develops concepts for assessing and quantifying the regulation of the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. We show how generic reversible rate equations can be recast in two ways, one making the distance from equilibrium explicit, thereby allowing the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic control of reaction rate, as well as near-equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium reactions. Recasting in the second form separates mass action from rate capacity and quantifies the degree to which intrinsic mass action contributes to reaction rate and how regulation of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction either enhances or counteracts this mass-action behavior. The contribution of enzyme binding to regulation is analyzed in detail for a number of enzyme-kinetic rate laws, including cooperative reactions.

  15. Intensive diabetes management and goal setting are key aspects of improving metabolic control in children and young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astha; Soni; Sze; May; Ng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes control in children remains poor in spite of advances in treatment for last 10 years. The aim of this review was to look at various aspects of intensive therapy in the management of type 1 diabetes such as insulin regimes, role of target setting, psycho-educational approaches and self-management. To achieve good metabolic control, clear goal setting with adequate support for self-management are essential. Psycho-educational and behavioural interventions aimed at specific areas of management have shown significant improvement in quality of life and diabetes control.

  16. Snoezelen or Controlled Multisensory Stimulation. Treatment Aspects from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Israel today, with a total population of over 6 million persons, the Division for Mental Retardation (DMR provides services to 23,000 persons with intellectual disability (ID. Of the 23,000, residential services are provided to more than 6,000 in close to 60 residential centers, another 2,000 are provided residential care in hostels or group homes in the community in about 50 locations, while the rest are served with day-care kindergarten, day-treatment centers, sheltered workshops, or integrated care in the community. The first Snoezelen room (controlled multisensory stimulation in the DMR was established at the Bnei Zion residential care center in 1995. The Snoezelen method is now used in Israel in more than 30 residential care centers and 3 community settings. Since the year 2000, a physiotherapist has been employed in order to supervise the treatment and development of the method nationally. Professional staff meetings take place every 4 months. A certification course has been established on a national basis for individuals from different professions (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, teachers, music therapists, nurses, speech therapists, or caregivers. Snoezelen has proved to be an important instrument and a powerful therapeutic tool among the various treatment modules employed in Israel for persons with ID. This paper presents the concept illustrated with two case stories.

  17. Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, R. (Rui); Lloyd, E. L. (Errol L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ramanathan, R. (Ram); Ravi, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

  18. Aspects of birth control in nineteenth century New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facer, W A

    1980-01-01

    2 legal enactments in the late (19th century impinged on birth control in New Zealand. The Offensive Publications Act (1892) aimed at mischievous and indecent advertisements, particularly of a medical nature. The Post Office Acts Amendment Act gave any postmaster the right to detain and destroy any publication of an indecent, immoral or obscene nature. In 1887 Dr. Charles James Russell was arrested for attempting to procure an abortion. He was charged with unlawfully aborting Mary Bowern, Kate Fisher, and Annie Connelly. Mary Bowern and Isabella Wilson were also charged with Dr. Russell with having unlawfully used an instrument with intent to procure the abortion of Annie Connolly. Lack of evidence freed Isabella Wilson, but as an example to other women, Mary Bowern was sentenced to 12 months prison with hard labor. Dr. Russell told the court that some 50 years ago it was the custom to leave the woman at deaths's door before an abortion could be performed. Lately the medical authorities had been in favor of early assistance to the patient. What he had done was in accordance with the medical works he owned. The judge in the Supreme Court of Christchurch said that these statements were inconsistent with having pleaded guilty. The peace and honor of the community was at stake, therefore, Dr. Russell was sentenced to penal servitude for 7 years to run concurrently in each case. The attack on contraception continued in 1901 with a bill seeking to ban all contraceptives.

  19. Fgf signalling controls diverse aspects of fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eri; Yokota, Yuki; Horita, Natsumi; Kudo, Akira; Abe, Gembu; Kawakami, Koichi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-08-15

    Studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling is necessary for appendage regeneration, but its exact function and the ligands involved during regeneration have not yet been elucidated. Here, we performed comprehensive expression analyses and identified fgf20a and fgf3/10a as major Fgf ligands in the wound epidermis and blastema, respectively. To reveal the target cells and processes of Fgf signalling, we performed a transplantation experiment of mesenchymal cells that express the dominant-negative Fgf receptor 1 (dnfgfr1) under control of the heat-shock promoter. This mosaic knockdown analysis suggested that Fgf signalling is directly required for fin ray mesenchyme to form the blastema at the early pre-blastema stage and to activate the regenerative cell proliferation at a later post-blastema stage. These results raised the possibility that the early epidermal Fgf20a and the later blastemal Fgf3/10a could be responsible for these respective processes. We demonstrated by gain-of-function analyses that Fgf20a induces the expression of distal blastema marker junbl, and that Fgf3 promotes blastema cell proliferation. Our study highlights that Fgfs in the wound epidermis and blastema have distinct functions to regulate fin regeneration cooperatively.

  20. Aspects Regarding the Development and the Integration of the Corporate Social Responsibility Concept in Firms’ Behaviour. Particularities for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, the purpose of this article is to highlight some of the particularities, at Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs level, regarding: socially responsible behaviour and participation in actions related to CSR; type of CSR strategies adopted by SMEs as compared to larger firms; the motivations, benefits and constraints of the social involvement. The ultimate question refers to the existence, nature and implications of a link between the firm size and the aspects mentioned above. These aspects will be presented according to the conclusions of the previous studies conducted in this area of research, the present paper representing therefore a theoretical synthesis of the existant literature.

  1. Expectations disease: a model for understanding stress, control and dependent behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S H

    1993-03-01

    Most issues of emotional health seen in primary care do not fit standard psychiatric labelling. An integrative model is described for understanding the relationships between stress, control and dependent behaviours with clinical utility for primary care. In this model, expectations disease occurs when expectations consistently disable rather than enable. This clinical diagnosis is characterized by five disorders of control which contribute to recurring episodes of loss of control. Disorders of control include, 1) unmet or excessive need for control, 2) impaired recognition of controllability, 3) misattribution of control, 4) control dissimulation and 5) fear of loss of control. Definitions and behavioural consequences for each control disorder are described. Loss of control is defined as a cascade of behaviours invoked to avoid or diminish chaotic or dissonant thinking through actions one would not deliberately choose (or not choose to the same degree) while feeling in control. Examples of loss of control include substance abuse, anger (rage or violence), binge behaviours (eating, shopping, gambling, sex, overwork), depression, panic and somatization. Loss of control paradoxically results in a transient sense of relief or shift of focus from the problem stimulus, but inevitably creates further problems over time. Expectations disease is determined not by the presence or absence of control disorders, but by the degree to which these problems exist--their chronicity, intensity and rigidity. For some, this disorder may be acute or intermittent, for others chronic; for some, a nuisance, for other, disabling. Short-term intervention for patients who present with clear distress, but unclear diagnosis is discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the model are detailed.

  2. Wave energy plants: Control strategies for avoiding the stalling behaviour in the Wells turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundarain, Modesto; Alberdi, Mikel; Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Maseda, Javier [Dept. of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, EUITI Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Plaza de la Casilla 3, 48012 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This study analyzes the problem of the stalling behaviour in Wells turbines, one of the most widely used turbines in wave energy plants. For this purpose two different control strategies are presented and compared. In the first one, a rotational speed control system is employed to appropriately adapt the speed of the double-fed induction generator coupling to the turbine, according to the pressure drop entry. In the second control strategy, an airflow control regulates the power generated by the turbine generator module by means of the modulation valve avoiding the stalling behaviour. It is demonstrated that the proposed rotational speed control design adequately matches the desired relationship between the slip of the double-fed induction generator and the pressure drop input, whilst the valve control using a traditional PID controller successfully governs the flow that modulates the pressure drop across the turbine. (author)

  3. Connected cruise control: modelling, delay effects, and nonlinear behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Connected vehicle systems (CVS) are considered in this paper where vehicles exchange information using wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The concept of connected cruise control (CCC) is established that allows control design at the level of individual vehicles while exploiting V2V connectivity. Due to its high level of modularity the proposed design can be applied to large heterogeneous traffic systems. The dynamics of a simple CVS is analysed in detail while taking into account nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics as well as in the controller. Time delays that arise due to intermittencies and packet drops in the communication channels are also incorporated. The results are summarised using stability charts which allow one to select control gains to maintain stability and ensure disturbance attenuation when the delay is below a critical value.

  4. Technological aspects of corrosion control in metallic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew Logan

    Three corrosion control technologies were investigated, including the effect of nitrogen on the passivity of chromium in sulfate solutions, possible issues associated with the use of amines in steam turbine environments and the microstructure of naval advanced amorphous coatings. Nitrogen (N) is a minor alloying element commonly used to increase the strength of steels by stabilizing the austenite phase. Physical vapor deposited chromium + nitrogen (0, 6.8 and 8.9 at.%N) coatings were investigated as a model system, to test the model. Because Cr passive films have been observed to be generally n-type semiconductors, an impedance function containing a n-type Faradaic impedance was constructed and optimized to electrochemical impedance spectra for the model system at pH 4,7 and 10 1M sulfate solution at 30°C. An apparent deviation from theory was observed, however. The n-type model predicted steady state currents which were independent of potential, while the observed current densities had a positive correlation with potential. Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that the test potentials were within the n-p transition and p-type potential range, which resolves the apparent deviation. Despite this difficulty, however, the impedance model produced reasonably accurate results, calculating current densities to within one order of magnitude of the measured steady state currents where anodic currents were available and passive film thicknesses on the order of 1-2 nm. Various amines are commonly used to inhibit corrosion in thermal power generation systems, including steam turbines, by increasing the pH. However, during the shutdown phase of the power plant, it is possible for these inhibitors to concentrate and cause corrosion of the turbine rotor. The effect of two ammine inhibitors (monoethanolamine and dimethylamine) on the passivity of ASTM A470/471 steel is investigated in a simulated turbine environment at pH 7, and temperatures of 95°C and at 175°C. Potentiodynamic

  5. Remote control of SMM behaviour via DTE ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosquer, Goulven; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-02-21

    Chemists and physicists are continuously working to understand the mechanisms controlling molecular magnetism, especially single-molecule magnetism, to improve the magnetic properties, such as the blocking temperature. With the current research focused on preparing molecular devices, methods to control the components of the devices are necessary. Extensive research has shown that stimuli, such as light, electric current, etc., can be used to change the properties of the molecules making up the devices. Bis(carboxylato)dithienylethene (DTE) derivatives can be photo-isomerized between open and closed forms, i.e., unconjugated and π-conjugated forms, and because of the carboxylate groups, it can be used to link 3d and/or 4f metal ions. Herein the use of DTE ligands to remotely control the magnetic properties of single-molecule magnets is discussed.

  6. Behavioural factors related to metabolic control in patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, MR; van Spronsen, FJ; Oudshoorn, K; Bekhof, J; van Rijn, G; Verkerk, PH

    2005-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of parental factors possibly related to dietary control in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods. A questionnaire was disseminated among parents of 238 patients with PKU born after the natio

  7. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.

  8. Fixed-wing UAVs Flock Control through Cohesion and Repulsion Behaviours Combined with a Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kownacki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach to swarm control of small fixed-wing UAVs, which combines only two flocking behaviours with a leadership feature. In the presented approach, two fundamental rules of Reynolds flocking are applied, i.e., cohesion and repulsion, as the base of a decentralized control of self-organization of the flock. These rules are combined with a leadership feature, which is responsible for a global behaviour of guidance, as in the case of animals. Such a bio-inspired combination allows the achievement of a coherent collective flight of a flock of fixed-wing UAVs without applying formal behaviours of migration and alignment. This highly simplifies an implementation of the algorithm. The presented results include both numerical simulations and experimental flights, which validate the hardware implementation of the approach.

  9. Tailored Au nanorods: optimizing functionality, controlling the aspect ratio and increasing biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Xiaoqing; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Chien, Chia-Chi; Lai Shengfeng; Chen Yiyun; Hua, Tzu-En; Kempson, Ivan M; Hwu, Y [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Yang, C S [Center for Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Margaritondo, G, E-mail: phhwu@sinica.edu.tw [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-20

    Monodisperse gold nanorods with high aspect ratio were synthesized by x-ray irradiation. Irradiation was first used to stimulate the creation of seeds. Afterward, nanorod growth was stimulated either by chemical reduction or again by x-ray irradiation. In the last case, the entire process took place without reducing agents. The shape of the final products could be controlled by modulating the intensity of the x-ray irradiation during the seed synthesis. In turn, the nanorod aspect ratio determines the absorption wavelength of the nanorods that can thus be optimized for different applications. Likewise, the aspect ratio influences the uptake of the nanorods by HeLa cells.

  10. The adaptive effect of personal control when facing breast cancer : Cognitive and behavioural mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Fleer, Joke; de Vries, J; Baas, Peter C; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study examines the cognitive and behavioural mediators of the relation between personal control and the initial response to a breast cancer diagnosis as well as subsequent psychological adjustment. A total of 143 patients participated immediately after diagnosis (T1), after surgery

  11. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  12. The impact of maternal control on children's anxious cognitions, behaviours and affect: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Creswell, Cathy

    2010-10-01

    Controlling parenting is associated with child anxiety however the direction of effects remains unclear. The present study implemented a Latin-square experimental design to assess the impact of parental control on children's anxious affect, cognitions and behaviour. A non-clinical sample of 24 mothers of children aged 4-5 years were trained to engage in (a) controlling and (b) autonomy-granting behaviours in interaction with their child during the preparation of a speech. When mothers engaged in controlling parenting behaviours, children made more negative predictions about their performance prior to delivering their speech and reported feeling less happy about the task, and this was moderated by child trait anxiety. In addition, children with higher trait anxiety displayed a significant increase in observed child anxiety in the controlling condition. The pattern of results was maintained when differences in mothers' levels of negativity and habitual levels of control were accounted for. These findings are consistent with theories that suggest that controlling parenting is a risk factor in the development of childhood anxiety.

  13. Locus of control of behaviour: is high externality associated with substance misuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, P; Ayliffe, G

    1991-09-01

    Personal control and responsibility are key themes in the therapeutic use of 'motivational interviewing'. This popular method of counselling has suggested that clients need to believe they have a significant degree of control over their behaviour if they are to make progress. Using a well validated psychological test on locus of control of behaviour, our research sought to establish whether active misusers really believed they had less personal control than non-misusers. To establish this a sample of misusers was tested and compared with three diverse, comparable groups. Possible confounding factors such as age, sex and class were controlled for. T tests established a significant difference between the active misusers and the other sampled groups. Further, a regression analysis of variance, calculated to explain the differing external scores offered no reasonable explanation as far as age, sex and class were concerned. Alternatively, self diagnosed substance misuse accounted for 23% of the variation in scores. We concluded, therefore, that high externality scores are a good indicator of active misusing behaviour and that beliefs about personal control are important to address, if one is to increase the chances of a positive client outcome.

  14. Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioural studies in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Agyei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioural and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioural data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

  15. Language control in different contexts: the behavioural ecology of bilingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Green

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that different experimental contexts (single or dual language contexts permit different neural loci at which words in the target language can be selected. However, in order to develop a fuller understanding of the neural circuit mediating language control we need to consider the community context in which bilingual speakers typically use their two languages (the behavioural ecology of bilingual speakers. The contrast between speakers from code-switching and non-code switching communities offers a way to increase our understanding of the cortical, subcortical and, in particular, cerebellar structures involved in language control. It will also help us identify the non-verbal behavioural correlates associated with these control processes.

  16. Hormone-Inspired Behaviour Switching for the Control of Collective Robotic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tanev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Swarming and modular robotic locomotion are two disconnected behaviours that a group of small homogeneous robots can be used to achieve. The use of these two behaviours is a popular subject in robotics research involving search, rescue and exploration. However, they are rarely addressed as two behaviours that can coexist within a single robotic system. Here, we present a bio-inspired decision mechanism, which provides a convenient way for evolution to configure the conditions and timing of behaving as a swarm or a modular robot in an exploration scenario. The decision mechanism switches among two behaviours that are previously developed (a pheromone-based swarm control and a sinusoidal rectilinear modular robot movement. We use Genetic Programming (GP to evolve the controller for these decisions, which acts without a centralized mechanism and with limited inter-robot communication. The results show that the proposed bio-inspired decision mechanism provides an evolvable medium for the GP to utilize in evolving an effective decision-making mechanism.

  17. Common aspects and differences in the behaviour of classical configuration versus canard configuration aircraft in the presence of vertical gusts, assuming the hypothesis of an elastic fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian PREOTU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes, in parallel, common aspects and differences in the behavior of classical configuration versus canard configuration aircraft in the presence of vertical gusts, assuming the hypothesis of an elastic fuselage. The effects of the main constructional dimensions of the horizontal empennage on lift cancelling and horizontal empennage control are being analyzed

  18. Psychological and behavioural aspects of patients with Turner syndrome from childhood to adulthood: a review of the clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, P; Deligeoroglou, E; Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Creatsas, G

    2008-03-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, which occurs in approximately one of every 2500 female births. Short stature, infertility, additional physical abnormalities, skeletal and medical problems may be present. Genetic, hormonal, and medical problems associated with TS are likely to affect psychosexual development of female adolescent patients, and thus influence their psychological functioning, behavior patterns, social interactions and learning ability. Although TS constitutes a chronic medical condition, with possible physical, social and psychological complications in a woman's life, hormonal and estrogen replacement therapy and assisted reproduction, are treatments that can be helpful for TS patients and improve their quality of life. Authors report on a review of the research literature clinical aspects of the syndrome as well as the beneficial effect of hormonal therapy in such patients.

  19. Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators: modeling, simulations, experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnell, K.O.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as boun

  20. Central aspects of jaw motor control in the rat. An electrophysiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkels, Robert Frederik

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is based upon four neurophysiological investigations on central aspects of jaw-motor control and a technique for the construction of a new cuff electrode for small nerves. The experiments were performed at the Department of Neurobiology and Oral Physiology of the State University of Gron

  1. Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Johansson, Tomas; Sjögren, Johan; Håkansson, Andreas; Pettersson, Magnus; Kadowaki, Åsa; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  2. An investigation into the relevance of action planning, theory of planned behaviour concepts, and automaticity for fruit intake action control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Wiedemann, A.; Rhodes, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In the action control framework, intention-behaviour discordance is studied around public health guidelines. Although this framework has been applied to physical activity behaviours, it has only seen very limited attention regarding fruit intake. The purpose of this study was therefore to

  3. Controlled Aspect Ratios of Gold Nanorods in Reduction-Limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeob Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspect ratios of gold nanorods have been finely modified in reduction-limited conditions via two electrochemical ways: by changing the amount of a growth solution containing small gold clusters in the presence of already prepared gold nanorods as seeds or by changing electrolysis time in the presence or absence of a silver plate. While the atomic molar ratio of gold in the growth solution to gold in the seed solution is critical in the former method, the relative molar ratio of gold ions to silver ions in the electrolytic solution is important in the latter way for the control of the aspect ratios of gold nanorods. The aspect ratios of gold nanorods decrease with an increase of electrolysis time in the absence of a silver plate, but they increase with an increase of electrolysis time in the presence of a silver plate.

  4. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: Interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Gruber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated behaviour exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioural control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum, amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioural responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive, but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum. The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the basal ganglia to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioural and neural

  5. CHAMP: Cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients, a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal health anxiety, also called hypochondriasis, has been successfully treated by cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in patients recruited from primary care, but only one pilot trial has been carried out among those attending secondary medical clinics where health anxiety is likely to be more common and have a greater impact on services. The CHAMP study extends this work to examine both the clinical and cost effectiveness of CBT in this population. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms and equal randomization of 466 eligible patients (assuming a 20% drop-out to an active treatment group of 5-10 sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy and to a control group. The aim at baseline, after completion of all assessments but before randomization, was to give a standard simple explanation of the nature of health anxiety for all participants. Subsequently the control group was to receive whatever care might usually be available in the clinics, which is normally a combination of clinical assessment, appropriate tests and reassurance. Those allocated to the active treatment group were planned to receive between 5 and 10 sessions of an adapted form of cognitive behaviour therapy based on the Salkovskis/Warwick model, in which a set of treatment strategies are chosen aimed at helping patients understand the factors that drive and maintain health anxiety. The therapy was planned to be given by graduate research workers, nurses or other health professionals trained for this intervention whom would also have their competence assessed independently during the course of treatment. The primary outcome is reduction in health anxiety symptoms after one year and the main secondary outcome is the cost of care after two years. Discussion This represents the first trial of adapted cognitive behaviour therapy in health anxiety that is large enough to test not only the clinical benefits of treatment but also

  6. Hyperchaotic behaviours and controlling hyperchaos in an array of RCL-shunted Josephson junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri Ilmyong; Feng Yu-Ling; Yao Zhi-Hai; Fan Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with dynamical behaviours in an array composed of two resistive-capacitive-inductive-shunted (RCL-shunted) Josephson junctions (RCLSJJs) and a shunted resistor.Numerical simulations show that periodic,chaotic and hyperchaotic states can coexist in this array.Moreover,a scheme for controlling hyperchaos in this array is presented by adjusting the external bias current.Numerical results confirm that this scheme can be effectively used to control hyperchaotic states in this array into stable periodic states,and different stable periodic states with different period numbers can be obtained by appropriately choosing the intensity of the external bias current.

  7. Dynamic behaviours and control of fractional-order memristor-based system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liping Chen; Yigang He; Xiao Lv; Ranchao Wu

    2015-07-01

    Dynamics of fractional-order memristor circuit system and its control are investigated in this paper. With the help of stability theory of fractional-order systems, stability of its equilibrium points is analysed. Then, the chaotic behaviours are validated using phase portraits, the Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams with varying parameters. Furthermore, some conditions ensuring Hopf bifurcation with varying fractional orders and parameters are determined, respectively. By using a stabilization theorem proposed newly for a class of nonlinear systems, linear feedback controller is designed to stabilize the fractional-order system and the corresponding stabilization criterion is presented. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate and verify the effectiveness of our analysis results.

  8. Cognitive-behavioural emotion writing tasks: a controlled trial of multiple processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Adam J; Dadds, Mark R

    2008-12-01

    We report on a controlled trial of three structured writing paradigms that engage the writer with cognitive-behavioural emotion-processes: exposure, devaluation, and benefit-finding. University students (N=198) wrote once a week for three weeks about their most upsetting experience. The long-term effects of these structured writing procedures were compared to an unstructured emotion writing condition and control. Outcomes indicated that exposure writing sped the reduction of intrusive and avoidant symptoms, while benefit-finding writing increased reports of positive growth. Results suggest the use of these paradigms to study emotion-processing mechanisms and, potentially, in practice to enhance coping in process-specific ways.

  9. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.

  10. Ecological aspects of the vectorial control of Chagas' disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João Carlos P.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility and most important ecological aspects of vectorial Chagas' disease control are discussed. The spread and maintenance of this disease involve multiple ecological and sociopolitical factors that must be taken into account when control programs are planned, executed and evaluated. In spite of its complexity, Chagas disease can be controlled using methods that target specific mechanisms of transmission, the most important being vectorial and transfusional. Major ecological problems in Chagas' disease control do not exist, even in the case of the chemical control of triatomine vectors. The main challenges for the Brazilian Control Program at this moment are: its maintenance as a political priority; the threat of peridomestic vectors; and the consolidation of permanent horizontal and participative epidemiological surveillance systems against the vector.

  11. Electronic control of gene expression and cell behaviour in Escherichia coli through redox signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; McKay, Ryan; Ueda, Hana; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Pottash, Alex Eli; Zargar, Amin; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to interconvert information between electronic and ionic modalities has transformed our ability to record and actuate biological function. Synthetic biology offers the potential to expand communication `bandwidth' by using biomolecules and providing electrochemical access to redox-based cell signals and behaviours. While engineered cells have transmitted molecular information to electronic devices, the potential for bidirectional communication stands largely untapped. Here we present a simple electrogenetic device that uses redox biomolecules to carry electronic information to engineered bacterial cells in order to control transcription from a simple synthetic gene circuit. Electronic actuation of the native transcriptional regulator SoxR and transcription from the PsoxS promoter allows cell response that is quick, reversible and dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the imposed electronic signals. Further, induction of bacterial motility and population based cell-to-cell communication demonstrates the versatility of our approach and potential to drive intricate biological behaviours.

  12. Descriptive peer norms, self-control and dietary behaviour in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Otten, Roy; Hermans, Roel C J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that perceived peer eating norms can influence dietary behaviour. This cross-sectional study examined whether certain personality traits increase the likelihood that personal eating habits are similar to perceived peer eating habits. We assessed frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened soda (SSS) and sweet pastries (SP), as well as perceived peer descriptive eating norms for SSS and SP in a group of 1056 young adults. We examined whether individual differences in the need for social acceptance and self-control moderated whether participants were likely to display similar dietary habits to their peers. Perceived peer eating norms for SSS and SP predicted frequency of consumption; believing that one's peers frequently consumed SSS and SP was associated with increased personal consumption for both. Individuals with low self-control, as opposed to high self-control, were more likely to adhere to peer norms for SP, but not for SSS. Trait social acceptance needs did not significantly moderate similarity between peer norms and personal consumption for either SSS or SP. The extent to which young adults adhere to descriptive peer dietary norms may depend upon self-control, whereby individuals with low self-control are less able to inhibit social influence of descriptive peer norms on dietary behaviour.

  13. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  14. Perspective on traffic control: Aspects of freeway control, intersection control and the control of transit flow in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkesteegt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Paper presented at the 1988 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA. The first part of this paper deals with the control and signalling system for motorways, directed to a more efficient use of available road capacity and to the improvement of road safety. The second part gives some insight into th

  15. Post-operative behavioural management in bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, A; Hilbert, A

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has provided evidence that bariatric surgery maximizes long-term weight loss in patients with severe obesity. However, a substantial number of patients experience poor weight loss outcome and weight regain over time. Post-operative behavioural management may facilitate long-term weight control in bariatric surgery population. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effects of post-operative behavioural management on weight loss following bariatric surgery. Eligible articles were systematically searched in electronic databases. Among the 414 citations, five randomized controlled trials, two prospective and eight retrospective cohort trials analysing behavioural lifestyle interventions and support groups fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The main finding is that behavioural management had a positive effect on weight loss following surgery. In 13 studies, patients receiving behavioural management had greater weight loss than patients receiving usual care or no treatment. A meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials suggests greater weight loss in patients with behavioural lifestyle interventions compared with control groups. Post-operative behavioural management has the potential to facilitate optimal weight loss following bariatric surgery, but conclusions were limited by the small and heterogeneous samples of studies. A more rigorous empirical evaluation on its clinical significance is warranted to improve effectiveness of bariatric surgery.

  16. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study......, including daily smoking (dichotomous). FINDINGS: Interaction effects between gender and smoking policies were identified, therefore boys and girls were analysed separately. Large cross-national differences in smoking prevalence were documented. Intraclass correlations (ICC) of 0.038 (boys) and 0.035 (girls...

  17. Threshold behaviour in hydrological systems as (human geo-ecosystems: manifestations, controls, implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review threshold behaviour in environmental systems, which are often associated with the onset of floods, contamination and erosion events, and other degenerative processes. Key objectives of this review are to a suggest indicators for detecting threshold behavior, b discuss their implications for predictability, c distinguish different forms of threshold behavior and their underlying controls, and d hypothesise on possible reasons for why threshold behaviour might occur. Threshold behaviour involves a fast qualitative change of either a single process or the response of a system. For elementary phenomena this switch occurs when boundary conditions (e.g., energy inputs or system states as expressed by dimensionless quantities (e.g. the Reynolds number exceed threshold values. Mixing, water movement or depletion of thermodynamic gradients becomes much more efficient as a result. Intermittency is a very good indicator for detecting event scale threshold behavior in hydrological systems. Predictability of intermittent processes/system responses is inherently low for combinations of systems states and/or boundary conditions that push the system close to a threshold. Post hoc identification of "cause-effect relations" to explain when the system became critical is inherently difficult because of our limited ability to perform observations under controlled identical experimental conditions. In this review, we distinguish three forms of threshold behavior. The first one is threshold behavior at the process level that is controlled by the interplay of local soil characteristics and states, vegetation and the rainfall forcing. Overland flow formation, particle detachment and preferential flow are examples of this. The second form of threshold behaviour is the response of systems of intermediate complexity – e.g., catchment runoff response and sediment yield – governed by the redistribution of water and sediments in space and time

  18. Brain-Map Based Carangiform Swimming Behaviour Modeling and Control in a Robotic Fish Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhra Roy Chowdhury

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish swimming demonstrates impressive speeds and exceptional characteristics in the fluid environment. The objective of this paper is to mimic undulatory swimming behaviour and its control of a body caudal fin (BCF carangiform fish in a robotic counterpart. Based on fish biology kinematics study, a 2-level behavior based distributed control scheme is proposed. The high-level control is modeled by robotic fish swimming behavior. It uses a Lighthill (LH body wave to generate desired joint trajectory patterns. Generated LH body wave is influenced by intrinsic kinematic parameters Tail-beat frequency (TBF and Caudal amplitude (CA which can be modulated to change the trajectory pattern. Parameter information is retrieved from a fish memory (cerebellum inspired brain map. This map stores operating region information on TBF and CA parameters obtained from yellow fin tuna kinematics study. Based on an environment based error feedback signal, robotic fish map selects the right parameter/s value showing adaptive behaviour. A finite state machine methodology has been used to model this brain-kinematic-map control. The low-level control is implemented using inverse dynamics based computed torque method (CTM with dynamic PD compensation. It tracks high-level generated and encoded patterns (trajectory for fish-tail undulation. Three types of parameter adaptation for the two chosen parameters have been shown to successfully emulate robotic fish swimming behavior. Based on the proposed control strategy joint-position and velocity tracking results are discussed. They are found to be satisfactory with error magnitudes within permissible bounds.

  19. Frequency of impulse control behaviours associated with dopaminergic therapy in restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiff Julia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low doses of dopamine agonists (DA and levodopa are effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS. A range of impulse control and compulsive behaviours (ICBs have been reported following the use of DAs and levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease. With this study we sought to assess the cross-sectional prevalence of impulse control behaviours (ICBs in restless legs syndrome (RLS and to determine factors associated with ICBs in a population cohort in Germany. Methods Several questionnaires based on validated and previously used instruments for assessment of ICBs were mailed out to patients being treated for RLS. Final diagnoses of ICBs were based on stringent diagnostic criteria after psychiatric interviews were performed. Results 10/140 RLS patients of a clinical cohort (7.1% were finally diagnosed with ICBs, 8 of 10 on dopamine agonist (DA therapy, 2 of 10 on levodopa. 8 of the 10 affected patients showed more than one type of abnormal behaviour. Among those who responded to the questionnaires 6/140 [4.3%] revealed binge eating, 5/140 [3.6%] compulsive shopping, 3/140 [2.1%] pathological gambling, 3/140 [2.1%] punding, and 2/140 [1.4%] hypersexuality in psychiatric assessments. Among those who did not respond to questionnaires, 32 were randomly selected and interviewed: only 1 patient showed positive criteria of ICBs with compulsive shopping and binge eating. ICBs were associated with higher DA dose (p = 0.001, younger RLS onset (p = 0.04, history of experimental drug use (p = 0.002, female gender (p = 0.04 and a family history of gambling disorders (p = 0.02, which accounted for 52% of the risk variance. Conclusion RLS patients treated with dopaminergic agents and dopamine agonists in particular, should be forewarned of potential side effects. A careful history of risk factors should be taken.

  20. Promising effects of oxytocin on social and food-related behaviour in young children with Prader-Willi syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Kuppens (Renske); S.H. Donze; A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is known for hyperphagia with impaired satiety and a specific behavioural phenotype with stubbornness, temper tantrums, manipulative and controlling behaviour and obsessive-compulsive features. PWS is associated with hypothalamic and oxytocinergic

  1. A systematic review of treatments for Impulse Control Disorders and related behaviours in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwani, Puja; Fernie, Bruce A; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2015-02-28

    Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a set of behaviours characterised by impulsivity despite known harm. Related to ICDs is the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is characterised by an addiction-like consumption of dopaminergic medication and punding. These behaviours all have an increased prevalence in Parkinson׳s disease (PD). The aim of this review is to identify treatments available for patients suffering from ICDs, DDS and punding in PD. Searches of The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and PsychInfo were conducted, using the entire timescale available. Seven out of the 688 papers retrieved met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this systematic review. One class I study, one class II study, and five class IV studies were identified. All studies demonstrated a positive effect on ICDs in PD. Research in this field is still in its early stages. At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend any treatment over another. There is a need for more methodologically robust research, using larger, more generalisable samples, randomisation and meaningful follow-up periods. In addition, the use of a validated outcome measures should be implemented in future research efforts.

  2. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them.

  3. Emotional aspects and pranayama in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Chakrabarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emotional disturbances are commonly experienced by cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of certain Pranayama techniques on the emotional aspects such as impatience, worry, anxiety, and frustration among breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy in India. Methods: The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Patients were recruited when they were seeking radiation therapy for breast cancer. They were allocated into two groups using block randomization technique. The experimental group performed Pranayama along with radiation therapy, whereas the control group received only routine care. Results: Emotional aspects of the two groups were compared at the end of the treatment. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison as the data were not following normality. It showed a significant difference between the two groups with the group who performed Pranayama showing a lesser mean score for these negative emotions. Conclusions: Pranayama might help in controlling the negative emotions likely to be faced by breast cancer patients, and it can be used as a supportive therapy for breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy.

  4. Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

  5. Performance Evaluation and Measurement of the Organization in Strategic Analysis and Control: Methodological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živan Ristić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Information acquired by measuring and evaluation are a necessary condition for good decision-making in strategic management. This work deals with : (a Methodological aspects of evaluation (kinds of evaluation, metaevaluation and measurement (supposition of isomorphism in measurement, kinds and levels of measurement, errors in measurement and the basic characteristics of measurement (b Evaluation and measurement of potential and accomplishments of the organization in Kaplan-Norton perspectives (in the perspectives of learning and development, perspectives of internal processes, perspectives of the consumer/user, and in financial perspectives (c Systems and IT solutions of evaluation and measuring performances of the organization in strategic analysis and control.

  6. Control of finite critical behaviour in a small-scale social system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Krakauer, David C.; Flack, Jessica C.

    2017-01-01

    Many adaptive systems sit near a tipping or critical point. For systems near a critical point small changes to component behaviour can induce large-scale changes in aggregate structure and function. Criticality can be adaptive when the environment is changing, but entails reduced robustness through sensitivity. This tradeoff can be resolved when criticality can be tuned. We address the control of finite measures of criticality using data on fight sizes from an animal society model system (Macaca nemestrina, n=48). We find that a heterogeneous, socially organized system, like homogeneous, spatial systems (flocks and schools), sits near a critical point; the contributions individuals make to collective phenomena can be quantified; there is heterogeneity in these contributions; and distance from the critical point (DFC) can be controlled through biologically plausible mechanisms exploiting heterogeneity. We propose two alternative hypotheses for why a system decreases the distance from the critical point. PMID:28186194

  7. Overweight Adolescents' Self-Perceived Weight and Weight Control Behaviour: HBSC Study in Finland 1994–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiina Ojala; Jorma Tynjälä; Raili Välimaa; Jari Villberg; Lasse Kannas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Overweight and perception of being overweight, may lead adolescent to lose weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, and weight control behaviour during 1994–2010 in Finland. Methods. The country-representative, cross-sectional data of 15-year olds were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, conducted in 1994 ( = 1 1 9 4 ; males: 48%), 1998 ( = 1 5 4 5 ; 49%),...

  8. Multivalent ligands control stem cell behaviour in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Anthony; Vazin, Tandis; Spelke, Dawn P.; Rode, Nikhil A.; Healy, Kevin E.; Kane, Ravi S.; Schaffer, David V.

    2013-11-01

    There is broad interest in designing nanostructured materials that can interact with cells and regulate key downstream functions. In particular, materials with nanoscale features may enable control over multivalent interactions, which involve the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands on one entity to multiple receptors on another and are ubiquitous throughout biology. Cellular signal transduction of growth factor and morphogen cues (which have critical roles in regulating cell function and fate) often begins with such multivalent binding of ligands, either secreted or cell-surface-tethered to target cell receptors, leading to receptor clustering. Cellular mechanisms that orchestrate ligand-receptor oligomerization are complex, however, so the capacity to control multivalent interactions and thereby modulate key signalling events within living systems is currently very limited. Here, we demonstrate the design of potent multivalent conjugates that can organize stem cell receptors into nanoscale clusters and control stem cell behaviour in vitro and in vivo. The ectodomain of ephrin-B2, normally an integral membrane protein ligand, was conjugated to a soluble biopolymer to yield multivalent nanoscale conjugates that potently induce signalling in neural stem cells and promote their neuronal differentiation both in culture and within the brain. Super-resolution microscopy analysis yielded insights into the organization of the receptor-ligand clusters at the nanoscale. We also found that synthetic multivalent conjugates of ephrin-B1 strongly enhance human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation into functional dopaminergic neurons. Multivalent bioconjugates are therefore powerful tools and potential nanoscale therapeutics for controlling the behaviour of target stem cells in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence.

  10. Welfare aspects of vertebrate pest control and culling: ranking control techniques for humaneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, K; Fisher, P; Beausoleil, N J; Sharp, T

    2014-04-01

    The management of vertebrate pests depends on the use of traps, pesticides, repellents and other methods, each of which can cause varying levels of pain and other negative experiences to animals. Vertebrate pest control is essential for managing the impacts of unwanted or over-abundant animals on human and animal health, ecological balance and economic interests. As the need for this management is unlikely to diminish over time, a framework has been developed for assessing the humaneness of each technique by considering their negative impacts on animal welfare so that these can be included in decision-making about the selection of techniques for a specific control operation. This information can also support evidence-based regulations directed at managing such animal welfare impacts. In this paper, the authors discuss this assessment framework, briefly review two assessments conducted using the framework and discuss ways in which Competent Authorities and others can use it and other means to improve animal welfare in vertebrate pest management.

  11. Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mwila Musenge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The control of diabetes mellitus depends on several factors that also include individual lifestyles. We assessed glycaemic control status and self-management behaviours that may influence glycaemic control among diabetic outpatients. Methods. This cross-sectional study among 198 consenting randomly selected patients was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic between September and December 2013 in Lusaka, Zambia. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, self-management behaviours, and laboratory measurements. Binary logistic regression analysis using IBM SPSS for Windows version 20.0 was carried out to predict behaviours that were associated with glycaemic control status. Results. The proportion of patients that had good glycaemic control status (HbA1c≤ 48 mmol/mol was 38.7% compared to 61.3% that had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c≥ 49 mmol/mol. Adherence to antidiabetic treatment and fasting plasma glucose predicted glycaemic control status of the patients. However, self-blood glucose monitoring, self-blood glucose monitoring means and exercise did not predict glycaemic control status of the patients.  Conclusion. We find evidence of poor glycaemic control status among most diabetic patients suggesting that health promotion messages need to take into account both individual and community factors to promote behaviours likely to reduce nonadherence.

  12. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating.

  13. Some aspects of numerical simulation of control valves for steam turbines

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    Matas Richard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the numerical simulation of air and steam flow through the model of control valve for steam turbines. Numerical simulations were compared with experimental measurements for the award of the same boundary conditions. Valve characteristics have been computed for individual travel heights and pressure ratios of two variants of seat inflow angle (90° and 60°. Some other aspects are discussed in the article - comparison of the axysymmetric and 3D modelling, influence of the computational domain size, comparison of characteristics for two flow media, experimental model of the valve etc. The mentioned results are important for engineering simulations and also for design of the control valves for steam turbines of the large output.

  14. A randomised controlled trial of a theory of planned behaviour to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara A

    2014-07-01

    Young adults are less likely than other adults to consume fruit and vegetables. Fresh Facts is a theory of planned behaviour based intervention designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study sought to evaluate Fresh Facts using a randomised controlled trial. Australian young adults (n = 162) were allocated to the Fresh Facts intervention or to the control group in 2011. Intervention participants received automated email messages promoting fruit and vegetable consumption every 3 days over the course of the 1 month intervention. Messages targeted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Theory of planned behaviour variables and fruit and vegetable intake were measured at baseline and post-intervention (Day 30). Significant increases in attitude and subjective norm relative to control were found among Fresh Facts participants. However, intention, perceived behavioural control and fruit and vegetable consumption did not change as a result of the intervention. Changes in intention reported by each participant between baseline and follow-up were not correlated with corresponding changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts was not successful in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Current evidence does not support the use of the theory of planned behaviour in the design of interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake in this population.

  15. Emotion regulatory function of parent attention to child pain and associated implications for parental pain control behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Sütterlin, Stefan; Caes, Line; Moors, Agnes

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the function of parental attention to child pain in regulating parental distress and pain control behaviour when observing their child performing a painful (cold pressor) task (CPT); we also studied the moderating role of parental state anxiety. Participants were 62 schoolchildren and one of their parents. Parental attention towards or away from child pain (ie, attend to pain vs avoid pain) was experimentally manipulated during a viewing task pairing unfamiliar children's neutral and pain faces. Before and after the viewing task, parental distress regulation was assessed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). In a subsequent phase, parents observed their own child perform a CPT task, allowing assessment of parental pain control behaviour (indexed by latency to stop their child's CPT performance) and parental distress, which was assessed via self-report before and after observation of child CPT performance. Eye tracking during the viewing task and self-reported attention to own child's pain confirmed successful attention manipulation. Further, findings indicated that the effect of attentional strategy on parental emotion regulation (indexed by HR, self-report) and pain control behaviour depended on parents' state anxiety. Specifically, whereas low anxious parents reported more distress and demonstrated more pain control behaviour in the Attend to Pain condition, high anxious parents reported more distress and showed more pain control behaviour in the Avoid Pain condition. This inverse pattern was likewise apparent in physiological distress indices (HR) in response to the initial viewing task. Theoretical/clinical implications and further research directions are discussed.

  16. Russian Army Mat as a Code System Controlling Behaviour in the Russian army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Mikhailin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This text is to be a shortened, restructured and based on somewhat another factological foundation version of my article “Russkii mat kak muzhskoi obstsennyi kod: problema proiskhozhdeniia i evoliutsiia statusa”, published in # 43 of Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie. Tracing the genesis of mat to the specific modes of behaviour, peculiar to the archaic male warrior bands, I’m going to show that the military milieu (and some other, structurally close to it social strata, has always been – and remain – absolutely adequate for the mat speaking. Moreover, mat has always carried on within these strata rather specific function connected with creating of one’s identity as a military, and its use offers various and sometimes the only possible means of impact at one’s equal or subordinate (or even superior. As a matter of fact, mat is a basis for a whole code system, controlling different military behaviour practices. The problems of the freshers’ adaptation and of the national specificities in the late Soviet and modern Russian army are to be considered with special respect.

  17. High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic control of Drosophila locomotor behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Andrew; Murawski, Caroline; Pulver, Stefan R.; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-08-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in widespread use in today’s mobile phones and are likely to drive the next generation of large area displays and solid-state lighting. Here we show steps towards their utility as a platform technology for biophotonics, by demonstrating devices capable of optically controlling behaviour in live animals. Using devices with a pin OLED architecture, sufficient illumination intensity (0.3 mW.mm‑2) to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) in vivo was reliably achieved at low operating voltages (5 V). In Drosophila melanogaster third instar larvae expressing ChR2(H134R) in motor neurons, we found that pulsed illumination from blue and green OLEDs triggered robust and reversible contractions in animals. This response was temporally coupled to the timing of OLED illumination. With blue OLED illumination, the initial rate and overall size of the behavioural response was strongest. Green OLEDs achieved roughly 70% of the response observed with blue OLEDs. Orange OLEDs did not produce contractions in larvae, in agreement with the spectral response of ChR2(H134R). The device configuration presented here could be modified to accommodate other small model organisms, cell cultures or tissue slices and the ability of OLEDs to provide patterned illumination and spectral tuning can further broaden their utility in optogenetics experiments.

  18. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.

  19. E-mailed standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Bouwman, Manon; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Schrieken, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 7-week standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress conducted via e-mail. A total of 342 people applied for treatment in reaction to a newspaper article. Initial screening reduced the sample to a heterogeneous (sub)clinical group of 239 participants. Participants were assigned randomly to a waiting list condition (n = 62), or to immediate treatment (n = 177). A follow-up was conducted 3 years after inception of the treatment. The outcome measures used were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42) and the Emotional Exhaustion scale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS). Fifty participants (21%) dropped out. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements. Intention-to-treat analysis of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed that participants in the treatment condition improved significantly more than those in the waiting control condition (0.001 or = d > or = 0.5 (anxiety)). The between-group effects ranged from d = 0.6 (stress) to d = 0.1 (anxiety). At follow-up, the effects were more pronounced, but this result requires replication in view of high attrition at follow-up. The results warrant further research on Internet-driven standardized cognitive behavioural therapy for work-related stress. Such research should include the direct comparison of this treatment with face-to-face treatment, and should address the optimal level of therapist contact in Internet-driven treatment.

  20. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Peternel

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.

  1. Understanding and controlling the structure and segregation behaviour of AuRh nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Laurent; Li, Z. Y.; Demiroglu, Ilker; Moyon, Florian; Konuspayeva, Zere; Berhault, Gilles; Afanasiev, Pavel; Lefebvre, Williams; Yuan, Jun; Johnston, Roy L.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis, which is widely used in the chemical industry, makes a great use of supported late-transition-metal nanoparticles, and bimetallic catalysts often show superior catalytic performances as compared to their single metal counterparts. In order to optimize catalyst efficiency and discover new active combinations, an atomic-level understanding and control of the catalyst structure is desirable. In this work, the structure of catalytically active AuRh bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by colloidal methods and immobilized on rutile titania nanorods was investigated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Depending on the applied post-treatment, different types of segregation behaviours were evidenced, ranging from Rh core – Au shell to Janus via Rh ball – Au cup configuration. The stability of these structures was predicted by performing density-functional-theory calculations on unsupported and titania-supported Au-Rh clusters; it can be rationalized from the lower surface and cohesion energies of Au with respect to Rh, and the preferential binding of Rh with the titania support. The bulk-immiscible AuRh/TiO2 system can serve as a model to understand similar supported nanoalloy systems and their synergistic behaviour in catalysis. PMID:27739480

  2. Deciphering endophyte behaviour: the link between endophyte biology and efficacious biological control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Stuart; Johnson, Linda; Teasdale, Suliana; Caradus, John

    2016-08-01

    Endophytes associate with the majority of plant species found in natural and managed ecosystems. They are regarded as extremely important plant partners that provide improved stress tolerance to the host compared with plants that lack this symbiosis. Fossil records of endophytes date back more than 400 million years, implicating these microorganisms in host plant adaptation to habitat transitions. However, it is only recently that endophytes, and their bioactive products, have received meaningful attention from the scientific community. The benefits some endophytes can confer on their hosts include plant growth promotion and survival through the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms and invertebrate pests, the removal of soil contaminants, improved tolerance of low fertility soils, and increased tolerance of extreme temperatures and low water availability. Endophytes are extremely diverse and can exhibit many different biological behaviours. Not all endophyte technologies have been successfully commercialised. Of interest in the development of the next generation of plant protection products is how much of this is due to the biology of the particular endophytic microorganism. In this review, we highlight selected case studies of endophytes and discuss their lifestyles and behavioural traits, and discuss how these factors contribute towards their effectiveness as biological control agents.

  3. The behaviour of fatigue-induced microdamage in compact bone samples from control and ovariectomised sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Oran D; Brennan, Orlaith; Mauer, Peter; O'Brien, Fergal J; Rackard, Susan M; Taylor, David; Lee, T Clive

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of microdamage on bone quality in osteoporosis using an ovariectomised (OVX) sheep model of osteoporosis. Thirty-four sheep were divided into an OVX group (n=16) and a control group (n=18). Fluorochromes were administered intravenously at 3 monthly intervals after surgery to label bone turnover. After sacrifice, beams were removed from the metatarsal and tested in three-point bending. Following failure, microcracks were identified and quantified in terms of region, location and interaction with osteons. Number of cycles to failure (Nf) was lower in the OVX group relative to controls by approximately 7%. Crack density (CrDn) was higher in the OVX group compared to controls. CrDn was 2.5 and 3.5 times greater in the compressive region compared to tensile in control and OVX bone respectively. Combined results from both groups showed that 91% of cracks remained in interstitial bone, approximately 8% of cracks penetrated unlabelled osteons and less than 1% penetrated into labelled osteons. All cases of labelled osteon penetration occurred in controls. Crack surface density (CrSDn), was 25% higher in the control group compared to OVX. It is known that crack behaviour on meeting microstructural features such as osteons will depend on crack length. We have shown that osteon age also affects crack propagation. Long cracks penetrated unlabelled osteons but not labelled ones. Some cracks in the control group did penetrate labelled osteons. This may be due the fact that control bone is more highly mineralized. CrSDn was increased by 25% in the control group compared to OVX. Further study of these fracture mechanisms will help determine the effect of microdamage on bone quality and how this contributes to bone fragility.

  4. Past ice-sheet behaviour: retreat scenarios and changing controls in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Anna Ruth W.; Simkins, Lauren M.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Anderson, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Studying the history of ice-sheet behaviour in the Ross Sea, Antarctica's largest drainage basin can improve our understanding of patterns and controls on marine-based ice-sheet dynamics and provide constraints for numerical ice-sheet models. Newly collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data, combined with two decades of legacy multibeam and seismic data, are used to map glacial landforms and reconstruct palaeo ice-sheet drainage. During the Last Glacial Maximum, grounded ice reached the continental shelf edge in the eastern but not western Ross Sea. Recessional geomorphic features in the western Ross Sea indicate virtually continuous back-stepping of the ice-sheet grounding line. In the eastern Ross Sea, well-preserved linear features and a lack of small-scale recessional landforms signify rapid lift-off of grounded ice from the bed. Physiography exerted a first-order control on regional ice behaviour, while sea floor geology played an important subsidiary role. Previously published deglacial scenarios for Ross Sea are based on low-spatial-resolution marine data or terrestrial observations; however, this study uses high-resolution basin-wide geomorphology to constrain grounding-line retreat on the continental shelf. Our analysis of retreat patterns suggests that (1) retreat from the western Ross Sea was complex due to strong physiographic controls on ice-sheet drainage; (2) retreat was asynchronous across the Ross Sea and between troughs; (3) the eastern Ross Sea largely deglaciated prior to the western Ross Sea following the formation of a large grounding-line embayment over Whales Deep; and (4) our glacial geomorphic reconstruction converges with recent numerical models that call for significant and complex East Antarctic ice sheet and West Antarctic ice sheet contributions to the ice flow in the Ross Sea.

  5. Predictors of initiation and persistence of unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Jess

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCB among adolescents have significant health and weight consequences. The current longitudinal study aimed to identify personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation or persistence of adolescent UWCB, in order to inform development of programs aimed at both preventing and stopping UWCB. Methods A diverse sample included 1106 boys and 1362 girls from 31 middle schools and high schools in the United States who were enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens. Project EAT explored personal, behavioural, and socio-environmental factors associated with dietary intake and body weight in adolescence. Participants completed questionnaires to assess demographics, UWCB (including several methods of food restriction, purging by vomiting or medications, smoking to control weight, or food substitutions and personal and socio-environmental variables at two time points, five years apart, between 1998 and 2004. Logistic regression models examined personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation and persistence of UWCB among Project EAT participants. Results Results indicate that 15.5% of boys and 19.7% of girls initiated UWCB by Time 2, and 15.9% of boys and 43.3% of girls persisted with these behaviours from Time 1 to Time 2. After controlling for race/ethnicity and weight status changes between assessments, logistic regression models indicated that similar factors and patterns of factors were associated significantly with initiation and persistence of UWCB. For both boys and girls, personal factors had more predictive value than socio-environmental factors (Initiation models: for boys: R2 = 0.35 for personal vs. 0.27 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.46 for personal vs. 0.26 for socio-environmental factors. Persistence models: for boys: R2 = 0.53 for personal vs. 0.33 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.41 for personal vs. 0.19 for socio

  6. Participation in a 10-week course of yoga improves behavioural control and decreases psychological distress in a prison population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilderbeck, A.C.; Farias, M.; Brazil, I.A.; Jakobowitz, S.; Wikholm, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Yoga and meditation have been shown to be effective in alleviating symptoms of depression and anxiety in healthy volunteers and psychiatric populations. Recent work has also indicated that yoga can improve cognitive-behavioural performance and control. Although there have been no controll

  7. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  8. Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Koetz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia, which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge.

  9. Smartphone-Supported versus Full Behavioural Activation for Depression: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Hoa Ly

    Full Text Available There is need for more cost and time effective treatments for depression. This is the first randomised controlled trial in which a blended treatment--including four face-to-face sessions and a smartphone application--was compared against a full behavioural treatment. Hence, the aim of the current paper was to examine whether a blended smartphone treatment was non-inferior to a full behavioural activation treatment for depression.This was a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial (NCT01819025 comparing a blended treatment (n=46 against a full ten-session treatment (n=47 for people suffering from major depression. Primary outcome measure was the BDI-II, that was administered at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six months after the treatment.Results showed significant improvements in both groups across time on the primary outcome measure (within-group Cohen's d=1.35; CI [-0.82, 3.52] to d=1.47; CI [-0.41, 3.35]; between group d=-0.13 CI [-2.37, 2.09] and d=-0.10 CI [-2.53, 2.33]. At the same time, the blended treatment reduced the therapist time with an average of 47%.We could not establish whether the blended treatment was non-inferior to a full BA treatment. Nevertheless, this study points to that the blended treatment approach could possibly treat nearly twice as many patients suffering from depression by using a smartphone application as add-on. More studies are needed before we can suggest that the blended treatment method is a promising cost-effective alternative to regular face-to-face treatment for depression.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment of Depression With Smartphone Support NCT01819025.

  10. Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

  11. The influence of cruise control and adaptive cruise control on driving behaviour--a driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvollrath; Schleicher, Susanne; Gelau, Christhard

    2011-05-01

    Although Cruise Control (CC) is available for most cars, no studies have been found which examine how this automation system influences driving behaviour. However, a relatively large number of studies have examined Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) which compared to CC includes also a distance control. Besides positive effects with regard to a better compliance to speed limits, there are also indications of smaller distances to lead vehicles and slower responses in situations that require immediate braking. Similar effects can be expected for CC as this system takes over longitudinal control as well. To test this hypothesis, a simulator study was conducted at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Twenty-two participants drove different routes (highway and motorway) under three different conditions (assisted by ACC, CC and manual driving without any system). Different driving scenarios were examined including a secondary task condition. On the one hand, both systems lead to lower maximum velocities and less speed limit violations. There was no indication that drivers shift more of their attention towards secondary tasks when driving with CC or ACC. However, there were delayed driver reactions in critical situations, e.g., in a narrow curve or a fog bank. These results give rise to some caution regarding the safety effects of these systems, especially if in the future their range of functionality (e.g., ACC Stop-and-Go) is further increased.

  12. Controlled release behaviour and antibacterial effects of antibiotic-loaded titania nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenchao; Geng, Zhen; Li, Zhaoyang; Cui, Zhenduo; Zhu, Shengli; Liang, Yanqin; Liu, Yunde; Wang, Renfeng; Yang, Xianjin

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections have been identified as the main cause of orthopaedic implant failure. Owing to their high antibiotic delivery efficiency, titania nanotubes loaded with antibiotics constitute one of the most promising strategies for suppressing bacterial infections. However, it is difficult to control the drug-release behaviour of such nanotubes. Although sealing the nanotubes with a polymer solution provides sustained release effects to a certain extent, it inevitably influences their initial antibacterial activity. This study reports on the controlled release of gentamicin sulphate (GS) from titania nanotube surfaces whereby their initial antibacterial activity remains unaffected. Titania nanotubes were fabricated via electrochemical anodization and loaded with GS through physical adsorption. Experimental results showed that this loading method is feasible and efficient. The GS-loaded titania nanotubes were further covered by a thin film comprising a mixture of GS and chitosan (GSCH). The release kinetics confirmed that the drug release could be controlled by this thin film. Moreover, such a film was shown to not only inhibit initial bacterial adherence owing to its strong antibacterial properties but also enhance cell viability. Thus, GS-loaded titania nanotubes coated with GSCH have considerable potential as biomaterials for preventing initial release and peri-implant infection in the field of orthopaedics.

  13. A randomised controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-05-01

    Perfectionism is associated with symptoms of anxiety disorders, eating disorders and mood disorders. Treatments targeting perfectionism may reduce the symptoms of these disorders (Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011). This study is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for perfectionism. Forty-two participants with elevated perfectionism and a range of anxiety, eating and mood disorders were randomised to group CBT for perfectionism or a waitlist control. The treatment group reported significantly greater pre-post reductions in perfectionism, symptoms of depression, eating disorders, social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and rumination, as well as significantly greater pre-post increases in self-esteem and quality of life compared to the waitlist control group. The impact of treatment on most of these outcomes was mediated by pre-post change in perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes). Treatment gains were reliable and clinically significant, and were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Findings support group CBT for perfectionism being an efficacious treatment for perfectionism and related psychopathology, as well as increasing self-esteem and quality of life.

  14. A Controlled Experiment for the Assessment of Aspects - Tracing in an Industrial Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durr, Pascal; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    For years the Aspect Oriented Software Development community has promoted aspects as a solution to complexities introduced by implementing crosscutting concerns. And while a lot of research focuses on advancing the state of the art of aspect oriented programing and design, there is still no (reporte

  15. Psychological Aspects in Young Adults with Beta-Thalassemia Major, control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hosseini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Beta-thalassemia major (TM, a chronic, genetically determined hematological disorder, has received little investigation on the psychological aspects of the disease and the psychosocial adjustment of patients with this anemia. In the present study, the aim was to explore the nature of psychopathology according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease in TM patients compared with demographically matched healthy persons.Materials and Methods: A controlled anterograde cohort study was conducted at the Thalassemia Unit of Boo-Ali Hospital from June 2003 to November 2005 in Sari, Iran. Psychological aspects were evaluated by the Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised questionnaire. Information on relevant demographic characteristics, school performance, severity and complications of the disease was collected by one of the investigators who had created the questionnaire.Results: 125 persons with TM completed the questionnaires and were compared with 125 controls and 250 totally. The mean age of the participants was 18.51± 2.0 years and with a range of 15-25 years. 132 (52.8% were female with equal family status, social and economic status. Patients group reported a significantly lower level of marital status (P<0.01, education level (P<0.0001, school performance (P<0.0001. TM patients were found to have significantly more psychiatric disorders than the control subjects with GSI: 1.16 ± 0.47 vs. 1.01 ± 0.6; (P<0.03, PSD: 54.99 ± 12.59 vs. 46.42 ± 18.76 (P<0.0001, and PSDI 2.02±1.02 vs 2.45 ± 2.22 (P<0.05. We recorded significant changes in the mean scores of somatization (P<0.0001, interpersonal sensitivity (P<0.0001, depression (P<0.003, anxiety (P<0.05 and psychoticism (P<0.03 in the TM patients as compared to the control subjects.Conclusion: These findings show that beta-thalassemia major patients are at risk for psychiatric symptomatology and need appropriate psychiatric

  16. Trust or Control:How to Manage Behavioural Uncertainty for Industrial Product-Service System Provision?

    OpenAIRE

    Reim, Wiebke; Rönnberg Sjödin, David; Parida, Vinit

    2014-01-01

    Offering industrial product-services is argued to result in a significant change in the relational dynamics between provider and customer. The increased service content inherently leads to more co-creation of value with customers but may also increases the risks of opportunistic behaviour from customers. Such behaviour is hard to predict and therefore, understanding how provider can effectively manage such new behavioural challenges when offering industrial product-services is an important re...

  17. Some aspects of the occurrence and behaviour of the crane Grus grus in Poland in light of pre-investment wind-farm monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithological pre-investment monitoring at planned wind farm sites is a standard and obligatory procedure in Poland and other EU countries. Pre-investment wind farm monitoring has a very important ‘side effect’ to its main goal (the safety of bird populations, namely the collection of valuable avifaunistic data from many localities that most probably would never be studied if not for the obligation to prepare environmental reports when wind energy investments are planned. The main aim of this paper is to show what we can learn from obligatory pre-investment monitoring when the standard field monitoring procedure and unified evaluation methodology are used. As an example the Common Crane Grus grus was selected, as a bird listed in Annex 1 of Directive 2009/147/EC and easy to identify and count. The data were collected at 155 controlled monitoring sites all over Poland, but mainly along the Baltic coast and in the Masurian Lake District. The methodology of the data collection and evaluation of results was strictly according to a paper by Busse (2013. The presentation of the results includes the numerical distribution of cranes in all seasons and some details of their behaviour - observations of birds on the ground and those using the air space: below the future rotor swept area of the wind turbines, at the rotor swept height, and flying above it. The estimated collision rates vary depending on the area, season and local heights of movements. It was concluded that such an evaluation of data already collected could be helpful in evaluating a particular site in comparison with other, previously studied localities.

  18. Aspects regarding at 13C isotope separation column control using Petri nets system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, M. L.; Ciortea, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is intended to show that Petri nets can be also applicable in the chemical industry. It used linear programming, modeling underlying Petri nets, especially discrete event systems for isotopic separation, the purpose of considering and control events in real-time through graphical representations. In this paper it is simulate the control of 13C Isotope Separation column using Petri nets. The major problem with 13C comes from the difficulty of obtaining it and raising its natural fraction. Carbon isotopes can be obtained using many methods, one of them being the cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide. Some few aspects regarding operating conditions and the construction of such cryogenic plants are known today, and even less information are available as far as the separation process modeling and control are concerned. In fact, the efficient control of the carbon monoxide distillation process represents a necessity for large-scale 13C production. Referring to a classic distillation process, some models for carbon isotope separation have been proposed, some based on mass, component and energy balance equations, some on the nonlinear wave theory or the Cohen equations. For modeling the system it was used Petri nets because in this case it is deal with discrete event systems. In use of the non-timed and with auxiliary times Petri model, the transport stream was divided into sections and these sections will be analyzed successively. Because of the complexity of the system and the large amount of calculations required it was not possible to analyze the system as a unitary whole. A first attempt to model the system as a unitary whole led to the blocking of the model during simulation, because of the large processing times.

  19. Biomimetics Micro Robot with Active Hardware Neural Networks Locomotion Control and Insect-Like Switching Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Saito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the 4.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm, width, length, height size biomimetics micro robot system which was inspired by insects. The micro robot system was made from silicon wafer fabricated by micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS technology. The mechanical system of the robot was equipped with small size rotary type actuators, link mechanisms and six legs to realize the insect‐like switching behaviour. In addition, we constructed the active hardware neural networks (HNN by analogue CMOS circuits as a locomotion controlling system. The HNN utilized the pulse‐type hardware neuron model (P‐HNM as a basic component. The HNN outputs the driving pulses using synchronization phenomena such as biological neural networks. The driving pulses can operate the actuators of the biomimetics micro robot directly. Therefore, the HNN realized the robot control without using any software programs or A/D converters. The micro robot emulated the locomotion method and the neural networks of an insect with rotary type actuators, link mechanisms and HNN. The micro robot performed forward and backward locomotion, and also changed direction by inputting an external trigger pulse. The locomotion speed was 26.4 mm/min when the step width was 0.88 mm.

  20. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  1. The Job Demands-Job Control Model and absence behaviour : results of a 3-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.G.W.; Nijhuis, F.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results of earlier studies only marginally supported the relevance of Karasek's Job Demands-Job Control Model for absence behaviour. Since longitudinal studies with respect to these relations were largely lacking, a four-wave panel study was carried out using data from 1755 male employees

  2. Techniques Use by Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Teachers for Controlling Undesirable Classroom Behaviours in Anambra State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinelo, Okigbo Ebele; Nwanneka, Okoli Josephine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the techniques used by secondary school Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) teachers in controlling undesirable behaviours in their classrooms. It adopted descriptive survey design in which 178 Anambra State teachers teaching STM subjects in senior secondary were involved in the research. Two sections of questionnaire…

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Attwood, Tony; Hinton, Sharon; Levin, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study described was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management with children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-five children and their parents were randomly assigned to either intervention or wait-list control conditions. Children in the intervention participated in six 2-h…

  4. I comportamenti violenti nel sonno REM: aspetti clinici, criminologici e medico-legali / Les comportements violents pendant le sommeil MOR : aspects cliniques, criminologiques et médico-légaux / The Violent Behaviour in REM Sleep-related: Clinical, Criminological and Forensic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimino Luca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The violent behaviour of sleep represents a new frontier of forensic interest. After examining the clinical aspects of a particular form of parasomnia related to REM stage of sleep, called REM Behavior Disorder-RBD, the author highlights the criminological and forensic implications emphasizing the distinctive features in terms of responsibility and imputability.Les comportements violents pendant le sommeil MOR représentent une nouvelle “frontière” d’intérêt de la psychologie médico-légale. Après avoir examiné les aspects cliniques d’une forme particulière de parasomnie liée à la phase MOR du sommeil (denominata REM Behaviour Disorders-RBD, l’auteur de l’article met en évidence ses implications criminologiques et médico-légales; en outre, il souligne les aspects particuliers de cette parasomnie en matière de responsabilité et d’imputabilité.I comportamenti violenti del sonno rappresentano una nuova “frontiera” di interesse forense. L’autore, dopo aver esaminato gli aspetti clinici di una particolare forma di parasonnia legata alla fase REM del sonno, denominata REM Behaviour Disorders-RBD, ne sottolinea le implicazioni criminologiche e medico-legali sottolineandone gli aspetti peculiari in tema di colpa ed imputabilità.

  5. Human behavioural research applied to the leprosy control programme of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.

  6. Rheological behaviour and physical properties of controlled-release gluten-based bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martínez, D; Partal, P; Martínez, I; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-01

    Bioplastics based on glycerol, water and wheat gluten have been manufactured in order to determine the effect that mechanical processing and further thermal treatments exert on different thermo-mechanical properties of the biomaterials obtained. An "active agent", KCl was incorporated in these matrices to develop controlled-release formulations. Oscillatory shear, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), diffusion and water absorption tests were carried out in order to study the influence of the above-mentioned treatments on the physico-chemical characteristics and rheological behaviour of these bioplastic samples. Wheat gluten protein-based bioplastics studied in this work present a high ability for thermosetting modification, due to protein denaturation, which may favour the development of a wide variety of biomaterials. Bioplastic hygroscopic properties depend on plasticizer nature and processing procedure, and may be a key factor for industrial applications where water absorption is required. On the other hand, high water absorption and slow KCl release from bioplastic samples (both of them suitable properties in agricultural applications) may be obtained by adding citric acid to a given formulation, at selected processing conditions.

  7. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhoncanse, Geiza César; Germano, Carla Maria R.; de Avó, Lucimar Retto da S.; Melo, Débora Gusmão

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant pApgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24676186

  8. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  9. Multivariable Control Synthesis Program - Control Aspects of the F100 Altitude Demonstration of the Multivariable Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    control modes can also reduce the sensitivity to parameter variations and sensor inaccuracies. The F100 (see Figure 2.1) engine was selected for the MVCS...FTS + A - SGB - I GTS (2.11) and by a comparable form for Eq.(2.7). The solution is calculated numerically by integration of the matrix Ricatti...latter schedules the power condition. Dominant gain elements are determined by assessing the closed-loop eigenvalue sensitivity of the system to each

  10. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae;

    2009-01-01

    separately by means of multiple logistic regression in order to quantify factors influencing occupants’ behaviour. The window opening behaviour was strongly related to the outdoor temperature. The perception of the environment and factors concerning the dwelling also impacted the window opening behaviour....... The proportion of dwellings with the heating turned on was strongly related to the outdoor temperature and the presence of a wood burning stove. The solar radiation, dwelling ownership conditions and the perception of the indoor environment also affected the use of heating. The results of the statistical...

  11. A Controlled Experiment for the Assessment of Aspects: Tracing in an Industrial Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durr, Pascal; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    For years, the Aspect Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community has promoted aspects as a solution to the complexities of implementing crosscutting concerns. But while a lot of research focuses on advancing the state of the art of AOSD, there are few reports on the industrial adoption of AOSD p

  12. Neurochemical and behavioural indices of exercise reward are independent of exercise controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jonathan J; Fedynska, Sofiya; Ghasem, Parsa R; Wieman, Tyler; Clark, Peter J; Gray, Nathan; Loetz, Esteban; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2016-05-01

    Brain reward circuits are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related disorders, but the contribution of exercise reward to stress resistance is unknown. Exercise-induced stress resistance is independent of exercise controllability; both voluntary running (VR) and forced running (FR) protect rats against the anxiety-like and depression-like behavioural consequences of stress. Voluntary exercise is a natural reward, but whether rats find FR rewarding is unknown. Moreover, the contribution of dopamine (DA) and striatal reward circuits to exercise reward is not well characterized. Adult, male rats were assigned to locked wheels, VR, or FR groups. FR rats were forced to run in a pattern resembling the natural wheel running behavior of rats. Both VR and FR increased the reward-related plasticity marker ΔFosB in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens, and increased the activity of DA neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area, as revealed by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and pCREB. Both VR and FR rats developed conditioned place preference (CPP) to the side of a CPP chamber paired with exercise. Re-exposure to the exercise-paired side of the CPP chamber elicited conditioned increases in cfos mRNA in direct-pathway (dynorphin-positive) neurons in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens in both VR and FR rats, and in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of VR rats only. The results suggest that the rewarding effects of exercise are independent of exercise controllability and provide insight into the DA and striatal circuitries involved in exercise reward and exercise-induced stress resistance.

  13. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Linda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230 of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at baseline and post-program, but only the intervention participants received project materials. A modified fat and fibre questionnaire measured nutritional behaviours, whereas physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Generalised estimating equation models were used to assess the repeated outcomes over both time points. Results The final sample consisted of 176 intervention participants and 199 controls (response rate 78.5% with complete data. After controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, the intervention group demonstrated increased participation in strength exercise (p Conclusions A minimal contact, low-cost and home-based physical activity program can positively influence seniors’ physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Trial registration anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609000735257

  14. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  15. A Hybrid System of Hierarchical Planning of Behaviour Selection Networks for Mobile Robot Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seol Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An office delivery robot receives a large amount of sensory data and there is uncertainty in its action outcomes. The robot should not only accomplish its goals using environmental information, but also consider various exceptions simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a hybrid system using hierarchical planning of modular behaviour selection networks to generate autonomous behaviour in the office delivery robot. Behaviour selection networks, one of the well-known behaviour-based methods suitable for goal-oriented tasks, are made up of several smaller behaviour modules. Planning is attached to the construct and adjust sequences of the modules by considering the sub-goals, the priority in each task and the user feedback. This helps the robot to quickly react in dynamic situations as well as achieve global goals efficiently. The proposed system is verified with both the Webot simulator and a Khepera II robot that runs in a real office environment carrying out delivery tasks. Experimental results have shown that a robot can achieve goals and generate module sequences successfully even in unpredictable situations. Additionally, the proposed planning method reduced the elapsed time during tasks by 17.5% since it adjusts the behaviour module sequences more effectively.

  16. Three to four years after diagnosis: cognition and behaviour in children with 'epilepsy only'. A prospective, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostrom, K J; van Teeseling, H; Smeets-Schouten, A; Peters, A C B; Jennekens-Schinkel, A

    2005-07-01

    A 3.5-year follow-up study of cognition and behaviour in 42 children with newly diagnosed idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy ('epilepsy only') attending mainstream education and 30 healthy gender-matched classmate controls was carried out to identify differences between groups, to detect factors that contribute to the difference and its change over time, and to establish the proportion of poorly performing children. The neuropsychological battery covered the major domains of cognition, mental and motor speed and academic language skills. Children were tested at the time of diagnosis (before any anti-epileptic drug treatment started) and 3, 12 and approximately 42 months later. Parents and teachers completed behaviour checklists, for which the scoring was adapted to prevent any influence of epilepsy-related ambiguity. Based on parental interviews at the time of diagnosis, children with epilepsy were categorized as having longstanding behavioural and/or learning problems, as belonging to a troubled family, as being exposed to 'off-balance' parenting starting at the time of epilepsy onset and/or as reacting maladaptively to the changes in relation to the onset of epilepsy. Throughout follow-up, the group of children with epilepsy only performed less well than healthy classmates on measures of learning, memory span for words, attention and behaviour. After controlling for school delay, proactive interference (number of responses to the same images as in the learning trials, but now presented in reordered locations) was the only remaining variable that distinguished the group of children with epilepsy only. Group-wise, no changes in cognitive and behavioural differences over time were found, but instability in individual performances appeared to characterize children with epilepsy only. Rather than intrinsically epilepsy-related variables, such as idiopathic versus cryptogenic aetiology, seizure control or anti-epileptic drug treatment, the child's prediagnostic

  17. Clinical components and associated behavioural aspects of a complex healthcare intervention: Multi-methods study of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in critical care

    OpenAIRE

    Dombrowski, S.U.; Prior, M. E.; Duncan, E. M.; Cuthbertson, B H; Bellingan, G; Campbell, M. K.; Rose, L; Binning, A. R.; Gordon, A C; Wilson, P.; Shulman, R; Francis, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to identify and describe the clinical and behavioural components (e.g. the what, how, when, where and by whom) of ‘selective decontamination of the digestive tract’ (SDD) as routinely implemented in the care of critically ill patients. Methods Multi-methods study, consisting of semi-structured observations of SDD delivery, interviews with clinicians and documentary analysis, conducted in two ICUs in the UK that routinely deliver SDD. Data were analysed w...

  18. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  19. Bacteriological Aspects of Hand Washing: A Key for Health Promotion and Infections Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Ataee, Mohammad Hosein; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Salesi, Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  20. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  1. Auricular Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: A Randomised Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bergdahl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most effective nonpharmacological treatment for insomnia disorder is cognitive behavioural therapy-insomnia (CBT-i. However CBT-i may not suit everyone. Auricular acupuncture (AA is a complementary treatment. Studies show that it may alleviate insomnia symptoms. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to compare treatment effects of AA with CBT-i and evaluate symptoms of insomnia severity, anxiety, and depression. Method. Fifty-nine participants, mean age 60.5 years (SD 9.4, with insomnia disorder were randomised to group treatment with AA or CBT-i. Self-report questionnaires, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI, Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale (DBAS-16, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD, were collected at baseline, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. A series of linear mixed models were performed to examine treatment effect over time between and within the groups. Results. Significant between-group improvements were seen in favour of CBT-i in ISI after treatment and at the 6-month follow-up and in DBAS-16 after treatment. Both groups showed significant within-group postintervention improvements in ISI, and these changes were maintained six months later. The CBT-i group also showed a significant reduction in DBAS-16 after treatment and six months later. Conclusions. Compared to CBT-i, AA, as offered in this study, cannot be considered an effective stand-alone treatment for insomnia disorder. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01765959.

  2. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  3. Inclusive Education: Teachers' Intentions and Behaviour Analysed from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Sin, Kuen-fung

    2014-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) claims that behaviour can be predicted by behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control, while behavioural intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. This study aims at providing explanation and prediction of teachers' inclusive…

  4. The disrupted basal ganglia and behavioural control: an integrative cross-domain perspective of spontaneous stereotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sebastian D; Parker, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous stereotypic behaviour (SB) is common in many captive animal species, as well as in humans with some severe psychiatric disorders, and is often cited as being related to general basal ganglia dysfunction. Despite this assertion, there is little in the literature examining SB specifically in terms of the basal ganglia mechanics. In this review, we attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrative, cross-domain perspective of SB by linking what we currently understand about the SB phenotype with the ever-growing literature on the anatomy and functionality of the basal ganglia. After outlining current models of SB from different theoretical perspectives, we offer a broad but detailed overview of normally functioning basal ganglia mechanics, and attempt to link this with current neurophysiological evidence related to spontaneous SB. Based on this we present an empirically derived theoretical framework, which proposes that SB is the result of a dysfunctional action selection system that may reflect dysregulation of excitatory (direct) and inhibitory (indirect and hyperdirect) pathways as well as alterations in mechanisms of behavioural switching. This approach also suggests behaviours that specifically become stereotypic may reflect inbuilt low selection threshold behavioural sequences associated with early development and the species-specific ethogram or, low threshold behavioural sequences that are the result of stress-induced dopamine exposure at the time of performance.

  5. Flyglow: Single-fly observations of simultaneous molecular and behavioural circadian oscillations in controls and an Alzheimer’s model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabirova, Eleonora; Chen, Ko-Fan; O’Neill, John S.; Crowther, Damian C.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are essential for health and are frequently disturbed in disease. A full understanding of the causal relationships between behavioural and molecular circadian rhythms requires simultaneous longitudinal observations over time in individual organisms. Current experimental paradigms require the measurement of each rhythm separately across distinct populations of experimental organisms, rendering the comparability of the resulting datasets uncertain. We therefore developed FLYGLOW, an assay using clock gene controlled luciferase expression detected by exquisitely sensitive EM-CCD imaging, to enable simultaneous quantification of parameters including locomotor, sleep consolidation and molecular rhythms in single flies over days/weeks. FLYGLOW combines all the strengths of existing techniques, and also allows powerful multiparametric paired statistics. We found the age-related transition from rhythmicity to arrhythmicity for each parameter occurs unpredictably, with some flies showing loss of one or more rhythms during middle-age. Using single-fly correlation analysis of rhythm robustness and period we demonstrated the independence of the peripheral clock from circadian behaviours in wild type flies as well as in an Alzheimer’s model. FLYGLOW is a useful tool for investigating the deterioration of behavioural and molecular rhythms in ageing and neurodegeneration. This approach may be applied more broadly within behavioural neurogenetics research. PMID:27658441

  6. Cognitive behavioural treatment for women who have menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1): a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Eleanor; Smith, Melanie J; Hellier, Jennifer; Balabanovic, Janet A; Hamed, Hisham; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS) affect 65–85% of women after breast cancer treatment; they are distressing, causing sleep problems and decreased quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is often either undesirable or contraindicated. Safe, effective non-hormonal treatments are needed. We investigated whether cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can help breast cancer survivors to effectively manage HFNS. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited women...

  7. Guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for depression is limited. One solution is CBT self-help books. Trial Objectives: To assess the impact of a guided self-help CBT book (GSH-CBT on mood, compared to treatment as usual (TAU. HYPOTHESES: GSH-CBT will have improved mood and knowledge of the causes and treatment of depression compared to the control receiving TAUGuided self-help will be acceptable to patients and staff. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PARTICIPANTS: Adults attending seven general practices in Glasgow, UK with a BDI-II score of ≥14. 141 randomised to GSH-CBT and 140 to TAU. INTERVENTIONS: RCT comparing 'Overcoming Depression: A Five Areas Approach' book plus 3-4 short face to face support appointments totalling up to 2 hours of guided support, compared with general practitioner TAU. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The BDI (II score at 4 months. Numbers analysed: 281 at baseline, 203 at 4 months (primary outcome, 117 at 12 months. OUTCOME: Mean BDI-II scores were lower in the GSH-CBT group at 4 months by 5.3 points (2.6 to 7.9, p<0.001. At 4 and 12 months there were also significantly higher proportions of participants achieving a 50% reduction in BDI-II in the GSH-CBT arm. The mean support was 2 sessions with 42.7 minutes for session 1, 41.4 minutes for session 2 and 40.2 minutes of support for session 3. Adverse effects/Harms: Significantly less deterioration in mood in GSH-CBT (2.0% compared to 9.8% in the TAU group for BDI-II category change. LIMITATIONS: Weaknesses: Our follow-up rate of 72.2% at 4 months is better than predicted but is poorer at 12 months (41.6%. In the GSH-CBT arm, around 50% of people attended 2 or fewer sessions. 22% failed to take up treatment. CONCLUSIONS: GSH-CBT is substantially more effective than TAU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN13475030.

  8. Behavioural adaptation and the use of environmental controls in summer for thermal comfort in apartments in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-15

    Building energy use in India is rising phenomenally. Indian codes prescribe a very narrow comfort temperature range (23-26 C) for summer. Ventilation controls alone consume 47% of total energy in residences. Thermal comfort field studies in Indian residences were not attempted. The author conducted a field study in apartments in Hyderabad, in summer and monsoon seasons in 2008. This paper presents the occupants' methods of environmental and behavioural adaptation and impediments in using controls. Only about 40% of the occupants were comfortable in summer due to inadequate adaptive opportunities. The comfort range obtained in this study (26.0-32.5 C), was way above the standard. Fanger's PMV always overestimated the actual sensation. The occupants used many adaptation methods: the environmental controls, clothing, metabolism and many behavioural actions. Use of fans, air coolers and A/cs increased with temperature, and was impeded by their poor efficacy and noise, occupant's attitudes and economic affordability. A/c and air cooler usage was higher in top floors. Behavioural adaptation was better in summer and was restricted in higher economic groups always. Thermal tolerance was limited in subjects using A/cs and resulted in ''thermal indulgence''. This study calls for special adaptation methods for top-floor flats. (author)

  9. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration.

  10. Overweight Adolescents’ Self-Perceived Weight and Weight Control Behaviour: HBSC Study in Finland 1994–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ojala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Overweight and perception of being overweight, may lead adolescent to lose weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, and weight control behaviour during 1994–2010 in Finland. Methods. The country-representative, cross-sectional data of 15-year olds were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study, conducted in 1994 (=1194; males: 48%, 1998 (=1545; 49%, 2002 (=1745; 50%, 2006 (=1670; 47%, and 2010 (=2082; 48%. Results. The majority of overweight boys (62–69% and girls (89–100% assessed themselves as too fat, and their body image was lower than in nonoverweight adolescents. The highest prevalence of current weight controlling was found in 2006 in males (18% and in 2010 in females (39%. Conclusion. The phenomena were current and gender differences notable, but there was no statistically significant difference in overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, or weight control behaviour between survey years.

  11. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend......KE*, and demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  12. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  13. Descriptive peer norms, self-control and dietary behaviour in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Otten, R.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that perceived peer eating norms can influence dietary behaviour. This cross-sectional study examined whether certain personality traits increase the likelihood that personal eating habits are similar to perceived peer eating habits. We assessed frequency of consumption of sugar-sw

  14. Behavioural effects of rapid intravenous administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in patients with panic disorder and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wee, Nic J A; Fiselier, Jasha; van Megen, Harold J G M; Westenberg, Herman G M

    2004-10-01

    Oral and intravenous challenge paradigms with the direct 5-HT agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) in panic disorder (PD) have shown only moderate sensitivity or selectivity of the panicogenic effects in PD. However, the results of a study examining the effects of rapid intravenous administration of 0.1 mg/kg of m-CPP in healthy volunteers suggested that this approach may be a more selective and sensitive panicogenic paradigm in PD. We therefore compared the behavioural, neuroendocrine and physiological effects of rapid intravenous administration of 0.1 mg/kg of m-CPP in 10 patients with PD and 10 healthy controls. Panic attacks were significantly more provoked in patients with PD (90%) compared to healthy controls (0%). Effects on the behavioural, but not on the neuroendocrine and physiological parameters, were significantly greater in patients. Our data suggests that the behavioural effects of rapid intravenous administration of 0.1 mg/kg of m-CPP in patients with PD indeed show a unique combination of high sensitivity and selectivity.

  15. Conventional approaches for assessment of caving behaviour and support requirement with regard to strata control experiences in longwall workings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.S.P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Effective control of roof strata is very important for trouble free operation and regular face advance in mechanised longwall workings. It is now technically possible to exploit coal seams in difficult geo-mining conditions with the help of newer innovations in longwall face machineries. A reliable assess-ment of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement helps in selecting supports of adequate capacity and making operational preparedness for timely and confident solution of impending problems. This paper reviews the mechanism of roof caving and the conventional approaches of caving behaviour and support requirement in the context of major strata control experiences gained worldwide. The re-view shows that a number of approaches are being used for advance prediction of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement in a variety of geo-mining conditions. The theoretical explanation of the mechanism of roof caving and the design function of roof supports have been worked out through staged development of approaches, their evaluation followed by their gradual modification and enrichment of synthesized findings. This process is still continuing with consistently improved understanding through growing field experiences in the larger domain of geo-mining conditions and state-of-art strata analysis and monitoring techniques. These attempts have contributed significantly to improving the level of understanding and reducing the gap of uncertainty in planning and design of longwall operation in a given geo-mining condition.

  16. Precise observation of C. elegans dynamic behaviours under controlled thermal stimulus using a mobile phone-based microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, T; Shin, D-M; Kim, S; Lee, S; Lee, T G; Kim, K

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the temperature-dependent locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans by using the mobile phone-based microscope. We developed the customized imaging system with mini incubator and smartphone to effectively control the thermal stimulation for precisely observing the temperature-dependent locomotory behaviours of C. elegans. Using the mobile phone-based microscope, we successfully followed the long-term progress of specimens of C. elegans in real time as they hatched and explored their temperature-dependent locomotory behaviour. We are convinced that the mobile phone-based microscope is a useful device for real time and long-term observations of biological samples during incubation, and can make it possible to carry out live observations via wireless communications regardless of location. In addition, this microscope has the potential for widespread use owing to its low cost and compact design.

  17. A Formal Approach to Run-Time Evaluation of Real-Time Behaviour in Distributed Process Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.

    a higher confidence in the system behaviour. We have proposed a combination of formal methods and supplemental fault-detection techniques which we call the Complementary Run-Time Evaluation Model. The basic idea in this model is to use the means of verification given by formal methods, to prove......This thesis advocates a formal approach to run-time evaluation of real-time behaviour in distributed process sontrol systems, motivated by a growing interest in applying the increasingly popular formal methods in the application area of distributed process control systems. We propose to evaluate...... the various models underlaying every formal method by declaring the design assumptions as a number of features or constraints, stated in the formal specification of system requirements, to be evaluated at run-time. It is assumed that if these constraints are ful-filled at run-time then it is fair to have...

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structures Integration Program, a survey of available software for control of flexible structures, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software are discussed.

  19. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  20. Effects of Study Design and Allocation on participant behaviour - ESDA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeran Paschal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What study participants think about the nature of a study has been hypothesised to affect subsequent behaviour and to potentially bias study findings. In this trial we examine the impact of awareness of study design and allocation on participant drinking behaviour. Methods/Design A three-arm parallel group randomised controlled trial design will be used. All recruitment, screening, randomisation, and follow-up will be conducted on-line among university students. Participants who indicate a hazardous level of alcohol consumption will be randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group A will be informed their drinking will be assessed at baseline and again in one month (as in a cohort study design. Group B will be told the study is an intervention trial and they are in the control group. Group C will be told the study is an intervention trial and they are in the intervention group. All will receive exactly the same brief educational material to read. After one month, alcohol intake for the past 4 weeks will be assessed. Discussion The experimental manipulations address subtle and previously unexplored ways in which participant behaviour may be unwittingly influenced by standard practice in trials. Given the necessity of relying on self-reported outcome, it will not be possible to distinguish true behaviour change from reporting artefact. This does not matter in the present study, as any effects of awareness of study design or allocation involve bias that is not well understood. There has been little research on awareness effects, and our outcomes will provide an indication of the possible value of further studies of this type and inform hypothesis generation. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000846022

  1. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials.

  2. Bifurcation Analysis and Dynamic Behaviour of an Inverted Pendulum with Bounded Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Nedev, Valentin

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the behaviour of con- ventional inverted pendulum with an inertia disk in its free extreme. The system is actuated by means of torques applied to the disk by a DC mo- tor, mounted on the pendulum's arm. Thus, the system is underactuated since the pendulum can rotate freely around its pivot point. The dynam- ical model is given with three ordinary nonlinear differential equations. Using Poincare-Andronov-Hopf's theory, we find a new analytical formula for the first Lyapunov's value at the boundary of stability. It enables one to study in detail the bifurcation behaviour of the above dynamic system. We check the validity of our analytical results on the first Lyapunov's value by numerical simulations. Hence, we find some new results.

  3. Facilitating Controlled Tests of Website Design Changes Using Aspect-Oriented Software Development and Software Product Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Javier; Kobsa, Alfred

    Controlled online experiments in which envisaged changes to a website are first tested live with a small subset of site visitors have proven to predict the effects of these changes quite accurately. However, these experiments often require expensive infrastructure and are costly in terms of development effort. This paper advocates a systematic approach to the design and implementation of such experiments in order to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks by making use of Aspect-Oriented Software Development and Software Product Lines.

  4. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. Design A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Interventions Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. Results BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference −7.1 points, 95% confidence interval −9.8 to −4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference −4.5 points, −7.5 to −1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self

  5. Control and Stabilization of Distributed Parameter Systems; Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Proceedings of the American Control Conference , May 1990. [8] D.S. Bayard, C.H.C. Ih and S.J. Wang, "Adaptive Control for...Flexible Structures with Mea- surement Noise," Proceedings of the American Control Conference , Minneapolis, June 1987, Minneapolis. [9] J. Ben-Asher, J...DOF Manipulator with a Flexible Arm,’ Proceedings of the American Control Conference , June 1992,

  6. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

  7. Subsonic and transonic pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.

  8. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  9. Aspects Concerning the Torque Ripple Control of the Brushless DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with two advanced numerical structures to control the electromagnetic torque ripple of Brushless Direct Current Motors (BLDCM, indirectly achieved by phase currents control and directly by the Direct Torque Control (DTC technique. In DTC there was implemented an observer to increase the rudimentary transducer resolution, containing three Hall Effect sensors. The experimental results describe the evolution of torque in both situations of control and are obtained by applying a control strategy for an electric drive system with BLDCM with trapezoidal Back-EMF in Two-Phase Mode.

  10. JNK1 controls adult hippocampal neurogenesis and imposes cell-autonomous control of anxiety behaviour from the neurogenic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, H; Marchisella, F; Ortega-Martinez, S; Hollos, P; Eerola, K; Komulainen, E; Kulesskaya, N; Freemantle, E; Fagerholm, V; Savontous, E; Rauvala, H; Peterson, B D; van Praag, H; Coffey, E T

    2016-11-15

    Promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to induce neuroplastic changes that improve mood and alleviate anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown and the hypothesis itself is controversial. Here we show that mice lacking Jnk1, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor-treated mice, display increased neurogenesis in adult hippocampus characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and survival, and increased maturation in the ventral region. Correspondingly, anxiety behaviour is reduced in a battery of tests, except when neurogenesis is prevented by AraC treatment. Using engineered retroviruses, we show that exclusive inhibition of JNK in adult-born granule cells alleviates anxiety and reduces depressive-like behaviour. These data validate the neurogenesis hypothesis of anxiety. Moreover, they establish a causal role for JNK in the hippocampal neurogenic niche and anxiety behaviour, and advocate targeting of JNK as an avenue for novel therapies against affective disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 15 November 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.203.

  11. Implementation of physical coordination training and cognitive behavioural training interventions at cleaning workplaces - secondary analyses of a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Faber, Anne; Jespersen, Tobias;

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the implementation of physical coordination training (PCT) and cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) interventions in a randomised controlled trial at nine cleaners' workplaces. Female cleaners (n = 294) were randomised into a PCT, a CBTr or a reference (REF) group. Both 12-w....... However, thorough consideration should be given to feasibility in the design of interventions. The optimal intervention should be tailored to closely match the implementation context and be robust and flexible to minimise susceptibility to changes in work organisation....

  12. Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to weight control in an overweight cohort. Results from a pan-European dietary intervention trial (DiOGenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnon, Aine; Raats, Monique; Astrup, Arne; Bajzová, Magda; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Martinez, J Alfredo; Larson, Thomas Meinert; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas; van Baak, Marleen A; Shepherd, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study investigates weight control in overweight and obese participants (27 kg/m(2)≤BMIexpectation, 14% in intention and 20% in desire scores. No relationship was established between intention, expectation or desire and behaviour at Time 1 or Time 2. Perceived need and subjective norm were found to be significantly related to weight regain, however, the model explained a maximum of 11% of the variation in weight regain. Better understanding of overweight individuals' trajectories of weight control is needed to help inform studies investigating people's weight regain behaviours. Future research using the TPB model to explain weight control should consider the likely behaviours being sought by individuals.

  13. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Carlo; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the "seed-growth" solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au3+ reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50-60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag+ ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated.

  14. Braiding of submarine channels controlled by aspect ratio similar to rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z.; Lai, Steven Y. J.; Komatsu, Yuhei; Paola, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of submarine channels formed by turbidity and density currents are meandering in planform; they consist of a single, sinuous channel that transports a turbid, dense flow of sediment from submarine canyons to ocean floor environments. Braided turbidite systems consisting of multiple, interconnected channel threads are conspicuously rare. Furthermore, such systems may not represent the spontaneous planform instability of true braiding, but instead result from erosive processes or bathymetric variability. In marked contrast to submarine environments, both meandering and braided planforms are common in fluvial systems. Here we present experiments of subaqueous channel formation conducted at two laboratory facilities. We find that density currents readily produce a braided planform for flow aspect ratios of depth to width that are similar to those that produce river braiding. Moreover, we find that stability model theory for river planform morphology successfully describes submarine channels in both experiments and the field. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the rarity of braided submarine channels is explained by the generally greater flow depths in submarine systems, which necessitate commensurately greater widths to achieve the required aspect ratio, along with feedbacks among flow thickness, suspended sediment concentration and channel relief that induce greater levee deposition rates and limit channel widening.

  15. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasso, Carlo, E-mail: cmorasso@dongnocchi.it; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP) (Italy); Zanchetta, Giuliano [Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale (Italy); Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Prosperi, Davide [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, NanoBioLab, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze (Italy); Gramatica, Furio [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au{sup 3+} reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag{sup +} ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated.

  16. Farmer Attitudes and Livestock Disease: Exploring Citizenship Behaviour and Peer Monitoring across Two BVD Control Schemes in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Brownlie, Joe; Gunn, George

    2016-01-01

    The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such) and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other’s behaviour). Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme). The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable. PMID:27023269

  17. Farmer Attitudes and Livestock Disease: Exploring Citizenship Behaviour and Peer Monitoring across Two BVD Control Schemes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Brownlie, Joe; Gunn, George

    2016-01-01

    The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such) and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other's behaviour). Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme). The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable.

  18. Challenges and implementation aspects of switched-mode power supplies with digital control for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenzer-Hohmuth, Samuel; Rosahl, Thoralf; Ritzmann, Steffen; Wicht, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) convert an input DC-voltage into a higher or lower output voltage. In automotive, analog control is mostly used in order to keep the required output voltages constant and resistant to disturbances. The design of robust analog control for SMPS faces parameter variations of integrated and external passive components. Using digital control, parameter variations can be eliminated and the required area for the integrated circuit can be reduced at the same time. Digital control design bears challenges like the prevention of limit cycle oscillations and controller-wind-up. This paper reviews how to prevent these effects. Digital control loops introduce new sources for dead times in the control loop, for example the latency of the analog-to-digital-converter (ADC). Dead times have negative influence on the stability of the control loop, because they lead to phase delays. Consequently, low latency is one of the key requirements for analog-to-digital-converters in digitally controlled SMPS. Exploiting the example of a 500 kHz-buck converter with a crossover frequency of 70 kHz, this paper shows that the 5 µs-latency of a ΔΣ-analog-to-digital-converter leads to a reduction in phase margin of 126°. The latency is less critical for boost converters because of their inherent lower crossover frequencies. Finally, the paper shows a comparison between analog and digital control of SMPS with regard to chip area and test costs.

  19. Sorption reactions in groundwater: various aspects to modelling the transport behaviour of zinc; Sorptionsreaktionen im Grundwasser: Unterschiedliche Aspekte bei der Modellierung des Transportverhaltens von Zink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadeler, A.

    1999-08-01

    The dispersal of trace substance in groundwater may be limited by dissolution and precipitation and, of particular interest in this paper, by sorption and desorption processes. These surface-active processes, which have a decisive influence on groundwater quality, depend on the concomitant geochemical conditions prevailing in the water, the constituents of the aquifer and on the surface properties of the solids. Taking the geochemical conditions prevailing naturally in brown coal mining areas as a point of departure this study was aimed at examining the influence of acidification processes on the transport behaviour inorganic pollutants for the example of zinc. For this purpose oxic column trials were carried out on sandy aquifer material. The data were supplemented by a detailed characterisation of the solid surfaces and modelled on the basis of a transport-reaction model as well as mechanistically with due regard to surface complexing. [German] Die Ausbreitung von Spurenstoffen im Grundwasser wird ausser durch Loesungs- und Faellungsprozesse vor allem durch Sorptions- bzw. Desorptionsvorgaenge limitiert. Diese fuer die Grundwasserqualitaet entscheidenden oberflaechenaktiven Prozesse sind von den variablen geochemischen Randbedingungen im Wasser, vom Stoffbestand des Aquifers und von den Oberflaecheneigenschaften der Feststoffe abhaengig. In Anlehnung an die natuerlichen im Bereich von Braunkohle-Abbaugebieten herrschenden geochemischen Bedingungen wurde der Einfluss von Versauerungsprozessen auf das Transportverhalten von anorganischen Schadstoffen, am Beispiel von Zink, auf der Basis von oxischen Saeulenversuchen an sandigem Aquifermaterial untersucht. Die Daten wurden durch eine detaillierte Charakterisierung der Feststoff-Oberflaechen ergaenzt und sowohl mit Hilfe eines Transport-Reaktionsmodells als auch mechanistisch unter Einbeziehung der Oberflaechenkomplexierung modelliert. (orig.)

  20. Genetic control of chromosome behaviour: Implications in evolution, crop improvement, and human biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes and chromosome pairing are pivotal to all biological sciences. The study of chromosomes helps unravel several aspects of an organism. Although the foundation of genetics occurred with the formulation of the laws of heredity in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequ...

  1. Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. DeLuca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development.

  2. Multilevel Modular Converter for VSC-HVDC Transmission Applications: Control and Operational Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanarathna, Udana N.; Gole, Aniruddha M.; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Control methods for a new class of converter, the multilevel modular converter (MMC), recently introduced for HVDC transmission are discussed. The paper discusses converter-level controls including firing pulse generation and capacitor voltage balancing. It also covers higher level controls...... for incorporating the converter into a larger power network, with a weak ac receiving end. The performance behavior is studied using electromagnetic transients simulation....

  3. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanshawe Tom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. Methods/Design ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led, theory-based behaviour change intervention tailored to individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. 34 practices in the East Anglia region participated. 478 patients with diabetes were individually randomised to receive (i intensive treatment alone (n = 239, or (ii intensive treatment plus the facilitator-led individual behaviour change intervention (n = 239. Facilitators taught patients key skills to facilitate change and maintenance of key behaviours (physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking, including goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring and building habits. The intervention was delivered over one year at the participant's surgery and included a one-hour introductory meeting followed by six 30-minute meetings and four brief telephone calls. Primary endpoints are physical activity energy expenditure (assessed by individually calibrated heart rate monitoring and movement sensing, change in objectively measured dietary intake (plasma vitamin C, medication adherence (plasma drug levels, and smoking status (plasma cotinine levels at

  4. Modelling and engineering aspects of the plasma shape control in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Coccorese, E.; Pironti, A. [Naples Univ., Dip. di Ingegneria Elettrica, Consorzio CREATE, Naples (Italy); Lister, J.B.; Ward, D.J. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-10-01

    As part of the ITER Engineering Design Activity, a number of questions related to plasma control has been addressed, using linearised and non-linear simulation codes to assess the control of the plasma shape given the particular design restrictions of ITER. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  5. Aspects of Wind Power Plant Collector Network Layout and Control Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    . Therefore, connection topology and control concepts of large WPPs should be carefully investigated to improve the overall performance of both the WPP and the power systems. This paper aims to present a general overview of the design considerations for the electrical layout of WPPs and the WPP control...

  6. Controller design for a Wind Farm, Considering both Power and Load Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    turbine. The control algorithm determines the reference signals for each individual wind turbine controller in two scenarios based on low and high wind speed. In low wind speed, the reference signals for rotor speed are adjusted, taking the trade-off between power maximization and load minimization...

  7. Some aspects of public associations’ participation in implementing public control at municipal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Gornev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the status of public associations as subjects of public control and to analyze the problems of participation of citizens 39 associations in conducting public expertise and public audits. Methods the methodology of research includes general scientific methods such as dialectic method. Specific jurisprudence methods of scientific cognition have also been used. Systematic method was used for the analysis of forms of public control by citizens39 associations at the municipal level. The principle of scientific objectivity has allowed for a comprehensive and objective analysis of the factual material the totality of factors affecting the interaction of public associations with local authorities in the implementation of public control. The formallegal method allowed to analyze the normativelegal acts to reveal the signs of fixing of such public control forms as public expertise and public audit. In the present study other research methods were also applied allowing to study the theme in detail. Results the study identified the lack of legal regulation of the legal status of public associations as subjects of public control as well as some forms of public control. The additions to the list of subjects of public control by public associations were proposed as well as improvements in the implementation of public expertise and public audit by the citizens39 associations as forms of social control. Scientific novelty the author found a lack of regulation of public associationsrsquo participation in some forms of social control and justified proposals for their improvement from a scientific point of view. Practical significance the possibility to apply the research results in legislative activity aimed at improving the provisions of the Federal Laws quotOn fundamentals of public control in the Russian Federationquot and quotOn the general principles of local selfgovernment organization in the Russian Federationquot. In addition the

  8. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  9. Key aspects on the behaviour of the ballast and substructure of a modern railway track: research-based practical observations in Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antti NURMIKOLU

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the wide-ranging track structure studies at the Tampere University of Technology (TUT),Finland dealing with the key aspects of track geotechnics related to high-speed passenger traffic on ballasted tracks.Special attention is paid to ballast and sub-ballast,while also considering frost action,embankment stability,track stiffness,track geometry and transition zones.As a result,this paper states that understanding the ballast degradation mechanism and its consequences and assessment of its condition occupy an important role in the construction and maintenance of a smooth high-speed rail line.The choices related to building the sub-ballast also have a dramatic impact on later track deformations and maintenance needs.In cold climate,especially where seasonal frost occurs,understanding and taking into account the frost action mechanism is crucial.Especially in the maintenance and rehabilitation planning of existing tracks,high-class analyses of ground penetrating radar data and its integrated analysis with other data can yield considerable benefits.

  10. Modelling aspects regarding the control in 13C isotope separation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Carbon represents the fourth most abundant chemical element in the world, having two stable and one radioactive isotope. The 13Carbon isotopes, with a natural abundance of 1.1%, plays an important role in numerous applications, such as the study of human metabolism changes, molecular structure studies, non-invasive respiratory tests, Alzheimer tests, air pollution and global warming effects on plants [9] A manufacturing control system manages the internal logistics in a production system and determines the routings of product instances, the assignment of workers and components, the starting of the processes on not-yet-finished product instances. Manufacturing control does not control the manufacturing processes themselves, but has to cope with the consequences of the processing results (e.g. the routing of products to a repair station). In this research it was fulfilled some UML (Unified Modelling Language) diagrams for modelling the C13 Isotope Separation column, implement in STARUML program. Being a critical process and needing a good control and supervising, the critical parameters in the column, temperature and pressure was control using some PLC (Programmable logic controller) and it was made some graphic analyze for this to observe some critical situation than can affect the separation process. The main parameters that need to be control are: -The liquid nitrogen (N2) level in the condenser. -The electrical power supplied to the boiler. -The vacuum pressure.

  11. Organisational Aspects of Delegating Accounting and Controlling Authorities with the Use of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muravskiy Volodymyr V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies problems of application of information and communication technologies in accounting and control. It develops an organisational model of general accounting and control by an enterprise and outside firm on principles of delegation of accounting and controlling authorities, protection and distant data transfer. It considers a possibility of transformation of accounting principles from the position of the theory of accounting and informatics and also influence of information and communication technologies upon accounting principles. The article marks out changes in realisation of accounting principles in the computer communicative form of accounting.

  12. Synthesis and retrofit design of operable heat exchanger networks; 1: Flexibility and structural controllability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papalexandri, K.P.; Pistikopoulos, E.N. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology)

    1994-07-01

    A systematic framework for the synthesis and/or retrofit of flexible and structurally controllable heat exchanger networks is presented in this paper. Based on a multiperiod hyperstructure network representation, explicit structural controllability (total disturbance rejection) criteria are developed and included within a synthesis/retrofit mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, where a total annualized (operating and investment) cost is minimized. The proposed framework results in a network structure which features minimum annualized cost, while being (1) flexible to operate within a specified range (or discrete set) of uncertain stream flow rates, inlet temperature, and/or heat transfer coefficients and (2) structurally controllable for a given set of disturbances and control variables.

  13. Some Aspects Regarding the Use of Digital Signal Controllers in Electrical Drivers for Stepper Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil Toma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper are presented and compared two practical implementation of unipolar stepper drives for didactical destination, one with 8 bit microcontroller and one with 16 bits digital signal controller. In the second part, a practical implementation of micro stepping drive for bipolar motor with a 16 bits digital signal controller designed for switching mode power supply. A physical prototype was realized and some experimental measurements are presented.

  14. Spatial scale and movement behaviour traits control the impacts of habitat fragmentation on individual fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarino, Lorenzo; McAlpine, Clive A; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, that is the breaking apart of habitat, can occur at multiple spatial scales at the same time, as a result of different land uses. Individuals of most species spend different amounts of times moving in different modes, during which they cover different distances and experience different fitness impacts. The scale at which fragmentation occurs interacts with the distance that individuals move in a particular mode to affect an individual's ability to find habitat. However, there is little knowledge of the fitness consequences of different scales of fragmentation for individuals with different traits of movement behaviour. This is critical to understand the mechanisms of persistence of different species in fragmented landscapes. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of habitat fragmentation at different scales on the fitness components (reproduction and survival) of individuals with different traits of movement behaviour. We developed a demographic model of individuals that adopt short and tortuous movements within foraging areas (foraging mode) and long and straight movements between foraging areas (searching mode). We considered individuals that adopt different movement modes with varying frequencies, inherently move different searching distances and experience different risks of mortality during searching. We then applied the model within a spatially explicit simulation framework where we varied simultaneously the degree of fragmentation within (fine scale) and between foraging areas (coarse scale). Fine-scale fragmentation had a greater impact on reproduction and survival than coarse-scale fragmentation, for those individuals with a low searching propensity. The impact of fine-scale fragmentation on reproduction and survival interacted with the impact of coarse-scale fragmentation on reproduction and survival, to affect the fitness of individuals with a high searching propensity, large inherent searching distances and high

  15. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  16. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation...... the rent regulation regimes in Sweden and Denmark as opposed to the »free market« in Finland. The aim is to draw conclusions on the functionality of the different and whether some things can be learned from the differences in between them. The elements of tenant »ownership rights« in the three countries...... are also compared and leads up to the question of whether they should be assessed as so important in relation to contractual principles that one can state that a tenant has a »right of ownership« to a home in the three countries. Analysing rent regulation regimes understanding the importance of path...

  17. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  18. Control Aspects of a LCL Grid-Connected Green Power Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt; Klumpner, Christian

    2002-01-01

    A full-bridge inverter for interfacing the utility grid is developed for using in a Green Power Inverter application. The inverter is feed from an arbitrary green power source (fuel cell, photovoltaic, small wind turbine etc.) through a rectifier into the dc-link. In order to maintain a sinusoidal...... grid current with low harmonic distortion and a high power factor, the inverter is controlled to emulate a negative resistance towards the grid. The size of the emulated resistor is determined by the dc-link voltage controller, which tries to maintain a constant dc-link voltage. This is however...

  19. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement.

  20. Theoretical and experimental aspects of chaos control by time-delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Wolfram; Benner, Hartmut; Reibold, Ekkehard

    2003-03-01

    We review recent developments for the control of chaos by time-delayed feedback methods. While such methods are easily applied even in quite complex experimental context the theoretical analysis yields infinite-dimensional differential-difference systems which are hard to tackle. The essential ideas for a general theoretical approach are sketched and the results are compared to electronic circuits and to high power ferromagnetic resonance experiments. Our results show that the control performance can be understood on the basis of experimentally accessible quantities without resort to any model for the internal dynamics.

  1. Quality control aspects of herbs and botanicals in developing countries: Coleus forskohlii Briq a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current trend of commercialization of herbal medicines draw a huge need of maintaining their quality. The declaration of quality, safety and efficacy of medicinal plants as well as poly-herbal formulations has become an important issue. Hence, qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbal drugs and formulations viz., fingerprint profiles and quantification of the various markers become key factors of quality control. Materials and Methods: Present investigation is a detailed report for quality control of well-known herb Coleus forskohlii Briq, which includes physicochemical parameter determination, safety evaluation, microscropical evaluation, and chromatographic fingerprinting as well. Results: Physico-chemical characters were evaluated according to Indian Pharmacopoeia, further microscopic evaluation of transverse section of Coleus reveals that periderm, secondary phloem, and wide secondary xylem cylinder, which occupies major portion of the root fragmentary. Chromatographic fingerprint profiles of Coleus have been generated, and a marker based standardization strategy was adopted; using different analytical technique like high-performance thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to maintain quality and ensure safety as well as efficacy. Conclusion: These advancements in modern techniques of analysis can lead to effective quality control of Coleus as well as other herbs. Present report can act as pioneer for quality control of modern herbal medicine.

  2. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic growers in California typically devote 5 to 10% of the area in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields to insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritime (L.) Desv.) to attract syrphid flies (Syrphidae) whose larvae provide biological control of aphids. A 2-year study with organic romaine lettuc...

  3. Economic aspects of antiviral agents to control Classical Swine Fever epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Backer, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever have detrimental effects on the livestock sector in an affected country as well as on society at large. The development of antiviral agents to control these epidemics can reduce the consequences of such outbreaks. The economic imp

  4. Challenges to Cognitive Systems Engineering:Understanding Qualitative Aspects of Control Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the future role of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) in contributing to integrated design of process, automation and human machine systems. Existing concepts and methods of Cognitive Systems Engineering do not integrate well with control theory and industrial automation tools...

  5. Authority control. Operational aspects in a university context and new experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Cavicchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy in management and presentation of data is probably the most relevant feature that characterizes libraries catalogues in the wide universe of information available online. This characteristic, which originates from the basic need of organizing knowledge, requires a constant activity of control. Authority control is part of such an activity.This paper examines authority control of personal names, and how it is carried out.The first part shows the international standards and local codes that govern it: these are necessary to understand the activities that create the network of links and references of the data in a catalogue entry. This activity is also influenced by the management information system; the second part of the paper thus examines the Italian Sistema Bibliotecario Nazionale and specifically the library system of the University of Florence, through an analysis of procedures, workflows and monitoring activities. The third part points out the importance of verifying data and access points in databases and in the web itself, in addition to catalogues, in order to manage information in a uniform and shared way.This work aims at showing the topicality of controlling access points to information in order to avoid data proliferation, an event that ultimately produces ‘noise’ in the activities of information retrieval and data description. It also aims at stressing the importance of promoting correct information in the web within a set of sharing policies pursued by library cooperation systems, also through technologies currently offered by the web itself.

  6. High aspect ratio silicon nanowires control fibroblast adhesion and cytoskeleton organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Laura; Murello, Anna; Cassese, Damiano; Ban, Jelena; Dal Zilio, Simone; Lazzarino, Marco

    2017-04-18

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are essential to the survival and proliferation of most cells, and are responsible for triggering a wide range of biochemical pathways. More recently, the biomechanical role of those interactions was highlighted, showing, for instance, that adhesion forces are essential for cytoskeleton organization. Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) with their small size, high aspect ratio and anisotropic mechanical response represent a useful model to investigate the forces involved in the adhesion processes and their role in cellular development. In this work we explored and quantified, by single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), the interaction of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a flexible forest of Si NWs. We observed that the cell adhesion forces are comparable to those found on collagen and bare glass coverslip, analogously the membrane tether extraction forces are similar to that on collagen but stronger than that on bare flat glass. Cell survival did not depend significantly on the substrate, although a reduced proliferation after 36 h was observed. On the contrary both cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization revealed striking differences. The cell morphology on Si-NW was characterized by a large number of filopodia and a significant decrease of the cell mobility. The cytoskeleton organization was characterized by the absence of actin fibers, which were instead dominant on collagen and flat glass support. Such findings suggest that the mechanical properties of disordered Si NWs, and in particular their strong asymmetry, play a major role in the adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton organization processes. Indeed, while adhesion measurements by SCFS provide out-of-plane forces values consistent with those measured on conventional substrates, weaker in-plane forces hinder proper cytoskeleton organization and migration processes.

  7. The epidimiological aspects of the control for cronic drug-resistant tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Khanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the dispensary control for 188 patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis having been analysed during 3—5 years; those patients hadn’t received the adequate chemical therapy: 50% — died because of growing more serious tuberculosis in the first 2 years of the control, 33% — the process became cronic, 7,4% — self-recovered, 9,6% — left for other places or for the prison hospitals. Some patients are known to infect with drug-resistant strains MBT nearly 1 500 people every year, thus keeping the circulation among town population DR/MBT as well as the high level of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases.

  8. Evaluating the Risk Acceptance Ladder (RAL as a basis for targeting communication aimed at prompting attempts to improve health related behaviours: A pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Stevens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To determine the utility of the Risk Acceptance Ladder (RAL as a measure for gauging self-reported reasons for participation in a range of health behaviours, and as a basis for targeting behaviour change interventions. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Methods: A sample of 639 UK adults (18+ years were recruited into an online study and asked about their participation in four health behaviours; smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption. Those with a health behaviour to modify (N=130 were allocated a behaviour change target and completed the RAL. Eligible participants (N=97 were then randomised to one of two groups; an intervention group received brief motivating information based on their RAL response (on-target, the control received information mismatched to their RAL response (off-target. Following intervention delivery, behavioural response was measured by recording whether participants clicked on a link to find out more about changing their target behaviour. Results: Three-quarters (N= 97, 74.60%, 95% CI: 67.12 – 82.08 of participants felt the RAL provided a suitable response option that identified why they had not changed their target behaviour and 60% (N=78, 95% CI: 51.58 – 68.42 agreed that it was easy to select just one option. Logistic regression confirmed that those in the intervention group had greater odds of clicking the link than those in the control group (OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.01 – 7.91. Conclusions: The response to the RAL was generally positive and this pilot study provides tentative support for the use of the RAL to develop effective, targeted interventions.

  9. Modelling, Analysis, and Control Aspects of a Rotating Power Electronic Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Naveed ur Rehman

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the modeling, analysis and control of a novel brushlessgenerator for wind power application. The generator is named as rotatingpower electronic brushless doubly-fed induction machine/generator (RPEBDFIM/G). A great advantage of the RPE-BDFIG is that the slip power recoveryis realized in a brushless manner. This is achieved by introducing an additionalmachine termed as exciter together with the rotating power electronicconverters, which are mounted on the shaft of a DFIG...

  10. The scope and control of attention as separate aspects of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstead, Zach; Redick, Thomas S; Hicks, Kenny L; Engle, Randall W

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines two varieties of working memory (WM) capacity task: visual arrays (i.e., a measure of the amount of information that can be maintained in working memory) and complex span (i.e., a task that taps WM-related attentional control). Using previously collected data sets we employ confirmatory factor analysis to demonstrate that visual arrays and complex span tasks load on separate, but correlated, factors. A subsequent series of structural equation models and regression analyses demonstrate that these factors contribute both common and unique variance to the prediction of general fluid intelligence (Gf). However, while visual arrays does contribute uniquely to higher cognition, its overall correlation to Gf is largely mediated by variance associated with the complex span factor. Thus we argue that visual arrays performance is not strictly driven by a limited-capacity storage system (e.g., the focus of attention; Cowan, 2001), but may also rely on control processes such as selective attention and controlled memory search.

  11. Communication and social capital in the control of avian influenza: lessons from behaviour change experiences in the Mekong Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbord, S R; Michaelides, T; Rasmuson, M

    2008-01-01

    International development agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations are increasingly collaborating with local civil society groups in mounting behaviour change communication (BCC) interventions. Even in countries with weakened civil societies, the social capital of local organizations can be a fundamental communication resource. The experience of three programmes in the Mekong Region that used BCC to prevent and control outbreaks of avian influenza bore out this finding. These programmes worked with the Vietnam Women's Union to mobilize local women as conduits for education; worked with the Centre d'Etude et de Developpement Agricole Cambodgien (CEDAC), in Cambodia, to educate and train village health promoters and model farmers; and worked with the Lao Journalists Association to educate and build skills among print and broadcast journalists to enhance avian influenza coverage. Collaborating with civil society organizations can enhance communication reach, trust, and local ownership, but poses many challenges, particularly institutional capacity. Our experience, nevertheless, holds promise for a measured approach that views social capital as a set of communication resources at the community level that can be mobilized to promote complex behaviours, particularly in a rapidly changing outbreak situation.

  12. Phase behaviour of self-assembled monolayers controlled by tuning physisorbed and chemisorbed states: A lattice-model view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Sara; Cheung, David L; Johnston, Karen

    2016-04-07

    The self-assembly of molecules on surfaces into 2D structures is important for the bottom-up fabrication of functional nanomaterials, and the self-assembled structure depends on the interplay between molecule-molecule interactions and molecule-surface interactions. Halogenated benzene derivatives on platinum have been shown to have two distinct adsorption states: a physisorbed state and a chemisorbed state, and the interplay between the two can be expected to have a profound effect on the self-assembly and phase behaviour of these systems. We developed a lattice model that explicitly includes both adsorption states, with representative interactions parameterised using density functional theory calculations. This model was used in Monte Carlo simulations to investigate pattern formation of hexahalogenated benzene molecules on the platinum surface. Molecules that prefer the physisorbed state were found to self-assemble with ease, depending on the interactions between physisorbed molecules. In contrast, molecules that preferentially chemisorb tend to get arrested in disordered phases. However, changing the interactions between chemisorbed and physisorbed molecules affects the phase behaviour. We propose functionalising molecules in order to tune their adsorption states, as an innovative way to control monolayer structure, leading to a promising avenue for directed assembly of novel 2D structures.

  13. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabither M Gitau

    Full Text Available Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26, body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001 and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa.

  14. The influence of autonomous and controlling motives on physical activity intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine how general motives from self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985) influence intentions to engage in physical activity within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1985). It was hypothesized that the general motives will influence intentions only when mediated by the specific cognitions of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) from the TPB. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study assessing psychological variables from two theoretical perspectives. METHOD: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 1088 children aged 12-14 years. The children's intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and PBC towards participating in physical activity were assessed using a TPB questionnaire. A modified verson of Ryan and Connell's (1989) perceived locus of causality (PLOC) inventory was used to measure controlling and autonomous motives for participating in physical activity. RESULTS: These data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The resulting well-fitting model demonstrated that attitude and PBC mediated the influence of autonomous motives to perform physical activity on physical activity intentions. The presence of autonomous motives resulted in the effects of the controlling motives being attenuated to zero. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that general autonomous motives to participate in physical activity act as sources of information when childen make their judgments regarding their specific attitudes and PBC. Attitudes and PBC are necessary to translate these general motives from SDT into intentions in the TPB. In terms of targets for intervention, practitioners may positively influence intentions by providing a choice of physical activities to foster increased autonomy in children.

  15. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.;

    2013-01-01

    that affect the results accuracy. Above all, the real energy performance can be affected by the actual behaviour of the building occupants. Thus, there are great benefits to be derived from improving models that simulate the behaviour of human beings within the context of engineered complex systems......An energy simulation of a building is a mathematical representation of its physical behaviour considering all the thermal, lighting, acoustics aspects. However, a simulation cannot precisely replicate a real construction because all the simulations are based on a number of key assumptions....... The occupant behaviour related to the building control potentialities is a very complex process that has been studied only in the last years with some focuses related to natural ventilation (window opening behaviour), space heating energy demand (in particular the adjustments in the temperature set...

  16. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  17. Dimensions of control and their relation to disordered eating behaviours and obsessive-compulsive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Froreich, Franzisca V.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Grisham, Jessica R; Stephen W. Touyz

    2016-01-01

    Background Issues of personal control have been proposed to play a central role in the aetiology and maintenance of eating disorders. Empirical evidence supporting this relationship is inconsistent, partly due to the multiplicity of constructs used to define “control”. This study compares six commonly used measures of control with the aim of determining which operationalisation of control is most centrally relevant to eating pathology. Given the high level of comorbidity between eating disord...

  18. Comparison between Networked Control System behaviour based on CAN and Switched Ethernet networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brahimi, Belynda; Rondeau, Eric; Aubrun, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    7 pages; International audience; The distributed control systems are more and more used in many industrial applications. These systems are often referred as “Networked control systems”. The goal of this paper is to show the network influence on feedback control systems. Two networks are considered: Switched Ethernet network and CAN fieldbus. The first one represents the non deterministic network and second one represents the deterministic one. Several scenarii are studied to analyse the stabi...

  19. Controlled release behaviour of protein-loaded microparticles prepared via coaxial or emulsion electrospray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Xiaoping; Liu, Wentao; Zhang, Feng; Cai, Qing; Deng, Xuliang

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are an effective way to achieve sustained drug release. In this study, we investigated a sustained release model of PLGA microparticles with incorporated protein via either emulsion or coaxial electrospray techniques. PLGA (75:25) was used as the carrier, and bovine serum albumin as a model protein. Coaxial electrospray resulted in a type of core-shell structure with mean diameters of 2.41 ± 0.60 µm and a centralised protein distribution within the core. Emulsion electrospray formed bigger microparticles with mean diameters of 22.75 ± 8.05 µm and a heterogeneous protein distribution throughout the microparticles. The coaxial electrospray microparticles presented a much slighter burst release than the emulsion electrospray microparticles. Loading efficiency was significantly higher (p coaxial group than emulsion group. This indicated that both emulsion and coaxial electrospray could produce protein-loaded microparticles with sustained release behaviour, but the former revealed a superior approach for drug delivery.

  20. A Dynamic Behaviour Analysis on the Frequency Control Capability of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarogiannis, Athanasios; Marinelli, Mattia; Træholt, Chresten;

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents results of a study on the dynamic response of Electric Vehicle’s (EV) when participating in frequency control of an islanded system. The following cases were considered: when there is no EV performing frequency control, when the EV participates in primary frequency control...... and when the EV participates in both primary and secondary frequency control. Different parameters are tested in various combinations, and their influence on frequency deviation as well as power and energy provided by the EV with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability is shown....

  1. Assessing treatment-as-usual provided to control groups in adherence trials: Exploring the use of an open-ended questionnaire for identifying behaviour change techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; Pijnappel, F.J.; Prins, J.M.; Bruin, M. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reporting guidelines call for descriptions of control group support in equal detail as for interventions. However, how to assess the active content (behaviour change techniques (BCTs)) of treatment-as-usual (TAU) delivered to control groups in trials remains unclear. The objective of this

  2. Mineral biotechnology. Microbial aspects of mineral beneficiation, metal extraction, and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Natarajan, K.A. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    Papers in this book illustrate the utility of mineral biotechnology with respect to biobeneficiation, bioleaching, bioremediation and biomineralization. Papers of particular interest to the coal industry include: depression of pyrite flotation by yeast and bacteris (S.K. Kawatra and T.C. Eisele); desulfurization of coal by microbial flotation in a semicontinuous system (T. Nagaoka and others); biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal - INEEL slurry column testing (K.S. Noah and G.J. Olson); microorganisms, biotechnology and acid rock drainage - emphasis on passive-biological control and treatment methods (N. Kuyucak); and utility of bioreagents in mineral processing (P. Somasundaran and others).

  3. Molecular control of the cell cycle in cancer: biological and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2003-01-01

    The RB1 pathway and the p53 pathway represent important, interconnected biochemical units frequently perturbed in human cancer. Essential tumor protective mechanisms, such as cellular growth control and apoptosis, are regulated through these systems. Comprehensive studies of these pathways...... to treatment. Chemotherapeutic regimens used in lymphoma treatment are based on apoptosis induction, and as both E2F-1 and p53 are regulators of apoptosis, it is possible that the observed treatment failure is associated with reduced E2F-1- and p53-mediated apoptosis. Survival analyses revealed numerous novel...

  4. The redox control of photorespiration: from biochemical and physiological aspects to biotechnological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Olivier; Gardeström, Per; Kleczkowski, Leszek A; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2016-01-21

    Photorespiration is a complex and tightly regulated process occurring in photosynthetic organisms. This process can alter the cellular redox balance, notably via the production and consumption of both reducing and oxidizing equivalents. Under certain circumstances, these equivalents, as well as reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, can become prominent in subcellular compartments involved in the photorespiratory process, eventually promoting oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins. Keeping these changes under tight control should therefore be of primary importance. In order to review the current state of knowledge about the redox control of photorespiration, we primarily performed a careful description of the known and potential redox-regulated or oxidation sensitive photorespiratory proteins, and examined in more details two interesting cases: the glycerate kinase and the glycine cleavage system. When possible, the potential impact and subsequent physiological regulations associated with these changes have been discussed. In a second part, we reviewed the extent to which photorespiration contributes to cellular redox homeostasis considering, in particular, the set of peripheral enzymes associated with the canonical photorespiratory pathway. Finally, some recent biotechnological strategies to circumvent photorespiration for future growth improvements are discussed in the light of these redox regulations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  6. Risk control and prevention of spinal cord damage due to surgery of thoracoabdominal aneurysms: medicolegal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, B; Hamerlijnck, R; Vermeulen, F E; de Geest, R

    1991-01-01

    Surgery of thoracoabdominal aneurysms is accompanied by many complications of which spinal cord damage is the most serious. Such a complication tends to be the subject of litigation and medicolegal assessment. This report presents a risk control concept focussed on the reduction of spinal cord damage after surgery for a thoracoabdominal aneurysm. This concept may provide a basis for a risk management program in major surgery. Apart from sparing the patient a serious complication, improvement of the quality of care and anticipation of a medicolegal assessment were considered valuable benefits of such an effort. It is described how the threat of litigation--also in Europe--may affect clinical practice. A definition of surgical failure is described related to the five elements of risk homeostasis: complexity, linkage, cascade, human factor and safety margins. Limitations of risk control in the surgery of thoracoabdominal aneurysms are described. Finally the role of perception of risks by patient and doctor as well as the importance of informed consent and adequate disclosure are described in respect of medical quality improvement and litigation.

  7. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  8. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies.

  9. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus supportive therapy for persistent positive symptoms in psychotic disorders: The POSITIVE Study, a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartory Gudrun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT has a moderate effect on symptom reduction and on general well being of patients suffering from psychosis. However, questions regarding the specific efficacy of CBT, the treatment safety, the cost-effectiveness, and the moderators and mediators of treatment effects are still a major issue. The major objective of this trial is to investigate whether CBT is specifically efficacious in reducing positive symptoms when compared with non-specific supportive therapy (ST which does not implement CBT-techniques but provides comparable therapeutic attention. Methods/Design The POSITIVE study is a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, parallel group, randomised clinical trial, comparing CBT and ST with respect to the efficacy in reducing positive symptoms in psychotic disorders. CBT as well as ST consist of 20 sessions altogether, 165 participants receiving CBT and 165 participants receiving ST. Major methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance (e.g. on-site monitoring with source data verification, regular query process, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment, checks of adherence and competence of therapists. Research relating the psychotherapy process with outcome, neurobiological research addressing basic questions of delusion formation using fMRI and neuropsychological assessment and treatment research investigating adaptations of CBT for adolescents is combined in this network. Problems of transfer into routine clinical care will be identified and addressed by a project focusing on cost efficiency. Discussion This clinical trial is part of efforts to intensify psychotherapy research in the field of psychosis in Germany, to contribute to the

  10. [Practical aspects of implementation quality management system ISO 9001:2000 by hospital infection control team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Czerniak, Beata; Frankowska, Krystyna; Gonia, Ewa; Salińska, Teresa; Motuk, Andrzej; Sobociński, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the Board of the Jan Biziel Hospital in Bydgoszcz decided to include procedures of health services in the implementation process within the confines of ISO 9001:2000 certification. The hospital infection control team that has operated in the hospital since 1989 performed the analysis of the forms of activities to date and on that basis the team prepared original plan of quality management. In April 2007, this plan was successfully accepted by the certifying team. The aim of this study is to present the aforementioned plan which is the result of 18 years experience of the team. At the same time, I hope that this study will be very helpful for all professionals interested in hospital epidemiology, especially in the context of implementing quality management systems.

  11. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  12. Coupling Temperature Control with Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Aspects and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa M. Ponton

    2004-12-19

    The primary focus of the doctoral research presented herein has been the integration of temperature control into electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The combination of temperature control and the tunable characteristics of carbonaceous EMLC stationary phases have been invaluable in deciphering the subtleties of the retention mechanism. The effects of temperature and E{sub app} on the retention of several naphthalene disulfonates were therefore examined by the van' Hoff relationship. The results indicate that while the retention of both compounds is exothermic at levels comparable to that in many reversed-phase separations, the potential dependence of the separation is actually entropically affected in a manner paralleling that of several classical ion exchange systems. Furthermore, the retention of small inorganic anions at constant temperature also showed evidence of an ion exchange type of mechanism. While a more complete mechanistic description will come from examining the thermodynamics of retention for a wider variety of analytes, this research has laid the groundwork for full exploitation of temperature as a tool to develop retention rules for EMLC. Operating EMLC at elevated temperature and flow conditions has decreased analysis time and has enabled the separation of analytes not normally achievable on a carbon stationary phase. The separation of several aromatic sulfonates was achieved in less than 1 min, a reduction of analysis time by more than a factor of 20 as compared to room temperature separations. The use of higher operating temperatures also facilitated the separation of this mixture with an entirely aqueous mobile phase in less than 2 min. This methodology was extended to the difficult separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on PGC. This study also brought to light the mechanistic implications of the unique retention behavior of these analytes through variations of the mobile phase composition.

  13. Coupling Temperature Control with Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Aspects and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponton, Lisa M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The primary focus of the doctoral research presented herein has been the integration of temperature control into electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The combination of temperature control and the tunable characteristics of carbonaceous EMLC stationary phases have been invaluable in deciphering the subtleties of the retention mechanism. The effects of temperature and Eapp on the retention of several naphthalene disulfonates were therefore examined by the van' Hoff relationship. The results indicate that while the retention of both compounds is exothermic at levels comparable to that in many reversed-phase separations, the potential dependence of the separation is actually entropically affected in a manner paralleling that of several classical ion exchange systems. Furthermore, the retention of small inorganic anions at constant temperature also showed evidence of an ion exchange type of mechanism. While a more complete mechanistic description will come from examining the thermodynamics of retention for a wider variety of analytes, this research has laid the groundwork for full exploitation of temperature as a tool to develop retention rules for EMLC. Operating EMLC at elevated temperature and flow conditions has decreased analysis time and has enabled the separation of analytes not normally achievable on a carbon stationary phase. The separation of several aromatic sulfonates was achieved in less than 1 min, a reduction of analysis time by more than a factor of 20 as compared to room temperature separations. The use of higher operating temperatures also facilitated the separation of this mixture with an entirely aqueous mobile phase in less than 2 min. This methodology was extended to the difficult separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on PGC. This study also brought to light the mechanistic implications of the unique retention behavior of these analytes through variations of the mobile phase composition.

  14. Splicing factors control C. elegans behavioural learning in a single neuron by producing DAF-2c receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Masahiro; Naito, Yasuki; Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing generates protein diversity essential for neuronal properties. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this process and its relevance to physiological and behavioural functions are poorly understood. To address these issues, we focused on a cassette exon of the Caenorhabditis elegans insulin receptor gene daf-2, whose proper variant expression in the taste receptor neuron ASER is critical for taste-avoidance learning. We show that inclusion of daf-2 exon 11.5 is restricted to specific neuron types, including ASER, and is controlled by a combinatorial action of evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factors, RBFOX, CELF and PTB families of proteins. Mutations of these factors cause a learning defect, and this defect is relieved by DAF-2c (exon 11.5+) isoform expression only in a single neuron ASER. Our results provide evidence that alternative splicing regulation of a single critical gene in a single critical neuron is essential for learning ability in an organism. PMID:27198602

  15. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviours through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan C Creed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to DA neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons. The task of signalling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs, a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioural level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions.

  16. Rapid regulation of depression-related behaviours by control of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Dipesh; Walsh, Jessica J; Friedman, Allyson K; Juarez, Barbara; Ku, Stacy M; Koo, Ja Wook; Ferguson, Deveroux; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Pomeranz, Lisa; Christoffel, Daniel J; Nectow, Alexander R; Ekstrand, Mats; Domingos, Ana; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Mouzon, Ezekiell; Lobo, Mary Kay; Neve, Rachael L; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Russo, Scott J; Deisseroth, Karl; Nestler, Eric J; Han, Ming-Hu

    2013-01-24

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in the brain's reward circuit have a crucial role in mediating stress responses, including determining susceptibility versus resilience to social-stress-induced behavioural abnormalities. VTA dopamine neurons show two in vivo patterns of firing: low frequency tonic firing and high frequency phasic firing. Phasic firing of the neurons, which is well known to encode reward signals, is upregulated by repeated social-defeat stress, a highly validated mouse model of depression. Surprisingly, this pathophysiological effect is seen in susceptible mice only, with no apparent change in firing rate in resilient individuals. However, direct evidence--in real time--linking dopamine neuron phasic firing in promoting the susceptible (depression-like) phenotype is lacking. Here we took advantage of the temporal precision and cell-type and projection-pathway specificity of optogenetics to show that enhanced phasic firing of these neurons mediates susceptibility to social-defeat stress in freely behaving mice. We show that optogenetic induction of phasic, but not tonic, firing in VTA dopamine neurons of mice undergoing a subthreshold social-defeat paradigm rapidly induced a susceptible phenotype as measured by social avoidance and decreased sucrose preference. Optogenetic phasic stimulation of these neurons also quickly induced a susceptible phenotype in previously resilient mice that had been subjected to repeated social-defeat stress. Furthermore, we show differences in projection-pathway specificity in promoting stress susceptibility: phasic activation of VTA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), but not to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), induced susceptibility to social-defeat stress. Conversely, optogenetic inhibition of the VTA-NAc projection induced resilience, whereas inhibition of the VTA-mPFC projection promoted susceptibility. Overall, these studies reveal novel firing-pattern- and neural

  17. Work locus of control and its relationship to stress perception, related affections, attitudes and behaviours from a domain-specific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    This research aims to examine the value of applying the Work Locus of Control Scale in predicting work-related outcomes. Study 1 surveyed 323 employees from different companies in China and found that the domain-specific scale was more predictive than the general scale in predicting perceived stressors, rather than in predicting organizational affective commitment and altruistic behaviour. Study 2 applied a multi-wave and multi-source design and used commensurate Likert scales to measure work and general locus of control. Participants were 344 employees from one corporation. Work locus of control was found to be more useful in predicting supervisor-rated job performance, conscientious and altruistic behaviours. These findings help understand the theory-based and measurement-based reasons for the advantages of using domain-specific measures. They claim the importance for employing the domain-specific measure to predict work-related perceptions and behaviours. Implications for the theory and practice are discussed.

  18. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rognerud, Audhild Meckelborg; Wisting, Line Norøm

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  19. Dispensing good sleep health behaviours not pills--a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of pharmacist-provided brief behavioural treatment for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joanne M; Wong, Keith K; Hoyos, Camilla; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana

    2016-02-01

    Behavioural therapies are recommended as the first-line treatment of insomnia; however, sedatives and hypnotics constitute the main treatment modality used in primary care. Community pharmacies provide a unique conduit for identifying and providing appropriate treatment for those with insomnia either purchasing prescription sedatives or seeking over-the-counter treatments. A feasibility study using a cluster-randomized controlled trial, testing the efficacy of trained pharmacists providing behavioural interventions such as stimulus control and sleep restriction to patients with insomnia, in improving insomnia severity was conducted. The intervention involved three pharmacy visits (baseline, 1 and 3 months follow-up). The control group received usual care and information sheets on insomnia. The primary outcome was the Insomnia Severity Index. Twelve community pharmacists (five control, seven intervention) in New South Wales, Australia were recruited and trained. These pharmacists, in turn, recruited 46 patients (22 control, 24 intervention (mean age 53.7 ± 18.4, 72% females) and delivered a brief behavioural therapy intervention. The overall decrease in Insomnia Severity Index from baseline to the 3-month follow-up in the intervention group, n = 17 (7.6 ± 4.3 points), was significantly greater than for the control group, n = 19 (2.9 ± 8.8 points) (mean difference 4.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.005-9.2, P = 0.05). However, when the effect of clustering was taken into account using a mixed-effects model, the estimated difference in Insomnia Severity Index (change from baseline to visit 3) between the intervention and control groups was not significant (group difference in Insomnia Severity Index change = 3.78, 95% confidence interval: -0.81 to 8.37, P = 0.11; intracluster correlation = 0.18). The study highlights the use of a novel venue to deliver brief behavioural therapies for insomnia using trained non-psychologist health professionals. Although, when cluster

  20. Effects of intelligent cruise control on driving behaviour : a simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Janssen, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    In een simulatorexperiment is gebleken dat Intelligent Cruisse Control (ICC) resulteert in een vermindering van korte volgtijden en een iets lagere snelheidskeuze in kritische situaties was er met ICC sprake van een iets tragere reactie.

  1. Leveraging User Profile and Behaviour to Design Practical Spreadsheet Controls for the Finance Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing that the use of spreadsheets within finance will likely not subside in the near future, this paper discusses a major barrier that is preventing more organizations from adopting enterprise spreadsheet management programs. But even without a corporate mandated effort to improve spreadsheet controls, finance functions can still take simple yet effective steps to start managing the risk of errors in key spreadsheets by strategically selecting controls that complement existing user practice

  2. Air pollution control through biotrickling filters: a review considering operational aspects and expected performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Ragazzi, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    The biological removal of pollutants, especially through biotrickling filters (BTFs), has recently become attractive for the low investment and operational costs and the low secondary pollution. This paper is intended to investigate the state of the art on BTF applications. After an overview on the biodegradation process and the typical parameters involved, this paper presents the analysis of a group of 16 literature studies chosen as the references for this sector. The reference studies differ from one another by the pollutants treated (volatile organic compounds [VOC], hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides and trimethylamine), the geometry and size of the BTFs, and the procedures of the tests. The reference studies are analyzed and discussed in terms of the operational conditions and the results obtained, especially with respect to the removal efficiencies (REs) and the elimination capacities (ECs) of the pollutants considered. Empty bed residence time (EBRT), pollutant loading rate, temperature, pH, oxygen availability, trickling liquid flow rate, inoculum selection and biomass control strategies revealed to be the most important operational factors influencing the removal performance of a BTF.

  3. a/alpha-control of DNA repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: genetic and physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heude, M; Fabre, F

    1993-03-01

    It has long been known that diploid strains of yeast are more resistant to gamma-rays than haploid cells, and that this is in part due to heterozygosity at the mating type (MAT) locus. It is shown here that the genetic control exerted by the MAT genes on DNA repair involves the a1 and alpha 2 genes, in a RME1-independent way. In rad18 diploids, affected in the error-prone repair, the a/alpha effects are of a very large amplitude, after both UV and gamma-rays, and also depends on a1 and alpha 2. The coexpression of a and alpha in rad18 haploids suppresses the sensitivity of a subpopulation corresponding to the G2 phase cells. Related to this, the coexpression of a and alpha in RAD+ haploids depresses UV-induced mutagenesis in G2 cells. For srs2 null diploids, also affected in the error-prone repair pathway, we show that their G1 UV sensitivity, likely due to lethal recombination events, is partly suppressed by MAT homozygosity. Taken together, these results led to the proposal that a1-alpha 2 promotes a channeling of some DNA structures from the mutagenic into the recombinational repair process.

  4. Epidemiological aspects of attempted suicide--a case-control study in Gent, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeringen, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of attempted suicide among the population of Gent, exploratory and analytical case-control studies were carried out. The strength of the association between attempted suicide and marital and employment status was calculated taking into account the confounding and/or effect-modifying roles of age, gender, and the living situation. Unmarried individuals who were not living alone were at increased risk of attempted suicide compared to (cohabiting) married individuals. Young and middle-aged unemployed males and middle-aged unemployed females had significantly increased risks compared to employed individuals. In addition to a causal interpretation of the demonstrated associations, the roles of chance, reverse causality, and confounding or bias were considered. Selection and information biases may have accounted for the observed associations. For instance, in previous monitoring studies on attempted suicide, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the reliability of the information collected. The question of how one can reliably assess patients who may provide unreliable information remains unanswered. However, several findings support a role of causality in explaining the associations. The present studies therefore provide additional evidence for a detrimental affect of certain socio-demographic or -economic conditions on the occurrence of attempted suicide.

  5. Capacity, Control, or Both – Which Aspects of Working Memory Contribute to Children’s General Fluid Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nęcka Edward

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the assumption that working memory capacity is an important predictor of general fluid intelligence, we asked which aspects of working memory account for this relationship. Two theoretical stances are discussed. The first one posits that the important explanatory factor is storage capacity, roughly defined as the number of chunks possible to hold in the focus of attention. The second one claims that intelligence is explained by the efficiency of executive control, for instance, by prepotent response inhibition. We investigated 96 children at the age between 10 and 13. They completed a version of the n-back task that allows assessment of both storage capacity and inhibitory control. They also completed Raven’s Progressive Matrices as the fluid intelligence test and the Test for Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, for control purposes. We found that Raven’s scores correlated negatively with the number of unnecessary responses to irrelevant stimuli but they did not correlate with the number of signal detections. We conclude that children’s fluid intelligence depends on inhibitory control, with no relationship with storage capacity.

  6. Selected aspects related to epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, and control of African swine fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniakowski Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is currently one of the most severe viral infections of domestic pigs, wild boars, and other hosts belonging to Suidae family. ASF is also considered as the most complex and devastating infectious and haemorrhagic disease of swine due to its severe socio-economic impact and transboundary character. ASF it is a notifiable disease and due to the lack of specific treatment and vaccine, the disease can be only limited by the administrative measures comprising wild boar hunting and stamping out of affected pigs. ASF occurred for the first time in Kenya in 1921 while in Europe (Portugal the virus was detected at the end of the 1950s. In spite of successful eradication of this threat in a number of affected regions, the virus remains endemic in both feral and domestic pigs in Africa and Sardinia. The ‘new era’ of ASF started in 2007 after its re-introduction to Georgia. Following its intensive expansion, the virus spread to other Caucasian countries, including the territory of the Russian Federation. In 2014 the virus reached Ukraine, Belarus, and, consequently, European Union countries: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Poland. The occurrence of ASF in wild boars and pigs had a severe impact on both epidemiology and economy because of the national and international transport and trade consequences. Up to date, starting from the February 2014, eighty ASF cases in wild boar and three outbreaks in domestic pigs have been diagnosed. Taking into account the diverse rate of spread in Poland, this review aims to present and discuss the current state of knowledge on ASF including its epidemiology, pathology, transmission, and perspectives of control.

  7. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F. [Department of Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de San Vicente, 03071 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: manolo@dfists.ua.es; Perez Molina, Manuel [Facultad de Ciencias Matematicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, C/Boyero 12-1A, Alicante 03007 (Spain)]. E-mail: ma_perez_m@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations.

  8. Erosion control and protection from torrential floods in Serbia-spatial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrential floods represent the most frequent phenomenon within the category of “natural risks” in Serbia. The representative examples are the torrential floods on the experimental watersheds of the rivers Manastirica (June 1996 and Kamišna (May 2007. Hystorical maximal discharges (Qmaxh were reconstructed by use of ″hydraulics flood traces″ method. Computations of maximal discharges (Qmaxc, under hydrological conditions after the restoration of the watersheds, were performed by use of a synthetic unit hydrograph theory and Soil Conservation Service methodology. Area sediment yields and intensity of erosion processes were estimated on the basis of the “Erosion Potential Method”. The actual state of erosion processes is represented by the coefficients of erosion Z=0.475 (Manastirica and Z=0.470 (Kamišna. Restoration works have been planned with a view to decreasing yields of erosive material, increasing water infiltration capacity and reducing flood runoff. The planned state of erosion processes is represented by the coefficients of erosion Z=0.343 (Manastirica and Z=0.385 (Kamišna. The effects of hydrological changes were estimated by the comparison of historical maximal discharges and computed maximal discharges (under the conditions after the planned restoration. The realisation of restoration works will help decrease annual yields of erosive material from Wа=24357 m3 to Wа=16198.0 m3 (Manastirica and from Wа=19974 m3 to Wа=14434 m3 (Kamišna. The values of historical maximal discharges (QmaxhMan=154.9 m3•s-1; QmaxhKam=76.3 m3•s-1 were significantly decreased after the restoration (QmaxcMan=84.5 m3 •s-1; QmaxcKam=43.7 m3•s-1, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of erosion and torrent control works. Integrated management involves biotechnical works on the watershed, technical works on the hydrographic network within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in

  9. Cognitive-behavioural health-promotion intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity among South African adolescents: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; O'Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Bellamy, Scarlett; Jones, Shasta; Landis, J Richard; Heeren, G Anita; Tyler, Joanne C; Makiwane, Monde B

    2011-02-01

    Rates of chronic diseases are high among Black South Africans but few studies have tested cognitive-behavioural health-promotion interventions to reduce this problem. We tested the efficacy of such an intervention among adolescents in a cluster-randomised controlled trial. We randomly selected 9 of 17 matched pairs of schools and randomised one school in each pair to the cognitive-behavioural health-promotion intervention designed to encourage health-related behaviours and the other to a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction intervention that served as the control. Interventions were based on social cognitive theory, the theory of planned behaviour and qualitative data from the target population. Data collectors, blind to participants' intervention, administered confidential assessments at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes were fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Participants were 1057 grade 6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years), with 96.7% retained at 12-month follow-up. Generalised estimating equations revealed that averaged over the follow-ups, a greater percentage of health-promotion intervention participants than HIV/STD control participants met 5-a-Day fruit and vegetable and physical activity guidelines. The intervention also increased health-promotion knowledge, attitude and intention, but did not decrease substance use or substance-use attitude and intention. The findings suggest that theory based and contextually appropriate interventions may increase health behaviours among young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  11. Aerodynamic and heat transfer aspects of tip and casing treatments used for turbine tip leakage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumusel, Baris

    Axial flow turbine stages are usually designed with a gap between the tips of the rotating blades and a stationary outer casing. The presence of a strong pressure gradient across this gap drives flow from the pressure side of the blade to the suction side. This leakage flow creates a significant amount of energy loss of working fluid in the turbine stage. In a modern gas turbine engine the outer casing of the high-pressure turbine is also exposed to a combination of high flow temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The casing is consequently subjected to high levels of convective heat transfer, a situation that is aggravated by flow unsteadiness caused by periodic blade-passing events. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic and heat transfer effect of tip and casing treatments used in turbine tip leakage control was conducted in a large scale, low speed, rotating research turbine facility. The effects of casing treatments were investigated by measuring the total pressure field at the exit of the rotor using a high frequency response total pressure probe. A smooth wall as a baseline case was also investigated. The test cases presented include results of casing treatments with varying dimensions for tip gap height of t/h=2.5%. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the casing treatment significantly reduced the leakage mass flow rate and the momentum deficit in the core of the tip vortex. The reductions obtained in the tip vortex size and strength influenced the tip-side passage vortex and other typical core flow characteristics in the passage. Casing treatments with the highest ridge height was the most effective in reducing the total pressure loss in the leakage flow of the test blades. This was observed at a radius near the core of the tip vortex. It appears that casing treatments with the highest ridge height is also the most effective from a global point of view, as shown by the passage averaged pressure coefficient obtained in

  12. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  13. THE “OLIVA ASCOLANA DEL PICENO DOP”: PRODUCTION ASPECTS AND SELF-CONTROL PROGRAMS IN FACTORIES OF MARCHE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pacioni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The “Oliva Ascolana del Piceno” is a traditional product of the central part of Italy, which obtained the official designation of Denomination of Protected Origin (DOP in 2006. This study analyzes the production aspects and the self-control programs in different tipologies of industries in Marche Region. The artisanal production is still used, but lately is growing up the industrial one. The industrial product shows an improvement of the healthy standards, but is not always able to ensure the preservation of the full taste and flavour. . The scrupulous respect of GMP and CCP in the handmade product can ensure, on the other hand, hight healthy standards and, at the same time, a better preservation of the organoleptic features .

  14. Controlling wildlife reproduction : reversible suppression of reproductive function or sex-related behaviour in wildlife species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertschinger, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fertility control represents a proactive approach to population management for various mammalian wildlife species. In large predators, deslorelin implants have proven to be useful contraceptives in species such as lions, tigers and cheetahs. Although female lions and tigers responded well to various

  15. Stabilization of behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van der Robert

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the set of all restrictions on the behaviour of a plant that shape the characteristic polynomial of the closed-loop system. These control laws include both classical feedback laws and singular feedback laws. One of the results is the behavioural version of the Youla-Jab

  16. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannibale, Claudia; Teesson, Maree; Creamer, Mark; Sitharthan, Thiagarajan; Bryant, Richard A; Sutherland, Kylie; Taylor, Kirsten; Bostock-Matusko, Delphine; Visser, Alicia; Peek-O'Leary, Marie

    2013-08-01

    Aims This study aimed to test the efficacy of integrated cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for coexisting post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Setting Clinics across Sydney, Australia.Design Randomized controlled trial of 12 once-weekly individual sessions of either integrated CBT for PTSD and AUD(integrated therapy, IT; n = 33) or CBT for AUD plus supportive counselling (alcohol-support, AS; n = 29). Blind assessments were conducted at baseline and post-treatment and at 5 [standard deviation (SD) = 2.25] and 9.16(SD = 3.45) months post-treatment. Participants Sixty-two adults with concurrent PTSD and AUD. Measurements Outcomes included changes in alcohol consumption (time-line follow-back), PTSD severity [clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS)], alcohol dependence and problems, and depression and anxiety. Findings Reductions in PTSD severity were evident in both groups. IT participants who had received one or more sessions of exposure therapy exhibited a twofold greater rate of clinically significant change in CAPS severity at follow-up than AS participants [IT60%, AS 39%, odds ratio (OR): 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 5.01]. AS participants exhibited larger reductions than IT participants in alcohol consumption, dependence and problems within the context of greater treatment from other services during follow-up. Results lend support to a mutually maintaining effect between AUD and PTSD. Conclusions Individuals with severe and complex presentations of coexisting post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) can derive substantial benefit from cognitive behaviour therapy targeting AUD, with greater benefits associated with exposure for PTSD. Among individuals with dual disorders, these therapies can generate significant, well-maintained treatment effects on PTSD, AUD and psychopathology.

  17. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  18. Numerical And Physical Simulation Of Liquid Steel Behaviour In One Strand Tundish With Subflux Turbulence Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwudziński A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of computer simulations (Ansys-Fluent and laboratory experiments (physical water model carried out to describe the motion of steel flow in the tundish. The facility under investigation is a single-nozzle slab tundish. The internal geometry of consider object was changed by flow control device i.e. subflux turbulence controller (STC. In order to obtain a complete hydrodynamic picture in the tundish furniture variants tested, the computer simulations were performed for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. From the performed computer simulations and laboratory experiments (physical modeling it can be found that, the non-isothermal conditions occurring during continuous steel casting will definitely influence the hydrodynamic pattern forming in the tundishes with STC.

  19. Modelling, stability and control of voltage behaviour in power supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David J. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Hisken, Ian A. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of a line of work on mid to long term voltages stability analysis and control in power systems. The results are based on use of a novel approach to dynamic load modelling using aggregate nonlinear structures. In general, the model for the transmission network and supply end dynamics is of the hybrid differential - algebraic - discrete kind. Various stability questions are precisely formulated and analysed in terms of network and load characteristics (steady-state and transient). The results are shown to be a useful framework for deriving criteria of the where, when and how much kind for various control actions such as load Thedding and tap-blocking. (author) 47 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A look at Behaviourism and Perceptual Control Theory in Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    program. The experimental results suggested that as the SR mapping was more complex, the abbreviation technique was also more complex. Kantowitz and...the stimulus (display) and response (control action). Kantowitz and Campbell presented a model based on a nested hierarchy of frames (a well...Action Figure 3. Recent SRC Model [7] Kantowitz and Campbell used the aircraft flightdeck as an application of the theory. A low SR compatibility was

  1. Efficacy of technology-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for OCD versus control conditions, and in comparison with therapist-administered CBT: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dèttore, Davide; Pozza, Andrea; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few patients receive CBT, due to factors such as geographic limitations, perceived stigmatization, and lack of CBT services. Technology-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (T-CBT) could be an effective strategy to improve patients' access to CBT. To date, a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of T-CBT for OCD has not been conducted. This study used meta-analytic techniques to summarize evidence on the efficacy of T-CBT for OCD versus control conditions and therapist-administered CBT. A meta-analysis according to Prisma guidelines was conducted on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of T-CBT for OCD. Treatment was classified as T-CBT if evidence-based CBT active ingredients for OCD were included (psychoeducation, ERP, and cognitive restructuring), delivered through health technologies (e.g. self-help books, leaflets, and other forms of bibliotherapy) or remote communication technologies (e.g. the Internet, web-cameras, telephones, telephone-interactive voice response systems, and CD-ROMS). Studies using validated outcomes for OCD or depression were included. Eight trials were included (N = 420). Two trials were classified as at high risk of bias. T-CBT seemed to be superior to control conditions on OCD symptom outcomes at post-treatment (d = 0.82, 99% CI = 0.55-1.08, p = 0.001), but not on comorbid depression (d = 0.33, 99% CI = - 0.01-0.67, p = 0.020). Difference in the efficacy on OCD symptoms between T-CBT and therapist-administered CBT was not significant, despite a trend favouring therapist-administered CBT emerged (d = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.03-0.87, p = 0.033). Directions for research are discussed. Further RCTs are warranted to examine the efficacy of T-CBT for OCD.

  2. Neural-activity mapping of memory-based dominance in the crow: neural networks integrating individual discrimination and social behaviour control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, K; Izawa, E-I; Watanabe, S

    2011-12-01

    Large-billed crows (Corvus macrorhynchos), highly social birds, form stable dominance relationships based on the memory of win/loss outcomes of first encounters and on individual discrimination. This socio-cognitive behaviour predicts the existence of neural mechanisms for integration of social behaviour control and individual discrimination. This study aimed to elucidate the neural substrates of memory-based dominance in crows. First, the formation of dominance relationships was confirmed between males in a dyadic encounter paradigm. Next, we examined whether neural activities in 22 focal nuclei of pallium and subpallium were correlated with social behaviour and stimulus familiarity after exposure to dominant/subordinate familiar individuals and unfamiliar conspecifics. Neural activity was determined by measuring expression level of the immediate-early-gene (IEG) protein Zenk. Crows displayed aggressive and/or submissive behaviour to opponents less frequently but more discriminatively in subsequent encounters, suggesting stable dominance based on memory, including win/loss outcomes of the first encounters and individual discrimination. Neural correlates of aggressive and submissive behaviour were found in limbic subpallium including septum, bed nucleus of the striae terminalis (BST), and nucleus taeniae of amygdala (TnA), but also those to familiarity factor in BST and TnA. Contrastingly, correlates of social behaviour were little in pallium and those of familiarity with exposed individuals were identified in hippocampus, medial meso-/nidopallium, and ventro-caudal nidopallium. Given the anatomical connection and neural response patterns of the focal nuclei, neural networks connecting pallium and limbic subpallium via hippocampus could be involved in the integration of individual discrimination and social behaviour control in memory-based dominance in the crow.

  3. Investigating multiple components of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control: an examination of the theory of planned behaviour in the exercise domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Courneya, Kerry S

    2003-03-01

    The presence of two subcomponents within each theory of planned behaviour (TPB) concept of attitude (affective and instrumental), subjective norm (injunctive and descriptive), and PBC (self-efficacy and controllability) has been widely supported. However, research has not examined whether the commonality of variance between these components (i.e. a general factor) or the specificity of variance within the subcomponents influences intention and behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the optimal conceptualization of either two subcomponents or a general common factor for each TPB concept within an omnibus model. Further, to test whether conceptualizations may differ by population even within the same behavioural domain, we examined these research questions with 300 undergraduates (M age = 20) and 272 cancer survivors (M age = 61) for exercise behaviour. Results identified that a general subjective norm factor was an optimal predictive conceptualization over two separate injunctive and descriptive norm components. In contrast, a specific self-efficacy component, and not controllability or a general factor of PBC, predicted intention optimally for both samples. Finally, optimal models of attitude differed between the populations, with a general factor best predicting intention for undergraduates but only affective attitude influencing intention for cancer survivors. The findings of these studies underscore the possibility for optimal tailored interventions based on population and behaviour. Finally, a discussion of the theoretical ambiguity of the PBC concept led to suggestions for future research and possible re-conceptualization.

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy in medication-treated adults with ADHD and persistent Symptoms: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsson Emil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adulthood is not fully treated by psychopharmacological treatment alone. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate a newly developed cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT based group programme, the Reasoning and Rehabilitation for ADHD Youths and Adults (R&R2ADHD, using a randomized controlled trial. Methods 54 adults with ADHD already receiving psychopharmacological treatment were randomly allocated to an experimental (CBT/MED treatment condition (n = 27 and a 'treatment as usual' (TAU/MED control condition (n = 27 that did not receive the CBT intervention. The outcome measures were obtained before treatment (baseline, after treatment and at three month follow-up and included ADHD symptoms and impairments rated by independent assessors, self-reported current ADHD symptoms, and comorbid problems. Results The findings suggested medium to large treatment effects for ADHD symptoms, which increased further at three month follow-up. Additionally, comorbid problems also improved at follow-up with large effect sizes. Conclusions The findings give support for the effectiveness of R&R2ADHD in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems, an improving functions associated with impairment. The implications are that the benefits of R&R2ADHD are multifaceted and that combined psychopharmacological and CBT based treatments may add to and improve pharmacological interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000533998 (http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12611000533998.aspx

  5. The membrane-topogenic vectorial behaviour of Nrf1 controls its post-translational modification and transactivation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiguo; Hayes, John D

    2013-01-01

    The integral membrane-bound Nrf1 transcription factor fulfils important functions in maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, but how it is controlled vectorially is unknown. Herein, creative use of Gal4-based reporter assays with protease protection assays (GRAPPA), and double fluorescence protease protection (dFPP), reveals that the membrane-topogenic vectorial behaviour of Nrf1 dictates its post-translational modification and transactivation activity. Nrf1 is integrated within endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes through its NHB1-associated TM1 in cooperation with other semihydrophobic amphipathic regions. The transactivation domains (TADs) of Nrf1, including its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) glycodomain, are transiently translocated into the ER lumen, where it is glycosylated in the presence of glucose to become a 120-kDa isoform. Thereafter, the NST-adjoining TADs are partially repartitioned out of membranes into the cyto/nucleoplasmic side, where Nrf1 is subject to deglycosylation and/or proteolysis to generate 95-kDa and 85-kDa isoforms. Therefore, the vectorial process of Nrf1 controls its target gene expression.

  6. Dynamics of micromechanisms controlling the mechanical behaviour of industrial single crystal superalloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Benyoucef; A Coujou; F Pettinari-Sturmel; S Raujol; B Boubker; N Clément

    2003-02-01

    When deforming bulk material, micromechanisms involving moving defects result in mechanical characteristics observed at a macroscopic scale. In situ straining of microsamples in a Transmission Electron Microscope. provides the unique advantage of observing the dislocation dynamics involved in such microdeformation processes under the combined effects of stress and temperature. Here the efficiency of this technique is illustrated by describing the different obstacles controlling the movement of dislocations in a two-phase industrial single crystal superalloy. At 25° and 850°C, different core structures of the moving dislocations as well as several ways of crossing obstacles are described, which concern the movement of dislocations in channels, at $\\gamma /\\gamma' $ interfaces and while shearing $\\gamma' $ precipitates. From these observations, a quantitative analysis is developed leading to the evaluation of the critical propagation stresses involved in the channels of the matrix and when crossing the interfaces. This allows to discuss the various sites of resistance opposed to the dislocation movements and controlling the macroscopic deformation.

  7. Malaria-related health-seeking behaviour and challenges for care providers in rural Ethiopia: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed; Hailemariam, Damen

    2008-01-01

    A range of activities are currently underway to improve access to malaria prevention and control interventions. As disease control strategies change over time, it is crucial to understand the health-seeking behaviour and the local socio-cultural context in which the changes in interventions operate. This paper reflects on how people in an area of seasonal malaria perceive the causes and transmission of the disease, and what prevention and treatment measures they practise to cope with the disease. It also highlights some of the challenges of malaria treatment for health care providers. The study was undertaken in 2003 in Adami Tulu District in south-central Ethiopia, where malaria is a major health problem. Pre-tested structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were conducted among men and women. Malaria, locally known as busa, was perceived as the most important cause of ill health in the area. Respondent's perception and knowledge about the cause and transmission of the disease were relatively high. The newly introduced insecticide-treated nets were not popular in the area, and only 6.4% of households possessed at least one. The results showed that patients use multiple sources of health care for malaria treatment. Public health facilities, private clinics and community health workers were the main providers of malaria treatment. Despite higher treatment costs, people preferred to use private health care providers for malaria treatment due to the higher perceived quality of care they offer. In conclusion, effort in the prevention and control of malaria should be intensified through addressing not only public facilities, but also the private sector and community-based control interventions. Appropriate and relevant information on malaria should be disseminated to the local community. The authors propose the provision of effective antimalarial drugs and malaria prevention tools such as subsidized or free insecticide-treated nets.

  8. The Relationship between Adolescents' Locus of Control and Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Its Implications for School Psychologists and Other Health Related Professionals: Results from a Turkish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Ruhi Selcuk; Piyal, Birgul; Celen, Umit; Karakoc, Serife; Ozen, Yelda

    2009-01-01

    The Concept of Health Locus of Control (HLOC) indicates the personal belief of an individual about who or what affects his/her health. This approach emphasizes the importance of individual responsibility for health, especially in the school years which represent a "critical period" for students to adopt healthy behaviours and lifestyles.…

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of Full and Brief Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy and Wait-List for Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Derek; Williams, Tim; Perrin, Sean; Atkinson, Linda; Gallop, Catherine; Waite, Polly; Salkovskis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reviews and practice guidelines for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recommend cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) as the psychological treatment of choice, but note that it has not been sufficiently evaluated for children and adolescents and that more randomized controlled trials are needed. The aim of this trial was to…

  10. Melatonin versus Placebo in Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions and Severe Sleep Problems Not Amenable to Behaviour Management Strategies: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Sims, David; Smart, Siobhan; Alwazeer, Ahmed; Alderson-Day, Ben; Allgar, Victoria; Whitton, Clare; Tomlinson, Heather; Bennett, Sophie; Jardine, Jenni; McCaffrey, Nicola; Leyland, Charlotte; Jakeman, Christine; Miles, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two children with autism spectrum disorders who had not responded to supported behaviour management strategies for severe dysomnias entered a double blind, randomised, controlled crossover trial involving 3 months of placebo versus 3 months of melatonin to a maximum dose of 10 mg. 17 children completed the study. There were no significant…

  11. Antecedents of self identity and consequences for action control: an application of the theory of planned behaviour in the exercise domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; Verkooijen, K.; de Vries, N.K.; van den Putte, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study whether exercise action control profiles should be usefully extended to include exercise identity. Further, this study investigated theory of planned behaviour antecedents of exercise identity. Design Prospective data from 413 undergraduate students (M age = 21.4; 73.5% females).

  12. Antecedents of self identity and consequences for action control: An application of the theory of planned behaviour in the exercise domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de G.J.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Putte, van den B.; Vries, de N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study whether exercise action control profiles should be usefully extended to include exercise identity. Further, this study investigated theory of planned behaviour antecedents of exercise identity. Design: Prospective data from 413 undergraduate students (M age ¼ 21.4; 73.5% females

  13. Seguridad industrial y minera: Aspectos estratégicos para el control pasivo de ruido. // Industrial and mining security: estrategics aspects for the passive control of noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Sexto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta una serie de aspectos medulares a tener en cuenta para atenuar el efecto de la contaminación sonora enambientes industriales. Propone un perfil de enfrentamiento que, en su conjunto, se ha dado en llamar Control Pasivo deRuido (CPR. Entre los elementos que se analizan están los descriptores de ruido necesarios, la determinación de lostiempos de exposición límites, el aislamiento de las vibraciones, el programa de control, la utilidad de las pantallas yencapsulamientos acústicos, , entre otros aspectos. Se exponen, con especial énfasis, los criterios para la selección efectivade los dispositivos para la protección auditiva. Además, se plantea un enfoque que vincula la estrategia de Control Pasivode Ruido como parte de una concepción más amplia que es considerada en la consecuente aplicación de una política demantenimiento eficaz. Tal relación constituye el punto de partida para asegurar la salud del personal, el buenfuncionamiento de los equipos, la seguridad operacional, y con ello, la disminución del alcance nefasto de la contaminaciónacústica en ambientes industriales.Palabras claves: Ruido, contaminación, mantenimiento, seguridad, salud, control pasivo._____________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work presents a series of important aspects to keep in mind in order to attenuate the effect of the sound contaminationin industrial environment. A confrontation profile is provided, which has been called Passive Control of Noise (CPR.Among the analyzed elements are: the determination of time exhibition limits, the vibration isolation, the utility of screensand acoustic capsule, the control program, and other aspects. With special emphasis are exposed the approaches for theeffective selection of the devices for auditive protection. An aproach is stated that links the strategy of Passive NoiseControl as part of a wider conception that is considered in the consequent application

  14. Controllable nonlocal behaviour by cascaded second-harmonic generation of fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2008-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) of ultra-short pulses can act as a prototypical nonlocal nonlinear model, since the strength and nature of the temporal nonlocality can be controlled through the phase-mismatch parameter. The presence of a group-velocity mismatch namely implies that when the phase...... compression to few-cycle pulses in the cascaded quadratic soliton compressor, the spectral content of the full coupled SHG model is predicted by the nonlocal model even when few-cycle pulses are interacting....... mismatch is small the nonlocal response function becomes oscillatory, while for large phase mismatch it becomes localized. In the transition between the two regimes the strength of the nonlocality diverges, and the system goes from a weakly nonlocal to a strongly nonlocal state. When simulating soliton...

  15. Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.

  16. Impulse control and aggressive response generation as predictors of aggressive behaviour in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. Orobio; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recentl

  17. Nominal aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1991-01-01

    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recently......, at least in the sense in which it is used here (Rijkhoff 1989b, 1990a, 1990b). After a brief look at the more familiar verbal aspects, each of the nominal aspects is discussed in some detail. Then the relevance of nominal aspect will be considered in connection with (i) certain 'number markers' (which...... will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  18. Controlling the self-ordering behaviour of nanostructures on patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochola, Gregory; Snook, Ian K.; Russo, Salvy P.

    2011-04-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to show how 2D anchoring patterns on a substrate can be utilised to accurately control the placement and morphology of nucleating 3D nanostructures. The 2D anchoring patterns for our model system consisted of a Pt ad-atom island on a Pt substrate with a surrounding monolayer of Ag atoms. The crystallographic direction of the Pt/Ag boundaries comprising the 2D anchoring pattern and the shape of the pattern was found to have a significant effect on the resultant 3D nanostructures to the extent that one can force nanostructures to have unstable facets, changing the appearance of nanostructures completely. We used the Pt/Ag system as a model to study the effects of square, rectangular and triangular anchoring patterns on Pt(111) and Pt(100) substrates. However, the processes observed are thought to result from the successful altering of the growth mode from Frank-Van der Merwe to Volmer-Weber growth; hence, these processes should be quite general and applicable to other systems.

  19. In-hospital logistics: what are the key aspects for succeeding in each of the steps of the process of controlled donation after circulatory death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Paul; Boffa, Catherine; Manara, Alex; Ysebaert, Dirk; de Jongh, Wim

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are becoming an increasingly important population of organ donors in Europe and worldwide. We report the state of the art regarding controlled DCD donation describing the organizational and technical aspects of establishing a controlled DCD programme and provide recommendations regarding the introduction and development of this type of programme.

  20. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of brief, habit-based, lifestyle advice for cancer survivors: exploring behavioural outcomes for the Advancing Survivorship Cancer Outcomes Trial (ASCOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Croker, Helen; Heinrich, Maggie; Smith, Lee; Williams, Kate; Hackshaw, Allan; Hines, John; Machesney, Michael; Krishnaswamy, Madhavan; Cavanagh, Sharon; Roylance, Rebecca; Hill, Alison; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Positive health behaviours such as regular physical activity and a healthy diet have significant effects on cancer outcomes. There is a need for simple but effective behaviour change interventions with the potential to be implemented within the cancer care pathway. Habit-based advice encourages repetition of a behaviour in a consistent context so that the behaviour becomes increasingly automatic in response to a specific contextual cue. This approach therefore encourages long-term behaviour change and can be delivered through printed materials. ‘Healthy Habits for Life’ is a brief intervention based on habit theory, and incorporating printed materials plus a personally tailored discussion, that has been designed specifically for patients with a diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this trial was to test the effect of ‘Healthy Habits for Life’ on a composite health behaviour risk index (CHBRI) over 3 months in patients with a diagnosis of breast, colorectal or prostate cancer. Method and analysis A 2-arm, individually randomised controlled trial in patients with breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. Patients will be recruited over 18 months from 7 National Health Service Trusts in London and Essex. Following baseline assessments and allocation to intervention or usual care, patients are followed up at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome will be change in CHBRI at 3 months. Maintenance of any changes over 6 months, and changes in individual health behaviours (including dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking status) will also be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained through the National Research Ethics Service Committee South Central—Oxford B via the Integrated Research Application System (reference number 14/SC/1369). Results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Trial registration number 17421871. PMID:27881518

  1. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  2. Motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety following traumatic brain injury: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Yun; Ponsford, Jennie; Wong, Dana; Schönberger, Michael; Taffe, John; McKay, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for anxiety, its delivery needs to be adapted for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It also requires clients' active engagement for maximum benefit. This study was a pilot randomised controlled trial involving an anxiety treatment programme adapted for people with TBI, based on CBT and motivational interviewing (MI). Twenty-seven participants with moderate/severe TBI (aged 21-73 years, 78% males) recruited from a brain injury rehabilitation hospital were randomly allocated to receive MI + CBT (n = 9), non-directive counselling (NDC) + CBT (n = 10) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 8). CBT and MI were manualised and delivered in 12 weekly individual sessions. Primary outcome was self-reported anxiety symptoms assessed at baseline, at the end of NDC/MI and immediately following CBT. Assessment was conducted by assessors blinded to group assignment. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that the two active treatment groups demonstrated significantly greater anxiety reduction than TAU. Participants receiving MI showed greater response to CBT, in terms of reduction in anxiety, stress and non-productive coping, compared to participants who received NDC. The results provided preliminary support for the adapted CBT programme, and the potential utility of MI as treatment prelude. Longer follow-up data are required to evaluate the maintenance of treatment effects.

  3. Genetics and criminal behaviour: recent accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of the effects of physical activity feedback on awareness and behaviour in UK adults: the FAB study protocol [ISRCTN92551397

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are increasing data implicating poor recognition of physical inactivity as a potential barrier to healthy behaviour change, the efficacy of feedback to promote physical activity is uncertain. Using a randomised controlled trial nested within a population-based cohort study, we plan to test three variations of physical activity feedback against a control group. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of physical activity feedback in promoting physical activity behaviour change. Secondary objectives are to determine the influence of feedback on physical activity awareness and cognitions, and to compare behavioural effects by type of feedback. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 500 healthy participants aged 30 to 55 years from the ongoing Fenland Study (Cambridge, UK. Following careful phenotyping during baseline measurement (anthropometric, clinical, body composition and fitness measurements, as well as questionnaires assessing self-reported and self-rated physical activity, psychosocial correlates of physical activity behaviour, diet, lifestyle and general health, participants wear a combined heart rate and movement sensor (Actiheart® for six continuous days and nights. After receipt of the physical activity data (around 2 weeks later, participants are randomly allocated to either a control group (no feedback or one of three types of personalised physical activity feedback ('simple', 'visualised' or 'contextualised', and complete repeat measures of self-rated physical activity and psychosocial correlates. Approximately five weeks after receiving feedback, all participants wear the Actiheart® for another six-day follow-up period and complete repeat questionnaires. Values at outcome, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion Given the randomised trial design and use of objective measure of physical activity, this study is likely to provide valuable insights into the

  5. Material control and accountability aspects of safeguards for the USA /sup 233/U/TH fuel recycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Jr., J. A.; McNeany, S. R.; Angelini, P.; Holder, N. D.; Abraham, L.

    1979-01-01

    Two fuel cycles are considered. The highly enriched uranium (HEU) cycle uses uranium enriched 93% in /sup 235/U as the initial fuel. The medium enriched uranium (MEU) cycle uses uranium with a /sup 235/U enrichment less than 20% as its initial fuel. In both, /sup 233/U is bred from thorium. The HEU /sup 235/U and the /sup 233/U of both cycles are recycled. The MEU /sup 235/U is retired to waste after one reactor cycle. Typical heavy metal contents of spent fuel elements from both cycles are presented. The main functional areas of the recycle plant are Shipping, Receiving, and Storage; Reprocessing; Refabrication; and Waste Treatment. A real-time materials accountability system will manage the data provided by measurements from all four areas. Simulations of material flow used in the HTGR development program are forerunners of such a system. The material control and accountability aspects of Reprocessing and Refabrication only are discussed. The proposed accountability areas are identified and the measurement techniques appropriate to various streams crossing the boundaries of the areas are identified. Special emphasis is placed on novel nondestructive methods developed for assaying solid materials containing /sup 233/U-Th. The material form, total uranium and plutonium, and activity of selected reprocessing streams are listed. The isotopics and activity of the uranium input into Refabrication are also presented.

  6. Novel aspect in grain size control of nanocrystalline diamond film for thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Cho, Jung-Min; Lee, Taek-Sung; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2013-11-27

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film growth was systematically investigated for application for the thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor. The NCD thin film was grown on the Si wafer or on the SiO2-coated sapphire substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). The structural/optical properties of the samples were characterized by the high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The waveguide modes of the NCD layer were studied by prism coupler technique using laser (wavelength: 632.8 nm) with varying incident angle. A novel aspect was disclosed in the grain size dependence on the growth temperature at the relatively low methane concentration in the precursor gas, which was important for optical property: the grain size increased with decreasing growth temperature, which was contrary to the conventional knowledge prevailing in the microcrystalline diamond (MCD) domain. We have provided discussions to reconcile such observation. An optical waveguide mode resonance was demonstrated in the visible region using the microstructure-controlled transparent NCD thin film waveguide, which provided a strong potential for the waveguide mode resonance sensor applications.

  7. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberian, Ana Paula; Hopker, Christiane; Mazzarotto, Ingrid; Cunha, Jenane; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Crippa, Ana

    2015-10-01

    Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31) and postsurgical (n = 32). In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75%) than right (25%). Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05). Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy.

  8. Internet-provided cognitive behaviour therapy of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth-a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Katri; Berg, Ida; Frankenstein, Katri; Viita, Lina; Larsson, Kamilla; Persson, Ulrika; Spånberger, Loviisa; Wretman, Anna; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Andersson, Gerhard; Wijma, Klaas

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of trauma-focused guided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for relieving posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth, a problem that about 3% women encounter postpartum. Following inclusion, 56 traumatized women were randomized to either treatment or to a waiting list control group. Primary outcome measures were the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) and Impact of Event Scale-Reversed (IES-R). Secondary measures were Beck depression inventory II, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Quality Of Life Inventory and the EuroQol 5 Dimensions. The treatment was guided by a clinician and lasted eight weeks and comprised eight modules of written text. The between-group effect size (ES) was d = .82 (p < .0001) for the IES-R. The ES for the TES was small (d = .36) and not statistically significant (p = .09). A small between-group ES (d = .20; p = .02) was found for the PHQ-9. The results from pre- to post-treatment showed large within-group ESs for PTSD symptoms in the treatment group both on the TES (d = 1.42) and the IES-R (d = 1.30), but smaller ESs in the control group from inclusion to after deferred treatment (TES, d = .80; IES-R d = .45). In both groups, the treatment had positive effects on comorbid depression and anxiety, and in the treatment group also on quality of life. The results need to be verified in larger trials. Further studies are also needed to examine long-term effects.

  9. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  10. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. METHOD: Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. RESULTS: Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural

  11. Environmental and behavioural factors affecting the prevalence of foot lameness in New Zealand dairy herds - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, R N; Pfeiffer, D U; Morris, R S; Tanner, C M

    1989-12-01

    A case-control study of environmental and behavioural factors influencing foot lameness was undertaken on 62 dairy herds comprising an average of 185 milking cows in Taranaki, New Zealand. Thirty two case herds were identified as having had at least 10 per cent of the cows lame during the milking season in which the herd was studied, and thirty control herds were selected on the basis that no more than 3 per cent of cows in these herds had been lame per year for at least two years immediately prior to investigation. Each herd was visited at both a morning and an afternoon milking, and 58 risk factors were measured between the time the farmer began to assemble the cows for milking and the completion of milking. Comparison of single variables between case and control herds identified 24 which showed differences (p<0.10). These variables were then subjected to stepwise multivariate logistic regression, and statistically significant variables in this analysis were used to create a tentative path diagram of possible causal web relationships between the various risk factors and the outcome variable, the lameness prevalence level. Information from a review of the published literature was used to include further variables to the 24 into the initial (or null hypothesis) path model. Logistic path analysis was then used to eliminate non-significant paths from the diagram, leaving 19 arrows joining 13 variables in the final path diagram, compared with 33 joining 20 variables in the initial version. The most influential variables in explaining variation between case and control herds were the average level of maintenance of the track and the degree of patience shown by the farmer in bringing the cows in for milking. Overall, factors associated with the movement of animals to the milking shed explained 40 per cent of the variation (deviance) with regard to the lameness prevalence level. Risk factors associated with characteristics of the milking process explain 24 per cent, and

  12. The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlbring Per

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1 physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2 physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3 behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4 behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930

  13. Use of birth control pills and condoms among 17-19-year-old adolescents in Norway: contraceptive versus protective behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeen, B; Lewin, B; Sundet, J M

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between sexual risk behaviour and contraceptive behaviour, and considers whether adolescents who use condoms are practising birth control or STD protective behaviour. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17-19 years. Data were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The response-rate was 63%. At the first sexual intercourse 51% of the adolescents used condoms and 7% birth control pills. At the most recent intercourse 31% used condoms and 38% the pill. Use of the pill was widespread among adolescents with high coital frequency and few coital partners. Use of condoms was not particularly widespread among adolescents who reported a relatively large number of coital partners. Irrespective of the number of years they had been coitally active there was no significant difference between those who intended to use condoms at the next sexual intercourse and those who did not as regards their beliefs about condoms as protection against STDs, HIV and unintended pregnancies. The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practise STD protective behaviour in specific situations.

  14. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821

  15. Aspects of the use of honeybees and bumblebees as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms in plant diseas control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langerak, C.J.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Dik, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) are used for pollination in agriculture and horticulture. The morphological and behavioural characteristics of bees make them good pollinators. Thanks to this, bees may also be used as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms for plan

  16. A randomised controlled trial of face to face versus pure online self-help cognitive behavioural treatment for perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Sarah J; van Noort, Emily; Chee, Abby; Kane, Robert T; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has shown cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) to be effective in reducing perfectionism. The present study investigated the efficacy of two formats of CBT for perfectionism (CBT-P), face-to-face and pure online self-help, in reducing perfectionism and associated psychological symptoms. Participants were randomly allocated to face-to-face CBT-P (n = 18), pure online self-help CBT-P (n = 16), or a waitlist control period (n = 18). There was no significant change for the waitlist group on any of the outcome measures at the end of treatment. Both the face-to-face and pure online self-help groups reported significant reductions at the end of treatment for the perfectionism variables which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The face-to-face group also reported significant reductions over this time in depression, anxiety, and stress, and a significant pre-post increase in self-esteem, all of which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. In contrast, the pure online self-help group showed no significant changes on these outcomes. The face-to-face group was statistically superior to the pure online self-help group at follow-up on the perfectionism measures, concern over mistakes and personal standards. The results show promising evidence for CBT for perfectionism, especially when offered face to face, where sustained benefit across a broad range of outcomes can be expected.

  17. Reproductive behaviour in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. II. Neural control of the genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, M; Sakai, M

    2001-03-01

    To understand the neural mechanisms of reproductive behaviour in the male cricket, we identified motor neurones innervating the muscles in each genital organ by backfilling with cobalt/nickel and recording their extracellular spike activity from nerve bundles of the terminal abdominal ganglion during tethered copulation and spermatophore formation. During tethered copulation, at least two motor neurones innervating two ipsilateral muscles were activated during projection of the guiding rod of the phallic dorsal pouch. Only one motor neurone, innervating four ipsilateral muscles of the dorsal pouch, was responsible for spermatophore extrusion by deforming the dorsal pouch. For spermatophore transfer, three motor neurones, singly innervating three epiphallus muscles, played a major role in opening passages for haemolymph to enter the ventral lobes and median pouch by bending the epiphallus. Two ventral lobe and 3-5 median pouch motor neurones seemed to play a role in expanding or folding the two membranous structures by relaxing or contracting their muscle fibres. After spermatophore transfer, most of the genital motor neurones exhibited a rhythmic burst of action potentials causing movement of the phallic complex coupled with strong abdominal contractions. For spermatophore formation, the genital motor neurones began to accelerate their rhythmic bursts approximately 30 s prior to subgenital plate opening and then changed their activity to tonic bursting or silence. The results have allowed us to describe the timing of the onset and termination of genital muscle contraction more precisely than before, to examine the neural mechanisms of copulatory motor control and to speculate on the neural organization of the reproductive centre for spermatophore extrusion and protrusion.

  18. Prevalence of disturbed eating behaviour in girls with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and the influence of disturbed eating behaviour on metabolic control (HbA1c)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lene Juel; Thastum, Mikael; Schnieber, Anette

    2008-01-01

    Girls with diabetes mellitus (DM) (N = 21, age 11-17 years) completed measures of objective overeating episodes (OOE) and objective bulimic episodes (OBE) from the EDE-Q. Data regarding metabolic control (HbA1c) were obtained through a national diabetes register. 41 % of the girls had one or more...

  19. Neck exercises, physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity as a treatment for adult whiplash patients with chronic neck pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ris Hansen, Inge; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard; Thomsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    is to present the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a combined individual physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity program on self-reported general physical function, in addition to neck function, pain, disability and quality of life in patients......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients suffer from chronic neck pain following a whiplash injury. A combination of cognitive, behavioural therapy with physiotherapy interventions has been indicated to be effective in the management of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. The objective...... with chronic neck pain following whiplash injury compared with a matched control group measured at baseline and 4 and 12 months after baseline. METHODS: The design is a two-centre, RCT-study with a parallel group design. Included are whiplash patients with chronic neck pain for more than 6 months, recruited...

  20. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  1. A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials to Investigate the Effect of Educational Interventions on Reducing Sunburn and Improving Sun Protection Knowledge and Behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Background Skin cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in white populations throughout the world, yet, by taking adequate sun protection measures it can be prevented. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of educational interventions on reducing sunburns and improving sun protection knowledge and behaviours in individuals of all ages. Methodology Using the electronic databases, Ovid-Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Cli...

  2. Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce sex-specific changes in reinforcer-controlled behaviour and neurotransmitter metabolism in a spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervola Kine S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports suggest that omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplements may reduce ADHD-like behaviour. Our aim was to investigate potential effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation in an animal model of ADHD. Methods We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. SHR dams were given n-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA-enriched feed (n-6/n-3 of 1:2.7 during pregnancy, with their offspring continuing on this diet until sacrificed. The SHR controls and Wistar Kyoto (WKY control rats were given control-feed (n-6/n-3 of 7:1. During postnatal days (PND 25–50, offspring were tested for reinforcement-dependent attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity as well as spontaneous locomotion. The animals were then sacrificed at PND 55–60 and their neostriata were analysed for monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters with high performance liquid chromatography. Results n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced reinforcement-controlled attention and reduced lever-directed hyperactivity and impulsiveness in SHR males whereas the opposite or no effects were observed in females. Analysis of neostriata from the same animals showed significantly enhanced dopamine and serotonin turnover ratios in the male SHRs, whereas female SHRs showed no change, except for an intermediate increase in serotonin catabolism. In contrast, both male and female SHRs showed n-3 PUFA-induced reduction in non-reinforced spontaneous locomotion, and sex-independent changes in glycine levels and glutamate turnover. Conclusions Feeding n-3 PUFAs to the ADHD model rats induced sex-specific changes in reinforcement-motivated behaviour and a sex-independent change in non-reinforcement-associated behaviour, which correlated with changes in presynaptic striatal monoamine and amino acid signalling, respectively. Thus, dietary n-3 PUFAs may partly ameliorate ADHD-like behaviour by reinforcement-induced mechanisms in males and partly via reinforcement-insensitive mechanisms

  3. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  4. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen...

  5. The effects of brief cognitive-behaviour therapy for pathological skin picking: A randomized comparison to wait-list control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Keijsers, Ger P J; Rinck, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-four college students suffering from pathological skin picking were randomly assigned to a four-session cognitive-behavioural treatment (n=17) or a waiting-list condition (n=17). Severity of skin picking, psycho-social impact of skin picking, strength of skin-picking-related dysfunctional cognitions, and severity of skin injury were measured at pre-, post-, and two-months follow-up assessment. Participants in the treatment condition showed a significantly larger reduction on all measured variables in comparison to the waiting-list condition. The obtained effect sizes for the outcome measures were large, ranging from .90 to 1.89. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. In conclusion, cognitive-behavioural therapy, even in brief form, constitutes an adequate treatment option for pathological skin-picking behaviour.

  6. Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

  7. Regulatory aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  8. The implementation of the serial trial intervention for pain and challenging behaviour in advanced dementia patients (STA OP!: a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francke Anneke L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain (physical discomfort and challenging behaviour are highly prevalent in nursing home residents with dementia: at any given time 45-80% of nursing home residents are in pain and up to 80% have challenging behaviour. In the USA Christine Kovach developed the serial trial intervention (STI and established that this protocol leads to less discomfort and fewer behavioural symptoms in moderate to severe dementia patients. The present study will provide insight into the effects of implementation of the Dutch version of the STI-protocol (STA OP! in comparison with a control intervention, not only on behavioural symptoms, but also on pain, depression, and quality of life. This article outlines the study protocol. Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial in 168 older people (aged >65 years with mild or moderate dementia living in nursing homes. The clusters, Dutch nursing homes, are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (training and implementation of the STA OP!-protocol or the control condition (general training focusing on challenging behaviour and pain, but without the step-wise approach. Measurements take place at baseline, after 3 months (end of the STA OP! training period and after 6 months. Primary outcome measures are symptoms of challenging behaviour (measured with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH, and pain (measure with the Dutch version of the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors (PACSLAC-D and the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI pain scale. Secondary outcome measures include symptoms of depression (Cornell and MDS-RAI depression scale, Quality of Live (Qualidem, changes in prescriptions of analgesics and psychotropic drugs, and the use of non-pharmacological comfort interventions (e.g. snoezelen, reminiscence therapy. Discussion The transfer from the American design to

  9. The effects of brief cognitive-behaviour therapy for pathological skin picking: A randomized comparison to wait-list control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Rinck, M.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-four college students suffering from pathological skin picking were randomly assigned to a four-session cognitive-behavioural treatment (n = 17) or a waiting-list condition (n = 17). Severity of skin picking, psycho-social impact of skin picking, strength of skin-picking-related dysfunctional

  10. HIV infection and sexual behaviour in primary and secondary infertile relationships: a case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dhont; C. Muvunyi; S. Luchters; J. Vyankandondera; L. de Naeyer; M. Temmerman; J. van de Wijgert

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including HIV) and of high-risk sexual behaviour in the following three groups: primary infertile relationships, secondary infertile relationships and fertile relationships. Primary infertility is here defined as never ha

  11. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for adolescents with antisocial behaviour : study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Schuurman-Luinge, Annemieke H.; Knorth, Erik J.; Buskens, Erik; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive, short, family-and community-based treatment for serious antisocial behaviour and delinquency in youth. It is an emerging intervention for serious juvenile delinquents. However, conclusive evidence on the balance between costs and effects is li

  13. Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychopathology in relatives of missing persons : Study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Lonneke I.M.; Wessel, Ineke; de Keijser, Jos; Boelen, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that the grieving process of relatives of missing persons is complicated by having to deal with uncertainty about the fate of their loved one. We developed a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with mindfulness that focuses on dealing with this uncertainty. In this arti

  14. Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychopathology in relatives of missing persons: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, L.I.M.; Wessel, Ineke; de Keijser, Jos; Boelen, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that the grieving process of relatives of missing persons is complicated by having to deal with uncertainty about the fate of their loved one. We developed a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with mindfulness that focuses on dealing with this uncertainty. In this arti

  15. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urassa Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building

  16. Gender differences in condom use prediction with Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A

    2007-10-01

    There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view.

  17. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1: Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellier Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    of medical services measure at six months post-randomisation. Discussion MENOS 1 is the first randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for hot flushes and night sweats that measures both self-reported and physiologically indexed symptoms. The results will inform future clinical practice by developing an evidence-based, non-medical treatment, which can be delivered by trained health professionals. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13771934

  18. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  19. Individual behavioural characteristics in pigs and their consequences for pig husbandry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main aspect of this thesis is individual behavioural variation. Behavioural variability among individuals within a population may provide information on strategies or roles in social behaviour, on personality traits and individual recognition. Generally, this behavio

  20. Differences in lumbopelvic control and occupational behaviours in female nurses with and without a recent history of low back pain due to back injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiolakis, Corinne S; Kuk, Jennifer L; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is highly prevalent in nurses. This study aimed to determine which physical fitness, physical activity (PA) and biomechanical characteristics most clearly distinguish between nurses with [recently injured (RInj)] and without [not recently injured (NRInj)] a recent back injury. Twenty-seven (8 RInj, 19 NRInj) female nurses completed questionnaires (pain, work, PA), physical fitness, biomechanical and low back discomfort measures, and wore an accelerometer for one work shift. Relative to NRInj nurses, RInj nurses exhibited reduced lumbopelvic control (41.4% more displayed a moderate loss of frontal plane position), less active occupational behaviours (less moderate PA; less patient lifts performed alone; more sitting and less standing time) and more than two times higher low back discomfort scores. Despite no physical fitness differences, the lumbopelvic control, occupational behaviours and discomfort measures differed between nurses with and without recent back injuries. It is unclear whether poor lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in RInj nurses and may require further investigation. Practitioner Summary: It is unclear which personal modifiable factors are most clearly associated with low back pain in nurses. Lumbopelvic control was the only performance-based measure to distinguish between nurses with and without recent back injuries. Future research may investigate whether reduced lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in recently injured nurses.

  1. Glycaemic control status among type 2 diabetic patients and the role of their diabetes coping behaviours: a clinic-based study in Tripoli, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Taher Ashur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achieving good glycaemic control is important in diabetes management. However, poor glycaemic control is widely reported. This article assessed the prevalence of uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control among Libyans with type 2 diabetes and examined the relative contribution of diabetes coping behaviours to their glycaemic control status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 2013 in a large diabetes centre in Tripoli. The study included 523 respondents. Diabetes coping behaviours were measured using the revised version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure (SDSCA and the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8©, while glycaemic control status was based on the HbA1c level. Results: Mean HbA1c was 8.9 (±2.1, and of the 523 patients, only 114 (21.8% attained the glycaemic control target of HbAc1 of less than 7.0%. Females (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.03–2.91, patients on insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.05–3.54, patients on insulin (OR=3.14, 95% CI=1.66–6.03, and low-medication adherents (OR=2.25, 95% CI=1.36–3.73 were more likely to have uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control, while exercise contributed to glycaemic control status as a protective factor (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.77–0.94. Conclusion: The findings from this study showed the considerable burden of uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control in one of the largest diabetes care settings in Libya. Medication adherence as well as exercise promotion programs would help in reducing the magnitude of poor glycaemic control.

  2. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  3. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for men who have hot flushes following prostate cancer treatment (MANCAN: trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Omar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a guided self-help cognitive behavioural intervention to alleviate problematic hot flushes (HF and night sweats (NS in men who are undergoing prostate cancer treatment. The trial and the self-help materials have been adapted from a previous RCT, which showed that a cognitive behavioural intervention reduced the self-reported problem-rating of hot flushes in women with menopausal symptoms, and in women undergoing breast cancer treatment. We hypothesize that guided self-help will be more effective than usual care in reducing HF/NS problem-rating at post treatment assessment. Methods/Design Seventy men who are undergoing treatment for prostate cancer and who have been experiencing more than ten HF/NS weekly for over a month are recruited into the trial from urology clinics in London. They are randomly allocated to either a four-week self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT treatment or to their usual care (control group. The treatment includes information and discussion about hot flushes and night sweats in the context of prostate cancer, monitoring and modifying precipitants, relaxation and paced respiration, stress management, cognitive therapy for unhelpful thoughts and beliefs, managing sleep and night sweats, and advice on maintaining these changes. Prior to randomisation, men attend a clinical interview, undergo 24-48-hour sternal skin conductance monitoring, and complete pre-treatment questionnaires (e.g., problem-rating and frequency of hot flushes and night sweats; quality of life; mood; hot flush beliefs and behaviours. Post-treatment measures (sternal skin conductance and the above questionnaires are collected four-six weeks later, and again at a six-month follow-up. Discussion MANCAN is the first randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for HF/NS for men that measures both self-reported and physiologically indexed

  4. Evaluation of Exercise on Individuals with Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia and Their Carers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cerga-Pashoja, A

    2016-01-01

    There are over 840,000 people in the UK with dementia, most of whom will experience Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). Treatment options for BPSD are limited and often they have been managed with anti-psychotic medication, which increase mortality and the risk of stroke in people with dementia. Consequently, it is imperative to evaluate the impact that non-pharmacological interventions such as physical exercise have on BPSD. This research seeks to address this matter b...

  5. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and exercise for chronic whiplash: protocol of a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Campbell

    2015-10-01

    Discussion: This study will provide a definitive evaluation of the effects of adding trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy to physiotherapy exercise for individuals with chronic WAD and PTSD. This study is likely to influence the clinical management of whiplash injury and will have immediate clinical applicability in Australia, Denmark and the wider international community. The study will also have implications for both health and insurance policy makers in their decision-making regarding treatment options and funding.

  6. Can sandy beach molluscs show an endogenously controlled circatidal migrating behaviour? Hints from a swash rig experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Vanagt, T.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many macrofaunal species inhabiting exposed sandy beaches are dependent on the swash for their nutrition and for migration and are highly adapted to the harsh physical conditions of the swash. The most important physical factors that determine the distribution and behaviour of swash related fauna, next to the swash itself, are sediment grain size and beach slope. Crucial swash parameters are swash period and swash velocity. Studying the influence of these factors on the animals in the field i...

  7. Associations between body weight perception and weight control behaviour in South Indian children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of weight loss behaviour and the association between weight loss attempts with actual weight status and children's and parental perceptions of weight status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Karnataka, South India. Participants 1874 girls and boys aged 8–14 years from seven schools in Karnataka, South India. Main outcome measures The association between weight loss attempts and sociodemographic factors, weight status and the child's or the parent's per...

  8. Multi-centre parallel arm randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based cognitive behavioural approach to managing fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Colin

    2010-06-01

    aspects of the fatigue management intervention participants found helpful/unhelpful and barriers to change. Discussion This trial is the fourth stage of a research programme that has followed the Medical Research Council guidance for developing and evaluating complex interventions. What makes the intervention unique is that it blends cognitive behavioural and energy effectiveness approaches. A potential strength of the intervention is that it could be integrated into existing service delivery models as it has been designed to be delivered by staff already working with people with MS. Service users will be involved throughout this research. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76517470

  9. Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods: control of the aspect ratio by variation of the reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppl, Susanne; Ghielmetti, Nico [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials (Switzerland); Caseri, Walter, E-mail: wcaseri@mat.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Polymer Technology, Department of Materials (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Seed-mediated growth methods involving reduction of tetrachloroaurate(III) with ascorbic acid are common for the synthesis of gold nanorods. This study shows, however, that simply by appropriate choice of the reducing agent a drastic influence on the aspect ratio can be attained. Weaker reducing agents, such as dihydroxybenzene isomers (hydroquinone, catechol or resorcinol) or glucose can increase the aspect ratio of the nanorods by an order of magnitude, up to values as high as 100 (nanowires). The increase in aspect ratio is mainly a consequence of an increase in length of the particles (up to 1-3 {mu}m). This effect is probably associated with a decrease in the reduction rate of gold(III) species by dihydroxybenzenes or glucose compared to ascorbic acid. The reduction potential of the reducing agents strongly depends on the pH value, and related effects on the dimensions of the nanoparticles are also reflected in this study. The nanorods exhibited penta-twinned nature without noteworthy defects (e.g. stacking faults and dislocations).

  10. Age-related changes in the behavioural response of honeybees to Apiguard®, a thymol-based treatment used to control the mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, Fanny; Goodwin, Mark; Mercer, Alison

    2011-11-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is responsible for heavy losses in honey bee colonies and represents a major threat to the beekeeping industry. Essential oils offer an attractive alternative to the use of synthetic chemicals for the control of varroa. Amongst them, thymol appears to be particularly promising. However, treatments using thymol as their active substance, such as the gel formulation Apiguard(®), are suspected to have adverse effects on honey bee colonies. In this study, laboratory assays are used to investigate the effects of Apiguard(®) exposure on honey bee behaviour. Our results reveal that honey bee responses to this anti-varroa treatment change with honey bee age. While 2-day-old bees respond neutrally to Apiguard(®), older bees generally avoid the Apiguard(®) gel. Responses of forager bees were particularly striking. Foragers appear to be repelled by Apiguard(®). Touching their antennae with Apiguard(®) induces robust fanning behaviour. Our data suggest, however, that forager bees exposed to Apiguard(®) in the hive can become habituated to this treatment. These results offer interesting new perspectives on the effects of Apiguard(®) on honey bee behaviour and serve to highlight age-related changes in honey bee responses to gustatory, as well as olfactory cues.

  11. Drinking water from alternative water sources: differences in beliefs, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control across eight Australian locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, S; Hurlimann, A

    2009-01-01

    Australia is facing serious challenges in the management of water in various urban and regional locations. Two popular responses to these challenges are increasing supply through alternative water sources such as recycled and desalinated water. However, significant gaps exist in our knowledge of community attitudes to these alternative sources of water, particularly for potable use. This paper reports results from an Australian study of community attitudes to alternative water sources. Sixty six qualitative interviews were held at eight locations with distinctly different water situations. This paper explores all three antecedents to the behaviour of drinking recycled water and desalinated water as postulated by the Theory of Planned Behaviour: attitudes, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control. Key results indicate that while people hold both positive and negative beliefs (mostly cost, health and environmental concerns) about water from alternative sources, nearly all of them are willing to drink it if the water crisis were to deteriorate further. People also feel they lack knowledge and state that information from scientists would influence their decision to drink recycled and desalinated water most. Friends and relatives are most influential in preventing people from drinking recycled water. The findings reported in this paper have major implications for water policy, and will be of particular interest to water engineers. The paper raises a provocative question: Is it better to avoid public consultation in introducing water from alternative sources?

  12. Personality traits in established schizophrenia: aspects of usability and differences between patients and controls using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Personality is considered as an important aspect that can affect symptoms and social function in persons with schizophrenia. The personality questionnaire Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) has not previously been used in psychotic disorder. Aims: To investigate if SSP has a similar internal consistency and factor structure in a psychosis population as among healthy controls and if patients with psychotic disorders differ from non-psychotic individuals in th...

  13. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  14. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim with Bergen and Norway. Methods Sequential birth cohorts were established to evaluate the intervention programme from September 2000 to December 2004 in primary care as a part of the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim study (PACT. The primary outcome variables were self reported smoking behaviour at inclusion and six weeks postnatal. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBR were used to describe smoking cessation during pregnancy in Trondheim, Bergen and Norway 1999–2004. Results Maternal smoking prevalence at inclusion during pregnancy were 5% (CI 95% 4–6 in the intervention cohort compared to 7% (CI 95% 6–9, p = 0.03, in the control cohort. Of the pre-pregnancy maternal smokers 25% (CI 95% 20–31 and 32% (CI 95% 26–38, p = 0.17, were still smoking at inclusion in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. Six weeks postnatal 72% (CI 95% 59–83 and 68% (CI 95% 57–77, p = 0.34 of the maternal smokers at inclusion still smoked. No significant difference in paternal smoking between the cohorts was found after the intervention period. Data from the MBR showed a significantly higher proportion of women who stopped smoking during pregnancy in Trondheim than in Bergen in 2003 and 2004, p = 0.03 and Conclusion No impact on parental smoking behaviour between the cohorts was observed after the smoking intervention programme. Of the women who stopped smoking during pregnancy most of them stopped smoking before the intervention. However, we observed a significantly higher quitting

  15. MATING BEHAVIOUR AND CANNIBALISM IN PRAYING MANTIS (MANTIS RELIGIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel – Ionuţ BOGDAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the reproductive behaviour of praying mantis (Mantis religiosa L., describing the whole sequences of mating behaviour, approaching wholeness behavioural sequences related to reproduction of species, with special reference to cannibalistic behaviour, observed both in laboratory and natural environment of the insect. The investigations undertaken deduce the complexity of the problem and the need for further studies to elucidate and other aspects reguarding this type of behaviour.

  16. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  17. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  18. Behavioural effects of rapid intravenous administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) in patients with generalized social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Veen, J F; Van der Wee, N J A; Fiselier, J; Van Vliet, I M; Westenberg, H G M

    2007-10-01

    Findings from epidemiological, pharmacotherapeutical, genetic and neurobiological studies suggest a possible overlap in the neurobiology of generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) and panic disorder (PD). Previously we have found a rapid intravenous m-CPP challenge of 0.1 mg/kg to be highly sensitive and selective in the provocation of panic attacks in patients with PD. We therefore directly compared the behavioural, neuroendocrine and physiological effects of this rapid m-CPP challenge in a small sample of patients with gSAD, patients with PD and matched healthy controls. Panic attacks were significantly more provoked in patients with PD (85%), but not in patients with gSAD (14%) as compared to healthy controls (0%). Effects on the other behavioural parameters, but not on the neuroendocrine and physiological parameters, were significantly greater in patients with PD compared to patients with gSAD and controls. Our preliminary data do not support a shared neurobiology of gSAD and PD.

  19. A European multicentre survey of impulse control behaviours in Parkinson's disease patients treated with short- and long-acting dopamine agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizos, A; Sauerbier, A; Antonini, A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated primarily with dopamine agonist (DA) use. Comparative surveys of clinical occurrence of impulse control behaviours on longer acting/transdermal DA therapy across age ranges are lacking. The aim...... on medical records and clinical interviews of patients initiating or initiated on DA treatment (both short- and long-acting, and transdermal) across a broad range of disease stages and age groups was performed. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-five cases were included [mean age 68.3 years (range 37-90), mean...... release PPX (PPX-IR) (19.0%; P therapy due to ICDs were low. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a relatively low rate of ICDs with long-acting or transdermal DAs, however these preliminary observational data need to be confirmed with prospective studies controlling...

  20. Some aspects on kinetic modeling of evacuation dynamics. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Juan; Nieto, Juanjo

    2016-09-01

    The management of human crowds in extreme situations is a complex subject which requires to take into account a variety of factors. To name a few, the understanding of human behaviour, the psychological and behavioural features of individuals, the quality of the venue and the stress level of the pedestrian need to be addressed in order to select the most appropriate action during an evacuation process on a complex venue. In this sense, the mathematical modeling of such complex phenomena can be regarded as a very useful tool to understand and predict these situations. As presented in [4], mathematical models can provide guidance to the personnel in charge of managing evacuation processes, by means of helping to design a set of protocols, among which the most appropriate during a given critical situation is then chosen.

  1. Assessing Diabetes Self-Management with the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ Can Help Analyse Behavioural Problems Related to Reduced Glycaemic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt

    Full Text Available To appraise the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ's measurement of diabetes self-management as a statistical predictor of glycaemic control relative to the widely used SDSCA.248 patients with type 1 diabetes and 182 patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally assessed using the two self-report measures of diabetes self-management DSMQ and SDSCA; the scales were used as competing predictors of HbA1c. We developed a structural equation model of self-management as measured by the DSMQ and analysed the amount of variation explained in HbA1c; an analogue model was developed for the SDSCA.The structural equation models of self-management and glycaemic control showed very good fit to the data. The DSMQ's measurement of self-management showed associations with HbA1c of -0.53 for type 1 and -0.46 for type 2 diabetes (both P < 0.001, explaining 21% and 28% of variation in glycaemic control, respectively. The SDSCA's measurement showed associations with HbA1c of -0.14 (P = 0.030 for type 1 and -0.31 (P = 0.003 for type 2 diabetes, explaining 2% and 10% of glycaemic variation. Predictive power for glycaemic control was significantly higher for the DSMQ (P < 0.001.This study supports the DSMQ as the preferred tool when analysing self-reported behavioural problems related to reduced glycaemic control. The scale may be useful for clinical assessments of patients with suboptimal diabetes outcomes or research on factors affecting associations between self-management behaviours and glycaemic control.

  2. Effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor and feedback device to change postural behaviour: a protocol for the ELF cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is the most common, costly and disabling musculoskeletal disorder worldwide, and is prevalent in healthcare workers. Posture is a modifiable risk factor for LBP shown to reduce the prevalence of LBP. Our feasibility research suggests that postural feedback might help healthcare workers avoid hazardous postures. The Effectiveness of Lumbopelvic Feedback (ELF) trial will investigate the extent to which postural monitor and feedback (PMF) can reduce exposure to hazardous posture associated with LBP. Methods This is a participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial with blocked cluster random allocation. Participants will include volunteer healthcare workers recruited from aged care institutions and hospitals. A postural monitoring and feedback device will monitor and record lumbopelvic forward bending posture, and provide audio feedback whenever the user sustains a lumbopelvic forward bending posture that exceeds predefined thresholds. The primary outcome measure will be postural behaviour (exceeding thresholds). Secondary outcome measures will be incidence of LBP, participant-reported disability and adherence. Following baseline assessment, we will randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 intervention arms: a feedback group and a no-feedback control group. We will compare between-group differences of changes in postural behaviour by using a repeated measures mixed-effect model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 6 weeks. Postural behaviour baseline scores, work-related psychosocial factors and disability scores will be input as covariates into the statistical models. We will use logistic mixed model analysis and Cox's proportional hazards for assessing the effect of a PMF on LBP incidence between groups. Discussion Posture is a modifiable risk factor for low back disorders. Findings from the ELF trial will inform the design of future clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of wearable technology on minimising hazardous posture

  3. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  4. Legal aspects of electric power supply. Grid operator obligations between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control; Das Recht der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsnetze. Netzbetreiberpflichten zwischen unternehmerischer Eigenverantwortung und staatlicher Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetzig, Karoline

    2012-07-01

    The publication provides a systematic outline of the legal boundary conditions governing the operation of electric power supply grids. It goes beyond mere regulatory aspects, covering also the projecting and construction of grids, the acquisition or leasing of land for power transmission line construction, operating licenses and utility certification, the organisational structure and purpose of electric utilities, as well as the operating, servicing and enhancement of electricity grids including calculation of electricity rates. In addition to this systematic outline of legal aspects, it is investigated how the balance between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control was defined in the EnWG 2011, and it is discussed if the law provides sufficient room for entrepreneurial decisions.

  5. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Eefsting, J.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Hertogh, C.M.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to

  6. Multi-Objective Flight Control for Drag Minimization and Load Alleviation of High-Aspect Ratio Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean

    2017-01-01

    As aircraft wings become much more flexible due to the use of light-weight composites material, adverse aerodynamics at off-design performance can result from changes in wing shapes due to aeroelastic deflections. Increased drag, hence increased fuel burn, is a potential consequence. Without means for aeroelastic compensation, the benefit of weight reduction from the use of light-weight material could be offset by less optimal aerodynamic performance at off-design flight conditions. Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing (PAAW) technology can potentially address these technical challenges for future flexible wing transports. PAAW technology leverages multi-disciplinary solutions to maximize the aerodynamic performance payoff of future adaptive wing design, while addressing simultaneously operational constraints that can prevent the optimal aerodynamic performance from being realized. These operational constraints include reduced flutter margins, increased airframe responses to gust and maneuver loads, pilot handling qualities, and ride qualities. All of these constraints while seeking the optimal aerodynamic performance present themselves as a multi-objective flight control problem. The paper presents a multi-objective flight control approach based on a drag-cognizant optimal control method. A concept of virtual control, which was previously introduced, is implemented to address the pair-wise flap motion constraints imposed by the elastomer material. This method is shown to be able to satisfy the constraints. Real-time drag minimization control is considered to be an important consideration for PAAW technology. Drag minimization control has many technical challenges such as sensing and control. An initial outline of a real-time drag minimization control has already been developed and will be further investigated in the future. A simulation study of a multi-objective flight control for a flight path angle command with aeroelastic mode suppression and drag

  7. Algorithmic aspects of analysis, prediction, and control in science and engineering an approach based on symmetry and similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to describe and analyze a system's behavior and extract the desired prediction and control algorithms from this analysis. A typical prediction is based on observing similar situations in the past, knowing the outcomes of these past situations, and expecting that the future outcome of the current situation will be similar to these past observed outcomes. In mathematical terms, similarity corresponds to symmetry, and similarity of outcomes to invariance.   This book shows how symmetries can be used in all classes of algorithmic problems of sciences and engineering: from analysis to prediction to control. Applications cover chemistry, geosciences, intelligent control, neural networks, quantum physics, and thermal physics. Specifically, it is shown how the approach based on symmetry and similarity can be used in the analysis of real-life systems, in the algorithms of prediction, and in the algorithms of control.

  8. The Emerging Role of Telemedicine in Managing Glycemic Control and Psychobehavioral Aspects of Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Cristiano Chilelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a gradual decline in concern of specialists who follow up the care of pregnant women with diabetes. In addition, due to the dwindling economic resources allocated to health services, access to specialized healthcare facilities is becoming more difficult. Telemedicine, or medicine practiced at a distance, is inserted in this context with applications differing for type of interaction (real-time or deferred, i.e., videoconferencing versus store-and-forward data transmission, type of monitoring (automatic versus requesting cooperation from the patient, and type of devices used (web connections and use of mobile phones or smartphones. Telemedicine can cope with the current lack of ability to ensure these patients frequent direct contact with their caregivers. This approach may have an impact not only on the classical maternal-fetal outcome, but also on some underestimated aspects of patients with diabetes in pregnancy, in this case their quality of life, the perception of “diabetes self-efficacy,” and the glycemic variability. In this paper, we will analyze the current evidence regarding the use of telemedicine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, trying to highlight the main limitations of these studies and possible strategies to overcome them in order to improve the effectiveness of future clinical interventions with these medical applications.

  9. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  10. The influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller behaviour with a Speed And Route Advisory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, K. van de; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Plaat, A. van der; Erikson, F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller performance, workload and Situation Awareness (SA). Controllers handle traffic through means of tactical control involving heading, speed and altitude instructions. Future Air Traffic Management (ATM)

  11. An evaluation of the effect of an educational intervention for Australian social workers on competence in delivering brief cognitive behavioural strategies: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulding R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad community access to high quality evidence-based primary mental health care is an ongoing challenge around the world. In Australia one approach has been to broaden access to care by funding psychologists and other allied health care professionals to deliver brief psychological treatments to general practitioners' patients. To date, there has been a scarcity of studies assessing the efficacy of social worker delivered psychological strategies. This study aims to build the evidence base by evaluating the impact of a brief educational intervention on social workers' competence in delivering cognitive behavioural strategies (strategies derived from cognitive behavioural therapy. Methods A randomised controlled trial design was undertaken with baseline and one-week follow-up measurement of both objective and self-perceived competence. Simulated consultations with standardised depressed patients were recorded on videotape and objective competence was assessed by blinded reviewers using the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Questionnaires completed by participants were used to measure self-perceived competence. The training intervention was a 15 hour face-to-face course involving presentations, video example consultations, written materials and rehearsal of skills in pairs. Results 40 Melbourne-based (Australia social workers enrolled and were randomised and 9 of these withdrew from the study before the pre training simulated consultation. 30 of the remaining 31 social workers (97% completed all phases of the intervention and evaluation protocol (16 from intervention and 14 from control group. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in objective competence (mean improvement of 14.2 (7.38-21.02 on the 66 point Cognitive Therapy Scale and in subjective confidence (mean improvement of 1.28 (0.84-1.72 on a 5 point Likert scale. On average, the intervention group improved from below to above

  12. Cognitive-behaviour therapy for patients with Abridged Somatization Disorder (SSI 4,6 in primary care: a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatoform disorders are characterized by the presence of multiple somatic symptoms without an organic cause that completely explains their symptoms. These patients generate a high cost in health services. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT programme, administered in group and individual formats in primary care for patients who are diagnosed with abridged somatization disorder. Method/design Design: Multicentre, randomized, controlled trial involving 3 groups, one of which is the control group consisting of standardized recommended treatment for somatization disorder in primary care (Smith's norms and the 2 others, the intervention groups, consisting of cognitive-behavioural therapy (10 sessions administered in individual format (intervention group 1 or in group format (intervention group 2. Setting: 29 primary care health centres in the province of Zaragoza and 3 primary care health centres in the province of Mallorca, Spain. Sample: N = 204 patients, (68 in each of the three groups, aged 18–65 years, able to understand and read Spanish, who fulfil Escobar's criteria of Abridgged Somatization Disorder (SSI 4,6, stable with pharmacotherapy over the previous month, and who will remain stable for the next 3 months in the doctor's opinion, having signed informed consent. Intervention: Control group: Standardized recommended treatment for somatization disorder in primary care (Smith's norms. Intervention group: 10 weekly sessions of CBT, following a protocol designed by Prof. Escobar's group at UMDNJ, USA. There are 2 different treatment conditions: individual and group format. Measurements: Survey on the use of health services, number and severity of somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, quality of life and clinical global impression. The interviewers will not know which group the patient belongs to (blind. The assessments will be carried out at baseline, post

  13. Some durability aspects of hybrid alkaline cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatello S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blended cements that contain a high content of fly ash and a low content of Portland cement typically suffer from low early strength development and long setting times. Recently, one method of overcoming these problems has been to use an alkali activator to enhance the reactivity of fly ash particles at early ages. Such cements can be grouped under the generic term “hybrid alkaline cements”, where both cement clinker and fly ash, encouraged by the presence of alkalis, are expected to contribute to cementitious gel formation. The work presented here examines some of the durability aspects of high fly ash content hybrid alkaline cement. Specifically, the aspects investigated were: exposure at high temperatures (up to 1000°C, resistance to immersion in aggressive solutions and susceptibility to the alkali aggregate reaction. All tests were repeated with a commercially available sulfate resistant Portland cement for comparison. When exposed to high temperatures, the hybrid alkaline cement showed strikingly different behaviour compared to the control Portland cement, showing fewer micro-cracks and maintaining residual compressive strengths at least equal to original strengths. Beyond 700°C, the hybrid alkaline cement began to sinter, which resulted in shrinkage of around 5% and a 100% increase in residual compressive strengths. No such sintering event was noted in the control Portland cement, which showed a drastic loss in residual compressive strengths upon heating. In immersion tests, the hybrid alkaline cement possessed excellent resistance to sulfate and seawater attack, similar to the control sulfate resistant cement. Both cements were however severely degraded by immersion in 0.1M HCl for 90 days. Both binders complied with the accelerated alkali-aggregate test but when this test was extended, the hybrid alkaline binder showed much greater dimensional stability. Possible reasons for the differences in durability behaviour in both cements

  14. [Epidemiologic aspects of a new approach to monitoring hygienic food handling using the hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyás, Z

    1992-10-01

    The hitherto used traditional control of food hygiene focused on assessment whether the controlled sanitary and technological practice is consistent with requirements of regulations sometimes comprises also details of minor importance. To put it briefly, in the course of the production process are many check-up points, but only some or possibly only one is a critical control point. Moreover, by periodic supervision the hygienist is able to record the hygienic and technological state typical only for the time of control. Microbiological examination of final products can reveal only negative sequelae of microbial processes; it does not provide information on the conditions of contamination nor ensure protection against it. For these and other reasons the conclusion is reached that the hitherto used traditional approach of the hygiene supervision is not quite effective and must be replaced by a more active approach focused on the control of factors threatening the wholesomeness already during the production process. The new approach to supervision of food hygiene is the HACCP system (hazard analysis critical control points). The system works rationally as it is based on analysis of systematically assembled data on the causes and conditions which evoked the illness of the consumers by food products or meals. HACCP can be described as prompt, as health or quality problems are revealed immediately after their genesis during production or processing and are eliminated immediately. The system is also comprehensive as it comprises not only the basic technological process incl. processing or modification of ingredients but takes into account also the handling of the given food product after termination of production and in particular final culinar processing. The system can be applied to all pathogenic agents transmitted by foods to man from bacteria and their toxins, viruses, parasites, moulds and mycotoxins, biotoxins but also contaminants and radionuclides. The system

  15. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  16. Fundamentals of figure control and fracture-'free' finishing for high aspect ratio laser optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The high level objectives of the this work were to: 1) scientifically understand critical phenomena affecting the surface figure during full aperture finishing; 2) utilize these fundamentals to more deterministically control the surface figure during finishing; 3) successfully polish under rogue particle-‘free’ environments during polishing by understanding/preventing key sources of rogue particles.

  17. Free Text or Controlled Vocabulary? A Case History Step-By-Step Analysis Plus Other Aspects of Search Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Mary L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the decisions involved in an online environmental literature search of COMPENDEX and ENVIROLINE databases when considering free text or controlled vocabulary searching techniques. Topics covered are scope, concept identification, database choice, planning search strategy, and changing tactics during the search. Appendix contains examples…

  18. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (FatiGo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos-Vromans Desirée CWM

    2012-05-01

    satisfaction, patient personal goals, self-rated improvement and economic costs. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat, and longitudinal analysis of covariance will be used to compare treatments. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information on the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy and multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment at 6 and 12 months follow-up, mediators of the outcome, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and the influence of treatment expectancy and credibility on the effectiveness of both treatments in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77567702.

  19. After the Assessment: Introducing Adolescents to Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Keating, Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the practical aspects involved in adapting cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) to an adolescent population in Australia. Some effective ways to use CBT with adolescents include preparing them for CBT by providing a thorough cognitive-behavioural formulation, describing the cognitive-behavioural approach…

  20. Development and psychometric testing of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie; Chang, Sungwon

    2017-01-19

    The aim of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing (ASPIRE) scale, an instrument to assess nursing students' intention to work in mental health nursing. Understanding the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students' career intentions might lead to improved recruitment strategies. However, there are no standardized tools to measure and assess students' intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing. The present study used a cross-sectional survey design undertaken at a large tertiary institution in Western Sydney (Australia) between May and August 2013. It comprised three distinct and sequential phases: (i) items were generated representing the four dimensions of the theory of planned behaviour; (ii) face and content validity were tested by a representative reference group and panel of experts; and (iii) survey data from 1109 first- and second-year and 619 third-year students were used in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the scale. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Items generated for the ASPIRE scale were subject to face and content validity testing. Results showed good factorial validity and reliability for the final 14-item scale. Principal axis factoring revealed a one-factor solution, the hypothesized model being supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The ASPIRE scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing among Bachelor of Nursing students.

  1. Impact of community-based behaviour-change management on perceived neonatal morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Shivgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jeffrey R; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Mohanty, Saroj; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Aarti; Singh, Jai V; Misra, Rajendra P; Awasthi, Shally; Singh, Pramod; Gupta, Amit; Baqui, Abdullah H; Santosham, Mathuram; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2012-08-01

    In the context of high neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in developing country settings, a promising strategy for enhancing newborn health is promotion of preventive newborn care practices. We measured the effect of a behaviour-change intervention on perceived neonatal illnesses in rural Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was nested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the impact of a package of essential newborn care on NMR. We prospectively enrolled 802 mothers and administered a questionnaire on perceived neonatal morbidities. Regression analysis showed that newborns in the intervention clusters had significantly lower risk of perceived diarrhoea [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.90] and skin-related complications [aRR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-1.00] compared to newborns in the comparison area. Assuming incidence of perceived illnesses is a proxy for actual morbidity rates, we conclude that promotion of preventive care practices through behaviour-change interventions was effective in reducing neonatal morbidities.

  2. Dialectical behaviour therapy-informed skills training for deliberate self-harm: a controlled trial with 3-month follow-up data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gibson, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for deliberate self-harm (DSH) and emerging evidence suggests DBT skills training alone may be a useful adaptation of the treatment. DBT skills are presumed to reduce maladaptive efforts to regulate emotional distress, such as DSH, by teaching adaptive methods of emotion regulation. However, the impact of DBT skills training on DSH and emotion regulation remains unclear. This study examined the Living Through Distress (LTD) programme, a DBT-informed skills group provided in an inpatient setting. Eighty-two adults presenting with DSH or Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) were offered places in LTD, in addition to their usual care. A further 21 clients on the waiting list for LTD were recruited as a treatment-as-usual (TAU) group. DSH, anxiety, depression, and emotion regulation were assessed at baseline and either post-intervention or 6 week follow-up. Greater reductions in the frequency of DSH and improvements in some aspects of emotion regulation were associated with completion of LTD, as compared with TAU. Improvements in DSH were maintained at 3 month follow-up. This suggests providing a brief intensive DBT-informed skills group may be a useful intervention for DSH.

  3. A systematic review of community-based parenting interventions for adolescents with challenging behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlow, Sharon; Klineberg, Emily; Jarrett, Carmen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Parenting skills training is an established means of treating challenging behaviours among young children, but there has been limited research on its efficacy when used to treat challenging adolescent behaviour. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of community-based parenting interventions designed for families with adolescents, as judged in terms of increased knowledge and skills among parents, improvements in adolescent behaviour, and program feasibility within community settings. Results indicated that intervention group parents typically made greater gains than did control group parents on measures of good parenting, with positive flow-on effects to some aspects of challenging adolescent behaviours. Limited evidence suggests that group and individual intervention formats may be equally effective and that there is no advantage to the participation of the target adolescent in the intervention.

  4. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills

  5. Design aspects related to the reliability of the control architecture of the LHC beam dump kicker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Bobbio, P; Gräwer, G; Marchand, A; Uythoven, J; Verhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dump extraction kicker system consists per ring of 15 magnets and their pulse generators. Their task is to extract the beams on request, over the whole operational beam energy range and synchronously with the beam abort gap. This operation must be fail-safe to avoid damage to accelerator equipment by undesired beam losses. The control system of the LHC beam dump kickers will be based on a modular architecture composed of different subsystems, each with a specific function like slow control, beam energy tracking, beam abort gap synchronisation, fast pulse signal monitoring and post-mortem data acquisition. Depending on the required functionality, the subsystems will be based either on passive fault-tolerant redundant hardware solutions or on active fail-safe hardware and software solutions. In addition, for the most critical subsystems like the beam energy tracking and the beam abort gap synchronisation, two redundant solutions based on different technologies will be implemented in order to preven...

  6. Hardware Aspects, Modularity and Integration of an Event Mode Data Acquisition and Instrument Control for the European Spallation Source (ESS)

    CERN Document Server

    Gahl, Thomas; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Kolya, Scott; Koennecke, Mark; Rescic, Miha; Rod, Thomas H; Sutton, Iain; Trahern, Garry; Kirstein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden is just entering the construction phase with 3 neutron instruments having started in its design concept phase in 2014. As a collaboration of 17 European countries the majority of hardware devices for neutron instrumentation will be provided in-kind. This presents numerous technical and organisational challenges for the construction and the integration of the instruments into the facility wide infrastructure; notably the EPICS control network with standardised hardware interfaces and the facilities absolute timing system. Additionally the new generation of pulsed source requires a new complexity and flexibility of instrumentation to fully exploit its opportunities. In this contribution we present a strategy for the modularity of the instrument hardware with well-defined standardized functionality and control & data interfaces integrating into EPICS and the facilities timing system. It allows for in-kind contribution of dedicated modules for each instrume...

  7. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time, attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness, immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM and executive control (shifting strategy did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02007616http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007616

  8. Aspects of modeling and identification in the adaptive predictive control of horizontal balance process; Aspectos de modelagem e identificacao no controle preditivo adaptativo de um processo balanco horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Pierre A.; Coelho, Antonio A.R. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents three different design methodologies for the generalized predictive control strategy to deal with a nonlinear process. It covers the design and experimental study of the predictive controller for the horizontal balance plant. The effectiveness of the control schemes was evaluated under various operational conditions: setpoint changes and disturbances. The design philosophy of the predictive control was considered for a nonlinear model, as Hammerstein, and a linear model with a long range predictive identification. The overall performance of the predictive systems was studied and a comparison was made with the conventional linear predictive controller. (author)

  9. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shucai [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chang, Ying [Northeast Agricultural University; Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Zeng, Qingning [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a

  10. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  11. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on β-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed.

  12. [Bacillus thuringiensis: general aspects. An approach to its use in the biological control of lepidopteran insects behaving as agricultural pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Benintende, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied biological pesticide used to control insects that affect agriculture and forestry and which transmit human and animal pathogens. During the past decades B. thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of their pesticidal crystal proteins. As a result, a coherent picture of these relationships has emerged. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins and their performance in agricultural and other natural settings. With this knowledge as background and the help of biotechnological tools, researchers are now reporting promising results in the development of more useful toxins, recombinant bacteria, new formulations and transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, in order to assure that these products are utilized with the best efficiency and benefit. This article is an attempt to integrate all these recent developments in the study of B. thuringiensis into a context of biological control of lepidopteran insect pest of agricultural importance.

  13. Clinical microbiology of Coxiella burnetii and relevant aspects for the diagnosis and control of the zoonotic disease Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Hendrik I J; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G; Rebel, Johanna M L

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. Since its first recognition as a disease in the 1930s, the knowledge about the agent and the disease itself has increased. This review summarizes the current knowledge on C. burnetii and Q fever, its pathogenesis, diagnosis and control. C. burnetii is a bacterium which naturally replicates inside human or animal host cells. The clinical presentation of Q fever varies per host species. C. burnetii infection in animals is mainly asymptomatic except for pregnant ruminants in which abortions and stillbirth can occur. In humans, the disease is also mainly asymptomatic, but clinical presentations include acute and chronic Q fever and the post-Q fever fatigue syndrome. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of Q fever in animals and excretion of C. burnetii in infected animals is crucial in understanding the transmission routes and risks of human infection. Our studies indicated that infected pregnant animals only excrete C. burnetii during and after parturition, independent of abortion, and that C. burnetii phase specific serology can be a useful tool in the early detection of infection. Domestic ruminants are the main reservoir for human Q fever, which has a major public health impact when outbreaks occur. In outbreaks, epidemiological source identification can only be refined by genotypic analysis of the strains involved. To control outbreaks and Q fever in domestic ruminants, vaccination with a phase 1 vaccine is effective. Future challenges are to identify factors for virulence, host susceptibility and protection.

  14. Cognitive-behavioural therapy with post-session D-cycloserine augmentation for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Monzani, Benedetta; Isomura, Kayoko; Murphy, Caroline; Krebs, Georgina; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    A partial N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, D-cycloserine, enhances fear extinction when given before or shortly after exposure to feared stimuli in animals. In this pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial (trial number: ISRCTN70977225), 27 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder were randomised to either 50 mg D-cycloserine or placebo administered immediately after each of ten cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) sessions, primarily consisting of exposure and ritual prevention. Both groups improved significantly and maintained their gains at 1-year follow-up, with no significant advantage of D-cycloserine over placebo at any time point. The effects of CBT may not be augmented or accelerated when D-cycloserine is administered after sessions.

  15. The efficacy of a group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for war-affected young migrants living in Australia: A cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Sia Ooi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreventative and treatment programmes for people at risk of developing psychological problems after exposure to war trauma have mushroomed in the last decade. However, there is still much contention about evidence-based and culturally sensitive interventions for children. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Teaching Recovery Techniques in improving the emotional and behavioural outcomes of war-affected children resettled in Australia. Methods and findings A cluster randomised controlled trial with pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up design was employed. A total of 82 participants (aged 10 to 17 years were randomised by school into the 8-week intervention (n = 45 or the waiting list (WL control condition (n = 37. Study outcomes included symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, internalising and externalising problems, as well as psychosocial functioning. A medium intervention effect was found for depression symptoms. Participants in the intervention condition experienced a greater symptom reduction than participants in the WL control condition, F(1,155 = 5.20, p = .024, partial ƞ2 = 0.07. This improvement was maintained at the 3-month follow-up, F(2,122 = 7.24, p = .001, partial ƞ2 = 0.20. ConclusionsThese findings suggest the potential benefit of the school and group-based intervention on depression symptoms but not on other outcomes, when compared to a waiting list control group.Trial registrationAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000948998

  16. A web delivered intervention for depression combining Behavioural Activation with physical activity promotion: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey David Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and

  17. Practical aspects of a maximum likelihood estimation method to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation method was applied to flight data and procedures to facilitate the routine analysis of a large amount of flight data were described. Techniques that can be used to obtain stability and control derivatives from aircraft maneuvers that are less than ideal for this purpose are described. The techniques involve detecting and correcting the effects of dependent or nearly dependent variables, structural vibration, data drift, inadequate instrumentation, and difficulties with the data acquisition system and the mathematical model. The use of uncertainty levels and multiple maneuver analysis also proved to be useful in improving the quality of the estimated coefficients. The procedures used for editing the data and for overall analysis are also discussed.

  18. Practice-Relevant Aspects of Constructing ER Fluid Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janocha, H.; Rech, B.; Bölter, R.

    The flow resistance of electrorheological fluids (ER fluids) can be controlled by applying electric fields. Thus, ER fluids are suitable for the application in actuators, using high-voltage sources for the generation of the field. The behaviour of an ER fluid actuator not only depends on the properties of the individual actuator components (ER fluid, energy transducer and energy source) but especially on their combined efforts as a system. Based on a possible scheme for the design of ER fluid actuators, this paper presents important practice-relevant aspects of a systematic actuator construction. Here the behaviour of a commercial ER suspension is examined and compared to a homogeneous ER fluid without yield point using a rotational viscometer and a flow-mode damper realized at the Laboratory of Process Automation (LPA) of the University of Saarland.

  19. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  20. Epidemiology and Anthropology: an integrated approach dealing with bio-socio-cultural aspects as strategy for the control of endemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Simões Barbosa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of endemic diseases has not attained the desired level of effectiveness in spite of the use of modern efficient thecnologies. The classic interventionist approach for the control of schistosomiasis is centered on systemic control of the snail hosts combined to large scale medical treatment and is usually carried out without social preocupation due to the assisted communities. It is easy to understand the interest and the ethical compromise of public health research while producing studies in which the biological and social determinants as well as the cultural components should be considered and also encompass the historical dimensions and symbolic representations. In face of the recent political decision in favor of decentralizations of health administration to municipal level, we suggest, in the present paper, an integrated approach for the epidemiological diagnosis of an endemic situation at local level. Theoretical and methodological aspects from both, epidemiology and anthropology are discussed. Epidemiological methods can be used to detect the dependent variables (those related to the human infection and the independent variables (demographic, economic, sanitary and social. Another methodological approach of anthropological /etnographic nature can be conducted in order to make an articulation of the knowledge on the various dimensions or determinant levels of the disease. Mutual comprehension, between researchers and the people under investigation, on the dynamic transmission process would be relevant for a joint construction, at local level, of programmed actions for the control of endemic diseases. This would extend reflections on the health/disease process as a whole.

  1. Feedback Control and Dynamic Behaviour of Z-Source Converter Fed Separately Excited DC Motor and Centrifugal Pump Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Swapna Dash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overall study of Feedback Control of Z-Source Converter Fed Separately excited DC motor with centrifugal Pump Set. Z-source converter can be used for both voltage buck and boost mode using LC impedance network. In this paper the dynamic modeling of Z-source with motor load and centrifugal pump set is carried out with new findings. The compensators for speed feedback loop are designed by taking average state space analysis and small signal model of the system. The feedback loop is designed by classical control methods. The experiment is done in MATLAB work environment and the result is verified by Simulation.

  2. Manual-guided cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Kyhle, Kicki; Espie, Colin A; Broman, Jan-Erik

    2013-12-01

    Chronic insomnia is a prevalent problem in primary health care and tends to be more serious than insomnia in the general population. These patients often obtain little benefit from hypnotics, and are frequently open to exploring various options for medical treatment. However, most general practitioners (GPs) are unable to provide such options. Several meta-analyses have shown that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia results in solid improvements on sleep parameters, and a few studies have demonstrated promising results for nurse-administered CBT in primary care. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of manual-guided CBT for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice with unselected patients. Sixty-six primary care patients with insomnia were randomized to CBT or a waiting-list control group. The CBT group improved significantly more than the control group using the Insomnia Severity Index as the outcome. The effect size was high. Sleep diaries showed a significant, medium-sized treatment effect for sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset. However, for all measures there is a marked deterioration at follow-up assessments. Almost half of the treated subjects (47%) reported a clinically relevant treatment effect directly after treatment. It is concluded that this way of delivering treatment may be cost-effective.

  3. Behavioural aspects of modern management Поведенческие аспекты современного менеджмента

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalyova Viktoriya I.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers new trends of the behavioural aspect development within the human resource management. Internal factors which affect the staff behaviour and different types of staff behaviour which can be diagnosed are also examined.В статье рассматривается новейшие тенденции развития поведенческого аспекта в управлении персоналом; рассмотрены внутренние факторы, влияющие на поведение персонала, а также различные виды поведения персонала, которые могут быть продиагностированы....

  4. Behavioural aspects of modern management Поведенческие аспекты современного менеджмента

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalyova Viktoriya I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers new trends of the behavioural aspect development within the human resource management. Internal factors which affect the staff behaviour and different types of staff behaviour which can be diagnosed are also examined.В статье рассматривается новейшие тенденции развития поведенческого аспекта в управлении персоналом; рассмотрены внутренние факторы, влияющие на поведение персонала, а также различные виды поведения персонала, которые могут быть продиагностированы.

  5. Neck exercises, physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity as a treatment for adult whiplash patients with chronic neck pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Inge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients suffer from chronic neck pain following a whiplash injury. A combination of cognitive, behavioural therapy with physiotherapy interventions has been indicated to be effective in the management of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. The objective is to present the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a combined individual physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity program on self-reported general physical function, in addition to neck function, pain, disability and quality of life in patients with chronic neck pain following whiplash injury compared with a matched control group measured at baseline and 4 and 12 months after baseline. Methods/Design The design is a two-centre, RCT-study with a parallel group design. Included are whiplash patients with chronic neck pain for more than 6 months, recruited from physiotherapy clinics and an out-patient hospital department in Denmark. Patients will be randomised to either a pain management (control group or a combined pain management and training (interventiongroup. The control group will receive four educational sessions on pain management, whereas the intervention group will receive the same educational sessions on pain management plus 8 individual training sessions for 4 months, including guidance in specific neck exercises and an aerobic training programme. Patients and physiotherapists are aware of the allocation and the treatment, while outcome assessors and data analysts are blinded. The primary outcome measures will be Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF36, Physical Component Summary (PCS. Secondary outcomes will be Global Perceived Effect (-5 to +5, Neck Disability Index (0-50, Patient Specific Functioning Scale (0-10, numeric rating scale for pain bothersomeness (0-10, SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS, TAMPA scale of Kinesiophobia (17-68, Impact of Event Scale (0-45, EuroQol (0

  6. Cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent complicated grief among relatives and spouses bereaved by suicide: Csuster andomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.; Keyser, de J.; Neeleman, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Nolen, W.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of a family based grief counselling programme to prevent complicated grief among first degree relatives and spouses of someone who had committed suicide. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 13 months after the suicide. Setting General p

  7. Cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent complicated grief among relatives and spouses bereaved by suicide : cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; de Keijser, J.; Neeleman, J.; Kerkhof, A.; Nolen, W.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of a family based grief counselling programme to prevent complicated grief among first degree relatives and spouses of someone who had committed suicide. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 13 months after the suicide. Setting General p

  8. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  9. Understanding biological control of greenhouse whitefly with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. From individual behaviour to population dynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van H.J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae), is a very common, highly polyphagous pest insect all over the world. Biological control of whiteflies with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) was already applied in the 1920s in Engl

  10. The effectiveness of behavioural interventions in the primary prevention of Hepatitis C amongst injecting drug users: a randomised controlled trial and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbs Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To develop and evaluate the comparative effectiveness of behavioural interventions of enhanced prevention counselling (EPC and simple educational counselling (SEC in reducing hepatitis C viral (HCV infection in sero-negative injecting drug users (IDU. Design Randomised controlled trial (RCT of EPC intervention in comparison with simple educational counselling (SEC. Setting Specialised Drug services in London and Surrey, United Kingdom. Participants and Measurements Ninety five IDUs were recruited and randomised to receive EPC (n = 43 or SEC (n = 52. Subjects were assessed at baseline using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, the Injecting Risk Questionnaire (IRQ, and Drug Injecting Confidence Questionnaire (DICQ. The primary outcome was measured by the rate of sero-conversion at 6 months and 12 months from baseline and by the ASI, IRQ and DICQ at 6 months from baseline. Hepatitis C testing was undertaken by the innovative test of the dried blood spot (DBS test which increased the rate of testing by 4 fold compared to routine blood testing. Findings Seventy Eighty two subjects (82% out of the 95 recruited were followed up at 6 months and 62 (65% were followed up at 12 months. On the primary outcome measure of the rate of seroconversion, 8 out of 62 patients followed-up at twelve months seroconverted, three in the EPC group and five in the SEC group, indicating incidence rates of 9.1 per 100 person years for the EPC group, 17.2 per 100 person years for the SEC group, and 12.9 per 100 person years for the cohort as a whole. Analysis of the secondary outcome measures on alcohol use, risk behaviour, psychological measures, quality of life, showed no significant differences between the EPC and the SEC groups. However, there were significant changes on a number of measures from baseline values indicating positive change for both groups. Conclusion We were not able to prove the efficacy of EPC in comparison with SEC in the prevention of

  11. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  12. Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, B. M.; Niemann, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and plant scales. However, understanding of the controls on soil moisture patterns beyond the plant scale in semi-arid environments remains more limited. This study examines the relationships between the spatial patterns of near surface soil moisture (upper 5 cm), terrain indices, and soil properties in a small, semi-arid, montane catchment. The 8 ha catchment, located in the Cache La Poudre River Canyon in north-central Colorado, has a total relief of 115 m and an average elevation of 2193 m. It is characterized by steep slopes and shallow, gravelly/sandy soils with scattered granite outcroppings. Depth to bedrock ranges from 0 m to greater than 1 m. Vegetation in the catchment is highly correlated with topographic aspect. In particular, north-facing hillslopes are predominately vegetated by ponderosa pines, while south-facing slopes are mostly vegetated by several shrub species. Soil samples were collected at a 30 m resolution to characterize soil texture and bulk density, and several datasets consisting of more than 300 point measurements of soil moisture were collected using time domain reflectometry (TDR) between Fall 2007 and Summer 2008 at a 15 m resolution. Results from soil textural analysis performed with sieving and the ASTM standard hydrometer method show that soil texture is finer on the north-facing hillslope than on the south-facing hillslope. Cos(aspect) is the best univariate predictor of silts, while slope is the best predictor of coarser fractions up to fine gravel. Bulk density increases with depth but shows no

  13. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with mild to moderate depression and high cardiovascular disease risks: a randomised attention-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Glozier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mild to moderate depression is common in those with cardiovascular disease and undertreated. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (iCBT on depressive symptom severity and adherence to medical advice and lifestyle interventions in adults with mild to moderate depression and high cardiovascular disease (CVD risks. METHODS: Randomised double-blind, 12 week attention-controlled trial comparing an iCBT programme (E-couch with an internet-delivered attention control health information package (HealthWatch, n = 282. The primary outcome was depression symptom level on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 (trial registration: ACTRN12610000085077. RESULTS: 487/562 (88% participants completed the endpoint assessment. 383/562 (70% were currently treated for cardiovascular disease and 314/562 (56% had at least one other comorbid condition. In ITT analysis of 562 participants iCBT produced a greater decline in the mean PHQ-9 score compared to the attention control of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.23-1.89 points, with differences between the two arms increasing over the intervention period (time by treatment effect interaction p = .012. There were also larger improvements in adherence (2.16 points; 95% CI: 0.33-3.99, reductions in anxiety (0.96 points; 95% CI: 0.19-1.73, and a greater proportion engaging in beneficial physical activity (Odds Ratio 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.61 in the iCBT participants but no effect upon disability, or walking time/day. There were no withdrawals due to study related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In people with mild to moderate depression and high levels of CVD risk factors, a freely accessible iCBT programme (http://www.ecouch.anu.edu.au produced a small, but robust, improvement in depressive symptoms, adherence and some health behaviours. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000085077.

  14. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  15. Introducing an alternative drug-free technique for pain and anxiety control into a clinical environment cognitive behavioural therapy: a discussion on implementation into dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological methods of pain and anxiety control include local anaesthesia and conscious sedation techniques. On occasion the anxiety levels of some patients are so extreme that alternative methods of pain and anxiety control are required.The provision of conscious sedation and even in extreme cases general anesthetic can be useful. These methods are usually very effective in treating nervous patients and offering sedation services helps patients seek dental treatment more readily. However, by decreasing the demand for conscious sedation and certainly the demand for general anaesthetics the risks associated, waiting lists and costs incurred will also be diminished. Despite recent advances in dental techniques and the provision of sedation services there has not been a marked decrease in dental anxiety within the general population.This could be because the anxieties are not being dealt with; they are just being managed by these techniques and patients still cannot cope with having dental treatment without these pharmacological methods. Cognitive behavioural therapy is a non-invasive psychological intervention therapy. Psychological therapies have been shown to decrease dental anxiety.Therefore this therapy could be used to potentially decrease the demand for sedation. Implementing this into a general practice setting could certainly help a number of nervous but motivated patients. It also may improve waiting lists and costs from sedation procedures.The end goal is to help patients receive routine dental care with decreased pharmacological support. It is, however, important for dentists providing this to have sufficient and appropriate training.

  16. Surfactant controlled switching of water-in-oil wetting behaviour of porous silica films grown at oil-water interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish M Kulkarni; Rajdip Bandyopadhyaya; Ashutosh Sharma

    2008-11-01

    Selective permeation of oil and water across a porous medium, as in oil recovery operations, depends on the preferential wetting properties of the porous medium. We show a profound influence of surfactants in wetting of porous media and thus demonstrate a new route for the control of water-in-oil wetting of porous substrates by changing the concentration of surfactants in an aqueous sub-phase below the substrate. This strategy is employed to engineer partial reversible wetting transitions on a porous silica film. The film itself is grown and stabilized on a flat, macroscopic interface between an oil phase and an aqueous sub-phase. On increasing the surfactant (CTAB) concentration in the sub-phase, contact angle of a water drop (placed on the oil side of the film) changes from 140° to 16° in 25 min by diffusion of the surfactant across the porous film. On further replacement of the sub-phase with pure water, diffusion of the surfactant from the water drop back to the sub-phase was slower, increasing the contact angle in the process from 16° to 90° in 2 h. Wettability control by a cationic surfactant (CTAB) was found to be much faster (6 deg/min) than that offered by an anionic surfactant, SDS (0.05 deg/min). Switching of the surface wettability due to the surfactant diffusion may have implications in oil-water separation, chemical bed reactors and microfluidic devices.

  17. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  18. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process.

  19. Attributions of Stability, Control and Responsibility: How Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities View Their Child's Problematic Behaviour and Its Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities have high rates of behaviour problems. This study explored parents' causal beliefs and attributions for general problematic child behaviour in children with different aetiologies of intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Ten parents of children with intellectual disabilities…

  20. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT: protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Deborah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. Methods/design The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR, and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1 Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2 Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3 Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. Discussion This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT

  1. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25, and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health (d = .23 and more control (d = .32 over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50 in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21 and affective benefits (d = .29 than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but

  2. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  3. Impact of mating behaviour on the success of malaria control through a single inundative release of transgenic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëte, C; Agusto, F B; Reeves, R G

    2014-04-21

    Transgenic mosquitoes are a potential tool for the control or eradication of insect-vectored diseases. For malaria, one possible strategy relies on the introduction of malaria-refractory transgenes into wild Anopheles mosquito populations that would limit their capacity to transmit the disease. The success of such an approach obviously depends on a variety of factors. By developing a model that integrates both population genetics and epidemiology, we explore how mosquito mating preferences and the cost and efficacy of refractoriness affects the long-term prevalence of malaria in humans subsequent to a single generation inundative release of male transgenic mosquitoes. As may be intuitively expected, mating discrimination by wild-type individuals against transgenic ones generally reduces the probability that transgenes become stably established at a high frequency in mosquito populations. We also show that in circumstances where transgenic individuals exhibit some degree of discrimination against wild-type individuals, this can favour the spread of refractory alleles and lead to a significant reduction in malaria prevalence in the human population (if the efficacy of a dominant refractory mechanism exceeds at least 75%). The existence of such a non-intuitive outcome highlights the practical value of increasing the understanding of Anopheles mating preferences in the wild as a means to harness them in the implementation of population replacement approaches. Potential strategies by which previously described mating preferences of Anopheles gambiae populations could be exploited to manipulate the mate choice of transgenic release stocks are discussed.

  4. Clinical, behavioural and social indicators for poor glycaemic control around the time of transfer to adult care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castensøe-Seidenfaden, P; Jensen, Andreas Kryger; Smedegaard, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    last paediatric and first adult visit, comorbidity, learning disability and/or mental health conditions and family structure. We examined associations between acute hospital admissions, low visit attendance rate, loss to follow-up and baseline HbA1c level. RESULTS: Among 126 participants, the mean HbA1......c level was 80 mmol/mol (9.4%) pre-transfer but decreased by an average of 3 mmol/mol (0.3%) each year post-transfer (P = 0.005). Young people with a learning disability and/or a mental health condition had worse glycaemic control (P = 0.041) and the mean HbA1c of those with divorced parents was 14...... mmol/mol (1.2%) higher (P = 0.014). Almost one-third of participants were admitted to the hospital for acute diabetes care. Low visit attendance rate, high baseline HbA1c level, learning disability and/or mental health conditions and divorced parents predicted acute hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS...

  5. The ANTOP study: focal psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and treatment-as-usual in outpatients with anorexia nervosa - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauenburg Henning

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder leading to high morbidity and mortality as a result of both malnutrition and suicide. The seriousness of the disorder requires extensive knowledge of effective treatment options. However, evidence for treatment efficacy in this area is remarkably weak. A recent Cochrane review states that there is an urgent need for large, well-designed treatment studies for patients with anorexia nervosa. The aim of this particular multi-centre study is to evaluate the efficacy of two standardized outpatient treatments for patients with anorexia nervosa: focal psychodynamic (FPT and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT. Each therapeutic approach is compared to a "treatment-as-usual" control group. Methods/Design 237 patients meeting eligibility criteria are randomly and evenly assigned to the three groups – two intervention groups (CBT and FPT and one control group. The treatment period for each intervention group is 10 months, consisting of 40 sessions respectively. Body weight, eating disorder related symptoms, and variables of therapeutic alliance are measured during the course of treatment. Psychotherapy sessions are audiotaped for adherence monitoring. The treatment in the control group, both the dosage and type of therapy, is not regulated in the study protocol, but rather reflects the current practice of established outpatient care. The primary outcome measure is the body mass index (BMI at the end of the treatment (10 months after randomization. Discussion The study design surmounts the disadvantages of previous studies in that it provides a randomized controlled design, a large sample size, adequate inclusion criteria, an adequate treatment protocol, and a clear separation of the treatment conditions in order to avoid contamination. Nevertheless, the study has to deal with difficulties specific to the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. The treatment protocol allows for dealing with the

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: Personality and health behaviours: A biopsychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to indicate the complex nature of functional gastrointestinal disorders by studying the interaction between Irritable Bowel Syndrome and person personality aspects and health behaviour. An ex post facto design was used to compare two groups of women, the one group with iBS (N = 60 and the other without (N = 60 in terms of the above mentioned variables. The NEO-Personality lnventory (Revised was used to compare the groups on five broad aspects of personality i.e. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The Health Behaviour Checklist was used to measure health behaviours as indicated by the foilowing factors: Wellness Maintenance and Enhancement, Accident Control, Traffic Risk Taking and Substance Risk Taking. The results indicate that statistically significant differences do indeed exist between the groups in terms of certain personality aspects (neuroticism, extraversion, openness for experience and certain health aspects (especially wellness maintenance and enhancement and traffic risk taking. It seems then as if IBS sufferers share certain personality characteristics which influence their behaviour related to the maintenance and enhancement of their health. Finally, we recommend a holistic approach to treatment and therapeutic interventions.

    Opsomming
    Die studie het ten doel gehad om die komplekse aard van die Funksionele Maagderm Versteurings aan te dui deur die interaksie tussen Prikkelbare Dermsindroom en persoonlikheidsaspekte en gesondheidsgedrag ("health behavioui' te bestudeer. Daar is gebruik gemaak van 'n ex post facto ontwerp om twee groepe vrouens, die een groep met PDS (N = 60 en die ander daarsonder (N = 60, ten opsigte van die veranderlikes te vergelyk. Die NEO - Personality lnventory (Revised is gebruik om die groepe te vergelyk ten opsigte van vyf brei persoonlikheidsaspekte naamlik, Neurotisme, Ekstraversie, Oopheid vir Ervaring, Welgevalligheid

  7. Walking behaviour and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: seasonal and gender differences-Study design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Ian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high glucose levels typically occurring among adults with type 2 diabetes contribute to blood vessel injury and complications such as blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, and stroke. Higher physical activity levels are associated with improved glycemic control, as measured by hemoglobin A1C. A 1% absolute increase in A1C is associated with an 18% increased risk for heart disease or stroke. Among Canadians with type 2 diabetes, we postulate that declines in walking associated with colder temperatures and inclement weather may contribute to annual post-winter increases in A1C levels. Methods During this prospective cohort study being conducted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 100 men and 100 women with type 2 diabetes will undergo four assessments (once per season over a one-year period of observation. These assessments include (1 use of a pedometer with a concealed viewing window for a two-week period to measure walking (2 a study centre visit during which venous blood is sampled for A1C, anthropometrics are assessed, and questionnaires are completed for measurement of other factors that may influence walking and/or A1C (e.g. food frequency, depressive symptomology, medications. The relationship between spring-fall A1C difference and winter-summer difference in steps/day will be examined through multivariate linear regression models adjusted for possible confounding. Interpretation of findings by researchers in conjunction with potential knowledge "users" (e.g. health professionals, patient groups will guide knowledge translation efforts. Discussion Although we cannot alter weather patterns to favour active lifestyles, we can design treatment strategies that take seasonal and weather-related variations into account. For example, demonstration of seasonal variation of A1C levels among Canadian men and women with T2D and greater understanding of its determinants could lead to (1 targeting physical activity levels to remain

  8. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  9. Behaviour of the iron vapour core in the arc of a controlled short-arc GMAW process with different shielding gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, G.; Kozakov, R.; Gött, G.; Schöpp, H.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2012-02-01

    The controlled metal transfer process (CMT) is a variation of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process which periodically varies wire feeding speed. Using a short-arc burning phase to melt the wire tip before the short circuit, heat input to the workpiece is reduced. Using a steel wire and a steel workpiece, iron vapour is produced in the arc, its maximum concentration lying centrally. The interaction of metal vapour and welding gas considerably impacts the arc profile and, consequently, the heat transfer to the weldpool. Optical emission spectroscopy has been applied to determine the radial profiles of the plasma temperature and iron vapour concentration, as well as their temporal behaviour in the arc period for different mixtures of Ar, O2 and CO2 as shielding gases. Both the absolute iron vapour density and the temporal expansion of the iron core differ considerably for the gases Ar + 8%O2, Ar + 18% CO2 and 100% CO2 respectively. Pronounced minimum in the radial temperature profile is found in the arc centre in gas mixtures with high Ar content under the presence of metal vapour. This minimum disappears in pure CO2 gas. Consequently, the temperature and electrical and thermal conductivity in the arc when CO2 is used as a shielding gas are considerably lower.

  10. Behaviour change techniques: the development and evaluation of a taxonomic method for reporting and describing behaviour change interventions (a suite of five studies involving consensus methods, randomised controlled trials and analysis of qualitative data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Wood, Caroline E; Johnston, Marie; Abraham, Charles; Francis, Jill J; Hardeman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meeting global health challenges requires effective behaviour change interventions (BCIs). This depends on advancing the science of behaviour change which, in turn, depends on accurate intervention reporting. Current reporting often lacks detail, preventing accurate replication and implementation. Recent developments have specified intervention content into behaviour change techniques (BCTs) - the 'active ingredients', for example goal-setting, self-monitoring of behaviour. BCTs are 'the smallest components compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients, i.e. the proposed mechanisms of change. They can be used alone or in combination with other BCTs' (Michie S, Johnston M. Theories and techniques of behaviour change: developing a cumulative science of behaviour change. Health Psychol Rev 2012;6:1-6). Domain-specific taxonomies of BCTs have been developed, for example healthy eating and physical activity, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption. We need to build on these to develop an internationally shared language for specifying and developing interventions. This technology can be used for synthesising evidence, implementing effective interventions and testing theory. It has enormous potential added value for science and global health. OBJECTIVE (1) To develop a method of specifying content of BCIs in terms of component BCTs; (2) to lay a foundation for a comprehensive methodology applicable to different types of complex interventions; (3) to develop resources to support application of the taxonomy; and (4) to achieve multidisciplinary and international acceptance for future development. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Four hundred participants (systematic reviewers, researchers, practitioners, policy-makers) from 12 countries engaged in investigating, designing and/or delivering BCIs. Development of the taxonomy involved a Delphi procedure, an iterative process of revisions and consultation with 41 international experts; hierarchical structure

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control Leishmaniose visceral no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: aspectos eco-epidemiológicos e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Celio de Almeida Marzochi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1977 (index case to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5% of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%, but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education, reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence.Entre 1977 (caso índice e 2006 foram confirmados 87 casos de leishmaniose visceral no Município do Rio de Janeiro, oriundos de áreas peri-urbanas das vertentes continentais e litorâneas do Maciço da Pedra Branca e das vertentes continentais do Maciço do Gericinó. A maioria (65,5% dos pacientes tinha mais de 5 anos de idade, prevalecendo o sexo masculino (61,5%, sem diferença de freqüência entre os sexos até os 14 anos. A letalidade foi de 10,4%. Houve dois casos de co

  12. Fatigue life and cyclic deformation behaviour of quenched and tempered steel AISI 4140 at two-step stress- and total-strain-controlled push-pull loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, V.; Lang, K.H.; Macherauch, E. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde I, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The behaviour of steels at multi-step cyclic loading was explored up to now almost exclusively in fatigue-life-oriented investigations. Thus, only few works exist dealing with the cyclic deformation behaviour at two- and multi-step loading. Therefore, the cyclic deformation behaviour at two-step experiments with a single amplitude change (2-block experiments) and with multiple changes between two blocks of certain length and different amplitudes (multi-block experiments) was investigated in this work at the technically important steel AISI 4140 (German grade 42CrMo4). (orig.)

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Medical and psychological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersnagel, Frans; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    A review is presented in which the state of the art of behavioural-scientific research on inflammatory bowel disease (BID) is sorted out. After a short introduction on medical aspects of the two diseases that constitute IBD, i.e. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the factors that may have an i

  14. Preventing anxiety and depression in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial of two school based Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to 1 establish the efficacy of two Internet-based prevention programmes to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents; and 2 investigate the distribution of psychological symptoms in a large sample of Australian adolescents prior to the implementation of the intervention. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 976 Year 9–10 students from twelve Australian secondary schools in 2009. Four schools were randomly allocated to the Anxiety Internet-based prevention programme (n = 372, five schools to the Depression Internet-based prevention programme (n = 380 and three to their usual health classes (n = 224. The Thiswayup Schools for Anxiety and Depression prevention courses were presented over the Internet and consist of 6–7 evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons to improve the ability to manage anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Data analysis was constrained by both study attrition and data corruption. Thus post-intervention data were only available for 265/976 students. Compared to the control group, students in the depression intervention group showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms at the end of the course, whilst students in the anxiety intervention demonstrated a reduction in symptoms of anxiety. No significant differences were found in psychological distress. The Thiswayup Schools Depression and Anxiety interventions appear to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents using a curriculum based, blended online and offline cognitive behavioural therapy programme that was implemented by classroom teachers. Given the study limitations, particularly the loss of post-intervention data, these findings can only be considered preliminary and need to be replicated in future research.

  15. A non-autonomous optimal control model of renewable energy production under the aspect of fluctuating supply and learning by doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Elke; Grass, Dieter; Tragler, Gernot

    Given the constantly raising world-wide energy demand and the accompanying increase in greenhouse gas emissions that pushes the progression of climate change, the possibly most important task in future is to find a carbon-low energy supply that finds the right balance between sustainability and energy security. For renewable energy generation, however, especially the second aspect turns out to be difficult as the supply of renewable sources underlies strong volatility. Further on, investment costs for new technologies are so high that competitiveness with conventional energy forms is hard to achieve. To address this issue, we analyze in this paper a non-autonomous optimal control model considering the optimal composition of a portfolio that consists of fossil and renewable energy and which is used to cover the energy demand of a small country. While fossil energy is assumed to be constantly available, the supply of the renewable resource fluctuates seasonally. We further on include learning effects for the renewable energy technology, which will underline the importance of considering the whole life span of such a technology for long-term energy planning decisions.

  16. Self-Help for Depression via E-mail: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Effects on Depression and Self-Help Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Morgan

    Full Text Available Self-help or self-management strategies are commonly used to deal with depression, but not all are thought to be helpful. A previous study found that sub-threshold depression symptoms were improved by an e-mail intervention that encouraged the use of evidence-based self-help strategies.To investigate whether these e-mails were effective for adults with a range of depression symptomatology including major depression.The study was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Adult participants with any level of depressive symptoms were recruited over the internet from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Participants were randomised to receive a series of e-mails either promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies or containing depression information as a control. E-mails were sent automatically twice a week for six weeks. Depression symptoms were assessed with the self-rated Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9.1736 participants with a wide range of symptom severity were recruited and assigned to active (n = 862 and control (n = 874 groups. However, there was a significant attrition rate, with 66.9% lost to follow-up at post-intervention. Both groups showed large improvements in depression symptoms overall, with no significant difference in improvement at the end of the study (mean difference in improvement 0.35 points, 95% CI: -0.57 to 1.28, d = 0.11, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.27, although there was a small effect at the study mid-point. Results were similar for the sub-group of participants with major depression. The active group showed small to moderate improvements in self-help behaviour (d = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.56.These results suggest that the e-mails were able to increase participants' use of evidence-based self-help, but that this did not improve depression more than an attention control.NCT01399502.

  17. Web-based cognitive behavioural therapy (W-CBT for diabetes patients with co-morbid depression: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouwer Frans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common among people with diabetes, negatively affecting quality of life, treatment adherence and diabetes outcomes. In routine clinical care, diabetes patients have limited access to mental health services and depression therefore often remains untreated. Web-based therapy could potentially be an effective way to improve the reach of psychological care for diabetes patients, at relatively low costs. This study seeks to test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help depression programme for people with diabetes and co-morbid depression. Methods/Design The effectiveness of a web-based self-help course for adults with diabetes with co-morbid depression will be tested in a randomised trial, using a wait-list controlled design. The intervention consists of an 8-week, moderated self-help course that is tailored to the needs of persons living with diabetes and is offered on an individual basis. Participants receive feedback on their homework assignments by e-mail from their coach. We aim to include 286 patients (143/143, as power analyses showed that this number is needed to detect an effect size of 0.35, with measurements at baseline, directly after completing the web-based intervention and at 1, 3, 4 and 6 months follow-up. Patients in the control condition are placed on a waiting list, and follow the course 12 weeks after randomisation. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms and diabetes-specific emotional distress. Secondary outcomes are satisfaction with the course, perceived health status, self-care behaviours, glycaemic control, and days in bed/absence from work. Questionnaires are administered via the Internet. Discussion The intervention being trialled is expected to help improve mood and reduce diabetes-specific emotional distress in diabetes patients with depression, with subsequent beneficial effects on diabetes self-care and glycaemic outcomes. When proven efficacious, the intervention could be

  18. Towards integrated control of varroa: effect of variation in hygienic behaviour among honey bee colonies on mite population increase and deformed wing virus incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Al Toufailia, Hasan M; Amiri, Esmaeil; Scandian, Luciano; Kryger, Per; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the uncapping and removal of dead, diseased or infected brood from sealed cells by worker bees. We determined the effect of hygienic behaviour on varroa population growth and incidence of deformed wing virus (DWV), which can be transmitted by varroa. We treated 42 broodless honey bee colonies with oxalic acid in early January 2013 to reduce varroa populations to low levels, which we quantified by extracting mites from a sample of worker ...

  19. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ...... as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  20. DESIGN OF ALGORITHMS BASED ON BEHAVIOUR FOR THE CONTROL OF MINIBOTS // DISEÑO DE ALGORITMOS BASADOS EN COMPORTAMIENTOS PARA EL CONTROL DE MINIBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Bracho de Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the Distributed Artificial Intelligence and the Distributed Robotics as a frame of reference, in this work are designed, developed and implemented algorithms to control autonomous, mobile, reactive, rational, proactive and sociable small robots. These minibots are capable to exhibit behaviors inspired in biological societies. Through the development of this work it was found that if the robot has to perform simple tasks, a reactive architecture is more convenient, efficient and effective. While for the performance of tasks of medium or greater complexity, is recommend the use of a hybrid architecture that allows the incorporation of deliberative reasoning.// RESUMEN: Tomando como marco de referencia a la Inteligencia Artificial Distribuida y la Robótica Distribuida, en este trabajo se diseñan, desarrollan e implementan algoritmos para el control de pequeños robots autónomos, móviles, reactivos, racionales, proactivos y sociables. Estos minibots son capaces de exhibir comportamientos inspirados en las sociedades biológicas. En los resultados alcanzados durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se encontró que cuando el robot debe ejecutar tareas simples, la arquitectura reactiva es la más conveniente, eficiente y efectiva, mientras que para la ejecución de tareas de complejidad mediana o mayor, es más recomendable el uso de arquitecturas hibridas que permitan la incorporación de procesos deliberativos.