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Sample records for behaviour comparing hospitals

  1. Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...

  2. Hospital Compare - Archived Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare is a consumer-oriented website that provides information on how well hospitals provide recommended care to their patients. This information can...

  3. Hospital Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Hospital Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data allow you...

  4. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Hospital Corporate Image and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obamiro John Kolade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour, hospital corporate image and performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 350 patients and 298 usable questionnaires were returned representing a return rate of 85.7%. The study employs a Structural Equation Model to test four hypotheses on organizational citizenship behaviours, hospital corporate image and performance. The findings reveal that hospitals can increase performance through organizational citizenship behaviour and positive corporate image. However, it was also discovered that there is a negative covariance between organizational citizenship behaviour and hospital corporate image despite their individual positive contribution to performance. Therefore, hospital management should develop an organizational climate (such as recognition, additional reward, promotion, etc. that can promote organizational citizenship behaviour and enhance a positive corporate image while preventing situations that will discourage staff from rendering extra positive discretionary work related services.

  5. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  6. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes; Luciana Fernandes Portela; Lucia Rotenberg; Rosane Harter Griep

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279). RESULTS: men and women showed significant ...

  7. Is the impact of hospital performance data greater in patients who have compared hospitals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, I.B. de; Otten, W.; Smeets, H.J.; Marang-van de Mheen, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Public information on average has limited impact on patients' hospital choice. However, the impact may be greater in consumers who have compared hospitals prior to their hospital choice. We therefore assessed whether patients who have compared hospitals based their hospital choice mainly

  8. Is the impact of hospital performance data greater in patients who have compared hospitals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Harm J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public information on average has limited impact on patients' hospital choice. However, the impact may be greater in consumers who have compared hospitals prior to their hospital choice. We therefore assessed whether patients who have compared hospitals based their hospital choice mainly on public information, rather than e.g. advice of their general practitioner and consider other information important than patients who have not compared hospitals. Methods 337 new surgical patients completed an internet-based questionnaire. They were asked whether they had compared hospitals prior to their hospital choice and which factors influenced their choice. They were also asked to select between four and ten items of hospital information (total: 41 items relevant for their future hospital choice. These were subsequently used in a hospital choice experiment in which participants were asked to compare hospitals in an Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint analysis to estimate which of the hospital characteristics had the highest Relative Importance (RI. Results Patients who have compared hospitals more often used public information for their hospital choice than patients who have not compared hospitals (12.7% vs. 1.5%, p Conclusion Public information has limited impact on patient's hospital choice, even in patients who have actually compared hospitals prior to hospital choice.

  9. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oostrum Irene EA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+. The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83. No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour

  10. A Comparative Study of Principals' Administrative Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung Ae

    1989-01-01

    Compared are the managerial behaviors and beliefs of Korean and American secondary school principals. Generalizations are proposed in the areas of work hours, work pace, communication skills, organizational style, instructional leadership, and other managerial behaviors. (16 references) (SI)

  11. Profitability: comparing hospital results with other industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1990-03-01

    Changes in healthcare economics now permit more meaningful financial comparisons between hospitals and other industries. A study focusing on return on equity and other financial ratios highlighted critical changes needed to improve the fiscal health of hospitals. These suggestions include increasing net prices on existing product lines, entering new markets, using short-term debt to relieve long-term debt burdens, and expanding uses of operating leases.

  12. Comparing Administration of Hospital Wastes Using Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management requires interaction between different players. It is important to map theses interactions to identify key players. This study utilizes social network analysis to compare the organization of waste management activities at two different hospitals. One of these hospitals was a large public hospital whereas the other one was a small private hospital. The structure and characteristics of the waste management network varied at both hospitals. On the whole the network at the larger hospital was institutional and the one at the smaller hospital was social in nature. At the larger hospital communication between any two members on average required three degrees of freedom. Moreover, its waste management network was characterized by the presence of three brokers whose absence could split the network into smaller disparate components. At the smaller hospital the waste management activities suffered from a lack of involvement from the paramedic staff. Thus its waste management network was more compact and communication between most of the network members did not require an intermediary. In both hospitals, a feedback mechanism between the municipal sanitary staff and hospital management was conspicuous by its absence. Hence issues such as an incidence of hazardous items mixed in the general waste could not be communicated to the hospital directly. The key positions identified in this study can be used for behavioral changes related to waste management among the concerned hospital staff.

  13. Comparing public and private hospitals in China: Evidence from Guangdong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. Methods We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Results Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation. Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. Conclusions In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital

  14. Processes of In-Hospital Psychiatric Care and Subsequent Criminal Behaviour Among Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Olrik Wallenstein Jensen, Signe; Johnsen, Søren Paaske;

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: It is unknown whether evidence-based, in-hospital processes of care may influence the risk of criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to examine the association between guideline recommended in-hospital psychiatric care and criminal behaviour among patients...... with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish patients with schizophrenia (18 years or older) discharged from a psychiatric ward between January 2004 and March 2009 were identified using a national population-based schizophrenia registry (n = 10 757). Data for in-hospital care and patient characteristics were linked with data...... and staff contact with relatives. Conclusions: High-quality, in-hospital psychiatric care was associated with a lower risk of criminal behaviour after discharge among patients with schizophrenia....

  15. Impact of Self Efficacy on Innovative Behaviour Pharmacist in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri M. Wahyuningrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are always required in order to improve the quality of service in accordance with professional standards in accordance with their code of ethics. Therefore, health workers in hospitals, especially pharmacists, are required to continuously improve its service to the community. To improve health services to the community, then the pharmacist must interact and be accepted by other professional health personnel in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of self-efficacy pharmacist in a hospital organization that became an impact on innovative behavior. This study used an obsevational quantitative measurement using questionnaire instrument. The results measured by number consist of value, rank, and frequencies were analyzed using statistics software smartPLS to answer the research question or hypothesis to predict a particular variable affects another variable. The results showed that effect between self-efficacy of behavioral innovations in the hospital pharmacist significantly different. A pharmacist who has high self-efficacy will obviously have the higher innovation behavior in hospitals.

  16. Comparing public and private hospital care service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, D; O'Callaghan, M

    1998-01-01

    The study applies the principles behind the SERVQUAL model and uses Donabedian's framework to compare and contrast Malta's public and private hospital care service quality. Through the identification of 16 service quality indicators and the use of a Likert-type scale, two questionnaires were developed. The first questionnaire measured patient pre-admission expectations for public and private hospital service quality (in respect of one another). It also determined the weighted importance given to the different service quality indicators. The second questionnaire measured patient perceptions of provided service quality. Results showed that private hospitals are expected to offer a higher quality service, particularly in the "hotel services", but it was the public sector that was exceeding its patients' expectations by the wider margin. A number of implications for public and private hospital management and policy makers were identified.

  17. The effect of performance-related pay of hospital doctors on hospital behaviour: a case study from Shandong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Anne

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the recognition that public hospitals are often productively inefficient, reforms have taken place worldwide to increase their administrative autonomy and financial responsibility. Reforms in China have been some of the most radical: the government budget for public hospitals was fixed, and hospitals had to rely on charges to fill their financing gap. Accompanying these changes was the widespread introduction of performance-related pay for hospital doctors – termed the "bonus" system. While the policy objective was to improve productivity and cost recovery, it is likely that the incentive to increase the quantity of care provided would operate regardless of whether the care was medically necessary. Methods The primary concerns of this study were to assess the effects of the bonus system on hospital revenue, cost recovery and productivity, and to explore whether various forms of bonus pay were associated with the provision of unnecessary care. The study drew on longitudinal data on revenue and productivity from six panel hospitals, and a detailed record review of 2303 tracer disease patients (1161 appendicitis patients and 1142 pneumonia patients was used to identify unnecessary care. Results The study found that bonus system change over time contributed significantly to the increase in hospital service revenue and hospital cost recovery. There was an increase in unnecessary care and in the probability of admission when the bonus system switched from one with a weaker incentive to increase services to one with a stronger incentive, suggesting that improvement in the financial health of public hospitals was achieved at least in part through the provision of more unnecessary care and drugs and through admitting more patients. Conclusion There was little evidence that the performance-related pay system as designed by the sample of Chinese public hospitals was socially desirable. Hospitals should be monitored more closely

  18. Hospital and community health service costs: England and Scotland compared

    OpenAIRE

    Glen, A C; Hulbert, J K

    1987-01-01

    In publications which have compared the health expenditure in the component parts of the United Kingdom by applying the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) formula to the health budget of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland it has been previously concluded that Scotland's hospital and community health services expenditure is more than 19% above what would be a fair distribution. It has also been implied that Scotland's allocation should be cut substantially to improve services...

  19. Changing organizational energy consumption behaviour through comparative feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, F.W.; Bakker, A.B.; Dekker, G.B; van den Burg, T.C

    1996-01-01

    The differential effects of two forms of feedback on energy consumption behaviour were examined in two units of a metallurgical company. In one unit, employees received information about energy conservation, had to set goals and received feedback on their own conservation behaviour. The same procedu

  20. Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mwila Musenge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The control of diabetes mellitus depends on several factors that also include individual lifestyles. We assessed glycaemic control status and self-management behaviours that may influence glycaemic control among diabetic outpatients. Methods. This cross-sectional study among 198 consenting randomly selected patients was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic between September and December 2013 in Lusaka, Zambia. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, self-management behaviours, and laboratory measurements. Binary logistic regression analysis using IBM SPSS for Windows version 20.0 was carried out to predict behaviours that were associated with glycaemic control status. Results. The proportion of patients that had good glycaemic control status (HbA1c≤ 48 mmol/mol was 38.7% compared to 61.3% that had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c≥ 49 mmol/mol. Adherence to antidiabetic treatment and fasting plasma glucose predicted glycaemic control status of the patients. However, self-blood glucose monitoring, self-blood glucose monitoring means and exercise did not predict glycaemic control status of the patients.  Conclusion. We find evidence of poor glycaemic control status among most diabetic patients suggesting that health promotion messages need to take into account both individual and community factors to promote behaviours likely to reduce nonadherence.

  1. Comparing public and private sector employees' innovative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2015-01-01

    and the influence of job/organizational characteristics. We test this by using a three-country representative survey in Scandinavia with 8,310 respondents. We control for subsectors/industries and job functions. We do not find that public employees are less innovative. Furthermore, the study emphasizes......Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour...... the importance of understanding the major differences in innovative behaviour between different subsectors/industries and job types....

  2. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  3. The war on antisocial behaviour : rationeles underlying antisocial behaviour policies : comparing British and Dutch discourse analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, Monique Louise

    2011-01-01

    Only fifteen years ago, measures against antisocial behaviour on the street (ASB) were on the fringe of crime policies. Now this kind of behaviour is the focus of many new anti-crime actions. If this sort of sub-crime is addressed as a major security problem what does that say about the current Dutc

  4. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Health Seeking Behaviour of patients at a tertiary care hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Deep

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a widely prevalent conditionaffecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasinglife expectancy, there has been a rise in the percentage ofelderly men and so for this disease across the globe. There islack of information about health seeking behaviour of patientswith Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Therefore the study wasdesigned with the objectives of assessing health-seekingbehaviour and the effect of literacy on it among adult andolder subjects suffering from Benign Prostatic Hyperplasiaattending a tertiary care hospital.MethodA series of 81 patients suffering from Benign ProstaticHyperplasia above the age of 50 years, attending surgical OutPatient Department of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, wereassessed for their health seeking behaviour using a pre-testedand a modified questionnaire designed for assessing healthseeking behaviour.ResultsPositive health seeking behaviour of patients was observed in44%, who reported to a doctor within a month of noticingtheir problem. A greater proportion of the literates was awareabout the symptoms suggestive of enlarged prostate andconsulted a qualified health care practitioner as their firstaction. More literates approached the higher level of healthcare facility on being referred and had maximum faith inallopathic system of medicine. Also, lesser number of literateshad performed pooja (Hindi word for worship or othertraditional rituals for relief of their problems.ConclusionWe concluded that majority of subjects suffering fromBenign Prostatic Hypertrophy were not aware of theirdisease and their health-seeking behaviour was poor andcould be related to literacy. Our data highlights the needfor public awareness program targeting the younger malepopulation so that early detection and treatment can beoffered.

  5. Health-related behaviour among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Farkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Behavioural risk factors have a significant impact on health. We aimed to assess health-related behaviour, health status, and use of healthcare services among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which included management (directors, scientific directors, directors’ deputies of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health (63 respondents; 57% women; overall mean age: 51±7 years; response rate: 74%. Data were obtained using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Results: About 35% of respondents were directors. More than half of the respondents were overweight or obese (52%, the majority were not sufficiently physically active (59% and overloaded with stress (87%. Hypercholesterolemia (36%, spinal disease (17%, and arterial hypertension (16% were most common chronic diseases. Whilst only few participants visited their general practitioner due their health complaints, blood pressure (76%, cholesterol (51%, and glucose (54% were measured within last year in most of the respondents. Conclusion: Our findings point to a high prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as workplace-related stress among Slovenian public health managers. Therefore, effective preventive strategies should be focused on stress management along with promotion of healthy behavioural patterns.

  6. Hospital clinicians' information behaviour and attitudes towards the 'Clinical Informationist': an Irish survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Maura G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital clinicians are increasingly expected to practice evidence-based medicine (EBM) in order to minimize medical errors and ensure quality patient care, but experience obstacles to information-seeking. The introduction of a Clinical Informationist (CI) is explored as a possible solution. AIMS: This paper investigates the self-perceived information needs, behaviour and skill levels of clinicians in two Irish public hospitals. It also explores clinicians\\' perceptions and attitudes to the introduction of a CI into their clinical teams. METHODS: A questionnaire survey approach was utilised for this study, with 22 clinicians in two hospitals. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Analysis showed that clinicians experience diverse information needs for patient care, and that barriers such as time constraints and insufficient access to resources hinder their information-seeking. Findings also showed that clinicians struggle to fit information-seeking into their working day, regularly seeking to answer patient-related queries outside of working hours. Attitudes towards the concept of a CI were predominantly positive. CONCLUSION: This paper highlights the factors that characterise and limit hospital clinicians\\' information-seeking, and suggests the CI as a potentially useful addition to the clinical team, to help them to resolve their information needs for patient care.

  7. Analysis of Nurses’ Organizational Deviant Behaviour: An Example of a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Bayın

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizational deviant behavior is defined as intentionally behavior which is damaging both employees and organization and unsuitable to organization rules, norms, values, expectations and legal regulations.The aim of this study is to determine the level of organizational deviance of nurses, to expose differentiates of this level. according to the descriptive characteristics, to detect the dimensions of organizational deviance and to evaluate the relationship between these dimensions. Population of the study is nurses working at a University Hospital in Ankara. The sample is not selected and tried to reach all the nurses working at this hospital. However, 244 nurses were reached (%48,12. To measure organizational deviance, “Measure of Workplace Deviance Items”which was developed by Bennett and Robinson (2000was used. This scale consists from 15 expressions and 2 dimensions and its’ Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0,94. As a result of the study, the mean score of nurses’ organizational deviance was found 1.85 ± 0.718. In addition, statistically significant, positive and moderately strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of organizational deviance (R= 0.701 . It can be suggested that health care managers should identify reasons and the ways of preventing of individual deviant behaviour. Thus, managers may prevent behaviour of deviation to the organization.

  8. Practise what you preach: health behaviours and stress among non-consultant hospital doctors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Sinéad

    2016-02-01

    High rates of psychological distress, depression and suicide have been reported among doctors. Furthermore, many doctors do not access healthcare by conventional means. This study aimed to increase understanding regarding non-consultant hospital doctors\\' (NCHDs\\') response to stress and barriers to accessing supports, and identify possible solutions. Medical manpower departments in 58 hospitals distributed a 25-item questionnaire to 4,074 NCHDs; we received 707 responses (response rate, 17.4%). 60% of NCHDs were unable to take time off work when unwell; \\'letting teammates down\\' (90.8%) and \\'difficulty covering call\\' (85.9%) were the leading reasons. \\'Being too busy\\' (85%), \\'self-prescription\\' (66.6%) and \\'self-management\\' (53.1%) were ranked highest in deterring NCHDs from visiting a general practitioner (GP). 22.9% of NCHDs would not attend a GP with anxiety or depression until they began to feel hopeless, helpless or suicidal. 12.2% would not seek help at all. 55% of respondents (n = 330) had to move away from partners or dependants due to work, negatively affecting the social supports of 82.9%. Possible practical solutions were explored. NCHDS are a vulnerable population and have a particularly challenging lifestyle. Key recommendations include improved GP and counselling access for NCHDs, and addressing the culture of self-treatment and poor health behaviours through undergraduate and postgraduate education.

  9. Medicare's Hospital Compare quality reports appear to have slowed price increases for two major procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Avi; Encinosa, William E; Carey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that Hospital Compare, Medicare's public reporting initiative, has had little impact on patient outcomes. However, little is known about the initiative's impact on hospital prices, which may be significant because private insurers are generally well positioned to respond to quality information when negotiating prices with hospitals. We estimated difference-in-differences models of the effects of Hospital Compare quality reporting on transaction prices for two major cardiac procedures, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). States that had mandated their own public reporting systems before the implementation of Hospital Compare formed the control group. We found that prices for these procedures continued to increase overall after the initiation of Hospital Compare quality scores, but the rate of increase was significantly lower in states with no quality reporting metrics of their own before Hospital Compare, when compared to the control states (annual rates of increase of 4.4 percent versus 8.7 percent for PCI, and 3.9 percent versus 10.6 percent for CABG, adjusted for overall inflation). This finding implies that Hospital Compare provided leverage to purchasers in moderating price increases, while adding competitive pressures on hospitals. Providing accurate quality information on both hospitals and health plans could benefit consumers.

  10. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Spruit, Berry M; Rodenburg, T Bas;

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately......, to date much of the information regarding the aetiology and treatment in both syndromes is based on ‘expert' opinion rather than on experimentally founded results. Comparative research in humans and parrots might therefore be mutually beneficial. Feather damaging behaviour (FDB) may also share...... and distribution have been found between high and low feather pecking lines of laying hens, and psychopharmacological interventions in humans and parrots suggest similar alterations. The exact pathways via which neurotransmitters influence the execution of these behaviours have not been identified. It is also...

  11. Tertiary centres have improved survival compared to other hospitals in the Copenhagen area after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søholm, Helle; Wachtell, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren Loumann;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been reported to carry very varying morbidity and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this is caused by intrinsic factors of the OHCA or due to the level of in-hospital care. The aim of this study is to compare 30-day and long......-term mortality after OHCA at tertiary heart centres and non-tertiary university hospitals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Copenhagen OHCA registry from June 2002 through December 2010 included a total of 1218 consecutive patients treated by the same mobile emergency care unit (MECU) with either return...... angiography. Therefore, patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (n=198) were excluded from the analysis. 30-day mortality was 56% vs. 76% and long term (up to 8years) mortality was 78% vs. 94% for tertiary and non-tertiary hospitals, respectively, both p...

  12. Comparative Study of Three Commonly Used Methods for Hospital Efficiency Analysis in Beijing Tertiary Public Hospitals, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Chao Xu; Jian Zheng; Zi-Jun Zhou; Chuan-Kun Zhou; Yang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tertiary hospitals serve as the medical service center within the region and play an important role in the medical and health service system.They are also the key targets of public hospital reform in the new era in China.Through the reform of health system, the public hospital efficiency has changed remarkably.Therefore, this study aimed to provide some advice for efficiency assessment of public hospitals in China by comparing and analyzing the consistency of results obtained by three commonly used methods for examining hospital efficiency, that is, ratio analysis (RA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), and data envelopment analysis (DEA).Methods: The theoretical basis, operational processes, and the application status ofRA, SFA, and DEA were learned through literature analysis.Then, the empirical analysis was conducted based on measured data from 51 tertiary public hospitals in Beijing from 2009 to 2011.Results: The average values of hospital efficiency calculated by SFA with index screening and principal component analysis (PCA) results and those calculated by DEA with index screening results were relatively stable.The efficiency of specialized hospitals was higher than that of general hospitals and that of traditional Chinese medicine hospitals.The results obtained by SFA with index screening results and the results obtained by SFA with PCA results showed a relatively high correlation (r-value in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.869, 0.753, and 0.842, respectively, P < 0.01).The correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results and results obtained by other methods showed statistical significance, but the correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results was lower than that between results obtained by SFA with index screening results and PCA results.Conclusions: RA is not suitable for multi-index evaluation of hospital efficiency.In the given conditions, SFA is a stable

  13. Across US Hospitals, Black Patients Report Comparable Or Better Experiences Than White Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, José F; Zheng, Jie; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    2016-08-01

    Patient-reported experience is a critical part of measuring health care quality. There are limited data on racial differences in patient experience. Using patient-level data for 2009-10 from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS), we compared blacks' and whites' responses on measures of overall hospital rating, communication, clinical processes, and hospital environment. In unadjusted results, there were no substantive differences between blacks' and whites' ratings of hospitals. Blacks were less likely to recommend hospitals but reported more positive experiences, compared to whites. Higher educational attainment and self-reported worse health status were associated with more negative evaluations in both races. Additionally, blacks rated minority-serving hospitals worse than other hospitals on all HCAHPS measures. Taken together, there were surprisingly few meaningful differences in patient experience between blacks and whites across US hospitals. Although blacks tend to receive care at worse-performing hospitals, compared to whites, within any given hospital black patients tend to report better experience than whites do. PMID:27503962

  14. Improved blood culture identification by FilmArray in cultures from regional hospitals compared with teaching hospital cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bzdyl, Nicole; Chua, I-Ly Joanna; Urosevic, Nadezda M; Leung, Michael J; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of bacteria isolated from blood cultures by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now in wide spread use in major centres but is not yet feasible in smaller hospital laboratories. A FilmArray multiplex PCR panel for blood culture isolate identification (BCID) provides an alternative approach to near point-of-care microbial identification in regional hospitals. We assessed the accuracy and time to identification of the BCID FilmArray in a consecutive series of 149 blood cultures from 143 patients in a teaching hospital and smaller regional hospitals, currently identified by direct MALDI-TOF and proprietary molecular methods. The BCID FilmArray contained 18 of 34 species and 20 of 23 species isolated from teaching and regional hospital, respectively. Overall, 85 % of the teaching hospital and 100 % of the regional hospital monomicrobial blood cultures were identified, compared with 60 and 68 %, respectively, for direct MALDI-TOF on the same cultures. There were no incorrect results from blood cultures containing Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterobacteriaceae. The three discrepant results were all in mixed cultures. The mean reduction in time to identification of blood culture isolates was 53 h, which did not include the time required to transport cultures from regional centres to a central laboratory. The overall performance of the BCID FilmArray is stronger in blood cultures from smaller regional hospitals that encounter a narrower range of bacterial species dominated by the commonest species. This approach is more suited to smaller clinical laboratories than the MALDI-TOF direct method.

  15. A Comparative Evaluation to Determine the Effectiveness of the Behaviour Support Classrooms and other Positive Behaviour Management Interventions in Designated Disadvantaged Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Wickham, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Twelve designated disadvantaged secondary schools were involved in the research, which looked at the different approaches for dealing with inappropriate student behaviour. Six of the schools are currently involved with the National Behaviour Support Service (NBSS) in the piloting of the Behaviour Support Classrooms (BSCs) for seriously disruptive students. For comparative purposes six other schools who did not have this additional resource were studied, to determine how they go...

  16. Innovative medical devices and hospital decision making: a study comparing the views of hospital pharmacists and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaux, Mathilde; Borget, Isabelle; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith; Martelli, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    -based health technology assessment has been developed to support decisions. However, little is known about the different perceptions of innovative medical devices among practitioners and how different perceptions may affect decision making. What does this paper add? This paper compares and understands the perceptions of two groups of health professionals concerning innovative devices in the university hospital environment. What are the implications for practitioners? Such a comparison of viewpoints could facilitate improvements in current practices and decision-making processes in local health technology assessment for these medical products. PMID:26342894

  17. Comparing apples to apples: the relative financial performance of Manitoba's acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Diane; Finlayson, Greg; Jacobs, Philip

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents comparative financial ratios that can be adopted by health system administrators and policy analysts to begin to evaluate the performance of acute care hospitals. We combined financial, statistical and clinical information for 73 acute care hospitals in Manitoba for fiscal 1997/98 to calculate 15 indicators of financial performance. Our findings suggest that there is variability between hospital types in their average costs per weighted case, cost structure and financial performance.

  18. Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy compared to optimised general practitioners’ care for depression : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A.H.; Baas, K.D.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lucassen, P.; Bockting, C.L.H.; Wittkampf, K.A.; Huyser, J.; van Weert, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and pro

  19. Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Compared to Optimised General Practitioners? Care for Depression: A Randomised Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A. H.; Baas, Kim D.; Koeter, Maarten; Lucassen, Peter; Bockting, Claudi; Wittkampf, K.F.; van Weert, H.C.; Huyser, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and pro

  20. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: a review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.; Spruijt, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Buitenhuis, B.; van Hierden, Y.M.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects Yvonne R.A. van Zeelanda, , , Berry M. Spruitb, T. Bas Rodenburgc, Bernd Riedstrad, Yvonne M. van Hierdene, Bart Buitenhuisf, S. Mechiel Korteg, h and Johannes T. Lumeija aDivision of Zoological Medicine, Depar

  1. A comparative study of East and West Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans; Esbjerg, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a project comparing retail buy-ing behaviour in Poland and Germany. The study demon-strates several differences in the way listing decisions are made in the two countries - differences which at the same time raise prob-lems and offer opportunities for small...

  2. Category activation effects in judgment and behaviour: the moderating role of perceived comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2002-03-01

    Previous research on category activation effects demonstrates that extreme exemplar priming can lead to contrast effects as well as assimilation effects in target judgments. Two experiments extended this line of research by investigating the moderating role of perceived comparability, that is, the extent to which the exemplar and target are believed to belong to the same category and thus can be compared. In both experiments, participants judged the speed of a person displayed on a picture following priming with animals exemplifying either extreme speed ('cheetah') or extreme slowness ('turtle'). In addition, in the second experiment a behavioural measure was included. In the first experiment individual differences concerning the perceived comparability between animals and humans were assessed. In the second experiment perceived comparability was experimentally varied. Results showed that the direction of category activation effects (i.e. assimilation versus contrast) depended on the extent to which the prime and target categories were seen as comparable. Contrast effects on both judgments and behaviour emerged when the prime and the target category were perceived as comparable. However, assimilation effects on judgment and behaviour ensued when the prime and target category were not perceived as comparable.

  3. Comparing systems for costing hospital treatments. The case of stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jytte; Skjoldborg, Ulla Slothuus

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the basic properties in the systems most commonly considered for costing treatments in the Danish hospitals. The differences between the traditional charge system, the DRG system and the ABC system are analysed, and difficulties encountered in comparing these systems are discussed. A sample of patients diagnosed with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at Odense University Hospital was used to compare the three systems when costing an entire treatment path, costing single hospitalisations and studying the effects of length of stay. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the main idea behind each system is reflected in how the systems over- or underestimate costs. Implications when managing the hospitals, particularly reimbursement, are discussed.

  4. Foraging behaviour and reproductive success in Magellanic penguins (Sphensicus magellanicus): a comparative study of two colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Radl, A.; Culik, Boris M.

    1999-01-01

    During the breeding season 1996/97 we compared the foraging and diving behaviour of adult Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), growth rates of their chicks and their breeding success at two colonies in the south of Chile. One of the colonies is located on Magdalena Island in the Strait of Magellan, where a commercial fishery existed several years ago; the other, on the shores of the yet unexploited Otway Sound. Thirty adult Magellanic penguins were equipped with time–depth recorders...

  5. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  6. [Comparative study of the operation of two day's Hospitals in Athens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantonakis, J; Karakatsanis, N; Spilioti, E; Karanikoli, I; Stentoumis, C; Stefanis, C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation for the commencement of services by the University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI) Day Hospital and Eginition Day Hospital whose operation (in 1977) signifies the beginning of the Psychiatric Reform in our country. The two units' functional characteristics and the type of offered services are mentioned. Psychotherapeutic, biological and sociotherapeutic approaches are practiced on a daily basis within a framework of Therapeutic Community services. Moreover, relations, similarities and differences among the two day hospitals are pointed out. Special mention is given to the problems and difficulties that these two units faced upon their commencement, which took place at different time periods, set 32 years apart. The lack of legislative framework with regards to the operation of Day Hospitals, the bureaucratic obstacles and the skepticism towards the new treatment approach of patients, were the basic obstacles that had to be overcome in order for the first Day Hospital to become operational in 1977. Licensing and funding were the main obstacles that the creation of UMHRI's Day Hospital faced, although these two units had already been established. Emphasis was placed on the staff's training, which mainly consisted of young professionals and at the social environment's and all those services' (health-care, community etc) attitude, in the specific catchment area (6th Mental Health Sector). The study of patients' characteristics hospitalized in Eginition's Day Hospital throughout its first year of operation (1977-1978) and of patients hospitalized at UMHRI's Day Hospital, also at its first year of operation (2009-2010), showed, among other things, that in both cases, the number of hospitalized male patients is larger than the number of female patients. This constitutes an exception compared to other countries, whereby female patients outnumber male patients in Day Hospitals. Especially at UMHRI's Day Hospital, the

  7. Using participant or non-participant observation to explain information behaviour. Participant observation, Non-participant observation, Information behaviour, Hospital pharmacists, Older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Cooper

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide guidance on conducting participant and non-participant observation studies of information behaviour. Examines lessons learned during non-participant observation of hospital pharmacists, and participant observation with dependent older people living in their own homes. Describes the methods used in both studies, and discusses the ethical issues involved in gaining access to the subjects. In the hospital setting, professional affiliation between the researcher and the subjects (six pharmacists made access easier to obtain. In the home care setting, access to subjects (seven clients for participant observation (as a care worker was more difficult, as was withdrawal from the field study. In both studies, the observation element was triangulated with survey data. Both studies indicated the fundamental need for trust between the observer and the research subjects. In some situations, professional relations offer instant access and trust, whereas in closed and sensitive situations such as social care, time is required to build up trust. With participant observation, that trust should not be damaged by withdrawal of the researcher from the research setting.

  8. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  9. Comparing systems for costing hospital treatments. The case of stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jytte; Skjoldborg, Ulla Slothuus

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the basic properties in the systems most commonly considered for costing treatments in the Danish hospitals. The differences between the traditional charge system, the DRG system and the ABC system are analysed, and difficulties encountered in comparing these systems are discussed. A sample of patients diagnosed with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at Odense University Hospital was used to compare the three systems when costing an entire treatment path, costing single hospitalisations and studying the effects of length of stay. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the main idea behind each system is reflected in how the systems over- or underestimate costs. Implications when managing the hospitals, particularly reimbursement, are discussed. PMID:15036817

  10. Comparative analysis of hospital and forensic laboratory ethanol concentrations: A 15 month investigation of antemortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitman, Alec; Estrada, Julio; Fitzgerald, Robert L; McIntyre, Iain M

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative serum alcohol concentrations from regional hospitals (from specimens collected at time of hospital admission) were compared to results from whole blood (from specimens collected at the time of hospital admission) concentrations measured at the San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office (SDCMEO). Over a 15 month period (January 2012 to March 2013), the postmortem forensic toxicology laboratory analyzed a total of 2,321 cases. Of these, 280 were hospital cases (antemortem) representing 12% of the overall Medical Examiner toxicology casework. 59 of the 280 hospital cases (or 21%) screened positive for alcohol (ethanol). 39 of these 59 cases were included in the study based on available specimens for quantitative analyses. This investigation indicated that serum hospital ethanol concentrations correlated well (R(2) = 0.942) with ethanol values determined at SDCMEO (generally measured in whole blood). There was an observed negative bias with an average of -14.1%. A paired t-test was applied to the data and it was shown that this observed bias is statistically significant. These differences in ethanol concentrations could result from differences in specimen, analytical techniques, and/or calibration. The potential for specimen contamination is also discussed.

  11. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  12. How well do subjective Hospital Compare metrics reflect objective outcomes in spine surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The accuracy of public reporting in health care is an issue of debate. The authors investigated the association of patient satisfaction measures from a public reporting platform with objective outcomes for patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS The authors performed a cohort study involving patients undergoing elective spine surgery from 2009 to 2013 who were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. This cohort was merged with publicly available data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website. A mixed-effects regression analysis, controlling for clustering at the hospital level, was used to investigate the association of patient satisfaction metrics with outcomes. RESULTS During the study period, 160,235 patients underwent spine surgery. Using a mixed-effects multivariable regression analysis, the authors demonstrated that undergoing elective spine surgery in hospitals with a higher percentage of patient-assigned high satisfaction scores was not associated with a decreased rate of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57-1.06), mortality (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-1.01), or hospitalization charges (β 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.23). However, it was associated with decreased length of stay (LOS; β -0.19, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.05). Similar associations were identified for hospitals with a higher percentage of patients who claimed they would recommend these institutions to others. CONCLUSIONS Merging a comprehensive all-payer cohort of spine surgery patients in New York state with data from the CMS Hospital Compare website, the authors were not able to demonstrate an association of improved performance in patient satisfaction measures with decreased mortality, rate of discharge to rehabilitation, and hospitalization charges. Increased patient satisfaction was associated with decreased LOS. PMID:26989975

  13. Wage Inequity: Within-Market Comparative Analysis of Salary for Public Health Nurses and Hospital Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, L Michele; Lurie, Christine Fitzpatrick; Bekemeier, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The labor market perspective focuses on supply and demand for registered nurses (RNs) as employees. This perspective contrasts with beliefs in the public health sector that RNs working in local health departments (LHD) as public health nurses (PHNs) accept lower wages because of factors other than market demand. This study sought to describe the extent to which hourly wages of RNs working in LHDs are competitive with hospital RN wages within the same county market. A repeated measures survey design was used in collecting 2010 and 2014 data. The unit of analysis was the county, as an RN labor market for LHDs and hospitals. Survey questions captured factors common in human resources benefits and wage packages, such as differential pay, hourly rate pay based on years of experience, components of benefit packages (eg, sick and vacation leave), and reimbursement for education. Within each county, the LHD and all hospitals constituted a "market," yielding a potential 12 markets in our study sample. Human resources representatives from each of the 12 LHDs and from all hospitals within those 12 counties were invited to participate. We conducted comparisons with survey data using t test of mean differences on mean RN wages across years of experience. On average, LHDs paid significantly less than hospitals in their markets, at all levels of RN experience, and this gap increased with RN experience in the sample markets. Salary compression was evident in 2010 and worsened for PHNs in 2014, when compared with hospital RNs. In 2014, 100% of the sample LHDs offered reimbursements for continuing education for PHNs compared with 89% of hospitals providing this benefit. This study contributes to our understanding of the human resources challenges faced by LHDs and provides evidence elucidating resources issues that need to be addressed in order to improve recruitment and retention of PHNs. PMID:27682725

  14. Wage Inequity: Within-Market Comparative Analysis of Salary for Public Health Nurses and Hospital Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, L Michele; Lurie, Christine Fitzpatrick; Bekemeier, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The labor market perspective focuses on supply and demand for registered nurses (RNs) as employees. This perspective contrasts with beliefs in the public health sector that RNs working in local health departments (LHD) as public health nurses (PHNs) accept lower wages because of factors other than market demand. This study sought to describe the extent to which hourly wages of RNs working in LHDs are competitive with hospital RN wages within the same county market. A repeated measures survey design was used in collecting 2010 and 2014 data. The unit of analysis was the county, as an RN labor market for LHDs and hospitals. Survey questions captured factors common in human resources benefits and wage packages, such as differential pay, hourly rate pay based on years of experience, components of benefit packages (eg, sick and vacation leave), and reimbursement for education. Within each county, the LHD and all hospitals constituted a "market," yielding a potential 12 markets in our study sample. Human resources representatives from each of the 12 LHDs and from all hospitals within those 12 counties were invited to participate. We conducted comparisons with survey data using t test of mean differences on mean RN wages across years of experience. On average, LHDs paid significantly less than hospitals in their markets, at all levels of RN experience, and this gap increased with RN experience in the sample markets. Salary compression was evident in 2010 and worsened for PHNs in 2014, when compared with hospital RNs. In 2014, 100% of the sample LHDs offered reimbursements for continuing education for PHNs compared with 89% of hospitals providing this benefit. This study contributes to our understanding of the human resources challenges faced by LHDs and provides evidence elucidating resources issues that need to be addressed in order to improve recruitment and retention of PHNs.

  15. Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment programmes in rural Lesotho: health centres and hospitals compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Daniel Labhardt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesotho was among the first countries to adopt decentralization of care from hospitals to nurse-led health centres (HCs to scale up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART. We compared outcomes between patients who started ART at HCs and hospitals in two rural catchment areas in Lesotho. Methods: The two catchment areas comprise two hospitals and 12 HCs. Patients ≥16 years starting ART at a hospital or HC between 2008 and 2011 were included. Loss to follow-up (LTFU was defined as not returning to the facility for ≥180 days after the last visit, no follow-up (no FUP as not returning after starting ART, and retention in care as alive and on ART at the facility. The data were analysed using logistic regression, competing risk regression and Kaplan-Meier methods. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for sex, age, CD4 cell count, World Health Organization stage, catchment area and type of ART. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results: Of 3747 patients, 2042 (54.5% started ART at HCs. Both women and men at hospitals had more advanced clinical and immunological stages of disease than those at HCs. Over 5445 patient-years, 420 died and 475 were LTFU. Kaplan-Meier estimates for three-year retention were 68.7 and 69.7% at HCs and hospitals, respectively, among women (p=0.81 and 68.8% at HCs versus 54.7% at hospitals among men (p<0.001. These findings persisted in adjusted analyses, with similar retention at HCs and hospitals among women (odds ratio (OR: 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.73–1.09 and higher retention at HCs among men (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.20–1.96. The latter result was mainly driven by a lower proportion of patients LTFU at HCs (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51–0.93. Conclusions: In rural Lesotho, overall retention in care did not differ significantly between nurse-led HCs and hospitals. However, men seemed to benefit most from starting ART at HCs, as they were more likely to remain in care in these facilities

  16. Comparative effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria and chlorpromazine on social behaviour and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Bisong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rauwolfia vomitoria has been used in Nigeria to manage psychiatric disorders despite orthodox medicine. Aims : This research was therefore aimed at comparing the effects of R. vomitoria, chlorpromazine and reserpine on social behaviour and pain in mice. Materials and Methods : Ninety male CD-1 mice (32 - 38g body weight were grouped into 3 with 5 subgroups (n=6 each. Mice were given chlorpromazine (0.0, 0.25, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/kg i.p., 30 minutes before testing and R. vomitoria (0.0, 0.25, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/kg, i.p. and reserpine (0.0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg/kg, i.p 24 hours before testing. Nesting score assessed social behaviour while the tail flick and hot plate analgesiometers assessed pain. Results : Chlorpromazine dose-dependently decreased nesting score (F 4,25 = 5.5660; p< 0.01, indicating decreased social behaviour (social loss in the mice. Although R. vomitoria did not affect nesting score, reserpine decreased the nesting score (social loss. In the pain test, chlorpromazine did not alter tail flick latency but decreased hind paw lick latency in the hot plate at 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg (p< 0.01, indicating increased pain sensitivity at these doses which may indirectly increase social withdrawal and thus aggravating depression. R. vomitoria however, increased tail flick and hind paw lick latencies in the hot plate test (p< 0.05 indicating decreased pain sensitivity. Reserpine, like R. vomitoria, increased latency of hind paw lick in the hot plate. Conclusion : R. vomitoria has a high potential as an antipsychotic and may have advantage over chlorpromazine; it is not necessary to isolate active components from this herb.

  17. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... is to minimize the negative effects of stress inducing environments based on research results. Which stress inducing factors? We can look around at some old hospitals and see they are noisy, confusing, ugly, monotonous, hard, cold, artificial, and dark; qualitative terms which can indicate what we shouldn......’t be doing in hospitals. Design factors which should be carefully considered include: Light, as in daylight, artificial light, its color, its temperature, the level and quality of lighting and the effects of light on circadian rhythms. There is documented evidence in: users’ satisfaction, orientation, 24...

  18. Comparing the organisational structure of the preoperative assessment clinic at eight university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, G M; Biervliet, J D; Hollmann, M W; Schlack, W S; Preckel, B

    2008-01-01

    The preoperative assessment clinic (PAC) has been implemented in most major hospitals. However, there is no uniformity in the way PACs are organised. We compared the organisational structure of the PACs from all eight university hospitals in The Netherlands, looking at the following variables: number of patients visiting the PAC, staffing of the PAC, opening hours, scheduling, and additional preoperative diagnostic testing. The number of patients seen yearly varies from 7.000 to 13.500. In all clinics, the preoperative assessment was performed by anaesthetists and residents. In five PACs, preoperative assessment was also performed by physician assistants or nurse practitioners. Opening hours varied. Consultations are by appointment, 'walk-in', or a combination of these two. In four clinics additional testing is performed at the PAC itself. This study shows that the organisational structure of the PAC at similar university hospitals varies greatly; this can have important implications when designing a benchmarking process.

  19. Examining the Relationships among Antecedents of Guests’ Behavioural Intentions in Ghana’s Hospitality Industry: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gyasi Nimako

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the critical antecedents of behavioural intentions and the structural interrelationships that exist among the antecedents in the hotel industry in Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 700 respondents using structured questionnaire personally administered. A usable 359 questionnaire were obtained, representing 51.3% response rate and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling approach. The findings indicate that the proposed model has high goodness-of-fit indices and explains 89.5 and 91% of the two behavioural intention variables loyalty and Positive Word of Mouth Communication (PWOMC respectively. It also found that loyalty could be influenced through PWOMC, customer satisfaction, perceived service quality, perceived value and perceived quality of ambient factors, whereas PWOMC was influenced by satisfaction, perceived value and perceived quality of Ambient factors. Theoretically, the study fills the dearth of conceptual models in understanding the critical determinants of BI in the hotel sector in developing country context. It also provides important implications for marketing management in hotel industry. Limitations of the study are noted and recommendations for future research have been suggested. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of consumer loyalty in the hospitality industry.

  20. Health behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to a representative reference population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kummer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status. METHODS: Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629 were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813. RESULTS: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56, short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week, and high daily computer use (OR 2.51. They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29, and high daily television time (OR 0.68. The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use.

  1. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research. PMID:24974915

  2. Event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major complications of diabetes: a multicountry comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Clarke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes imposes a substantial burden globally in terms of premature mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Estimates of economic outcomes associated with diabetes are essential inputs to policy analyses aimed at prevention and treatment of diabetes. Our objective was to estimate and compare event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major diabetes-related complications in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Incidence and history of diabetes-related complications, hospital admissions, and length of stay were recorded in 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease (ADVANCE study (mean age at entry 66 y. The probability of hospital utilization and number of days in hospital for major events associated with coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and nephropathy were estimated for three regions (Asia, Eastern Europe, and Established Market Economies using multiple regression analysis. The resulting estimates of days spent in hospital were multiplied by regional estimates of the costs per hospital bed-day from the World Health Organization to compute annual acute and long-term costs associated with the different types of complications. To assist, comparability, costs are reported in international dollars (Int$, which represent a hypothetical currency that allows for the same quantities of goods or services to be purchased regardless of country, standardized on purchasing power in the United States. A cost calculator accompanying this paper enables the estimation of costs for individual countries and translation of these costs into local currency units. The probability of attending a hospital following an event was highest for heart failure (93%-96% across regions and lowest for nephropathy (15%-26%. The average numbers of days in hospital given at least one admission were

  3. Behavioural and psychological responses of lower educated smokers to the smoke-free legislation in Dutch hospitality venues : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heiden, Sander; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In 2008, smoke-free legislation was implemented in hospitality venues (HV) in the Netherlands. We investigated how continuing smokers with a lower educational background respond behaviourally and psychologically to the legislation and the norm it communicates. Design: In 2010, 18 lower-ed

  4. Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among German nurses in medical compared with psychiatric hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Damkröger, A; Heins, C; Wehlitz, L; Löhr, M; Driessen, M; Behrens, J; Wingenfeld, K

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nurses' efforts and rewards, as well as the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and burnout, differ between subjects working in psychiatric vs. medical hospitals and between nurses under education and examined nurses respectively. Furthermore, the relationship between ERI and burnout was evaluated. Nursing is associated with high levels of emotional strain and heavy workloads. Burnout and a negative ERI can result in high absenteeism and turnover and have been identified as reasons why nurses leave their profession. In the last decade, working conditions of the nursing profession have changed in Germany, but somatic and psychiatric hospitals developed in different ways. This development may lead to different profiles. A sample of 389 nurses (78.8% female) in four German hospitals was investigated. A total of 147 nurses worked in psychiatric hospitals and 236 nurses worked in medical (somatic) hospitals. Fifty participants were still under education. The Effort-Reward Imbalance Inventory measures effort, reward and overcommitment at job and provides an imbalance score between effort and reward. The Maslach Burnout Inventory with the subscales, emotional exhaustion, lack of accomplishment and depersonalization, was also used. Nurses working in medical hospitals reported more burnout and had higher ERI scores. Subjects under education were comparable to examined nurses in terms of burnout but had lower ERI scores. Multiple regression analyses showed all ERI scales to be significant predictors for emotional exhaustion, while age, field of work and educational status further predict effort or ERI respectively. At present, the working situation of nurses in different settings appears to be characterized by a perceived imbalance of effort and reward and is associated with a high risk of developing burnout symptoms.

  5. Prognostic Implications of Level-of-Care at Tertiary Heart Centers Compared With Other Hospitals After Resuscitation From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søholm, Helle; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Bro-Jeppesen, John;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have found higher survival rates after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and admission to tertiary heart centers. The aim was to examine the level-of-care at tertiary centers compared with nontertiary hospitals and the association with outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients (n=1078) without ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction admitted to tertiary centers (54%) and nontertiary hospitals (46%) were included (2002-2011). Patient charts were reviewed focusing on level-of-care and comorbidity....... Survival to discharge differed significantly with 45% versus 24% of patients discharged alive (Pday mortality (hazard ratio, 0.78 [0.64-0.96; P=0.02]), independent of comorbidity...

  6. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots : A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne R. A.; Spruit, Berry M.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Riedstra, Bernd; van Hierden, Yvonne M.; Buitenhuis, Bart; Korte, S. Mechiel; Lumeij, Johannes T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  7. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeland, van Y.R.A.; Spruit, B.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Riedstra, B.; Hierden, van Y.M.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Korte, S.M.; Lumeij, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to date

  8. Smoking behaviour among young doctors of a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer A. Bhat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. There are more than one billion smokers in the world. Almost half of the worlds children breathe air polluted by tobacco. Aim of current study was to study the smoking trends among young doctors in a tertiary care institute in north India. Methods: A descriptive observational cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 250 doctors of a tertiary care Hospital in Jammu and Kashmir (Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, SKIMS during the two months of February-March, 2014. The predesigned tool adopted during data collection was a questionnaire that was developed at the institute with the assistance from the faculty members and other experts. Results: Among 250 participants, (20% were smokers; among smokers, (76% were regular smokers and (24% were occasional smokers. Majority of smokers were in the age group of 21-30 years (80% and started smoking between 11-20 years (70%. All of them were male (100%. No significant difference was observed among urban and rural students. Among smokers, majority (60% was in the practice of smoking for last 6 months to 1 year and 26% smoked for <6 months; and (14% smoked for more than 5 years .It was found more than half of the responding (60% students used to smoke 5-9 cigarettes per day; 14% is <5 and 26% consumed 10 or more per day .Among smokers, peer pressure was found in 80% cases. ( and #967;2 = 107, P <0.001. Among smokers, almost 20% had other addiction and among non-smokers only 5% had .Effect of parental smoking was significantly higher in smokers than non-smoker ( and #967;2 = 66.2, P <0.001 .It was seen that peer pressure was the most important risk factor (60% of initiation of smoking habit followed by parental influence (20%. Majority (78.4% had no intention to quit in the next 6 months. Lack of Incentive (36.36% and Addiction (27.27% were the main reasons for not quitting. Conclusion: We

  9. COMPARATIVE ETHOGRAM OF MALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR OF RHODE ISLAND RED AND VANARAJA FOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Modhukoilya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted to compare the male sexual behaviour of Rhode Island Red and Vanaraja fowl parent stock managed under deep litter system. Twenty males and 140 females of each genetic group were selected randomly in two batches belonging to age and body weight ranges of 36-48 weeks & 2.8-4.5 kg respectively. Sexual behaviour was recorded for one hour starting at 5 PM. Every bird was observed for 20 sessions. The transformed data were analysed to identify the variation due to genetic group if any. Frequency of mounting in RIR and Vanaraja males are 1.80 ± 0.01 and 1.78 ± 0.01 respectively. Frequency (per hour of forced mounting is seen significantly (P 0.01 more in Vanaraja (1.93 ± 0.02 than that in RIR (1.77 ± 0.01. Frequency of copulation and forced copulation in RIR are 1.87 ± 0.01 and 1.62 ± 0.01 respectively; whereas in Vanaraja these values are 1.84 ± 0.01 and 1.63 ± 0.01. Frequency of male to male aggression does not differ significantly as the values are exactly the same in both genetic groups (2.29 ± 0.03. Frequency of male to female aggression in Vanaraja (2.64 ± 0.02 is significantly (P 0.05 more than that in RIR (2.56 ± 0.02. Frequency of waltzing pattern is seen significantly (P 0.01 more in RIR (2.10 ± 0.02 than in Vanaraja (1.95 ± 0.02. Frequency per hour of high step advance for both RIR and Vanaraja are 2.06 et al. 0.02 and 1.9 ± 0.02 respectively; Frequency per hour of steps off is seen more in RIR (2.00 ± 0.01 than that in Vanaraja (1.94 ± 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed significant effect of genetic group on steps off activity. It is concluded that RIR cocks appear to be more successful breeder. Vanaraja cocks have made more aggressive display of different patterns.

  10. Comparative analysis of articulated and behavioural social networks in a social news sharing website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Gonzalez, Gustavo; Ruiz De Querol, Ricard; Volkovich, Yana

    2011-12-01

    This study analyses and contrasts the explicit (articulated) and implicit (behavioural) social networks on the Spanish Digg-like social news website meneame.net. The explicit network is given in the form of declared but not necessarily bidirectional friendship links; the behavioural network is extracted from conversations through comments to the shared links. These two directed social networks and their intersection are analysed and described in detail, which leads to some important conclusions about user behaviour on link sharing websites and online conversation habits in general. We find that reply interactions are more likely to occur between non-friends and that these interactions are (if bidirectional) also more balanced in the case of non-friends. A k-core decomposition of the networks reveals a fundamental difference in the practice of establishing behavioural and articulated links.

  11. On the Complexity and Behaviour of Cryptocurrencies Compared to Other Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Wilson-Nunn; Hector Zenil

    2014-01-01

    We show that the behaviour of Bitcoin has interesting similarities to stock and precious metal markets, such as gold and silver. We report that whilst Litecoin, the second largest cryptocurrency, closely follows Bitcoin's behaviour, it does not show all the reported properties of Bitcoin. Agreements between apparently disparate complexity measures have been found, and it is shown that statistical, information-theoretic, algorithmic and fractal measures have different but interesting capabilit...

  12. Comparative heart failure profile over a 3-year period in a Romanian general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dana Pop,1 Oana Maria Penciu,1 Adela Viviana Sitar-Taut,2 Dumitru Tudor Zdrenghea11Department of Cardiology, Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2"Babes-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaBackground: Heart failure (HF has become an increasingly significant public health problem, associated with repeated hospitalizations, high costs, low quality of life, and decreased survival rate. The progress of the disease may be slowed if treatment is administered in accordance with current guidelines.Objectives: To compare the clinical profile of HF patients in a Romanian general hospital over a 3-year period.Methods and results: We studied two cohorts of patients admitted in the cardiology department of a rehabilitation hospital with a diagnosis of chronic HF New York Heart Association class II–IV. The first, in 2006, included 415 patients, 67.08 ± 10.59 years; the second, in 2009, included 500 patients, 67.31 ± 11.27 years. Considering all patients, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF was not statistically different in the two cohorts. Compared to the 2006 cohort, the 2009 female cohort had higher LVEF (60.49% ± 13.41% vs 64.42% ± 13.79%, P < 0.05, while males over 65 years of age had lower LVEF (52.75% ± 15.02% vs 54.37% ± 15.23%, P = NS. For females, the probability of having LVEF ,45% was higher in 2006 (odds ratio = 1.573. HF with preserved LVEF was more common in females, both in 2006 (78.2% vs 54.2% and 2009 (87.2% vs 57.3%. In the 2009 cohort, LVEF was higher both in young patients (59.08% ± 14.22% vs 55.35% ± 14.92% and patients ≥ than 75 years of age (62.28% ± 13.81% vs 56.79% ± 14.81% compared to the 2006 cohort. Ischemic heart disease was the main underlying cause for HF in both cohorts.Conclusion: HF appeared to have the same clinical profile over a 3-year period. Females diagnosed with HF showed higher rates of preserved LVEF.Keywords: heart

  13. Randomized and comparative study between two intra-hospital exercise programs for heart transplant patients

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    Tatiana Satie Kawauchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of two physical therapy exercise in-hospital programs in pulmonary function and functional capacity of patients in the postoperative period of heart transplantation. METHODS: Twenty-two heart transplanted patients were randomized to the control group (CG, n=11 and training group (TG, n=11. The control group conducted the exercise program adopted as routine in the institution and the training group has had a protocol consisting of 10 stages, with incremental exercises: breathing exercises, resistance training, stretching and walking. The programs began on the first day after extubation and stretched until hospital discharge. Assessed pulmonary function, distance walked in six minutes walk test (6MWT and peripheral muscle strength by one repetition maximum test (1RM. RESULTS: Similar behavior was observed between the two groups treated, with statistically significant increases between the first and second test of the following variables: FVC (59% in CG and 35.2% in TG; MIP (8.6% in CG and 53.5% in TG, MEP (28.8% in CG and 40.7% in TG and 6MWT (44.5% in CG and 31.4% in TG. There was an increase of peripheral strength by 1RM test, over time, to the muscle groups of the elbow flexors, shoulder flexors, hip abductors and knee flexors. CONCLUSION: Heart transplant patients benefit from exercise programs in hospital, regardless of the program type applied. A new training proposal did not result in superiority compared to routine programme applied. Exercise protocols provided improves in ventilatory variables and functional capacity of this population.

  14. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925

  15. Health care seeking behaviour and expenditure pattern among Scrub Typhus patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Mysore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Jayanandan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scrub typhus is one among the re-emerging infectious diseases throughout the world. Various studies conducted across India reveals that its public health importance is increasing. This study was conducted 1 To describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological profile of patients admitted with scrub typhus. 2 To assess the health care seeking behaviour of these patients. 3 To estimate the cost factors incurred in the current episode of illness. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January to December 2013 among all lab confirmed cases of scrub typhus admitted to department of medicine and pediatrics of JSS Hospital, Mysore. The study subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data regarding socio-demographic profile, epidemiological profile, disease outcome, health care seeking behaviour and cost factors incurred with current episode of illness were collected. Data entry and analysis were done with SPSS.v.22.0 using descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviations and inferential statistics like chi-square test. Results: Among 192 patients tested positive by Weil-Felix test and/or Immuno-Chromatographic Test (ICT for scrub typhus majority 105 (54.7% were males and were predominantly 135 (70.3 % from rural areas. Mostly 172(89.6% were unaware of any mite bite in the past. Majority 167 (87.0% of them had visited atleast three Health Care Facilities (HCF for treatment. The mean +/- SD total duration of illness was 15.6 +/- 4.1 days. Most 104 (54.2 % of them had suffered from illness for 11-15 days. Majority 175 (91.1% of them had recovered while 3 (1.6% of them had succumbed to the condition. The median Total direct cost, total indirect cost and overall total cost were Rs. 7500 (7000-9500, Rs. 3000 (2500-3500 and Rs. 10500 (10000-13000 respectively. Most 104 (54.2% of them spent from money borrowed from others, followed by 78 (40.6% spent Out Of Pocket (OOP. Conclusion: People from rural

  16. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  17. Proposal of a web site engagement scale and research model. Analysis of the influence of intra web site comparative behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hyder Espiñeira, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A Web site engagement scale is suggested that serves as the basis of a two part-model. The first part studies the influence of the online comparative behaviour of consumers on Web site engagement using data obtained from respondents that selected a holiday package on an online travel agency capable of remotely tracing and recording their intra-Web page and intra-Web site behaviour. The second part of the model studies the influence of Web site engagement on consequences highly relevant for on...

  18. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH SAVING BEHAVIOURS OF JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGHER SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Blinov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years we have seen declining health indexes of young people under 30, most of whom are students. In this context, the study of health saving behaviours as the main factor of strengthening the students’ health is relevant. The attitude to nutrition is of top priority. Materials and Methods The article presents the materials of the studying peculiarities of the diet of jun¬ior and senior students. The comparative analysis of these materials has been made. The students of the first and the fifth year studying at Ogarev Mordovia State University were interviewed through the random sampling method. The sampled number of the first year students was 203 and of the fifth year students – 229 (1,1 % and 1,9 % respectively. Results The main source of the information about the optimal diet for a quarter of respondents is the media, especially advertising, one-fifth of all interviewed students get information about proper diet from their family members and friends, and only 16 % of young people consult with medical professionals and specialized literature. Discussion and Conclusions The results of the study indicate that a diet of students, in most cases, fails to meet the hygienic requirements of the optimal diet, their daily ration is carbohydrate and fat one, with insufficient quantity of animal protein, shortage of vitamins and minerals. Their predilection for tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages have been revealed. Mostly the diet of students is influenced by advertising, food preferences, but not by science-based recommendations.

  19. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2015-12-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  20. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since the behaviour of casein in ice cream plasma was not known and could not be predicted and is expected to be important for the properties of ice cream, the behaviour of casein micelles in ice cream plasma and...

  1. The impact of high quality relationships on proactive behaviour at work: evidence from independently owned hospitals in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to examine the impact of high quality relationships on proactive work behaviour. Although much research exists to suggest that job context influences proactive behaviour, less is known about the role of the social context, and in particular, the role of relationships in fostering proactivity. This study examines individual perceptions of positive relational experiences on individual proactive behaviour. Work engagement and hope were proposed as mediators of the p...

  2. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Macquaire, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    International audience For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface ...

  3. Incorporating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy into a Public Health Care System: Canada and England Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Noushon Farmanara; Marchildon, Gregory P.; Amélie Quesnel-Vallée

    2016-01-01

    Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT) focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). In contrast, Canadian interventio...

  4. CUSTOMERS’ ADOPTION BEHAVIOUR IN INTERNET BANKING : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GHANA AND SWEDEN

    OpenAIRE

    Acka, Germain Kofi; Ntsiful, Samuel; Odorh, Obinna

    2010-01-01

    Internet banking has now become a global phenomenon. It is the fastest growing service that banks can offer in order to gain and retain new customers. However, the issue of adoption behaviour or pattern by final consumers seems to be a pivotal issue in the successful implementation of Internet banking which has benefited people from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from country to country. In some countries, Internet banking has proven to be very reliable, effective and efficient whilst in so...

  5. Rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bituminous mastics : a comparative analysis between physical and chemical modification

    OpenAIRE

    Shivokhin, Maxim; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Gallegos Montes, Críspulo

    2012-01-01

    Mastic, a bitumen/filler blend which naturally forms when bitumen is mixed with aggregates is the actual product used to bind coarse mineral particles in the asphalt mixtures. As a result, the characterisation of mastics is essential to improve the understanding of the response and performance of asphalt concrete pavements. On the other hand, the lack of experimental data concerning the behaviour of mastics and, above all, polymer-modified mastics has been lately claimed. In that sense, this ...

  6. Comparative studies of offices pre and post — how changing spatial configurations affect organisational behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, K.; Budgen, A.; Lonsdale, N; Turner, A; Penn, A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the way in which design interventions in an office affect everyday users, and thus shape organisational behaviour, should be high on the agenda for architects, designers and consultants alike. Surprisingly, this seems rarely to be the case. Here we aim to help close this gap by studying a variety of organisations in depth both before and after an office move from the point of view of design practice. This paper thus aims at understanding how a newly designed office is seen, used...

  7. Comparing the perspectives of managers and employees of teaching hospitals about job motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Zakaria Kiaei, Mohammad; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Recognition of career motivators and understanding of managers and employees in prioritizing them, in order to plan incentives for this understanding, can play an important role in increasing productivity and creating harmony between the goals of the organization and staff. This study was done to survey the importance of career motivating factors from perspective of employees and managers in educational hospitals of Iran. In this study 269 from a total of 1843 employees of educational hospitals in Qazvin province of Iran were selected through Quota-Random sampling and studied along with all 49 Managers. Lawrence Lindale questionnaire with 10 factors where used in order to determine motivational priorities. The results indicated that among the 10 studied motivational factors, from employees' viewpoint; "Good wages", "Good Working Conditions" and "Job Security" have the greatest roles in motivating employees. In the context of perspective agreement amongst employees and managers, the results showed 20 percent agreement. In this study, results of "Independent T" test showed a significant difference in comparison, between prioritizing employees' view and prediction of managers in the factors of "Job Security" (p = 0/031) and "Interesting Work" (p = 0/001). With respect to increase disagreement in the views of managers and employees as compared to previous studies, Managers need to pay more attention to cognition of motivational factors and make their viewpoints closer to actual motivational need of their employees. Attention to this fact can be a great help to the growth and productivity of the organization, making the organizational and individual goals closer and also keeping managers safe from execution of constant and undue motivational patterns. PMID:25363113

  8. Hospital utilization and costs for spinal cord stimulation compared with enhanced external counterpulsation for refractory angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondesson, Susanne M; Jakobsson, Ulf; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    .001). Both SCS and EECP entailed fewer days of hospitalization for coronary artery disease in the 12-month follow-up compared with the 12 months preceding treatment. Patients treated with EECP showed an association between reduced hospital admissions and an improved Canadian Cardiovascular Society...... classification class compared with 1 year before treatment. A significant reduction in cost was seen in both the SCS group (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, respectively) and the EECP group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.045, respectively) during 12 and 24 months of follow-up compared with before treatment. There were...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Features of Lung Cancer in West China Hospital in 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun YAO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. The aim of the current study is to retrospectively analyze the clinical features variation of patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma in West China Hospital Sichuan University to provide information for early detection and treatment of lung cancer. Methods We collected data of patients of permanent population in Sichuan province who diagnosed primary bronchogenic carcinoma in 2000 and 2010 in West China Hospital Sichuan University respectively for comparative analysis of reasons to visit the doctor, duration from symptom onset to visit the doctor, combined diseases, incidences of bi-primary carcinoma, family history of malignant tumor, sites of tumors, grade of differentiation, tumor staging and initial treatment modalities. Results A total of 2,167 cases (616 cases in 2000 and 1,551 cases in 2010 met inclusion criteria were retrieved for analysis. In 2010, compared with data of 2000, the rate of patients who visit the doctors because abnormalities were detected by health examination elevated remarkably (5.2% vs 16.7%, P<0.001, the duration from symptom onset to visit the doctor abridged significantly (P<0.001, patients with family history of malignant tumor increased significantly (3.9% vs 13.7%, P<0.001, the constituent ratio of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma decreased (72.3% vs 51.8%, P=0.002 accompanied with low differentiated squamous cell carcinoma increased (59.4% vs 76.7%, P=0.002. For NSCLC staging, there is a notably increase of rate of stage Ia (1.0% vs 4.5%, P< 0.001 and stage IV (30.4% vs 37.8%, P<0.001 while decrease of stage IIIa (26.6% vs 14.8%, P=0.002. For initial treatment modalities, there is markedly increased chemotherapy rate of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients (41.8% vs 63.4%, P=0.002 while remarkably increased surgery rate of stage IIIa patients (41.8% vs 63.4%, P=0.002 and decreased surgery rate of stage IV

  10. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface and on associated experimental tests (uniaxial test, plane tensile test, plane compression and tensile shearing).

  11. Comparing Tactical Behaviour of Soccer Players in 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 Small-Sided Games

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    Silva Bernardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare players’ tactical behaviour in 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 soccer small-sided games (SSGs. The sample comprised 3,482 tactical actions performed by 18 U-11 youth soccer players from a Portuguese club, in 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 SSGs. All participants played eight minutes in both situations and field size was adapted according to the number of players involved (30 m x 19.5 m for 3 vs. 3 and 60 m x 39 m for 6 vs. 6. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT was used for data collection and analyses. Descriptive analysis was conducted to verify frequencies and percentages of the variables assessed. The chi-squared (χ2 test was performed to compare the frequencies of the variables between 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 SSGs and Standardized Residuals (e were used to examine the influence of the frequency of one or more variables within 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 SSGs. Data treatment was performed through SPSS for Windows®, version 18.0. Results indicated that players displayed safer behaviours in 6 vs. 6 SSG and more aggressive behaviours in 3 vs. 3 SSG. Findings can aid coaches and teachers to develop different players’ tactical skills according to the chosen SSG (3 vs. 3 or 6 vs. 6 form.

  12. Inpatient Hospitalization Costs: A Comparative Study of Micronesians, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, and Whites in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Megan; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Yamada, Seiji; Miyamura, Jill; Sentell, Tetine

    2016-01-01

    Considerable interest exists in health care costs for the growing Micronesian population in the United States (US) due to their significant health care needs, poor average socioeconomic status, and unique immigration status, which impacts their access to public health care coverage. Using Hawai'i statewide impatient data from 2010 to 2012 for Micronesians, whites, Japanese, and Native Hawaiians (N = 162,152 hospitalizations), we compared inpatient hospital costs across racial/ethnic groups using multivariable models including age, gender, payer, residence location, and severity of illness (SOI). We also examined total inpatient hospital costs of Micronesians generally and for Medicaid specifically. Costs were estimated using standard cost-to-charge metrics overall and within nine major disease categories determined by All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups. Micronesians had higher unadjusted hospitalization costs overall and specifically within several disease categories (including infectious and heart diseases). Higher SOI in Micronesians explained some, but not all, of these higher costs. The total cost of the 3486 Micronesian hospitalizations in the three-year study period was $58.1 million and 75% was covered by Medicaid; 23% of Native Hawaiian, 3% of Japanese, and 15% of white hospitalizations costs were covered by Medicaid. These findings may be of particular interests to hospitals, Medicaid programs, and policy makers. PMID:26703685

  13. Analysis of the effects of hospitalization on fine hand functions compared to gross grip in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Zeynep Tuna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hospitalization process causes a variety of physical problems. The decrease of hand use in daily life during hospitalization brings hand dysfunction to mind in inpatients. The aim of this study is to compare the hand functions of hospitalized patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA to outpatients in detail. Methods: Grip and pinch strengths of both hospitalized patients in rheumatology service and outpatients on the routine control day were measured. In addition, 9-Hole Peg Test was performed and the disability level was determined by the Turkish version of Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ. Results: While grip strength and MHOQ scores were similar (p>0.05 in both groups, all three pinch strengths (lateral, bipod, tripod and 9HPT scores were lower (p<0.05 in hospitalized patients. Conclusion: Consequently, besides disease activity, hospitalization process also impairs fine hand functions in rheumatological patients. Evaluation of fine hand functions and appropriate rehabilitative interventions may prevent further disability in hospitalized patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 228-232

  14. Comparing the Effects of Determinants of Turnover Intentions between Taiwanese and U.S. Hospital Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cherng G.; Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2006-01-01

    This research assesses how the direct effects of career satisfaction and job satisfaction on turnover intentions and the indirect effects through organizational commitment differ between Taiwanese and U.S. hospital employees. Using data collected from 179 Taiwanese and 144 U.S. hospital employees, the test results find the following differences:…

  15. Total versus subtotal Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A comparative study in Arash Hospital

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    Samiei H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Over the past 50 years, subtotal or supracervical hysterectomy has come to be viewed as a suboptimal procedure reserved for those rare instances in which when concern over blood loss or anatomic distortion dictates limiting the extent of dissection, the aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy. "n"nMethods: The patients who were candidates for hysterectomy with benign disease, with no contraindication for laparoscopic surgery entered the study in Arash Hospital, from March 2007 to April 2009. By simple randomization 45 patients (25 for TLH and 20 for SLH were selected. Demographic Details and intra and post operative complications, were recorded by the staff and were compared between two groups."n"nResults: The average time for TLH operations look significantly longer than SLH operation (148.6±29.7 minutes; 128.5±25.64 minutes, p=0.03. Although, the hemoglobin (gr/dl drop in TLH was significantly higher than SLH (1.54 Versus 0.9, p<0.05 Blood transfusion were common in SLH (1 case Versus 3 Cases. The total length of hospital stay, was significantly shorter after SLH than TLH (3.6±1.47 day and 2.85±0.59, p=0.04. The drug requirements to

  16. Comparing image search behaviour in the ARRS GoldMiner search engine and a clinical PACS/RIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Do, Bao; Rubin, Daniel; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Information search has changed the way we manage knowledge and the ubiquity of information access has made search a frequent activity, whether via Internet search engines or increasingly via mobile devices. Medical information search is in this respect no different and much research has been devoted to analyzing the way in which physicians aim to access information. Medical image search is a much smaller domain but has gained much attention as it has different characteristics than search for text documents. While web search log files have been analysed many times to better understand user behaviour, the log files of hospital internal systems for search in a PACS/RIS (Picture Archival and Communication System, Radiology Information System) have rarely been analysed. Such a comparison between a hospital PACS/RIS search and a web system for searching images of the biomedical literature is the goal of this paper. Objectives are to identify similarities and differences in search behaviour of the two systems, which could then be used to optimize existing systems and build new search engines. Log files of the ARRS GoldMiner medical image search engine (freely accessible on the Internet) containing 222,005 queries, and log files of Stanford's internal PACS/RIS search called radTF containing 18,068 queries were analysed. Each query was preprocessed and all query terms were mapped to the RadLex (Radiology Lexicon) terminology, a comprehensive lexicon of radiology terms created and maintained by the Radiological Society of North America, so the semantic content in the queries and the links between terms could be analysed, and synonyms for the same concept could be detected. RadLex was mainly created for the use in radiology reports, to aid structured reporting and the preparation of educational material (Lanlotz, 2006) [1]. In standard medical vocabularies such as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) specific terms of radiology are often

  17. A comparative study of the effects of constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H.; Rezasefat, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Dirks, J.-H.; Eshghi, Sh.; Shafiei, A.; Mostofi, T. Mirzababaie; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although wings of insects show a large variation in morphology, they are all made from a network of irregular veins interconnected through membranous areas. Depending on their shape, size, and position, wing veins are usually divided into three different groups: longitudinal veins, cross-veins and ambient veins. The veins together with the membrane and some other elements such as spines, nodus and pterostigma can be considered as the wing's "constructional elements". In spite of rather extensive literature on dragonfly wing structure, the role of each of these elements in determining the wing's function remains mostly unknown. As this question is difficult to answer in vivo using biomechanical experiments on actual wings, this study was undertaken to reveal the effects of the constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings by applying numerical simulations. An image processing technique was used to develop 12 finite element models of the insect wings with different constructional elements. The mechanical behaviour of these models was then simulated under normal and shear stresses due to tension, bending and torsion. A free vibration analysis was also performed to determine the resonant frequencies and the mode shapes of the models. For the first time, a quantitative comparison was carried out between the mechanical effects selectively caused by different elements. Our results suggest that the complex interactions of veins, membranes and corrugations may considerably affect the dynamic deformation of the insect wings during flight.

  18. Evaluation of E-Learners Behaviour using Different Fuzzy Clustering Models: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hogo, Mofreh A

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces an evaluation methodologies for the e-learners' behaviour that will be a feedback to the decision makers in e-learning system. Learner's profile plays a crucial role in the evaluation process to improve the e-learning process performance. The work focuses on the clustering of the e-learners based on their behaviour into specific categories that represent the learner's profiles. The learners' classes named as regular, workers, casual, bad, and absent. The work may answer the question of how to return bad students to be regular ones. The work presented the use of different fuzzy clustering techniques as fuzzy c-means and kernelized fuzzy c-means to find the learners' categories and predict their profiles. The paper presents the main phases as data description, preparation, features selection, and the experiments design using different fuzzy clustering models. Analysis of the obtained results and comparison with the real world behavior of those learners proved that there is a match with per...

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEPTOPLASTY WITH OR WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: OUR EXPERIENCE IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Mylanahalli Doddarangaiah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Deflected nasal septum (DNS is the commonest septal problem in ENT practice. The most painful and unpleasant part of this procedure is during removal of nasal pack. AIM Our study aims to compare the results of septoplasty with and without post-operative nasal packing and thereby assess the necessity of nasal packing after septoplasty in terms of patient’s comfort, effectiveness at controlling the haemorrhage. METHODOLOGY In our study, 80 patients who underwent septoplasty in our institution during the period July 2014 till April 2015 were simply randomised into two groups, 1 group received post-operative packing and for the other group of 40 patients, nasal packing was not done and their symptoms assessed and compared on post-operative day 1, after 1 week and 1 month and results were analysed. The following symptoms nasal obstruction, headache, bleeding, irritation of eyes, mouth breathing, running nose, ear ache, fullness, disturbed sleep, loss of smell or taste and crusting were assessed. Patients who underwent septoplasty with turbinectomy or MMA or FESS were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 80 patients who participated in the study, predominant were males (67.5% and the predominant age group was 11-20 years. On comparing the nasal symptoms on post-operative day 1, there was significant difference between the study and control groups in the symptoms, headache, nasal obstruction, irritation/watering of eyes, mouth breathing, earache, ear fullness, disturbed sleep, loss of smell/taste, crusting, showed statistically significant difference among both the groups whereas bleeding, nasal discharge were not significant. On comparing the symptoms after one week, nasal obstruction, mouth breathing, crusting and loss of smell had statistically significant values and bleeding and irritation of eyes were not present in both the groups. After one month when the symptoms were compared, none of them were statistically significant

  20. A comparative study of burnout syndrome among health professionals in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, B O

    2003-09-01

    Burnout as a measure of stress has generated research interest in the past two decades. However, there is a dearth of research on this interesting and important phenomenon in Nigeria. This study compared burnout and its associated factors in various health professionals working at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and sixty health care providers were sampled from 5 main units: Theatre/Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Accident and Emergency (A & E), Oncology, Dentistry and General Outpatients Department (GOP), among others. Included were 104 nurses (40%), 83 doctors (31.9%), 21 pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (8.0%), 10 medical social workers (3.8%) and 42 nursing assistants (16.1%). Outcome measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Core findings indicated that nurses consistently reported higher scores on all measures of burnout: exhaustion (F = 3.60, df = 258, P burnout in Nigeria. Further empirical study is highly suggested in view of dearth of studies on the occupational health of health care providers in Nigeria.

  1. HOSPITAL BASED SURVEILLANCE OF ENTERIC PARASITES AN D COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECT IONS IN THE HOSPITAL CHILDREN WITH RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN AT KANCHEEPURAM

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    Kumudavathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are prevalent in developing countries like India and have been the important cau se of morbidity and mortality especially in children. OBJECTIVES: Estimate prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in hospital as well as in rural school children to obtain an ac curate understanding of the burden and cause of intestinal parasitic infections in Kancheepuram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2654 stool samples were collected, processed, and mic roscopically examined for intestinal parasites. 2267 were adults and remaining 387 were c hildren. In addition, 314 rural school children were also included in the study. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IPIs was estimated as 32.59% (739/2267 in hospital adults an d 55.50% (215/387 in hospital children and 56.68% (178/314 in rural school children; high prevalence rate was found among hospital children and in school children when compared to adu lts. Among the protozoans E. histolytica was the highest, followed by Giardia and among the helminths hookworm was highest followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, H ymenolepis nana and Strongoloides larvae respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasitic infections spreads due to low s tandards of personal hygiene, poor sanitation, open air defecatio n and an illiterate population, thus suggesting need for regular surveys to minimize the IPIs rate in the community.

  2. Comparative efficacy evaluation of disinfectants routinely used in hospital practice: India

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    Malkit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare practically achieved disinfection efficacy of some locally available disinfectants on surfaces and infectious microbiological hospital waste. Materials and Methods: Seven disinfectants were tested at concentrations recommended by manufacturers on rough and smooth surfaces that were contaminated experimentally by locally circulating isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, standard isolate of Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Reduction in microbial counts before and after surface disinfection was expressed as log reduction. A very heavy microbial waste load was simulated by immersing culture plates with heavy microbial growth in disinfectants. Daily, a sample of disinfectant was taken and subjected to in-use test. Results: The highest average log reduction of test microbes on the rough surface was given by DesNet (5.05 and Bacillocid special (5.02. A comparable average log reduction of test microbes on a smooth steel surface was noted (5.68, 5.67, 5.50 for Lysol, Bacillocid sp. and DesNet, respectively. In the discard jars, Bacillocid special worked satisfactorily for 4 days, DesNet for 3 days and Hi-giene Germitol for 1 day. The remainder of the disinfectants failed in the in-use test on Day 1. Phenolics, although widely used in our settings, may not be as good surface disinfectants as newer formulations like DesNet and Bacillocid special. Conclusions: Newer quaternary ammonium compounds and aldehyde formulations were found to be the best disinfectants for disinfection of heavy contamination.

  3. Electrochemical noise evaluation of anodized aluminum. Comparative study against corrosion behaviour in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt, N.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the evaluation of aluminum and anodized aluminum by electrochemical noise, as a part of the PATINA/CYTED project of the working group Nº 5. A visual examination is also made. The samples were exposed at several Ibero-American atmospheres up to 2 years of exposure. Different thickness of anodized aluminum were evaluated. The electrochemical potential noise of the 5 μm unexposed sample (pattern showed a different behaviour to that showed by the other anodized specimens. This could be due to a slower sealed of the samples of higher thickness. The same behaviour was observed on the samples exposed at the rural station El Pardo. According to the visual examination, the samples of bare aluminum and those of anodized 5 μm thickness were the most affected by pitting corrosion in the highly polluted atmospheres. A good correlation between corrosion behaviour determined by visual examination and EN was obtained.

    Como parte de las investigaciones de la Red PATINA el grupo de trabajo Nº 5 dedicó su atención al comportamiento del aluminio desnudo y anodizado con diferentes espesores en diferentes atmósferas de Iberoamérica. En el presente trabajo se presenta una evaluación de patrones de aluminio 99,5 % de pureza desnudo y anodizado con espesores de 15 y 25 μm, mediante ruido electroquímico. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con el comportamiento determinado en diferentes atmósferas durante un período de 2 años. El ruido de voltaje del patrón de 5 μm de espesor presenta un comportamiento diferente al de los restantes espesores, lo que coincide con una mayor susceptibilidad a la corrosión picadura de este primer anodizado. Se reportan también algunas diferencias en el ruido de corriente. Se concluye que mediante la utilización del ruido electroquímico es posible caracterizar el aluminio con respecto a su sensibilidad a la corrosión picadura en condiciones atmosféricas.

  4. Quality and Safety of Home ICP Monitoring Compared with In-Hospital Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Juhler, Marianne; Munch, Tina Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    , and adequacy for clinical evaluation in ICP monitoring in the home setting versus in-hospital monitoring. Methods: Patients were divided into two subgroups (home or hospital monitoring). We noted technical curve quality and clinically useful parameters for both subgroups. Results: Forty-four patients (aged 1...... evaluation of the data (p = 0.52). No clinically detectable complications were encountered in either group. Conclusion: We propose home ICP monitoring as a feasible and safe alternative to in-hospital monitoring in select cases where the patient's caregiver - with prior meticulous instructions - can......Introduction: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is usually conducted in-hospital using stationary devices. Modern mobile ICP monitoring systems present new monitoring possibilities more closely following the patients' daily life. We reviewed patient safety, quality of technical data...

  5. Investigating and profiling the leadership behaviours of Jordanian nursing leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Majd; Khasawneh, Israa

    Leadership' is a social process in which a member or members of a group influence the interpretation of events, choice of goals/outcomes, organization of work activities, motivation, abilities, power relations, and shared orientations. This study identifies leadership behaviours of Jordanian nursing leaders. A descriptive comparative design was used to collect data from four governmental and three private hospitals. Data were collected during April 2005. The total number of recruited nursing leaders was 140 with a 70% response rate. T-tests and chi-squares were performed to compare the phenomenon of interest. The mean reported leadership behaviours were slightly higher in private hospitals than those in governmental hospitals. However, more than half of the time, leaders in both types of hospitals used supportive leadership behaviours. There were significant differences between governmental and private hospitals in most demographics of the sample. Based on types of hospitals and gender, differences in leadership behaviours were advantageous for nursing leaders in private hospitals, while differences based on units and wards were advantageous for nursing leaders in governmental hospitals. In general, Jordanian nursing leaders used supportive leadership behaviours. Differences in leadership behaviours have implications for nursing practice, research, and education.

  6. The importance of early anti-social behaviour among men with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a specialist forensic psychiatry hospital unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    People with a major mental disorder are at increased risk of committing crimes, especially violent crimes, compared with the general population. Sub-groups have been identified based on age of onset of anti-social or violent behaviour. Mentally disordered offenders with early onset anti-social be...

  7. Coping styles relate to health and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Mageroy, Nils; Pallesen, Stale; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Moen, Bente E.

    2012-01-01

    Nurses exposed to high nursing stress report no health complaints as long as they have high coping abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate coping styles in relation to the health status and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses. This comparative study included a ran

  8. Program Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education Hospitality Management Programs: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Learning Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…

  9. Comparative study of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 and AISI 439 stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Claret Soares Sabioni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a comparison of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 austenitic and AISI 439 ferritic stainless steels. The oxidation experiments were performed between 850 and 950 °C, in oxygen and Ar (100 vpm H2. In most cases, it was formed a Cr2O3 protective scale, whose growth kinetics follows a parabolic law. The exception was for the the AISI 304 steel, at 950 °C, in oxygen atmosphere, which forms an iron oxide external layer. The oxidation resistance of the AISI 439 does not depend on the atmosphere. The AISI 304 has the same oxidation resistance in both atmospheres, at 850 °C, but at higher temperatures, its oxidation rate strongly increases in oxygen atmosphere. Concerning the performance of these steels under oxidation, our results show that the AISI 439 steel has higher oxidation resistance in oxidizing atmosphere, above 850 °C, while, in low pO2 atmosphere, the AISI 304 steel has higher oxidation resistance than the AISI 439, in all the temperature range investigated.

  10. Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012). Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1), 33-45.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio DeRosa

    2013-01-01

    Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five ...

  11. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, Glenn B; Anderson, Janet E; Burnett, Susan J;

    2011-01-01

    of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). DISCUSSION: the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy and practice need to address the sociology of improvement in equal measure to the science and technique of improvement...... by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how......, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy...

  12. Kids in the atrium: comparing architectural intentions and children's experiences in a pediatric hospital lobby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Annmarie; Theodore, David; Goldenberg, Ellie; McLaren, Coralee; McKeever, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The study reported here adopts an interdisciplinary focus to elicit children's views about hospital environments. Based at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, the research explores the ways in which designers and patients understand and use the eight-storey lobby, The Atrium, a monumental addition constructed in 1993. It is a public place that never closes; hundreds of children pass through the namesake atrium every day. Combining methodological approaches from architectural history and health sociology, the intentions and uses of central features of the hospital atrium are examined. Data were collected from observations, focused interviews, and textual and visual documents. We locate the contemporary atrium in a historical context of building typologies rarely connected to hospital design, such as shopping malls, hotels and airports. We link the design of these multi-storey, glass-roofed spaces to other urban experiences especially consumption as normalizing forces in the everyday lives of Canadian children. Seeking to uncover children's self-identified, self-articulated place within contemporary pediatric hospitals, we assess how the atrium--by providing important, but difficult-to-measure functions such as comfort, socialization, interface, wayfinding, contact with nature and diurnal rhythms, and respite from adjacent medicalized spaces--contributes to the well-being of young patients. We used theoretical underpinnings from architecture and humanistic geography, and participatory methods advocated by child researchers and theorists. Our findings begin to address the significant gap in understanding about the relationship between the perceptions of children and the settings where their healthcare occurs. The study also underlines children's potential to serve as agents of architectural knowledge, reporting on and recording their observations of hospital architecture with remarkable sophistication. PMID:19962223

  13. Health care policy reform: a microanalytic model for comparing hospitals in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R J; Woller, G M; Neubauer, G; Rothaemel, F T; Zelle, B

    1999-01-01

    Microcomparison, or single-component analysis, of health care systems offers a potentially better basis for reform than traditional macrocomparison analysis of aggregate elements. Using macroanalysis, available evidence shows that Germany provides cheaper but more effective hospital care than the United States. To find the causes for this outcome, we developed a microanalytic model of hospital administrators' perceptions, financial ratios, medical outcomes, and pharmaceutical costs. However, only data on pharmaceutical costs were available, and these were similar in both countries. Our significant outcome was development of a microcomparative model that gives world medical care providers new criteria for analyzing and improving cost to care ratios.

  14. Population-based versus hospital-based controls: are they comparable? Controles poblaciones frente a controles hospitalarios: ¿son comparables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ruano-Ravina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare whether there are differences among hospital and population controls. Methods: Two case-control studies were conducted on lung cancer risk factors in the Santiago de Compostela Public Health District. Whereas one used randomly chosen census-based population controls, the other used consecutive hospital controls that went to the reference hospital for non-smoking-related trivial interventions. The differences were analyzed using logistic regression. The dependent variable was type of control (hospital or population. Results: Hospital controls had a similar tobacco habit than population controls, but consumed more alcohol. For those consuming more than 50 ml daily, the risk of being a hospital control was 4.83 (95%CI: 2.55-9.14. Conclusions: There may be some differences between hospital and population-based controls, which must be taken into account in the design of case-control studies. It is necessary to ascertain whether such differences are reproduced at other geographic locations and whether they can affect estimation of exposure-disease.Objetivo: Comparar si hay diferencias entre los controles poblacionales y los hospitalarios. Métodos: Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios de casos y controles sobre factores de riesgo de cáncer de pulmón en el Área Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela. En uno de los estudios los controles fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente entre la población general, y en el otro los controles hospitalarios fueron incluidos de manera consecutiva entre los individuos que acudían al hospital por intervenciones quirúrgicas banales no relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco. Las diferencias fueron analizadas mediante regresión logística. La variable dependiente fue el tipo de control (hospitalario o poblacional. Resultados: Los controles hospitalarios y los poblacionales tenían un hábito tabáquico similar, pero los controles hospitalarios consumían más alcohol. Para los que consumían más de 50 ml

  15. Key success factors for clinical knowledge management systems: Comparing physician and hospital manager viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sho-Fang; Hsieh, Ping-Jung; Chen, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the perceptions of physicians and hospital managers regarding the key success factors (KSFs) of a clinical knowledge management system (CKMS). It aims to eliminate the perception gap and gain more insights for a successful CKMS.A survey was conducted in four medical centers in Taiwan. A total of 340 questionnaires, including 15 for hospital managers and 70 for physicians in each hospital, were administered. The effective response rates are 78.3% and 56.1% respectively. Partial least square (PLS) were used to analyze the data.The results identified six KSFs of CKMS including system software and hardware, knowledge quality, system quality, organizational factors, user satisfaction, and policy factors. User satisfaction and policy factors have direct effects on perceived CKMS performance. Knowledge quality is regarded as an antecedent to user satisfaction, while system quality is the antecedent to both user satisfaction and policy factors. System software and hardware was supported only by managers, and organizational factors were supported only by physicians.Among the factors, this study highlighted the policy factor. Besides, the study provides hospital managers additional insights into physician requirements for organizational support. Third, more physician participation and involvement are recommended when introducing and developing a CKMS. PMID:26444813

  16. A comparative study of collimation in bedside chest radiography for preterm infants in two teaching hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stollfuss

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, the only identifiable factor influencing the collimation of portable chest radiographs in preterm infants was the radiographer’s dedication and awareness. There were no apparent differences between the hospitals investigated. Exposure of non-thoracic structures was relatively frequent and mainly involved the proximal humeri.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Community Acquired and Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    P R, Vysakh; M, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital.

  18. Examining the Relationships among Antecedents of Guests’ Behavioural Intentions in Ghana’s Hospitality Industry: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gyasi Nimako; Anthony Freeman Mensah

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically examines the critical antecedents of behavioural intentions and the structural interrelationships that exist among the antecedents in the hotel industry in Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 700 respondents using structured questionnaire personally administered. A usable 359 questionnaire were obtained, representing 51.3% response rate and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling approach. The findings indicate that the proposed model has high goodness...

  19. Care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes for symptomatic giardiasis in children attending an academic paediatric hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, Angel A.; Almirall, Pedro; Ávila, Ivonne; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. In order to determine care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes in paediatric in-patients with giardiasis, structured questionnaires were administered by interview mothers of children with giardiasis during January to December 2010. During the study period, 97 children were diagnosed with giardiasis, of whom 86 (88.6%) caregivers were interviewed. The median number of days from symptoms onset to the first presen...

  20. Comparative analysis of current payment system for hospital services in Serbia and projected payments under diagnostic related groups system in urology

    OpenAIRE

    Babić Uroš; Soldatović Ivan; Vuković Dejana; Šantrić-Milićević Milena; Stjepanović Mihailo; Kojić Dejan; Argirović Aleksandar; Vukotić Vinka

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Global budget per calendar year is a traditional method of funding hospitals in Serbia. Diagnose related groups (DGR) is a method of hospital payment based on classification of patients into groups with clinically similar problems and similar utilization of hospital resources. The aim of this study was to compare current methods of hospital services payment with the projected costs by DRG payment method in urology. Methods. The data were obt...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Pain Behaviours in Humanized Mouse Models of Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianxun; Benson, Barbara; Tran, Huy; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a hallmark feature of sickle cell anemia (SCA) but management of chronic as well as acute pain remains a major challenge. Mouse models of SCA are essential to examine the mechanisms of pain and develop novel therapeutics. To facilitate this effort, we compared humanized homozygous BERK and Townes sickle mice for the effect of gender and age on pain behaviors. Similar to previously characterized BERK sickle mice, Townes sickle mice show more mechanical, thermal, and deep tissue hyperalgesia with increasing age. Female Townes sickle mice demonstrate more hyperalgesia compared to males similar to that reported for BERK mice and patients with SCA. Mechanical, thermal and deep tissue hyperalgesia increased further after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment in Townes sickle mice. Together, these data show BERK sickle mice exhibit a significantly greater degree of hyperalgesia for all behavioral measures as compared to gender- and age-matched Townes sickle mice. However, the genetically distinct "knock-in" strategy of human α and β transgene insertion in Townes mice as compared to BERK mice, may provide relative advantage for further genetic manipulations to examine specific mechanisms of pain. PMID:27494522

  2. Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters. PMID:24915753

  3. Contrasting behaviour of trace metals in the Scheldt estuary in 1978 compared to recent years

    OpenAIRE

    Nolting, R.F.; Helder, W.; De Baar, H. J. W.; Gerringa, L.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn) measured at six stations along the Scheldt estuary in October/November 1978 are compared with more recent data. Based on Ca content in the suspended matter, three distinct geochemical regions could be distinguished: the upper estuary (salinity 1–7) dominated by fluvial mud, mid-estuary (salinity 7–17) where the composition of the suspended matter remained relatively constant, and the lower estuary where marine mud prevaile...

  4. Comparative study of oxalic and malonic acid behaviour in the chemical cleaning of alloy 800 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consisted, in a first stage, on a basic study of the dissolution mechanism of nickel ferrite in aqueous malonic acid. Powdered oxides (NixFe3-xO4) were synthesized by wet procedures and heated at 750 C degrees. These oxides were characterized by conventional methods and dissolved under different experimental conditions (pH, reagent concentration, temperature, etc.) in order to determine the dissolution rates. Optimal dissolution conditions were explored and compared to the corresponding oxalic acid ones. In a second stage, these conditions were applied to oxides grown on Alloy 800 coupons. Before oxidation, all coupons were ground polished and then were exposed to hydrothermal conditions (350 C degrees, pH25Cdegrees≅ 10.4 -LiOH-, 20-22 days) in static autoclaves. Finally, oxidized and unoxidized coupons were treated with chemical solutions containing oxalic or malonic acid at conditions optimized in the first stage. These results were also compared to those obtained on coupons exposed to a commercial formulation, APAC (Alkaline Permanganate Ammonium Citrate), as a reference. The results on coupon descaling using APMAL (AP + Malonic), APOX (AP + oxalic) and the comparison with APAC leads to conclude that malonic acid is a reagent whose chemical behavior is much better than oxalic acid and comparable to commercial formulations. (author)

  5. Estudo comparativo das indicações de cesariana entre um hospital público-universitário e um hospital privado Comparative study of cesarean section indications between a public university hospital and a private hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Humberto Fabri; Helder de Souza Lima e Silva; Rodrigo Vaz de Lima; Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: analisar a incidência e as indicações de cesariana realizadas no Hospital Escola da Falculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro e um hospital privado, ambos localizados em Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: trata-se de estudo transversal desenvolvido a partir da coleta nos prontuários dos hospitais, consistindo da idade, procedência, situação conjugal, escolaridade, paridade e indicações de cesariana. RESULTADOS: a incidência de cesariana foi de 24,3% no Hospital Escola contra...

  6. Comparing the Perspectives of Managers and Employees of Teaching Hospitals About Job Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of career motivators and understanding of managers and employees in prioritizing them, in order to plan incentives for this understanding, can play an important role in increasing productivity and creating harmony between the goals of the organization and staff. This study was done to survey the importance of career motivating factors from perspective of employees and managers in educational hospitals of Iran. In this study 269 from a total of 1843 employees of educational hospita...

  7. Comparative Molecular Analysis of Community- or Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Fey, P. D.; Saïd-Salim, B.; Rupp, M. E.; Hinrichs, S H; Boxrud, D. J.; Davis, C C; Kreiswirth, B N; Schlievert, P M

    2003-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a growing public health concern that has been associated with pediatric fatalities. It is hypothesized that the evolution of CA-MRSA is a recent event due to the acquisition of mec DNA by previously methicillin-susceptible strains that circulated in the community. This study investigated the genetic relatedness between CA-MRSA, hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (nmTSS) isolates....

  8. Is quality of colorectal cancer care good enough? Core measures development and its application for comparing hospitals in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Skye H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although performance measurement for assessing care quality is an emerging area, a system for measuring the quality of cancer care at the hospital level has not been well developed. The purpose of this study was to develop organization-based core measures for colorectal cancer patient care and apply these measures to compare hospital performance. Methods The development of core measures for colorectal cancer has undergone three stages including a modified Delphi method. The study sample originated from 2004 data in the Taiwan Cancer Database, a national cancer data registry. Eighteen hospitals and 5585 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients were enrolled in this study. We used indicator-based and case-based approaches to examine adherences simultaneously. Results The final core measure set included seventeen indicators (1 pre-treatment, 11 treatment-related and 5 monitoring-related. There were data available for ten indicators. Indicator-based adherence possesses more meaningful application than case-based adherence for hospital comparisons. Mean adherence was 85.8% (79.8% to 91% for indicator-based and 82.8% (77.6% to 88.9% for case-based approaches. Hospitals performed well (>90% for five out of eleven indicators. Still, the performance across hospitals varied for many indicators. The best and poorest system performance was reflected in indicators T5-negative surgical margin (99.3%, 97.2% - 100.0% and T7-lymph nodes harvest more than twelve(62.7%, 27.6% - 92.2%, both of which related to surgical specimens. Conclusions In this nationwide study, quality of colorectal cancer care still shows room for improvement. These preliminary results indicate that core measures for cancer can be developed systematically and applied for internal quality improvement.

  9. Disinfectant and antibiotic activities: a comparative analysis in Brazilian hospital bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Márcia Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. It has been shown that appropriate environmental hygienic and disinfection practices can be very helpful to hospital infection control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of some disinfectants against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant hospital bacterial isolates. The susceptibility of 27 clinical isolates to disinfectants and antibiotics was determined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist?s (AOAC Use-Dilution method and by the Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. All strains tested were susceptible to sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde and to the association quaternary ammonium - formaldehyde - ethyl alcohol disinfectants. However, the susceptibility of strains to phenol and to one quaternary ammonium compound was variable. Among twenty-one antibiotic-multiresistant strains (methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli eleven (52% and eight (38% strains were resistant to the quaternary ammonium and phenol compounds, respectively. Among six isolates that demonstrated susceptibility to antibiotics (staphylococci, Enterococcus spp, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae and E. coli two strains (33% showed resistance to these disinfectants. The results demonstrated the lack of correlation between antibiotic-susceptibility and susceptibility to disinfectants in hospital strains.

  10. Family and non-family business behaviour in foreign markets: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO QUER RAMÓN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During last decades a great number of companies and industries have increased their global orientation. For this reason, the internationalisation process has also had to be realized by family businesses as an instrument for expansion and growth. In this sense, we pay special attention to the comparison between family and non-family companies with the purpose of examining those differences or similarities between these two groups of firms attending to their international activity. From this comparative study, we will be able to establish a reference framework, for a later more in depth study of this phenomenon, in the case of family businesses.

  11. Health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele;

    2015-01-01

    for inclusion. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol...... and physical inactivity. We suggest that alcohol interventions should be population based rather than based on the specific needs of deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed on fruit and vegetable consumption. In future studies, the lack of a uniform operationalisation of neighbourhood deprivation must...

  12. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute MI does not prevent in-hospital development of cardiogenic shock compared to fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Matias G; Boesgaard, Søren; Thune, Jens Jakob;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been speculated that invasive revascularization prevents development of cardiogenic shock. Data from randomised trials comparing angioplasty with fibrinolysis on the development of cardiogenic shock are lacking. AIMS: To elucidate the effect of angioplasty on in......-hospital development of cardiogenic shock compared to fibrinolysis. To evaluate whether mortality in patients who develop cardiogenic shock after treatment is dependent on revascularization strategy. METHODS AND RESULTS: DANAMI-2 randomly assigned 1572 STEMI patients to fibrinolysis (782 patients) or angioplasty (790...... patients). Data on patients with in-hospital development of cardiogenic shock after randomisation were included. Of the 103 patients (6.6%) patients developing cardiogenic shock 57% were randomised to angioplasty with an unadjusted odds ratio of 1.39 (0.92-2.11, p=0.14). During the three year follow-up 58...

  13. Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012. Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1, 33-45.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio DeRosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five parts: general information (including gender, age, education, position, and professional experience; questions on computer and Internet accessibility; questions regarding individual information needs; questions on information-seeking obstacles; and a question regarding the satisfaction with the current degree of information availability in the hospital. The last question was ranked using a 5-point Likert scale. Each questionnaire was distributed with a cover letter explaining the anonymity and consent of the respondent. Hospital members were randomly selected using a number generator and respondents returned completed surveys to the hospital personnel office in a sealed envelope within a specified time frame. The sampled group was representative of the overall population of the hospital.Main Results – The authors discuss demographic data of respondents: 65.7% were women; 56.7% were over 40 years old; 29.0% were graduates of higher technological institutes; 28.3% were university graduates; 9.7% held a postgraduate degree; 8.3% had a PhD; and 1.4% had only secondary education. As for the remainder of the survey questions: 64% of respondents had access to the Internet both at home and at work, while only 8.2% had no access to the Internet at all; most respondents noted using the Internet for seeking scientific information (83.0% and e-mail communication (65.3%; the main obstacle respondents noted experiencing when seeking information was the lack of

  14. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-01

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 9/1/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 9/1/2011.

  15. A comparative behavioural study of mechanical hypersensitivity in 2 pain models in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marie-Céline; Hrncic, Dragan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Caspani, Ombretta

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of pain sensitivity in humans has been standardized using quantitative sensory testing, whereas in animals mostly paw withdrawal thresholds to diverse stimuli are measured. This study directly compares tests used in quantitative sensory testing (pinpricks, pressure algometer) with tests used in animal studies (electronic von Frey test: evF), which we applied to the dorsal hind limbs of humans after high frequency stimulation and rats after tibial nerve transection. Both experimental models induce profound mechanical hypersensitivity. At baseline, humans and rats showed a similar sensitivity to evF with 0.2 mm diameter tips, but significant differences for other test stimuli (all P positive sensory sign after peripheral nerve injury in humans-is a novel finding in the tibial nerve transection model. By testing outside the primary zone of nerve damage (rat) or activation (humans), our methods likely involve effects of central sensitization in both species. PMID:26859819

  16. Nutritional screening tools application in a general hospital: a comparative study Aplicação de instrumentos de triagem nutricional em hospital geral: um estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Damasceno Bezerra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many nutritional screening tools and it becomes difficult to choose which one is the best to be used in clinical nutrition practice. Objective: To compare five nutritional screening tools (MST, NRS-2002, MUST, MNA and MNA-SF in adults and elderly hospitalized. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, with the application of nutritional screening tools in adult and elderly patients in the first 48 hours of hospitalization was performed. Nutritional risk occurrence between adult and elderly patients was compared. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive data and a non-parametric test (Man Whitney. Results: We evaluated 77 patients, 51 (66.2% adults and 26 (33.8% elderly, aged 53.6 (standard deviation of 17.9 years, with female predominance (53.2%. The main reasons for hospitalization were neoplasia and nephrolithotripsy. Overall, one quarter of patients was at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk in adults was detected with similarity by MUST and MST. However it was underestimated by NRS-2002. The MNA and MNA-SF, exclusively for the elderly, also had similar result to detect nutritional risk. In relation to the time of application, the MNA was the instrument with longer application time. Conclusion: Considering the higher detection of patients with nutritional risk, the easiness and the lower application time, we suggest, respectively, MUST and MNA-SF to be used in adult and elderly patients admitted in this hospital.Introdução: Com inúmeros instrumentos de triagem nutricional existentes, é difícil eleger o mais adequado para os protocolos de nutrição hospitalar. Objetivo: Comparar cinco instrumentos de triagem nutricional (MST, NRS-2002, MUST, MNA e MNA-SF em adultos e idosos hospitalizados. Materiais e Métodos: Nesse estudo transversal, cinco instrumentos de triagem nutricional foram aplicados aos pacientes nas primeiras 48 horas de internação hospitalar. A ocorrência de risco nutricional

  17. A comparative study on the medical waste disposal in some hospitals in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Gihan; El-Zarka, Eman M A

    2005-01-01

    Though healthcare services aim to reduce the health problems and prevent the potential risks to the health of the community. These services create wastes which are considered as hazardous materials due to the higher potential of infection and injury possessed by these wastes than any other type of waste. Healthcare waste management is an integral part of healthcare services, and can create harm through inadequate waste management; thus reducing the overall benefits provided by healthcare centers. In the current study, a survey for medical waste disposal was performed in order to examine the current status of medical waste disposal in some hospitals in Alexandria and to properly assess management of this type of hazardous waste. A questionnaire was designed for hospitals to assess the quantity of medical waste, collection, sorting, storage, transportation and way of final disposal. From the total waste generated by healthcare activities, almost 80% are waste similar to domestic waste. The remaining approximate of 20% is considered as hazardous waste. As Alexandria has about 3911 healthcare facilities providing medical services for people, a huge amount of medical waste are generated daily with about 208 tons generated per month. The results revealed that the most common problems associated with healthcare wastes are the absence of waste management, lack of awareness about their health hazards, insufficient financial and human resources for proper management, and poor control of waste disposal. The current situation of medical waste disposal in Alexandria is depending on incinerators. Some of these incinerators are not working anymore. Incinerations as a system is not accepted at the time being in most developed countries due to the risks associated with it and suitable substitution management system for medical waste disposal is now taking its place.

  18. Do they accept compulsory vaccination? Awareness, attitudes and behaviour of hospital health care workers following a new vaccination directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Holly; Leask, Julie; Macintyre, C Raina

    2009-05-18

    Achieving high vaccination rates among health care workers (HCW) is an ongoing challenge. In 2007, the state of New South Wales, Australia instituted a policy directive with compulsory provisions for health care workers to be vaccinated. This study sought to identify staff awareness and attitudes in the early phase of implementation. It involved a self-completed paper-based or electronic survey of HCWs in two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia in 2007. A total of 894/1200 completed the paper survey, whilst a further 185 completed it online. Of the 1079 respondents, 60% (646/1079) were aware of the policy directive but only 10% (63/646) described the specific requirements. Seventy-eight per cent supported the policy; 13% neither supported nor opposed it; and 4% opposed it. This survey provides an early, broad indication of the level of understanding and the attitudes of the HCWs towards the new directive.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Biomechanical Behaviour of Two Cementless Short Stems for Hip Replacement: Linea Anatomic and Minihip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gabarre

    Full Text Available A comparative study between two stems (Linea Anatomic and Minihip has been performed in order to analyse the differences in their biomechanical behaviour, concerning stem micromotions and load transmission between stem and bone. From the corresponding finite element models, a parametric study was carried out to quantify ranges of micromotions taking into account: friction coefficient in the stem-bone interface, press-fit and two types of gait cycle. Micromotions were evaluated for each stem at six different levels along repeated gait cycles. An initial and marked stem subsidence at the beginning of the simulation was observed, followed by an asymptotic decrease due to friction forces. Once migration occurs, a repeated reversible cyclic micromotion is developed and stabilized as gait cycle times are simulated. The general motion pattern exhibited higher amplitude of micromotion for Minihip compared to Linea stem. The load transmission mechanism was analyzed, identifying the main internal forces. The results show higher local forces for Minihip stem up to 80% greater than for Linea stem. The differences of design between Minihip and Linea conditioned different distributions of load, influencing the posterior stress-shielding. Consequently, short stems require high bone stock and quality should, being indicated for young patients with high bone quality.

  20. Collective self and individual choice : The effects of inter-group comparative context on environmental values and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A.; Postmes, Tom; Verplanken, Bas

    2012-01-01

    Self-categorization theory suggests that inter-group comparisons inform individual behaviour by affecting perceived in-group stereotypes that are internalized by group members. The present paper provides evidence for this chain of effects in the domain of environmental behaviour. In two studies, int

  1. Socioeconomic inequality and road traffic accidents in Thailand: comparing cases treated in government hospitals inside and outside of Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongchaitrakul, Teerachai; Juntakarn, Chantip; Prasartritha, Thavat

    2012-05-01

    The study aims to report annual demographic characteristics and to compare the differences of socioeconomic inequality, type of motor vehicles, and seating relating to major bone injuries among hospitals in and outside Bangkok. Six public hospitals in Bangkok and six regional hospitals in the provinces were studied over a one year period (2008-2009). There were 3,650 cases: 3,596 injured patients and 54 deaths. Patients with a lower education level accounted for the largest number of cases, both in the provinces (46.3%) and Bangkok (17.1%). Their incomes were less than THB 10,000/yearly. Total number of motorcycle cases (3,360) was higher (11.6:1) than 290 cases of motor vehicles. Pickup cars were used more commonly. Riding a motorcycle was likely to be fatal. The front seat was the most common involvement. Passengers occupying the middle and rear seat of the motorcycle were involved in 16.0% and 1.0% cases, respectively. Long bone and joints were the most common injuries. The results strongly confirmed the striking contribution of motorcycles and pickups to road traffic accidents. People with a low educational level, in conjunction with low income, and in areas outside of Bangkok were more at risk. Specific education on road safety should be delivered, preferably in primary schools. PMID:23077859

  2. THE TYPES OF COPING BEHAVIOUR OF MOTHERS OF INFANTS (1-12 MONTHS OLD WITH CHD HOSPITALIZED FOR SURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Georgievna Kiseleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing role of psycho-social rehabilitation in the world and domestic medicine enhances the interest to the problems of psychological adaptation and coping with the situation of hard disease. The advanced methods of surgical treatment of congenital heart defects (CHD and improved post-operation care have reduced significantly the death-rate from CHD, but have raised the necessity to study the role of psychological factors in the perioperative period of children with CHD and adaptation of their parents to the hard situation of surgical treatment because of the death-related risk. The influence of mother’s emotional state on psychological well-being of the child is especially great during the first year of the child’s life. Many researches show that mother’s depression has a negative impact on the cognitive and emotional development of the infant. [1]. The aim of our research is to study the emotional state (level of depression and anxiety, attitude towards the CHD etc. and the types of coping behavior of mothers of hospitalized infants with CHD in the period of surgical treatment. We have shown that mother’s depression has negative impact on mother-infant interaction and aggravates the retardation in physical and mental development of infants. We have identified the main types of coping strategies of mothers of infants with CHD having surgical treatment: acceptance, planning, and active coping.

  3. Acinetobacter infections prevalence and frequency of the antibiotics resistance: comparative study of intensive care units versus other hospital units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Frikh, Mohammed; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Bssaibis, Fatna; Belefquih, Bouchra; Maleb, Adil; Dahraoui, Souhail; Belyamani, Lahcen; Bait, Abdelouahed; Haimeur, Charki; Louzi, Lhoussain; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to determine the Acinetobacter sp clinical isolates frequency and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern by comparing results obtained from the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) to that of other units at the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital in Rabat. Methods This is a retrospective study over a 2-years period where we collected all clinical isolates of Acinetobacter sp obtained from samples for infection diagnosis performed on hospitalized patients between 2012 to 2014. Results During the study period, 441 clinical and non-repetitive isolates of Acinetobacter sp were collected representing 6.94% of all bacterial clinical isolates (n = 6352) and 9.6% of Gram negative rods (n = 4569). More than a half of the isolates were from the ICUs and were obtained from 293 infected patients of which 65, 2% (191 cases) were males (sex ratio = 1.9) and the median age was 56 years (interquartile range: 42-68 years). Acinetobacter clinical isolates were obtained from respiratory samples (44.67%) followed by blood cultures (14.51%). The resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin / tazobactam, imipenem, amikacin, tobramycin, netilmicin, rifampicin and colistin was respectively 87%, 86%, 79%, 76%; 52%, 43%, 33% 32% and 1.7%. The difference in resistance between the ICUs and the other units was statistically significant (p <0.05) except for colistin, tetracycline and rifampicin. Conclusion This paper shows that solving the problem of prevalence and high rate of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter infection which represents a therapeutic impasse, requires the control of the hospital environment and optimizing hands hygiene and antibiotics use in the hospital. PMID:27347280

  4. The correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style(s) in hospitality leaders: A comparative study between Macedonia and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Jancheva, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this mixed method study was to investigate the correlation between emotional intelligence and the leadership style(s) of the hospitality leaders both in Macedonia and in Norway. A number of five hotels were a part of this study as separate case studies (360 degrees overview was made in each one of the hotels using EI instrument and MLQ) and the results were compared to see whether there are gender, background, and social differences in the profiles of the managers. The study has “p...

  5. Cigarette purchasing behaviour in Thailand and Malaysia: comparative analysis of a semi-monopolistic and a free-market structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H; Driezen, P; Sirirassamee, B; Kin, F

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of cigarette prices can undermine the impact of tobacco tax policy when smokers switch to cheaper cigarettes instead of quitting. In order to better understand this behaviour, we study socio-economic determinants of price/brand choices in two different markets: a semi-monopolistic market in Thailand and a competitive market in Malaysia. The hypothesis that the factors affecting the price/brand choice are different in these two markets is analysed by employing a 2005 survey among smokers. This survey provides a unique perspective on market characteristics usually described only in business reports by the tobacco industry. We found that smokers in Thailand have fewer opportunities to trade down to save money on cigarettes, but pay lower prices than smokers in Malaysia, despite Thailand's higher tax rate. The Malaysian market, on the other hand, offers many possibilities to shop around for cheaper cigarettes. Higher income and education increase the price paid per cigarette in both countries, but the impact of these factors is larger in Malaysia. This has implications for sensitivity to cigarette prices. Using tax policy alone should be a more effective tobacco control measure in Thailand as compared to Malaysia. The effectiveness of a tax increase in Malaysia can be improved by adding programmes focusing on smoking cessation among low-income/low-educated smokers.

  6. Do law students stand apart from other university students in their quest for mental health: A comparative study on wellbeing and associated behaviours in law and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    2015-01-01

    We are not producing a product, but a well-balanced person.(1) It is well-documented that law students experience higher levels of psychological distress than members of the general population and university students in other professional disciplines. In 2014, we published our findings on an empirical study identifying the correlations between law student wellbeing and student behaviour both at and away from law school. The results of the study informed the development of an evidence-based 'behavioural toolkit' to assist law students and law schools in making informed choices and decisions that promote and even improve the mental health of students. The study we undertook was not, however, limited to law students. It extended to collecting quantitative data on psychological distress and associated behaviours in psychology students. This article reports on the comparative findings of the study and provides a comparative basis for understanding the contextual influences on the wellbeing of law students.

  7. "Will they just pack up and leave?" – attitudes and intended behaviour of hospital health care workers during an influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Kieren

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a general consensus that another influenza pandemic is inevitable. Although health care workers (HCWs are essential to the health system response, there are few studies exploring HCW attitudes to pandemic influenza. The aim of this study was to explore HCWs knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviour towards pandemic influenza. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of a convenience sample of clinical and non-clinical HCWs from two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia was conducted between June 4 and October 19, 2007. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to hospital personal from 40 different wards and departments. The main outcome measures were intentions regarding work attendance and quarantine, antiviral use and perceived preparation. Results Respondents were categorized into four main groups by occupation: Nursing (47.5%, Medical (26.0%, Allied (15.3% and Ancillary (11.2%. Our study found that most HCWs perceived pandemic influenza to be very serious (80.9%, n = 873 but less than half were able to correctly define it (43.9%, n = 473. Only 24.8% of respondents believed their department to be prepared for a pandemic, but nonetheless most were willing to work during a pandemic if a patient or colleague had influenza. The main determinants of variation in our study were occupational factors, demographics and health beliefs. Non-clinical staff were significantly most likely to be unsure of their intentions (OR 1.43, p Conclusion We identified two issues that could undermine the best of pandemic plans – the first, a low level of confidence in antivirals as an effective measure; secondly, that non-clinical workers are an overlooked group whose lack of knowledge and awareness could undermine pandemic plans. Other issues included a high level of confidence in dietary measures to protect against influenza, and a belief among ancillary workers that antibiotics would be protective. All

  8. Multicentre survey of the comparative in-vitro activity of piperacillin/tazobactam against bacteria from hospitalized patients in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Y; Bonfiglio, G; Allen, M; Piper, D; Edwardson, T; McVey, D; Livermore, D M

    1993-08-01

    Twenty-nine British and Irish hospitals each collected up to 300 bacterial isolates from in-patients. The organisms were identified by an appropriate API system or, for staphylococci, by their Gram and coagulase reactions. Disc susceptibility tests were performed. Isolates that gave zones spp. streptococci, pneumococci and Enterococcus faecalis were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam (defined as giving a zone > or = 22 mm to a 75 micrograms + 10 micrograms disc), as were 86% of Acinetobacter spp. and 82% of the Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Morganella and Serratia group. Tazobactam particularly extended the activity of piperacillin against E. coli isolates (96% susceptible cf. 61% to piperacillin alone) klebsiellae (95% cf. 70%), P. mirabilis (99% cf. 86%), and Acinetobacter spp. (86% cf. 53%). Occasional (18%) resistance in Enterobacter, Serratia and Citrobacger spp. was probably caused by stable depression of Class I beta-lactamases, which are inhibited poorly by tazobactam. High resistance frequencies (> 25%) were found for Enterococcus faecium and Xanthomonas maltophilia. Tazobactam potentiated piperacillin against beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, but the mode inhibition zone of piperacillin/tazobactam discs was only 26 mm, compared to 38 mm for beta-lactamase-negative isolates. Nevertheless, fewer than 5% of the enzyme producers appeared resistant to 8 + 4 mg/L piperacillin/tazobactam in MIC tests. Similar behaviour was noted for coagulase-negative staphylococci. Amongst the eleven comparator drugs, ceftazidime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were as active as piperacillin/tazobactam against most enterobacteria. However, Acinetobacter and Bacteroides spp. and enterococci were resistant to ceftazidime, and Bacteroides spp., enterococci, pneumococci and other streptococci were inherently resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Cefuroxime, ampicillin and co-amoxiclav had narrower spectra. Only imipenem showed a

  9. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels…

  10. Effects of cancer rehabilitation on problem-solving, anxiety and depression : A RCT comparing physical and cognitive-behavioural training versus physical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstjens, Irene; Mesters, Ilse; May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; van den Hout, Johanna H. C.; Ros, Wynand; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van den Borne, Bart

    2011-01-01

    We tested the effects on problem-solving, anxiety and depression of 12-week group-based self-management cancer rehabilitation, combining comprehensive physical training (PT) and cognitive-behavioural problem-solving training (CBT), compared with PT. We expected that PT + CBT would outperform PT in i

  11. A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY ON LIPID PROFILE IN SMOKERS AND NON SMOKERS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the environmental factors which can alter normal lipid profile. It is one of the major risk fa ctors in the genesis of coronary atherosclerosis and development of coronary heart disease. AIMS: To evaluate and compare the lipid profile in both groups and to evaluate the existence of dose de pendent relationship and durational significance between smoking and lipid profile among smokers. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Out of 100 apparently healthy male subjects of age group 21-4 0yrs, 50 were smokers and 50 were non smokers. All the subjects were non alcoholic, non – obese, normotensives and from same socioeconomic status. Subjects who smoke more than equal 10 cigarettes for more than 2 years were considered as smokers group. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The subjects were asked to fast overnight and early morning blood samples colle cted and analyzed for lipid profile by appropriate methods. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The student’s unpaired “t” test was used for statistical analysis. P-value of < 0.05 or P va lue <0.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In our study we found serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL w ere higher in smokers as compared to non smokers and the serum HDL level was significantly decreased in smokers compared to non smokers showing greater risk of thes e persons to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Conclusions: - We conclude our study with the obser vation that smoking causes alteration in lipid profile. Increased amount and duration of smok ing causes more dyslipidaemia .This alteration in serum lipid levels increases risk for coronary artery disease.

  12. Accuracy of self-reports of mental health care utilization and calculated costs compared to hospital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sven; Deister, Arno; Birker, Thomas; Hierholzer, Cornelia; Weigelt, Ina; Zeichner, Dirk; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Roick, Christiane; König, Hans-Helmut

    2011-01-30

    Assessments of service utilization is often based on self-reports. Concerns regarding the accuracy of self-reports are raised especially in mental health care. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of self-reports and calculated costs of mental health services. In a prospective cohort study in Germany, self-reports regarding psychiatric inpatient and day-care use collected by telephone interviews based on the Client Socio-Demographic and Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI) as well as calculated costs were compared to computerized hospital records. The sample consisted of patients with mental and behavioral disorders resulting from alcohol (ICD-10 F10, n=84), schizophrenia, schizophrenic and delusional disturbances (F2, n=122) and affective disorders (F3, n=124). Agreement was assessed using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean difference (95% confidence intervals (CI)) and the 95% limits of agreement. Predictors for disagreement were derived. Overall agreement of mean total costs was excellent (CCC=0.8432). Costs calculated based on self-reports were higher than costs calculated based on hospital records (15 EUR (95% CI -434 to 405)). Overall agreement of total costs for F2 patients was CCC=0.8651, for F3 CCC=0.7850 and for F10 CCC=0.6180. Depending on type of service, measure of service utilization and costs agreement ranged from excellent to poor and varied substantially between individuals. The number of admissions documented in hospital records was significantly associated with disagreement. Telephone interviews can be an accurate data collection method for calculating mean total costs in mental health care. In the future more standardization is needed.

  13. [Hospital day-surgery: comparative evaluation of 3 general anesthesia techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A E; Lo Sapio, D; Oliva, O; Vitale, O; Ebano, A

    1995-06-01

    For the voluntary interruption of pregnancy, three anaesthetic techniques have been compared being a random assigned to three groups of 40 patients. Induction of anaesthesia was based on fentanyl 0.005 mg/kg+midazolam 0.2 mg/kg or fentanyl 0.005 mg/kg = propofol 2.5 mg/kg or ketamina 0.5 mg/kg+propofol 2.0 mg/kg. Anaesthesia was maintained delivering in spontaneous-assisted ventilation N2O 70% in O2. In addition to the intraoperative conditions, quality and rapidity of some neurofunctional aspects of the recovery have been evaluated using the Steward Score and the Coin Counting Test respectively. Our data suggest fentanyl-propofol association as the safest one as regards the needs of one-day surgery.

  14. Utilization of In-Hospital Care among Foreign-Born Compared to Native Swedes 1987–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Albin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous longitudinal studies of mortality and morbidity among foreign-born and native-born Swedes, increased mortality and dissimilarities in mortality pattern were found. The aim of this study is to describe, compare, and analyse the utilization of in-hospital care among deceased foreign- and Swedish-born persons during the years 1987–1999 with focus on four diagnostic categories. The study population consisted of 361,974 foreign-born persons aged 16 years and upward who were registered as living in Sweden in 1970, together with 361,974 matched Swedish controls for each person. Data from Statistics Sweden (SCB and the National Board of Health and Welfare Centre for Epidemiology, covering the period 1970–1999, was used. Persons were selected if they were admitted to hospital during 1987–1999 and the cause of death was in one of four ICD groups. The results indicate a tendency towards less health care utilization among migrants, especially men, as regards Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions and Injury and poisoning. Further studies are needed to explore the possible explanations and the pattern of other diseases to see whether migrants, and especially migrant men, are a risk group with less utilization of health care.

  15. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses of hospital-based home care compared to hospital-based care for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes; a randomised controlled trial; results after two years’ follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberg, Irén; Lindgren, Björn; Carlsson, Annelie; Hallström, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Background Practices regarding hospitalisation of children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes vary both within countries and internationally, and high-quality evidence of best practice is scarce. The objective of this study was to close some of the gaps in evidence by comparing two alternative regimens for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes: hospital-based care and hospital-based home care (HBHC), referring to specialist care in a home-based setting. Methods A randomised controlled trial, i...

  16. Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, J; Klietmann, W; Nösner, K; Rolinson, G N; Johnsen, J

    1988-01-01

    17,244 pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of 24 hospitals in the Moers area (North-Rhine Westphalia, FRG) were tested in regard to their susceptibility to Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). For this purpose, minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by use of microbroth dilution technique. 80% of Gram-negative, 98% of Gram-positive and 97% of anaerobic isolates were susceptible to Augmentin (breakpoint 4 mg/l amoxicillin in the presence of 2.5 mg/l clavulanic acid). In a second part of the study the susceptibility to Augmentin of 4.137 Gram-negative and 10.958 Gram-positive pathogens was compared to their sensitivity against benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor and doxycyclin.

  17. Comparation of clinical and paraclinical findings among patient with Kawasaki disease in Bandar abbas Koodakan Hospital in 2011-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjali, Davood

    Title: Comparation of clinical and paraclinical findings among patient with Kawasaki disease in Bandar abbas Koodakan Hospital in 2011-14 Kawasaki disease(KD) is a kind of vasculitis diagnosed by clinical manifestation and it caused acquired heart disease in children because of coronary arteries involvement. Method: patient divided to three group of American Japanese and incomplete and also study in two group according to fever days and then clinical features and laboratory data were checked. Result: A total of 150 patients were enrolled during the study period. number of patients with incomplete Kawasaki disease was 128 american group was 28 and Japanese was 4 patients, the most prevalent symptom was scaling of extremities(61 bladder most seen in group with fever more than five days. Keyword: Kawasaki , epidemiology , criteria

  18. The cost effectiveness of an early transition from hospital to nursing home for stroke patients: design of a comparative study

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    Limburg Martien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the incidence of stroke has increased, its impact on society has increased accordingly, while it continues to have a major impact on the individual. New strategies to further improve the quality, efficiency and logistics of stroke services are necessary. Early discharge from hospital to a nursing home with an adequate rehabilitation programme could help to optimise integrated care for stroke patients. The objective is to describe the design of a non-randomised comparative study evaluating early admission to a nursing home, with multidisciplinary assessment, for stroke patients. The study is comprised of an effect evaluation, an economic evaluation and a process evaluation. Methods/design The design involves a non-randomised comparative trial for two groups. Participants are followed for 6 months from the time of stroke. The intervention consists of a redesigned care pathway for stroke patients. In this care pathway, patients are discharged from hospital to a nursing home within 5 days, in comparison with 12 days in the usual situation. In the nursing home a structured assessment takes place, aimed at planning adequate rehabilitation. People in the control group receive the usual care. The main outcome measures of the effect evaluation are quality of life and daily functioning. In addition, an economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective. A process evaluation will be carried out to evaluate the feasibility of the intervention as well as the experiences and opinions of patients and professionals. Discussion The results of this study will provide information about the cost effectiveness of the intervention and its effects on clinical outcomes and quality of life. Relevant strengths and weaknesses of the study are addressed in this article. Trial registration Current Controlled Trails ISRCTN58135104

  19. Factors of Online Learning Adoption: A Comparative Juxtaposition of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndubisi, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Organisational investments in information technologies have increased significantly in the past few decades. All around the globe and in Malaysia particularly, a number of educational institutions are experimenting with e-learning. Adopting the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the technology acceptance model (TAM) this article tries to…

  20. VA Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Veterans Health Administration works with many quality organizations including the Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizatins and the Centers for...

  1. Do Medicare Advantage enrollees tend to be admitted to hospitals with better or worse outcomes compared with fee-for-service enrollees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bernard; Jiang, H Joanna

    2010-06-01

    The hospitals selected by or for Medicare beneficiaries might depend on whether the patient is enrolled in a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan. A theoretical model of profit maximization by MA plans takes into account the tradeoffs of consumer preferences for annual premium versus outcomes of care in the hospital and other attributes of the plan. Hospital discharge databases for 13 states in 2006, maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, are the main source of data. Risk-adjusted mortality rates are available for all non-maternity adult patients in each of 15 clinical categories in about 1,500 hospitals. All-adult postoperative safety event rates covering 9 categories of events are calculated for surgical cases in about 900 hospitals. Instrumental variables are used to address potential endogeneity of the choice of a MA plan. The key findings are these: enrollees in MA plans tend to be treated in hospitals with lower resource cost and higher risk-adjusted mortality compared to Fee-for-Service (FFS) enrollees. The risk-adjusted mortality measure is about 1.5 percentage points higher for MA plan enrollees than the overall mean of 4%. However, the rate of safety events in surgical patients favors MA plan enrollees--the rate is 1 percentage point below the average of 3.5%. These discrepant results are noteworthy and are plausibly due to greater discretion by the health plan in approving patients for elective surgery and as well as selecting hospitals for surgical patients. Emergency patients are generally excluded for the safety outcome measures. In addition, the current mortality measures may not adequately represent all surgical patients. Such caveats should be prominently highlighted when presenting comparative data. With that proviso, the study justifies informing Medicare beneficiaries about the mortality and safety outcome measures for hospitals being used by a MA plan compared to hospitals used by FFS enrollees. PMID:20140642

  2. Composting as digestate post-treatment: composting behaviour and gaseous emissions of three types of digestate compared to non-digested waste

    OpenAIRE

    Trémier, A.; Buffet, J; Daumoin, M.; Corrand, V.

    2013-01-01

    International audience In the actual context of French regulation, anaerobic digestion products are still considered as waste and cannot be valorised as product unless being composted. Nevertheless digestates specificities concerning composting treatment have to be thoroughly studied. Thus the present work compared the composting behaviour of digestates with their non-digested waste. Three origins were considered: agricultural waste, source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste ...

  3. Retrospective Comparative Study of Obstetric complications and Maternal Mortality in Registered and Unregistered women at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Deliwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At tertiary care hospital, many women with obstetric complications are referred not only from private clinics/hospitals, but also from nearby primary health centers and urban health centers. There are women who come for delivery, who have not taken any ante natal care (ANC. Complication can arise at any time during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period and in absence of intervention, there is a high feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. With every maternal death there are many life threatening complications known as ‘maternal near miss’.Objectives: 1.To analyze causes of referrals of unregistered patients coming to our institute.2.To analyze pregnancy outcomes, Obstetric complications and maternal mortality in registered and unregistered women coming to our institute. 3.To analyze near miss cases and to analyze causes of maternal mortality and reasons of delay. Methods:This retrospective comparative study was conducted after due permission from the Scientific Advisory Committee and Institutional Ethics Committee of Sheth V S Medical Research Foundation Trust and data was collected as per pre-tested structured proforma from December 2009 to February 2010. Analysis of 1171 patients was done. Results: Out of total 1171 women included in the study, 952 (81.2 % were registered and 219 (18.7% were unregistered women. Proportion of unregistered women who had less than 3 ante natal visits 109 (49.7% was significantly higher compared to registered women 95 (9.9% (x2 = 195.97; P<0.0001. Severe anaemia was found to be significantly higher in unregistered women 18 (8.2% as compared to registered women 1 (0.1% (x2 = 68.442; P<0.0001. Transfusion of blood or other blood product was significantly higher in unregistered women 44 (20% compared to registered women 31 (3.2% (x2 = 84.177; P<0.0001 . Because of multi-disciplinary team approach at our institute, many women with complications in unregistered group could be saved (maternal near

  4. Update of a comparative analysis of cost minimization following the introduction of newly available intravenous iron therapies in hospital practice

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    Bhandari S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunil BhandariDepartment of Renal Medicine, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust and Hull York Medical School, Kingston upon Hull, UKBackground: The clinical need to be able to administer high doses of intravenous iron conveniently as a rapid infusion has been addressed by the recent introduction of ferric carboxymaltose and subsequently iron isomaltoside 1000. Neither requires a test dose. The maximum dose of ferric carboxymaltose is 1000 mg. The maximum dose of iron isomaltoside 1000 is based on 20 mg/kg body weight without a specified ceiling dose, thereby increasing the scope of being able to achieve total iron repletion with a single infusion. This ability to give high doses of iron is important in the context of managing iron deficiency anemia, which is associated with a number of clinical conditions where demands for iron are high. It is also an important component of the strategy as an alternative to blood transfusion. Affordability is a key issue for health services. Recent price changes affecting iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, plus modifications to the manufacturers’ prescribing information, have provoked this update.Methods: This study is a comparative analysis of the costs of acquiring and administering the newly available intravenous iron formulations against standard treatments in the hospital setting. The costs include the medication, nursing costs, equipment, and patient transportation. Three dosage levels (600 mg, 1000 mg, and 1600 mg are considered.Results and conclusion: The traditional standard treatments, blood and iron sucrose, cost more than the alternative intravenous iron preparations across the dose spectrum and sensitivities. Low molecular weight iron dextran is the least expensive option at the 1600 mg dose level but has the caveat of a prolonged administration time and requirement for a test dose. At 600 mg and 1000 mg dose levels, both iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric

  5. A comparative study of knowledge and attitudes regarding biomedical waste (BMW management with a preliminary intervention in an academic hospital

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    Violet N Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: 1 To assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes regarding biomedical waste (BMW management in specialists, resident doctors, new medical interns, and final year nursing students. 2 To assess the effectiveness of a training program in changing the knowledge and attitudes regarding BMW management. Study Design: Stage 1-descriptive, Stage 2-quasi-experimental. Participants: Specialists, resident doctors, new medical interns, and final year nursing students. Setting: Tertiary hospital with attached medical college in Navi Mumbai. Data Collection tool: Pretested, precoded self-administered questionnaire. Intervention: Educational training program on BMW management, Period of Study: December 2010-March 2011. Statistical Analysis: Using software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20, chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc, and Z tests applied. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the knowledge scores between the groups as determined by a one-way ANOVA test (F (3,226 = 11.098, P < 0.001. A Tukey's post hoc test revealed that the specialists (20.82 ± 5.121 knowledge scores were significantly higher as compared to resident doctors (16.96 ± 5.268, medical interns (18.44 ± 4.293, and nursing group (15.33 ± 5.144. The positive attitude towards safe management of BMW was not found to be significant. After the training program in the medical interns' a statistically significant increase in their knowledge on BMW management was seen. Conclusion: The knowledge and attitudes between the groups of healthcare personnel varied and was not found to be satisfactory. Training programs with periodical sensitization sessions on BMW management are recommended, especially focusing at the junior level.

  6. Retrospective Comparative Study of Obstetric complications and Maternal Mortality in Registered and Unregistered women at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Kruti Deliwala; Rajal Thaker; M M Jadav

    2013-01-01

    Background: At tertiary care hospital, many women with obstetric complications are referred not only from private clinics/hospitals, but also from nearby primary health centers and urban health centers. There are women who come for delivery, who have not taken any ante natal care (ANC). Complication can arise at any time during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period and in absence of intervention, there is a high feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. With every maternal death there are m...

  7. Experimental analysis of the dynamic structural behaviour of the Hospital of Pievepelago (Modena); Analisi sperimentale del comportamento dinamico del poliambulatorio di Pievepelago a seguito dell`intervento di miglioramento antisismico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffarini, Giacomo; Clemente, Paolo; Rinaldis, Dario [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-07-01

    The research work leading to this report is the result of a joint effort between the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments and the Emilia Romagna regional council, that involved the Environmental Department of the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments in the experimental analysis of the dynamic structural behaviour of the Hospital of Pievepelago (Modena). A strengthening design has been performed on behalf of the Pievepelago town council, and the Emilia Romagna regional council asked the National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments to study the effectiveness of the intervention by carrying out the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the structure both before and after the works. The results of the first phase are shown in a previous report. This report is relative to the experimental study on the strengthened building.

  8. Study of Limited Value in Exploring Irish Hospital Clinicians’ Information Behaviour and Attitudes Towards the Clinical Informationist. A Review of: Flynn, M. G., & McGuinness, C. (2011. Hospital clinicians’ information behaviour and attitudes towards the ‘Clinical Informationist’: An Irish survey. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 28(1, 23-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2010.00917.x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Melssen

    2011-01-01

    clinicians in hospital settings. HCs in this study identified lack of time as their main barrier to researching clinical questions and when they do find the time to search for clinical questions, it is either during breaks in their day or after work at home. Their preferred resources are those found electronically. Though they value evidence-based resources, HCs rarely use them. These factors point to a need for information professionals to provide either remote access to electronic medical information resources from home, or provide a service that would allow hospital clinicians to quickly and easily find information during the work day. This is an area in which a CI might play a role. Though many HCs were not familiar with CIs, they were receptive to having a CI on their clinical team. The HCs provided various suggestions for where a CI could be involved as well as desired skills and qualifications of CIs. The only possible disadvantages that the clinicians could foresee was cost, the deskilling of clinicians’ own information-seeking skills, and medico-legal issues. The authors identified several limitations of this study which include the small sample size, the snowball sampling method and the possibility of bias in subject recruitment, and not including other health care professionals in this study. Further research regarding the information behaviour, seeking and skills of other health professionals is needed, as well as research on training and accreditation of CIs.

  9. Comparative efficacy assessment of Tramadol versus Morphine for post operative pain relief following abdominal surgery, Shariati Hospital (1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroosh AR

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the present study is to compare the respiratory function and pain relief of two parenteral analgesics tramadol and morphine under clinical conditions. Materials and Methods: The trial was conducted as an open label-randomized, single center study. The study was performed during 3 months in 1999. In total, 64 patients were enrolled in Shariatie University Hospital, while the other 32 patients were treated with morphine. Results: There were 12 male and 20 female in either groups. The mean age was 48±15 in tramadol versus 43±16 morphine group. Concerning the amount of the medication given to the patients. It would be observed that tramadol patients received 194±72 mg and morphine patients 17±7 mg out of drugs. At study admission vital signs were recorded. The pulse rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate are presented revealing no obvious differences between the treatment groups. There was a broad range regarding the underlying type of operation, however, a laparatomy or a cholecystectomy was performed in 24 (75.0% Vs. 26 (81.3% patients, respectively. All 64 patients were receiving anaesthetics as stipulated in the protocol. Of them being diazepam, sufentanil, succinylcholine chloride and thiopental as the most frequent reported, 4 Vs. 3 patient were given additional fentanylin a mean dosage of 220 mg Vs. 83 mcg. The oxygen saturation was the main safety parameter of the present study. No obvious differences between the two treatment groups can be detected (P<0.472. Primary efficacy end point was the pain assessment. The pain intensity at each scheduled time point was recorded. At study inclusion no differences between the treatment groups uncured, but during the 24 hour observation period the tramadol patients were in advantage (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study shows that long-term efficacy of tramadol is better than morphine.

  10. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nove Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988–2000 inclusive, excluding ‘high-risk’ pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Results Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8. The ‘home birth’ group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  11. Comparing Academic Library Spending with Public Libraries, Public K-12 Schools, Higher Education Public Institutions, and Public Hospitals between 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…

  12. Feto-maternal Outcomes in Cesarean Section Compared to Vaginal Delivery in Eclamptic Patients in a Tertiary Level Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over half-a-million women die each year from pregnancy-related causes, and 99 percent of these occur in developing countries. In Bangladesh though maternal mortality rate (MMR declined significantly around 40% in the past decade, still eclampsia accounts for 20% of maternal deaths. Eclampsia is uniquely a disease of pregnancy, and the only cure is delivery regardless of gestational age. A rational therapy for general management of hypertension and convulsion has been established in Bangladesh by the Eclampsia Working Group. But controversy still exists regarding obstetric management. Objective: To evaluate the feto-maternal outcome in cesarean section compared to vaginal delivery in eclamptic patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in the department of Obstretics & Gynecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital (DMCH, from January to December 2011. A total 100 eclamptic women with term pregnancy and live fetus were purposively included in the study (Group I, 50 patients with vaginal delivery and Group II, 50 with cesarean section. Results: Out of these 100 patients 56% were aged ≤20 years, 71% were primigravida and 77% were from low socioeconomic status. Sixteen percent patients from vaginal delivery group and 18% from cesarean section group had no antenatal care. The mean gestational age was about 38 weeks in two groups. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding blood pressure, proteinuria, consciousness level and convulsion. Recurrence of convulsion occurred in 30% patients of vaginal delivery group compared to 6% in cesarean section group. Maternal complications such as postpartum hemorrhage, cerebrovascular accident, renal failure, obstetric shock and abruptio placenta were higher among vaginal delivery group patients (46% than cesarean section patients (16%. Maternal mortality was 6% in the vaginal delivery group and none in the cesarean section group. Regarding

  13. Health-Risk Behaviour in Deprived Neighbourhoods Compared with Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods: A Systematic Literature Review of Quantitative Observational Studies.

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    Maria Holst Algren

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in neighbourhoods' influence on individuals' health-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. The aim of this review was to systematically review recent studies on health-risk behaviour among adults who live in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies.PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible for inclusion.The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol consumption, the results were ambiguous, and no clear differences were found. Numerous different operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation were used in the studies.Substantial evidence indicates that future health interventions in deprived neighbourhoods should focus on smoking and physical inactivity. We suggest that alcohol interventions should be population based rather than based on the specific needs of deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed on fruit and vegetable consumption. In future studies, the lack of a uniform operationalisation of neighbourhood deprivation must be addressed.

  14. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

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    Weggelaar Anne-Marie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims. Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that

  15. Nurse staff allocation by nurse patient ratio vs. a computerized nurse dependency management system: a comparative cost analysis of Australian and New Zealand hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Liza; Plummer, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Coding, costing, and accounting for nursing care requirements in Australian public and private hospitals lacks systematic research. Nurse costing for two nurse staffing allocation methods--nurse patient ratios and a computerized nurse dependency management system--were compared. Retrospective nursing workload management data were obtained from hospital information systems in 21 acute care public and private hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Descriptive statistics, cost analysis, and cost modeling were conducted for 103,269 shifts of nursing care. The comparison of costs for nursing staff by nurse-patient ratios and by a computerized nurse dependency management system demonstrated differences. The provision of nursing care using the computerized nurse dependency management system was, overall, lower in cost than for nurse-patient ratios.

  16. The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-02-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa. PMID:20150608

  17. The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-02-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  18. Prescribing Patterns in Outpatient Clinics of Township Hospitals in China: A Comparative Study before and after the 2009 Health System Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Pan, Qingxia; Shan, Linghan; Liu, Chaojie; Gao, Lijun; Hao, Yanhua; Song, Jian; Ning, Ning; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Qi, Xinye; Liang, Chao; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: China introduced a series of health reforms in 2009, including a national essential medicines policy and a medical insurance system for primary care institutions. This study aimed to determine the changing prescribing patterns associated with those reforms in township hospitals. Methods: A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to identify 29 township hospitals from six counties in three provinces. A total of 2899 prescriptions were collected from the participating township hospitals using a systematic random sampling strategy. Seven prescribing indicators were calculated and compared between 2008 and 2013, assessing use of medicines (antibiotics and adrenal corticosteroids) and polypharmacy, administration route of medicines (injections), and affordability of medicines. Results: Significant changes in prescribing patterns were found. The average number of medicines and costs per-prescription dropped by about 50%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics declined from 54% to 38%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring adrenal corticosteroid declined from 14% to 4%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring injections declined from 54% to 25%. Despite similar changing patterns, significant regional differences were observed. Conclusions: Significant changes in prescribing patterns are evident in township hospitals in China. Overprescription of antibiotics, injections and adrenal corticosteroids has been reduced. However, salient regional disparities still exist. Further studies are needed to determine potential shifts in the risk of the inappropriate use of medicines from primary care settings to metropolitan hospitals. PMID:27399732

  19. The integrated care pathway reduced the number of hospital days by half: a prospective comparative study of patients with acute hip fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Jón

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase during the coming years, demanding greater resources and improved effectiveness on this group of patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated care pathway (ICP in patients with an acute fracture of the hip. Methods A nonrandomized prospective study comparing a consecutive series of patients treated by the conventional pathway to a newer intervention. 112 independently living patients aged 65 years or older admitted to the hospital with a hip fracture were consecutively selected. Exclusion criteria were pathological fracture and severe cognitive impairment. An ICP was developed with the intention of creating a care path with rapid pre-operative attention, increased continuity and an accelerated training programme based on the individual patient's prerequisites and was used as a guidance for each patient's tailored care in the intervention group (N = 56 The main outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were the amount of time from the emergency room to the ward, to surgery and to first ambulation, as well as in-hospital complications and 30-day readmission rate. Results The intervention group had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (12.2 vs. 26.3 days; p Conclusion Implementing an ICP for patients with a hip fracture was found to significantly reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the quality of care.

  20. Prescribing Patterns in Outpatient Clinics of Township Hospitals in China: A Comparative Study before and after the 2009 Health System Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: China introduced a series of health reforms in 2009, including a national essential medicines policy and a medical insurance system for primary care institutions. This study aimed to determine the changing prescribing patterns associated with those reforms in township hospitals. Methods: A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to identify 29 township hospitals from six counties in three provinces. A total of 2899 prescriptions were collected from the participating township hospitals using a systematic random sampling strategy. Seven prescribing indicators were calculated and compared between 2008 and 2013, assessing use of medicines (antibiotics and adrenal corticosteroids and polypharmacy, administration route of medicines (injections, and affordability of medicines. Results: Significant changes in prescribing patterns were found. The average number of medicines and costs per-prescription dropped by about 50%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring antibiotics declined from 54% to 38%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring adrenal corticosteroid declined from 14% to 4%. The percentage of prescriptions requiring injections declined from 54% to 25%. Despite similar changing patterns, significant regional differences were observed. Conclusions: Significant changes in prescribing patterns are evident in township hospitals in China. Overprescription of antibiotics, injections and adrenal corticosteroids has been reduced. However, salient regional disparities still exist. Further studies are needed to determine potential shifts in the risk of the inappropriate use of medicines from primary care settings to metropolitan hospitals.

  1. PRESCRIBING PRACTICES OF NON TEACHING GENERAL PRACTITIONERS OF PRIVATE CLINICS AND PHYSICIANS OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL: A COMPARATIVE CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Sudar Codi R, Samiya Khan, Manimekalai K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Doctor’s prescription provides vivid information and instruction to the patient. In spite of the WHO programs, irrational prescribing is still a common practice. Aim: To evaluate and compare the prescribing pattern of private practitioners and physicians of a tertiary care teaching hospital in a semi urban area and detect their rationality. Materials & methods: 150 prescriptions, each prescribed by private practitioners and physicians of a tertiary care hospital were collected over a period of two months and evaluated. Information regarding the drugs used, drugs from the essential drug list, the use of injections, fixed dose combinations, drug prescribed by generic names were observed. Results: The average number of drugs per prescription prescribed by the private practitioners was 2.47 compared to 1.58 by the physicians of a tertiary care hospital. 82% of prescriptions of private practitioners had one injection prescribed in the prescription compared to 12% by physicians of a tertiary care hospital. 30 unnecessary drugs, 46 unnecessary injections and 8 irrational fixed dose combinations were prescribed by the private practitioners, whereas only 6 unnecessary drugs and 2 unnecessary injections were prescribed by the physicians of a tertiary care hospital respectively. There was no irrational fixed dose combination prescribed by them. The private practitioners prescribed 12 (3.2% drugs by generic names, whereas the physicians of a tertiary care hospital prescribed 72 (30.3% drugs by generic names. (P<0.000. 36 (9.7% drugs prescribed by the private practitioners were not included in the essential drug list and only 2 (0.8% drugs prescribed by the physicians of a tertiary care hospital were not included in the essential drug list. Conclusion: Private practitioners prescribe more irrational prescriptions on comparison with the physicians of a tertiary care teaching hospital. This may be due to the promotional pharmaceutical incentives

  2. Using a theory of planned behaviour framework to explore hand hygiene beliefs at the ‘5 critical moments’ among Australian hospital-based nurses

    OpenAIRE

    White, Katherine M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Obst, Patricia L; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Haneman, Lara; Page, Katie; Campbell, Megan; Martin, Elizabeth; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving hand hygiene among health care workers (HCWs) is the single most effective intervention to reduce health care associated infections in hospitals. Understanding the cognitive determinants of hand hygiene decisions for HCWs with the greatest patient contact (nurses) is essential to improve compliance. The aim of this study was to explore hospital-based nurses’ beliefs associated with performing hand hygiene guided by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) 5 critical moments....

  3. A comparative study on low cycle fatigue behaviour of nano and micro Al2O3 reinforced AA2014 particulate hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R.; Arunkumar, N.; Manzoor Hussian, M.

    Aluminium based metal matrix composites have drawn more attraction due to their improved properties in structural applications for the past two decades. The fatigue behaviour of composite materials needs to be studied for their structural applications. In this work, powder metallurgy based aluminium (AA2014) alloy reinforced with micro and nano-sized alumina particles were fabricated and consolidated with the hot extrusion process. The evaluation of mechanical properties in the extruded composite was carried out. This composite was subjected to low cycle fatigue test with a constant strain rate. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images were used to evaluate the fatigue behaviour of aluminium-nano composite samples. Enhanced mechanical properties were exhibited by the nano alumina reinforced aluminium composites, when compared to the micron sized alumina reinforced composites. The failure cycle is observed to be higher for the nano alumina reinforced composites when compared with micron sized alumina composites due to a lower order of induced plastic strain.

  4. A comparative study on low cycle fatigue behaviour of nano and micro Al2O3 reinforced AA2014 particulate hybrid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium based metal matrix composites have drawn more attraction due to their improved properties in structural applications for the past two decades. The fatigue behaviour of composite materials needs to be studied for their structural applications. In this work, powder metallurgy based aluminium (AA2014 alloy reinforced with micro and nano-sized alumina particles were fabricated and consolidated with the hot extrusion process. The evaluation of mechanical properties in the extruded composite was carried out. This composite was subjected to low cycle fatigue test with a constant strain rate. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM images were used to evaluate the fatigue behaviour of aluminium-nano composite samples. Enhanced mechanical properties were exhibited by the nano alumina reinforced aluminium composites, when compared to the micron sized alumina reinforced composites. The failure cycle is observed to be higher for the nano alumina reinforced composites when compared with micron sized alumina composites due to a lower order of induced plastic strain.

  5. 我国医院的网络影响力对比分析%Hospital website influencing power in China:A comparative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯胜超; 邹立君; 胡鸿

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide the reference for hospital website construction in China by analyzing and compa-ring the hospital website influencing power .Methods The performance of hospital websites on the total number of web pages and links, and external links, website influencing factors, linking efficiency, website client focus, Google PR were analyzed using linking analysis method and ranked.Results The hospital websites differed greatly in their scale, linkage, and focus, especially in Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Children's Hospital of Fudan Uni-versity, and Peking University No.1 Hospital.Conclusion Website content and SEO construction should strength-ened in hospitals , propaganda and communication should be extended , and public focus on hospitals should be im-proved.%目的:对我国医院的网络影响力进行比较分析,为医院网站建设提供参考。方法:利用链接分析方法分析医院网站在网页总数、总链接数、外部链接数、网络影响因子、链接效率、网络用户关注度和谷歌网站等级上的表现,并根据统计结果对各大医院排序。结果:医院网站在网站规模、链接情况和网络关注度等方面表现差异较大,其中复旦大学附属肿瘤医院,复旦大学附属儿科医院和北京大学第一医院综合表现较为突出。结论:医院应加强网站内容建设、SEO(搜索引擎优化)建设,并扩大宣传和交流,提高公众对医院的关注度。

  6. A Comparative Electrochemical Behaviour Study and Analytical Detection of the p-Nitrophenol Using Silver Solid Amalgam, Mercury, and Silver Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djenaine De Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a comparative electrochemical behaviour study and p-nitrophenol analytical detection using silver solid amalgam, hanging dropping mercury, and silver electrodes. For this, square wave voltammetry was employed, where the analytical responses and the redox mechanisms could be compared for reduction processes of 4-nitrophenol by analysis of the voltammetric responses. The analytical performance of the electrode was evaluated and detection and quantification limits, recovery percentages, repeatability, and reproducibility for the silver solid amalgam and hanging dropping mercury electrodes presented similar values; the results presented for the silver electrode indicated worse analytical parameters than the other electrodes. The results indicate that the silver solid amalgam electrode can be considered a suitable tool and an interesting alternative for the analytical determination of 4-nitrophenol, as well as for the determination of other biological and environmentally interesting compounds that present analytical responses on mercury surfaces.

  7. Health costs from hospitalization with H1N1 infection during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic compared with non-H1N1 respiratory infections

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    Courcoutsakis N

    2012-03-01

    care hospitals during the two waves of H1N1 in 2009 and 2010. The health costs for protective equipment and pharmaceuticals and hospitalization (medications, laboratory, and diagnostic tests were compared between H1N1 positive and negative patients.Results: The objective of the study was to quantify the means of daily and total costs of inpatient care. Overall, cost was higher for H1N1 positive (€61,0117.72 than for H1N1-negative patients (€464,923.59. This was mainly due to the protection measures used and the prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units. In H1N1-negative patients, main contributors to cost included additional diagnostic tests due to concern regarding respiratory capacity and laboratory values, as well as additional radiologic and microbial culture tests. The mean duration of hospitalization was 841 days for H1N1 positive and 829 days for negative patients.Conclusion: Cost was higher in H1N1 patients, mainly due to the protection measures used and the increased duration of hospitalization in intensive care units. An automated system to monitor patients would be desirable to reduce cost in H1N1 influenza.Keywords: cost effect, H1N1, health care resource utilization, respiratory infection

  8. 喀什地区民营与公立医院经济运行现状对比分析%Comparative Analysis on Status Quo of Economic Operation in Private Hospitals and Public Hospitals in Kashi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐月红; 姚华; 姜小明

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解喀什地区民营医院经济运行现状。方法:采用历史数据分析法,以新疆维吾尔自治区喀什地区民营医院为调查对象,根据喀什地区2009-2012年医疗机构卫生财务年报统计数据,对民营医院和公立医疗机构的卫生资源、经济运行现状等方面进行对比分析。结果:喀什地区民营医院,不管是从医院规模、人力资源、床位使用率以及工作量等方面,还是在经济运行方面,均比不上公立医院。结论:民营医院的发展应从加强自身的专业特长、走专科经营的路线,改善经营环境,加强成本控制等方面着手。%Objective: To understand the present economic operation situation of private hospitals in Kashi. Methods: The historical data analysis is adopted, the private hospitals of Kashi in Xinjiang is chose as the object of survey, according to the data of health statistical yearbooks of Kashi District from 2009 to 2012, aspects of private hospitals and public medical institutions, such as health resources and economic operation status were compared and analyzed. Results: Whether from the hospital size, human resources, utilization of beds, workload, etc., or the economic operation, the private hospitals of Kashi are not as good as public hospitals. Conclusion:Development of private hospitals should focus on enhancing professional expertise, taking specialist business line, improving business environment and strengthening cost control and other aspects.

  9. Nurses' attitudes towards suicidal behaviour--a comparative study of community mental health nurses and nurses working in an accidents and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare the attitudes towards suicidal behaviour of community mental health nurses (CMHNs) and registered nurses working in an accidents and emergency (A&E) department. The sample consisted of 80 nurses working in the same locality. An instrument was designed using statements from Domino's 'Suicide Opinion Questionnaire' (SOQ) and new statements based on a comprehensive survey of research in this area. The instrument contained four attitudinal categories consisting of; acceptability; morality and mental illness; professional role, work and care; and communication and attention. Results reveal that both groups of nurses held generally positive attitudes towards suicidal behaviour, contrasting with previous studies where more negative attitudes amongst nurses were found. A t-test showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups of nurses in any of the four attitudinal categories. Attitudes were significantly different in accordance with nurses' length of experience and age within both groups. Further research is needed in this area if nurses are to develop their role alongside other professionals working towards the objectives of suicide prevention policies.

  10. Comparative hybrid and digital simulation studies of the behaviour of a wind generator equipped with a static frequency converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, B.; Lefebvre, S.; Perocheau, A.; Nakra, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative results obtained from digital and hybrid simulation studies on a variable speed wind generator interconnected to the utility grid. The wind generator is a vertical-axis Darrieus type coupled to a synchronous machine by a gear-box; the synchronous machine is connected to the AC utility grid through a static frequency converter. Digital simulation results have been obtained using CSMP software; these results are compared with those obtained from a real-time hybrid simulator that in turn uses a part of the IREQ HVDC simulator. The agreement between hybrid and digital simulation results is generally good. The results demonstrate that the digital simulation reproduces the dynamic behavior of the system in a satisfactory manner and thus constitutes a valid tool for the design of the control systems of the wind generator.

  11. Cardiac Procedures among American Indians and Alaska Natives compared to Non-Hispanic Whites Hospitalized with Ischemic Heart Disease in California

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, Stacey; Kao, Chi; Bindman, Andrew B.; Korenbrot, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIAN) experience a high burden of cardiovascular disease with rates for fatal and nonfatal heart disease approximately twofold higher than the U.S. population. Objective To determine if disparities exist in cardiac procedure rates among AIAN compared to non-Hispanic whites hospitalized in California for ischemic heart disease defined as acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Design Cross-sectional study. Events A total of 796 ischemic heart...

  12. Mortality rates at 10 years after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing compared with total hip replacement in England: retrospective cohort analysis of hospital episode statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kendal, Adrian R.; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Arden, Nigel K; Carr, Andrew; Judge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare 10 year mortality rates among patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and total hip replacement in England. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting English hospital episode statistics database linked to mortality records from the Office for National Statistics. Population All adults who underwent primary elective hip replacement for osteoarthritis from April 1999 to March 2012. The exposure of interest was prosthesis type: cemented total hip replacement, un...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NEONATAL OUTCOME IN CEASAREAN SECTION DONE IN REFERRED CASES VS ELECTIVE CEASAREAN DELIVERY IN A RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To study the fetal outcome of rural referrals undergoing emergency caesarean delivery versus elective caesarean delivery in a tertiary care hospital METHODOLOGY: This comparative study was done at a rural medical college hospital, Karnataka, from October 2010 to October 2011. 50 patients referred to the hospital and who underwent caesarean delivery are emergency group and 50 patients admitted in our hospital who were posted for elective cesarean delivery were the other group in the study with emphasis on indications and perinatal outcome. RESULTS: obstructed labour (34 % was the commonest indication in emergency and previous caesarean delivery (36% being the commonest in elective group. The live birth was 88% in Emergency group as against 100% live births in Elective group. Perinatal mortality from emergency Caesarean sections accounted for 12%, with severe birth asphyxia responsible for most perinatal deaths. There was statistically significant difference in stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and severe neonatal morbidity between emergency and elective caesarean sections-probably related to prolonged labor, asphyxia, and sepsis than in elective caesarean delivery. CONCLUSION: The perinatal mortality was 12%, and the main cause of death was severe birth asphyxia. Emergency caesarean section was more likely than elective to result in a perinatal loss. The indication with the poorest fetal outcome was prolonged obstructed labor. Early diagnosis and timely intervention may result in decrease in incidence of morbidity and mortality. Emergency caesareans, when performed, are often too late to reduce perinatal deaths.

  14. Comparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, J.S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nutrient amendment on growth of nine indigenous tree species planted on coal mine spoil was studied. Greater growth in fertilized plots was accompanied by greater foliar N and P concentrations in all species. The response to fertilization varied among species and was greater in non-leguminous than in leguminous species. Furthermore, leguminous species exhibited higher growth rates compared to non-leguminous species. Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea and Azadirachta indica fitted the elastic similarity model of tree growth; whereas Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus emblica followed the constant stress model. Tectona grandis was the only species which fitted the geometric similarity model.

  15. Mapping barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory for Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON), a multi-site implementation intervention in acute care hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Julia E.; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Marquez, Christine; Almaawiy, Ummukulthum; Chan, Wai-Hin; D’Souza, Jennifer; Liu, Barbara; Straus, Sharon E; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background As evidence-informed implementation interventions spread, they need to be tailored to address the unique needs of each setting, and this process should be well documented to facilitate replication. To facilitate the spread of the Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON) intervention, the aim of the current study is to develop a mapping guide that links identified barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory. Methods Focus groups were conducted with ...

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LRINEC SCORE: PROCALCITONIN AND LRINEC SCORE: C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN PREDICTING DURATION OF HOSPITAL STAY AND SEVERITY IN NECROTISING FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gowda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC score is a simple laboratory tool used to distinguish between Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections (NSTI and other soft-tissue infections. A LRINEC score of ≥6 is considered as denoting a high risk of necrotizing fasciitis. A very high LRINEC score might also be associated with mortality and other outcomes of patients with NSTI. METHODS A review of the medical charts of patients was carried out in a tertiary academic Centre. All adult patients with necrotizing softtissue infections from 2010 to 2011 were selected and LRINEC scores were calculated for each patient. The enrolled patients had sufficient information to determine the LRINEC score. Serum Procalcitonin (PCT was used in place of serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP to improve the efficacy of LRINEC score. Serum PCT was considered positive if the value was >0.56 ng/mL. LRINEC score-PCT and LRINEC score-CRP were compared in predicting duration of hospital stay and severity. RESULTS In this study of 50 patients 64% of them were males, majority of the patients were between the age group of 40-80 years. LRINEC score PCT had better predictability for severity and duration of hospital stay when compared to LRINEC score with CRP. Pearson correlation of LRINEC score PCT vs LRINEC score, CRP was statistically significant with LRINEC score, PCT having 30% of patients with longer duration of hospital stay in comparison to LRINEC score CRP which had 12%. CONCLUSION LRINEC score: PCT had better probability in predicting severity and duration of hospital stay when compared to LRINEC score: CRP.

  17. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: a comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, C; Venditti, S; Igos, E; Klepiszewski, K; Benetto, E; Cornelissen, A

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The "conventional" cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process. PMID:22748974

  18. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C., E-mail: christian.koehler@tudor.lu [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A. [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as AOP. The 'conventional' cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  19. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The “conventional” cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  20. Health costs from hospitalization with H1N1 infection during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic compared with non-H1N1 respiratory infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Glaros, Dimitrios; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Froudarakis, Marios; Kioumis, loannis; Kouroumichakis, loannis; Tsiotsios, Anastasios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evagelia; Papakosta, Despoina; Rapti, Aggeliki; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Kerenidi, Theodora; Panopoulou, Maria; Trakada, Georgia; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Fouka, Evangelia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    Background The first positive patient with influenza A (H1N1) was recorded in March 2009 and the pandemic continued with new outbreaks throughout 2010. This study’s objective was to quantify the total cost of inpatient care and identify factors associated with the increased cost of the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic in comparison with nonviral respiratory infection. Methods In total, 133 positive and 103 negative H1N1 patients were included from three tertiary care hospitals during the two waves of H1N1 in 2009 and 2010. The health costs for protective equipment and pharmaceuticals and hospitalization (medications, laboratory, and diagnostic tests) were compared between H1N1 positive and negative patients. Results The objective of the study was to quantify the means of daily and total costs of inpatient care. Overall, cost was higher for H1N1 positive (€61,0117.72) than for H1N1-negative patients (€464,923.59). This was mainly due to the protection measures used and the prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units. In H1N1-negative patients, main contributors to cost included additional diagnostic tests due to concern regarding respiratory capacity and laboratory values, as well as additional radiologic and microbial culture tests. The mean duration of hospitalization was 841 days for H1N1 positive and 829 days for negative patients. Conclusion Cost was higher in H1N1 patients, mainly due to the protection measures used and the increased duration of hospitalization in intensive care units. An automated system to monitor patients would be desirable to reduce cost in H1N1 influenza. PMID:22419882

  1. Comparative study on quality of care assessment for general hospitals%综合医院医疗质量评价的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂广孟; 辛有清; 潘习龙; 张桂林; 王乔

    2011-01-01

    Objective Through the comparative study,we discovered the keys to medical service quality control,and identified science evidences of strengthening hospital's quality of care and enhancing its quality control in general.Methods The paper applied the KPIs for general hospitals' medical service quality in evaluating five general hospitals in 2009.Results The research found problems in each hospital respectively in their efficiency,business performance and quality.Conclusion The hospitals must pinpoint their own setbacks in quality control before their quality of care is enhance.%目的 通过对比研究,加强医院医疗质量管理各个环节的控制与评价,找到医疗质量管理的关键环节,从而全面提高医院医疗质量管理水平.方法 应用综合性医院医疗质量关键评价指标对5所综合性医院2009年度医疗质量情况进行分析评价.结果 根据评价指标,5家医院在效率、效益和质量方面分别存在着不同的问题.结论 医院要根据自身的不足找出医疗质量管理的关键环节,加强医院医疗质量管理.

  2. Comparative photophysical behaviour of naphthalene-linked crown ethers and aza crown ethers of varying cavity dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhodip Samanta; Pinki Saha Sardar; Shyam Sundar Maity; Anirban Pal; Maitrayee Basu Roy; Sanjib Ghosh

    2007-03-01

    A comparative time-resolved emission studies of several naphtho-crown ethers I-V, where metal ions can be complexed in a predetermined orientation with respect to the naphthalene (Naph) - plane and naphthalene-linked aza crown ethers (L1 and L2) have been presented. In both the systems, crown ethers and aza crown ethers, naphthalene fluorescence gets quenched. In the systems I to V, the quenching is mainly due to efficient spin-orbit coupling (SOC) leading to greater population of the lowest triplet state of naphthalene. This SOC depends on the orientation of the crown ring with respect to the Naph--plane. However, in the systems L1 and L2, the quenching is due to photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from nitrogen lone pair of the aza crown ring to naphthalene moiety and consequent exciplex formation. The results have been interpreted using the time-resolved emission studies of all the compounds in various solvents, their alkali metal ion complexes, and protonated ligands.

  3. Comparative survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviour among medical students, residents & faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boker John

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant and growing national interest for introducing Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM instruction into allopathic medical education. We measured CAM attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviors as a baseline to evaluate future planned CAM instruction. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal survey data on CAM attitudes, modality use, and common information resources was collected for (a medical students (n = 355, (b interns entering residencies in medical and surgical disciplines (n = 258, and (c faculty from diverse health professions attending workshops on evidence-based CAM (n = 54. One student cohort was tracked longitudinally in their first, second and third years of training. Results Compared to medical students and interns, faculty who teach or intend to integrate CAM into their instruction had significantly (p p Conclusion Students, interns and a selected faculty group demonstrate positive attitudes toward CAM and frequently use various CAM modalities. CAM instruction should therefore be focused on acquiring knowledge of available CAM modalities and skills to appraise evidence to appropriately advise patients on best approaches to CAM use. Trainees may benefit from exposure to a wider array of CAM information resources.

  4. Time-dependent behaviour of radiocaesium: A new method to compare the mobility of weapons test and Chernobyl derived fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiocaesium (137Cs) originates primarily from two sources, atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, and the Chernobyl accident. It has not, to our knowledge, previously been possible statistically to compare changes in the environmental mobility of 137Cs from these two sources since the weapons test fallout varied in a complex manner over a number of years. A novel technique is presented for curve-fitting measurements with a time-dependent input function such as that for weapons test fallout. Different models were fitted to measurements of both pre- and post-Chernobyl 137Cs activity concentrations in five major Finnish rivers. It was shown that there was no significant difference in the temporal changes in 137Cs mobility from these two sources during the years after fallout. Transport parameters derived from weapons test measurements gave good predictions of the long-term contamination of these rivers by Chernobyl fallout. Changes in 137Cs activity concentrations in rivers after Chernobyl have previously been shown to decline as a result of slow sorption to clay minerals in catchment soils. It is shown that weapons test fallout also exhibited this slow decline over time. Rates of decline in 137Cs activity concentrations 10 years after fallout correspond to effective ecological half-lives (Teff) in the range 10-30 years. Removal of activity from the catchment was found to have no significant effect on the long-term decline in 137Cs activity concentrations in these rivers

  5. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Teresa Łukaszewicz

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L., one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 10(6 mL(-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 10(6 mL(-1 for massage method was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P ≥ 0.05. Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species.

  6. [Comparative efficacy and safety of antidepressant mono- and multimodal therapy in elderly patients with depression (a clinical experience in a psychogeriatric hospital).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyn, Ia B; Safarova, T P; Sheshenin, V C; Gavrilova, S I

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a multimodal antidepressant therapy with venlafaxine plus cerebrolysin and monotherapy with the same antidepressant for the treatment of depression in elderly patients in a psychiatric hospital. Material and methods. Two groups of patients (20 patients in each group), aged 60 years and older (60 to 79 years), were studied. The groups were matched for demographic and clinical (severity of depressive episode) characteristics. Patients of the first group were treated with venlafaxine in dose 75-150 mg twice a day. Patients of the second group received additionally 20 intravenous infusions of cerebrolysin (20.0 ml in 100 ml isotonic sodium chloride solution). Results. Therapeutic effect of antidepressant therapy (56 days) was characterized by a good balanced profile in relation to symptoms of depression, anxiety and apathy in both groups. However, the use of multimodal therapy allowed to get the more rapid response and more pronounced therapeutic effect compared to monotherapy with the same antidepressant, as well as to reduce adverse events. Conclusion. The results obtained allow to recommend multimodal antidepressant therapy with venlafaxine and cerebrolysin for using in hospital practice to achieve a more rapid therapeutic response, reduce the risk of adverse effects of antidepressants and shorten a period of hospitalization. PMID:25042499

  7. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  8. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in the outpatient ambulatory surgery setting compared with the inpatient hospital setting: analysis of 1000 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Tim; Godil, Saniya S; Mehrlich, Melissa; Mendenhall, Stephen; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE In an era of escalating health care costs and pressure to improve efficiency and cost of care, ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) have emerged as lower-cost options for many surgical therapies. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is one of the most prevalent spine surgeries performed, and the frequency of its performance is rapidly increasing as the aging population grows. Although ASCs offer significant cost advantages over hospital-based surgical centers, concern over the safety of outpatient ACDF has slowed its adoption. The authors intended to 1) determine the safety of the first 1000 consecutive ACDF surgeries performed in their outpatient ASC, and 2) compare the safety of these outpatient ACDFs with that of consecutive ACDFs performed during the same time period in the hospital setting. METHODS A total of 1000 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF in an ACS (outpatient ACDF) and 484 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF at Vanderbilt University Hospital (inpatient ACDF) from 2006 to 2013 were included in this retrospective study of patients' medical records. Data were collected on patient demographics, comorbidities, operative details, and perioperative and 90-day morbidity. Perioperative morbidity and hospital readmission were compared between the outpatient and inpatient ACDF groups. RESULTS Of the first 1000 outpatient ACDF cases performed in the authors' ASC, 629 (62.9%) were 1-level and 365 (36.5%) were 2-level ACDFs. Mean patient age was 49.5 ± 8.6, and 484 (48.4%) were males. All patients were observed postoperatively at the ASC postanesthesia care unit (PACU) for 4 hours before being discharged home. Eight patients (0.8%) were transferred from the surgery center to the hospital postoperatively (for pain control [n = 3], chest pain and electrocardiogram changes [n = 2], intraoperative CSF leak [n = 1], postoperative hematoma [n = 1], and profound postoperative weakness and surgical reexploration [n = 1]). No perioperative

  9. Comparison of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations Related to Diabetes Among Native Hawaiian, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese Elderly Compared with Whites, Hawai‘i, December 2006–December 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetine L. Sentell, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Approximately 25% of individuals aged 65 years or older in the United States have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes rates in this age group are higher for Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AA/PI than for whites. We examined racial/ethnic differences in diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (DRPH among people aged 65 years or older for Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, and whites. Methods Discharge data for hospitalizations in Hawai‘i for people aged 65 years or older from December 2006 through December 2010 were compared. Annual rates of DRPH by patient were calculated for each racial/ethnic group by sex. Rate ratios (RRs were calculated relative to whites. Multivariable models controlling for insurer, comorbidity, diabetes prevalence, age, and residence location provided final adjusted rates and RRs. Results A total of 1,815 DRPH were seen from 1,515 unique individuals. Unadjusted RRs for DRPH by patient were less than1 in all AA/PI study groups compared with whites, but were highest among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. In fully adjusted models accounting for higher diabetes prevalence in AA/PI groups, Native Hawaiian (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.59, Filipino (aRR = 2.26, and Japanese (aRR = 1.86 men retained significantly higher rates of diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations than whites, as did Filipino women (aRR = 1.61. Conclusion Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older have a higher risk than whites for DRPH. Health care providers and public health programs for elderly patients should consider effective programs to reduce potentially preventable hospitalizations among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older.

  10. Comparison of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations Related to Diabetes Among Native Hawaiian, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese Elderly Compared with Whites, Hawai‘i, December 2006–December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Juarez, Deborah T.; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Chen, John J.; Salvail, Florentina R.; Miyamura, Jill; Mau, Marjorie L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25% of individuals aged 65 years or older in the United States have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes rates in this age group are higher for Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AA/PI) than for whites. We examined racial/ethnic differences in diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (DRPH) among people aged 65 years or older for Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, and whites. Methods Discharge data for hospitalizations in Hawai‘i for people aged 65 years or older from December 2006 through December 2010 were compared. Annual rates of DRPH by patient were calculated for each racial/ethnic group by sex. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated relative to whites. Multivariable models controlling for insurer, comorbidity, diabetes prevalence, age, and residence location provided final adjusted rates and RRs. Results A total of 1,815 DRPH were seen from 1,515 unique individuals. Unadjusted RRs for DRPH by patient were less than1 in all AA/PI study groups compared with whites, but were highest among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. In fully adjusted models accounting for higher diabetes prevalence in AA/PI groups, Native Hawaiian (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.59), Filipino (aRR = 2.26), and Japanese (aRR = 1.86) men retained significantly higher rates of diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations than whites, as did Filipino women (aRR = 1.61). Conclusion Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older have a higher risk than whites for DRPH. Health care providers and public health programs for elderly patients should consider effective programs to reduce potentially preventable hospitalizations among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older. PMID:23886042

  11. Comparative study of creep behaviour in three Cr Ni 15/15 steel stabilized with Ti and with different contents in W, Mn, Mo and Bor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main difference between the three steels which are tested at temperature range from 6500C to 7500C is due to the hardening elements pf the matrix and the Boron content: 1. 12R72HV (X10NiCrMoTiB 1515) 2% Mn 1,5% Mo 80 ppmB 2. Vaccutherm (X12CrNiWTi 1613) 3% W 2,5 ppmB 3. RGT 21 (X12CrNiWTi 1613) 3% W 50 ppm B. The investigations of all casts are carried out in two different heat treatments which are suitable for the conditions required for the operation of the reactor. Cond. I: 11500C 30 min, water quenced; 8000 32 hour, air; 10% cold work. Cond. II: 11500C 30 min, water quenched; 10% cold work. In connection with creep test the condition I irrespective of 3 steels show no remarkable difference. The observation at 7500C test temperature and also at condition II above 6500C on Boron-free Vaccutherm cast shows an unfavourable behaviour. There is no significant difference in the stress dependence of secondary creep rate and also absolute creep rate. A definite superiority is to be found for 12R72HV when considering the values for time-yield-limit-ratio and ductility compared to the W-steels. The test results shows different fracture behaviour. Transcrystalline fracture is found on cast 12R72HV, whereas RGT 21 and Vaccutherm show transition from transcrystalline to intercrystalline fracture, depending on the rupture time and test temperature. The long term rupture specimens show intercrystalline fracture. (author)

  12. Dissemination of the nurse-administered Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care in six Trinity community hospitals: study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Sonia A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this smoking cessation study among hospitalized smokers are to: 1 determine provider and patient receptivity, barriers, and facilitators to implementing the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care using face-to-face feedback and surveys; 2 compare the effectiveness of the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care across hospitals, units, and patient characteristics using thirty-day point prevalence abstinence at thirty days and six months (primary outcome post-recruitment; and 3 determine the cost-effectiveness of the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention relative to usual care including cost per quitter, cost per life-year saved, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year saved. Methods/Design This effectiveness study will be a quasi-experimental design of six Michigan community hospitals of which three will get the nurse-administered Tobacco Tactics intervention and three will provide their usual care. In both the intervention and usual care sites, research assistants will collect data from patients on their smoking habits and related variables while in the hospital and at thirty days and six months post-recruitment. The intervention will be integrated into the experimental sites by a research nurse who will train Master Trainers at each intervention site. The Master Trainers, in turn, will teach the intervention to all staff nurses. Research nurses will also conduct formative evaluation with nurses to identify barriers and facilitators to dissemination. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarize the results of surveys administered to nurses, nurses’ participation rates, smokers’ receipt of specific cessation services, and satisfaction with services. General estimating equation analyses will be used to determine differences between intervention groups on satisfaction and quit rates, respectively, with

  13. Electrochemical characterization and corrosion behaviour of Ni3Al (0.1B) modified by ion beam techniques: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behaviour of Ni3Al(0.1B) treated with different ion beam techniques has been characterized by multisweep cyclic voltammetry and optical microscopy. The results revealed that ion implantation, ion beam mixing and ion beam assisted deposition are very effective to reduce the corrosion and improve the passivation behaviour of specimens in a solution of 1N sulphuric acid. (orig.)

  14. 山东省非公立医院与公立医院运营情况对比分析%Comparative Analysis of the Operation Status of Non-public Hospitals and Public Hospitals in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓露; 梁志强; 尹爱田; 常璇; 孙经杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对山东省非公立医院与公立医院的运营情况进行比较,了解非公立医院运营现状,分析存在的问题及原因,为其更好的运营提供建议。方法:利用2009-2011年山东省卫生统计信息中心的统计数据,对非公立医院与公立医院的经济运行、服务能力、服务效率及医疗费用等进行分析。结果:非公立医院服务能力逐年增强,2011年诊疗人次达1659.8万人次,其中,门急诊人次1564.6万,住院服务量占比稍低;总体服务效率不高,床位使用率在50%左右,病床平均每年周转20余次,与公立医院有明显差距;非公立医院住院医疗费用优势明显。结论:非公立医院在医疗服务提供中的作用逐渐增强,但是市场份额较小,服务能力及效率还有待提高,其生存压力较大,并且面临人才匮乏及诚信危机等问题。建议:政府继续完善相关配套政策,在准入、人才、税收、监管等方面给予扶持,营造公平的办医环境,同时医院应加强自身内涵建设,重视履行社会责任,提供高质量且价廉的服务,树立良好品牌形象。%Objective: To compare the operation of non-public and public hospitals in Shandong province, have a good knowledge of non-public hospitals'operation status and analyze the existing problems and reasons so as to provide suggestions for perfecting the further operation. Methods: Analyzing the economic operation, service capability and efficiency, medical fees of non-public and public hospitals, according to the data from 2009 to 2011 from Shandong Province Information Center for Health Statistics.Results:The service capability of non-public hospitals increased year by year.By the year 2011, the total visits reached 16.598 million, including 15.646 million of outpatient and emergency visits, and the proportion of hospitalization services was relatively low.Compared to public hospitals

  15. Comparative Study of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Children With Gastroenteritis in Bahonar Hospital, Karaj, Using PCR and RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Campylobacter species are responsible for the majority of cases of food-borne gastroenteritis. The sources of the disease outbreaks are often contaminated water or milk, and consumption of undercooked poultry product is the main cause of sporadic campylobacteriosis cases. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter gastroenteritis in children and to differentiate the interfering species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods at the Bahonar hospital in Karaj, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 150 stool samples were collected from children under 10 years old during the summer of 2014. PCR was performed using genus- and species-specific primers and RFLP was done using AluI and TasI enzymes. Results The results showed the amplification of 400 and 491 bp segments and Campylobacter contamination in 30 (20% samples; 5 out of 30 Campylobacter positive samples (16.66% were identified as C. jejuni, 20 (66.66% as C. coli, 3 (10% as C. jejuni and C. coli (mixed infection, and 2 (6.66% were identified as non-jejuni, non-coli Campylobacter using the PCR method. Following the evaluation of RFLP results, 7 positive samples (23.33% showed the electrophoretic pattern of C. jejuni, 21 (70% showed the electrophoretic pattern of C. coli, and 2 (6.6% showed both of the patterns and mixed contamination with jejuni and coli species. The results of digestion with TasI did not show any C. lari or C. upsaliensis patterns. Conclusions The results of this study showed high percentage of Campylobacter contamination in the tested stool samples. The other surprising finding was the high rate of Campylobacter coli positive samples; the difference between the results of PCR using species-specific primers (hipo and asp and the RFLP method (electrophoretic patterns in some of the positive samples confirms the hypothesis of variations in nucleotide sequences of the hipo

  16. Comparative Study of Nifekalant Versus Amiodarone for Shock-Resistant Ventricular Fibrillation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amino; K. Yoshioka; T. Opthof; S. Morita; S. Uemura; K. Tamura; T. Fukushima; S. Higami; H. Otsuka; K. Akieda; M. Shima; D. Fujibayashi; T. Hashida; S. Inokuchi; I. Kodama; T. Tanabe

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Japan, intravenous nifekalant ( NIF) was often used for direct current cardioversion-resistant ventricular fibrillation (VF), until the use of intravenous amiodarone (AMD) was approved in 2007. The defibrillatory efficacy of NIF and AMD has thus far not been compared for resuscitation

  17. Comparative biology and reproductive behaviour of a laboratory-adapted Redco strain of Anopheles Gambiae Giles (Diptera; culicidae and wild populations of the same species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique involves mass rearing of male insects for sterility purpose. This heavily relies on male fitness and genetic compatibility of laboratory-adapted male insects and the wild to ensure successful competition with their male counterpart in the wild. Uniform environment in the laboratory as compared to the wild conditions might lead to genetic drift which might lead to reduced sexual competitiveness, fitness, morphological changes or changes in the sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. This work investigated the sexual compatibility, morphometry and sexual behaviour of laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions. These measurements were done by observing swarm formation, genitalia rotation, percentage insemination, fecundity, fertility, wing length, wing width, thoracic width, body length, body size index and wing size index. Morphometric studies of laboratory-adapted and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae were carried out by observing the wing length, body length and thoracic length under Lecia 4D stereoscope in order to find out variations in the body size between the two strains. The results showed significant difference between thoracic width and wing length between the laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain. Indices such as body size index and wing length index also showed significant difference between the two strains; laboratory-adapted REDCO strain (BSI 4.45 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.92 ± 0.07, p = 0.026) and wild REDCO strain ( 4.08 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.73 ± 0.04, p = 0.026 ). Body length of laboratory-adapted male mosquitoes (4.24 ± 0.05, p = 0.462) was not significantly different from its thoracic width, wing length, and wing width. The wild strain on the other hand had significant difference between its body length (4.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.462), thoracic width (0.096 ± 0.02, p = 0.002 ) and wing length (2.99 ± 0.03, p = 0.050 ). In the mating experiment, egg production in each of

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DOT AND SAT IN RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A TWO YEARS RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Babu D.* and K. Jyothi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Directly observed therapy (DOT of tuberculosis patients talking their drugs is supposed to improve treatment completion and outcome .we compared DOT and Self Administered therapy (SAT, in which patients on the same drug regimen are not, observed taking their pills, to assess the effect of each on the success of tuberculosis treatment. This was the two year (2010 and 2011 retrospective study of tuberculosis patients admitted to the AH and RC.A total of 308 patients cases were analyzed. The majority of the cases were within 21-40 years TB patients were 38.96% of the total. Among the all TB patients with chronic illness others were 18(58.44% more. Among 308 patients TB patients 131(42.53% TB patients undergone DOT and 177 (57.46% TB patient’s undergone SAT therapy. The comparative outcome between DOT and SAT were 110(86.61% of cure and in SAT were 90 (57.32%. Only 5(03.93% treatment failure, acquired drug resistance 01(00.78%, follow up lost were 11(08.66% in DOT as compared to SAT 23(14.64%, 06(03.82%, 23(14.64% respectively. There is no relapse and death in DOT therapy but in SAT therapy relapse were 10(06.36% and deaths were 05(03.18%. There were large and significant difference in the cure, treatment failure, relapse and death rates between TB patient who receive DOT and SAT therapy respectively.

  19. Tribological behaviour of ceramics at room temperature. Comparative analysis of tribological studies of thermomechanical ceramics for diesel engines. Ceramics properties, test and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taibi, M. [Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Boumerdes (Algeria); Chalant, G. [Faculte de Technologie de Guyane, Cayenne (French Guiana)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a synthesis of theoretical and experimental results on the physical and mechanical properties and tribological behaviour as well of thermomechanical ceramics, on the basis of a critical paper revue. (authors). 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Tribological behaviour of ceramics at high temperature. Comparative analysis of tribological studies of thermomechanical ceramics for Diesel engines. Ceramics properties, test and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taibi, M. [Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Boumerdes (Algeria); Chalant, G. [Faculte de Technologie de Guyane, Cayenne (French Guiana)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a synthesis of theoretical and experimental results on the tribological behaviour of thermomechanical ceramics, with various experimental conditions especially at high temperature, on the basis of a critical paper revue. (authors). 40 refs., 5 figs.

  1. FacilitiesHospitals_HOSPITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of Vermont. The...

  2. Comparative study of interval versus postpartum Cu-T insertion in a central referral hospital of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesona Grace Lucksom

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of current study was to compare interval and postpartum Cu-T (380A insertion in terms of safety and immediate outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study where retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in the department of OBG, SMIMS, Gangtok, from April 2011 to April 2012 were taken for evaluation. 164 women who were inserted Cu-T after delivery and in the interval period were studied. 80 were inserted Cu-T at post-partum period (36 after vaginal delivery and 44 intra caesarean while 84 were inserted at interval period. Follow up was done at 6 weeks and 3 months. Outcome was measured by tail visibility at 6 weeks and 3 months, spontaneous expulsion rate, removal rate and perception of insertion using visual analog scale (0-5. Results: Tail visibility at 6 weeks and 3 months was less in post-partum than that of interval insertion. Spontaneous expulsion rate was nil in post-partum while 5/84 (5.95% in interval insertion. Perception of insertion for doctor and client was easiest in intra Caesarean (0 while difficult in interval (4. Removal rate was 1/80(1 % in post-partum and 9/84 (10.7% in interval. Conclusions: Study suggested that post-partum insertion is more effective than interval Cu-T insertion with low expulsion rate and complications compared to interval insertion. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 47-51

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACE-INHIBITORS WITH OTHER ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN HYPERTENSIVE DIABETIC PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus is rising on an alarming rate in the developing countries; these two disorders frequently occur together in a patient. Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, CHF, end stage renal disease and peripheral vascular disease. Drugs like ACE inhibitors used in the treatment of hypertension are known to have beneficial effects in reducing complications associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study an attempt is made to see the rationality among the prescriptions and also to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of ACE-inhibitors with other anti-hypertensive drugs among diabetic hypertensive patient and to see the rationality among the prescriptions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This 15 month prospective study was conducted on 100 diabetic-hypertensive patients attending Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga. CONCLUSION: We summarize the overall effectiveness of all our anti-hypertensive drugs based on the results obtained from this data. The fall in both average SBP and average DBP reflects the effectiveness of the treatment employed by the physicians in the hospital. We also observed a general decline in the blood sugar values. The results of this study indicate that by re-establishing the dominance of ACE inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic-hypertensive

  4. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  5. [An Autopsy Case of Abnormal Behaviour Induced by Zolpidem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Kudo, Keiko; Sameshima, Naomi; Sato, Kazuo; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem is a widely used ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine in clinical practice; compared with benzodiazepines, it does not have side effects such as daytime hangover, rebound insomnia, and development of tolerance. We report an autopsy case of abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. A man in his 60's had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia about 2 months ago and had been prescribed zolpidem for insomnia. According to his family, he had no memory of his actions such as striking a wall, taking his futon outside, and eating 5 times a day after he took zolpidem. Because his postherpetic neuralgia did not improve, he was hospitalized and treated with an epidural block. During hospitalization, he took off his clothes, removed the epidural block catheter by himself, and slept on others' beds. He disappeared from the hospital one day; the next day, he was found dead in a narrow water storage tank 10 km away from the hospital. He was thought to have driven a car by himself to reach the place. Forensic autopsy revealed that the cause of death was drowning. Zolpidem and several other drugs were detected by toxicological analysis of his blood; the concentrations of these drugs were within therapeutic range. There are several reports about somnambulism induced by zolpidem such as sleepwalking, sleep driving, and eating. Considering the strange episodes following zolpidem administration, his behaviour on the day of his death was considered abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. PMID:26306385

  6. Clinical and economic value of performing dialysis vascular access procedures in a freestanding office-based center as compared with the hospital outpatient department among Medicare ESRD beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Al; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Shimer, Matthew T; DaVanzo, Joan E; Urbanes, Aris Q; Beathard, Gerald A; Litchfield, Terry Foust

    2013-01-01

    Dialysis vascular access (DVA) care is being increasingly provided in freestanding office-based centers (FOC). Small-scale studies have suggested that DVA care in a FOC results in favorable patient outcomes and lower costs. To further evaluate this issue, data were drawn from incident and prevalent ESRD patients within a 4-year sample (2006-2009) of Medicare claims (USRDS) on cases who receive at least 80% of their DVA care in a FOC or a hospital outpatient department (HOPD). Using propensity score matching techniques, cases with a similar clinical and demographic profile from these two sites of service were matched. Medicare utilization, payments, and patient outcomes were compared across the matched cohorts (n = 27,613). Patients treated in the FOC had significantly better outcomes (p advantages over that provided in a HOPD.

  7. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    OpenAIRE

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations ...

  8. Comparative analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels in pre-term and term babies delivered at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Olorunsola Obasa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P is an enzyme in the hexose monophosphate shunt required for the production of reducing equivalents needed to mop up free radicals. thereby keeping hemoglobin in its free state. Deficiency of the enzyme can cause severe neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to compare G6PD levels in pre-term and term babies, and evaluate the extent to which G6PD deficiency determines the severity of jaundice in various gestational age groups. Samples of cord blood collected from consecutively delivered babies in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were assayed for G6PD levels, and the babies were observed for jaundice during the first week of life. Those who developed jaundice had serial serum bilirubin measured. Nine hundred and thirty-three babies had G6PD assayed, with 348 being G6PD deficient, giving a hospital based prevalence of 37.3%. Of the 644 who were followed up, 143 (22.2% were pre-term and 501(77.8% were term babies. Babies with gestational age (GA 27-29 weeks had the highest G6PD levels. However, there was no significant variation among the different gestational age groups (F=0.64, P=0.64. Jaundice occurred more in pre-term compared to term babies with a relative risk of 2.41 (χ2=60.95, P=0.00001. Occurrence of jaundice in pre-term babies was irrespective of G6PD status (χ2=0.2, P=0.66, RR=1.09, CI=0.83

  9. Glacier length fluctuations in southern Norway back to the 17th century based on historical data: opposite behaviour compared to the Alps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Luterbacher, J.; Nesje, A.; Wanner, H.; Zumbühl, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding of past and present glacier variations is a key task for evaluating current climate change. Historical and proxy-records have documented a partly asynchronous evolution in temperature, precipitation and glacial variations between European regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with the causes of these temporal anomalies yet being poorly understood. The comparison between the Alps and Scandinavia allows an assessment of the spatial distribution of glacier fluctuations in the studied areas during the last few centuries. Here we present temporally high-resolved glacier reconstructions for southern Norway covering the period back to the 17th century, based on newly discovered historical material. Length changes were determined by the interpretation of high-quality historical documents such as drawings, paintings, prints, photographs, maps and written sources that are abundant for selected glaciers in the area (Folgefonna, Jostedalsbreen). Historical material is only available in adequate quantity for those glaciers which drew the attention of travellers, scientists and artists through their reputation and scenic attraction, reflecting also the glacier perception at that time. A critical quality check of the documentary data was necessary in order to get reliable information on past glacier extents. The glacier extents obtained were finally compared with existing moraine findings in the glacier forefield. Results from outlet glaciers from Folgefonna (Bondhusbreen, Buerbreen) and Jostedalsbreen (Briksdalsbreen, Bøyabreen, Suphellebreen, Bergsetbreen, Nigardsbreen, Lodalsbreen) indicate a highly different glacier evolution compared to the Alps. According to the historical record, the maximum glacier extent occurred at Folgefonna at around 1890, and at Jostedalsbreen at around 1750, respectively. In the Alps, existing glacier length records (e.g. for Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher, Switzerland, or Mer de Glace, France) show glacier advances around 1600

  10. Comparative experimental and numerical analysis of the hydraulic behaviour of free-surface flow in the water experiment of the XT-ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the long-living actinides contained in nuclear waste are subjected to an intense neutron flux, nuclear reactions convert them into less toxic short living actinides. This process, called transmutation, may be accomplished by Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The required neutron flux is generated by bombarding a spallation target with high energy protons emerging from an accelerator. In the windowless target currently developed in the Integrated Project EUROTRANS of the European Community the target material is HLM (heavy liquid metal). The HLM flows downwards through a concentric nozzle surrounding the beam tube and forms a conical free surface which is subjected to the beam current. The thermal-hydraulics of the target must ensure that the high amount of heat deposited into the HLM can be safely removed. The current target design was developed by a close interaction of numerical and experimental studies resulting in a profound understanding of the hydraulic behavior. The water experiment built at UCL (Belgium)) has similar geometry and dimensions as the XT-ADS spallation target. The experimental results are used to validate the numerical methods that will be used in the analysis of the real HLM target. In the current paper the experimental results obtained from the water experiment are compared to numerical results obtained by applying Volume of Fluid methods in combination with cavitation models. The comparison covers the nominal flow case corresponding to a flow rate of 10 l/s and sensitivity study of free surface level to various flow rates and outlet conditions. Numerical results where obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics code STAR-CD. This code is selected for its capability to predict sharper free surfaces compared to other CFD codes implemented in the target study. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement, so that the numerical model is considered validated. The results demonstrate that the hydraulic behaviour of the target

  11. Why don't we change our mobility behaviours ? Acceptance and hindrance to a change: the case study of the Greater Paris Region as compared to Nagoya

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCI, A.

    2006-01-01

    We all know the harmful effects of car use, on social, environmental and urban aspects. But despite the urgency to reduce car use, in practice it seems difficult to bring about changes in mobility behaviours. My purpose is to understand why most people are not prepared to refrain from using cars in urban areas and what would make them change. I attempt to identify limiting factors to a behavioural change and the acceptability of more sustainable mobility practices. First I will analyse the mo...

  12. A study on the profile and sexual behaviour of patients in an ICTC Centre in a District Hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated counseling and testing (ICTC for HIV is a cost-effective intervention in preventing the spread of HIV transmission and is an integral part of HIV prevention program, which provides an opportunity to learn and accept the HIV status in a comfortable, convenient, and confidential manner. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 3600 attendees visiting the ICTC centre from April 2010 to April 2011was undertaken. The study included 3600 attendees who came either voluntarily or referred by various department of this institute. Dominant reason for visiting ICTC was the history/presence of high risk behavior (HRB. Results: 60% indulged in heterosexual route; other HRB including men having sex with men or MSM were 5% and injecting drug users or IDU were 15%. There were more positive among males, 21-40 years of age group, those living singly, unmarried, divorcee, widow(er and separated. Similarly positives were more amongst illiterates, less educated and those engaged in unskilled and semi skilled jobs. Adolescent students (>14 years accounted for one-fifth of the total positives. Direct walk in clients were more positive compared to those referred by doctors. Overall sero positivity was 4.8%; high in males, 21-40 years age, unmarried and divorcee etc. Conclusions: Sero prevalence decreased with improvement in education and also with improvement in job nature. It was also high in those living alone compared to those staying with their family.

  13. FacilitiesHospitals_HOSPITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of Vermont. The...

  14. Hospitals; hospitals13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Hospital Facilities information was compiled from several various sources. Main source was the RI Department of Health Facilities Regulation database, License 2000....

  15. A comparative study between Marshall and Rotterdam CT scores in predicting early deaths in patients with traumatic brain injury in a major tertiary care hospital in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:CT plays a crucial role in the early assessment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Marshall and Rotterdam are the mostly used scoring systems,in which CT findings are grouped differently.We sought to determine the values of the scoring system and initial CT findings in predicting the death at hospital discharge (early death) in patients with TBI.Methods:There were consecutive 634 traumatic neurosurgical patients with mild-to-severe TBI admitted to the emergency department of College of Medical Sciences.Their initial CT and status at hospital discharge (dead or alive) were reviewed,and both CT scores were calculated.We examined whether each score is related to early death;compared the two scoring systems' performance in predicting early death,and identified the CT findings that are independent predictors for early death.Results:Both imaging score (Marshall) and clinical score (Rotterdam) can be used to reliably predict mortality in patients with acute traumatic brain injury with high prognostic accuracy.Other specific CT characteristics that can be used to predict early mortality are traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage,midline shift and status of the peri-mesencephalic cisterns.Conclusions:Marshall CT classification has strong predictive power,but greater discrimination can be obtained if the individual CT parameters underlying the CT classification are included in a prognostic model as in Rotterdam score.Consequently,for prognostic purposes,we recommend the use of individual characteristics rather than the CT classification.Performance of CT models for predicting outcome in TBI can be significantly improved by including more details of variables and by adding other variables to the models.

  16. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  17. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus)

    OpenAIRE

    Udell, Monique A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' ‘looking back’ behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks mo...

  18. An empirical study of some astrological factors in relation to dog behaviour differences by statistical analysis and compared with human characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    FUZEAU-BRAESCH, Suzel; Denis, Jean-Baptiste

    2007-01-01

    A survey of 500 pedigree dogs was carried out in the Paris region. For each dog, six behavioural traits were determined and ten of their astrological traits were retained. A statistical interpretation of the possible relationships between the two sets of traits was performed based on permutation tests. Two strong associations were detected between the angular positions of Jupiter and the Sun, and the extraversion dominant trait. There were indications of other associations. ...

  19. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, A., Lupo C., Alesi M., Spina S., Raccuglia M., Thomas E., Paoli A.. Palma A.; Mammina, C.; Thomas, E.; BELLAFIORE, M; Battaglia, G.; Moro, T; De Paoli, A; Palma, A.(Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas – LIP, Lisboa, Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Se...

  20. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaak Peter FM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety

  1. Interpersonal behaviour in relation to burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuens, Nina; Leemans, Annemie; Bogaerts, Annick; Van Bogaert, Peter; Franck, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Organisational and work-related challenges faced by midwives make them vulnerable to burnout, but individual factors, such as interpersonal behaviour, can also contribute. A study in eight hospitals in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium investigated the prevalence of burnout among Flemish midwives, assessed their interpersonal behaviour, and explored the relationship between interpersonal behaviour, burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave. This article describes the study and reports the findings. PMID:26602486

  2. HCAHPS - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  3. Heterosexual practices of women and men living with HIV attending hospital outpatient services (ANRS-VESPA2 survey): a French comparative study with the general population (CSF survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, V; Vilotitch, A; Panjo, H; Sagaon-Teyssier, L; Marcellin, F; Dray-Spira, R; Spire, B; Bajos, N

    2016-11-01

    HAART has improved the well-being of many people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed at (i) comparing heterosexual practices between PLWH and the general population by gender, and (ii) identifying factors associated with sexual practices and at-risk behaviors in the two populations. Self-reported data were collected among PLWH attending hospitals (VESPA2 survey; n = 3022) and the general population (CSF survey; n = 10,280). Significant differences between the two samples were corrected for by implementing propensity score matching on both socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior in terms of number of partners. Men not reporting heterosexual intercourse were excluded. After matching, 61% of women (out of 707) and 68% of men (out of 709) were sexually active in both populations. PLWH practiced oral sex less than the general population and used condoms more consistently over the previous 12-month period, irrespective of having multiple sexual partners or not. For women living with HIV: those with several sexual partners and those consuming drugs over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice oral sex; those living in a couple for at least 6 years and migrants were less likely to practice anal intercourse. For men living with HIV: those reporting bisexual relationships and those with multiple sexual partners over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice anal heterosexual intercourse; migrants reported less oral sex, irrespective of HIV status. Error term correlations showed that anal intercourse was not linked to condom use for women or men from either population. Our results show that PLWH had a lower rate of heterosexual practices compared with the general population, and used condoms more often, irrespective of the number of sexual partners and strong cultural background (e.g., for Sub-Saharan African women). Further preventive information needs to be disseminated on the risk of infection transmission through

  4. Comparative Observation of Ar,Ar-H2 and Ar-N2 DC Arc Plasma Jets and Their Arc Root Behaviour at Reduced Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wenxia; MENG Xian; LI Teng; CHEN Xi; WU Chengkang

    2007-01-01

    Results observed experimentally are presented,about the DC arc plasma jets and their arc-root behaviour generated at reduced gas pressure without or with an applied magnetic field.Pure argon,argon-hydrogen or argon-nitrogen mixture was used as the plasma-forming gas.A specially designed copper mirror was used for a better observation of the arc-root behaviour on the anode surface of the DC non-transferred arc plasma torch. It was found that in the cases without an applied magnetic field,the laminar plasma jets were stable and approximately axisymmetrical. The arc-root attachment on the anode surface was completely diffusive when argon was used as the plasma-forming gas,while the arc-root attachment often became constrictive when hydrogen or nitrogen was added into the argon.As an external magnetic field was applied,the arc root tended to rotate along the anode surface of the non-transferred arc plasma torch.

  5. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R

    2015-09-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' 'looking back' behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks more generally. In this study, pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves were given up to three opportunities to open a solvable puzzle box: when subjects were with a neutral human caretaker, alone and when encouraged by the human. Wolves were more persistent and more successful on this task than dogs, with 80% average success rate for wolves versus a 5% average success rate for dogs in both the human-in and alone conditions. Dogs showed increased contact with the puzzle box during the encouragement condition, but only a moderate increase in problem-solving success. Social sensitivity appears to play an important role in pet and shelter dogs' willingness to engage in problem-solving behaviour, which could suggest generalized dependence on, or deference to, human action.

  6. Comparing Two Methods of Enteral Nutrition in Terms of their Complications and the Time Needed to Reach Goal Calorie in Children Hospitalized in ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Fayazi; Mohammad Adineh; Somayeh Zahraei Fard; Hoda Farokh payam; Zahra Ahmadie Batvandy

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrition support and noticing the required goal calories in patients having critical conditions are essential aspects of medical care in preventing malnutrition in these patients. Materials and Methods This research is a clinical trial which was done on 60 children aging between 5 to 17 years old hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Shiraz’s Namazee hospital, South West of Iran, during April to September 2015. Patients were separated randomly into two groups. Enteral nutri...

  7. Can Patient Safety Incident Reports Be Used to Compare Hospital Safety? Results from a Quantitative Analysis of the English National Reporting and Learning System Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie Howell

    Full Text Available The National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS collects reports about patient safety incidents in England. Government regulators use NRLS data to assess the safety of hospitals. This study aims to examine whether annual hospital incident reporting rates can be used as a surrogate indicator of individual hospital safety. Secondly assesses which hospital characteristics are correlated with high incident reporting rates and whether a high reporting hospital is safer than those lower reporting hospitals. Finally, it assesses which health-care professionals report more incidents of patient harm, which report more near miss incidents and what hospital factors encourage reporting. These findings may suggest methods for increasing the utility of reporting systems.This study used a mix methods approach for assessing NRLS data. The data were investigated using Pareto analysis and regression models to establish which patients are most vulnerable to reported harm. Hospital factors were correlated with institutional reporting rates over one year to examine what factors influenced reporting. Staff survey findings regarding hospital safety culture were correlated with reported rates of incidents causing harm; no harm and death to understand what barriers influence error disclosure.5,879,954 incident reports were collected from acute hospitals over the decade. 70.3% of incidents produced no harm to the patient and 0.9% were judged by the reporter to have caused severe harm or death. Obstetrics and Gynaecology reported the most no harm events [OR 1.61(95%CI: 1.12 to 2.27, p<0.01] and pharmacy was the hospital location where most near-misses were captured [OR 3.03(95%CI: 2.04 to 4.55, p<0.01]. Clinicians were significantly more likely to report death than other staff [OR 3.04(95%CI: 2.43 to 3.80 p<0.01]. A higher ratio of clinicians to beds correlated with reduced rate of harm reported [RR = -1.78(95%Cl: -3.33 to -0.23, p = 0.03]. Litigation claims per bed were

  8. A comparative study of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital on financial operation and sustainable developmen t%不同举办主体的两家非营利性医疗机构财务经营和持续发展比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嫣; 齐璐璐; 朱骞; 朱同玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To indicate the difficulties of operating private non-profit hospitals by a comparative study of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital in the economic performance and the social benefits. Methods:In-depth interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted to analyze the economic performance and the social benefits of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital. Results:Between the private non-profit hospital and the public hospital,there were differences in the economic performance and the sustainable development ability. Conclusion:Public hospitals surpass private non-profit hospitals in the economic performance and sustainable development ability.%目的:比较两家不同举办主体的医疗机构在经济运行情况和社会效益方面的差异,揭示社会资本办医之困境。方法:通过深度访谈和问卷调查,对两家医院经济运行和社会效益等指标和数据进行描述性分析。结果:两家不同举办主体的医疗机构,在经济运行状况和持续发展能力方面存在差异。结论:公立医院的经济运行状况和持续发展能力好于民营医院。

  9. A comparative study of epidural catheter colonization and infection in Intensive Care Unit and wards in a Tertiary Care Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Harde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a potentially serious complication of epidural analgesia and with an increase in its use in wards there is a necessity to demonstrate its safety. We aimed to compare the incidence of colonization of epidural catheters retained for short duration (for 48 h postoperative analgesia in postanesthesia care unit and wards. It was a prospective observational study done in a tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 2 years and included 400 patients with 200 each belonged to two groups PACU and ward. We also studied epidural tip culture pattern, skin swab culture at the entry point of the catheter, their relation to each other and whether colonization is equivalent to infection. Data were analyzed using statistical software GraphPad. Overall positive tip culture was 6% (24, of them 7% (14 were from PACU and 5% (10 were from ward (P = 0.5285. Positive skin swab culture was 38% (150, of them 20% (80 were from PACU and 18% (70 were from ward (P = 0.3526. The relation between positive tip culture and positive skin swab culture in same patients is extremely significant showing a strong linear relationship (95% confidence interval = 0.1053–0.2289. The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis. No patient had signs of local or epidural infection. There is no difference in the incidence of epidural catheter tip culture and skin swab culture of patients from the general ward and PACU. Epidural analgesia can be administered safely for 48 h in general wards without added risk of infection. The presence of positive tip culture is not a predictor of epidural space infection, and colonization is not equivalent to infection; hence, routine culture is not needed. Bacterial migration from the skin along the epidural track is the most common mode of bacterial colonization; hence, strict asepsis is necessary.

  10. A comparative study of epidural catheter colonization and infection in Intensive Care Unit and wards in a Tertiary Care Public Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Minal; Bhadade, Rakesh; Iyer, Hemlata; Jatale, Amol; Tiwatne, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Infection is a potentially serious complication of epidural analgesia and with an increase in its use in wards there is a necessity to demonstrate its safety. We aimed to compare the incidence of colonization of epidural catheters retained for short duration (for 48 h) postoperative analgesia in postanesthesia care unit and wards. It was a prospective observational study done in a tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 2 years and included 400 patients with 200 each belonged to two groups PACU and ward. We also studied epidural tip culture pattern, skin swab culture at the entry point of the catheter, their relation to each other and whether colonization is equivalent to infection. Data were analyzed using statistical software GraphPad. Overall positive tip culture was 6% (24), of them 7% (14) were from PACU and 5% (10) were from ward (P = 0.5285). Positive skin swab culture was 38% (150), of them 20% (80) were from PACU and 18% (70) were from ward (P = 0.3526). The relation between positive tip culture and positive skin swab culture in same patients is extremely significant showing a strong linear relationship (95% confidence interval = 0.1053–0.2289). The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis. No patient had signs of local or epidural infection. There is no difference in the incidence of epidural catheter tip culture and skin swab culture of patients from the general ward and PACU. Epidural analgesia can be administered safely for 48 h in general wards without added risk of infection. The presence of positive tip culture is not a predictor of epidural space infection, and colonization is not equivalent to infection; hence, routine culture is not needed. Bacterial migration from the skin along the epidural track is the most common mode of bacterial colonization; hence, strict asepsis is necessary. PMID:27076712

  11. Measurement of central corneal thickness by ultrasonic pachymeter and oculus pentacam in patients with well-controlled glaucoma: hospital-based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid RF

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Riyam Faihan Rashid, Qasim K Farhood Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq Background: The measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma and many corneal diseases.Objective of the study: To compare the measurement of CCT by ultrasonic pachymeter with that measured by oculus pentacam in both normal subjects and patients with well-controlled glaucoma.Patients and methods: In 173 eyes of both controls and patients with open-angle glaucoma (normal intraocular pressure attending Ibn Al Haitham Teaching Eye Hospital, CCT was measured by oculus pentacam and then by ultrasound pachymeter at the same morning by the same technicians.Results: The results showed no significant difference in CCT readings measured by the two devices in both glaucoma and control groups (glaucoma group: 547.29±49.32 µm with pentacam vs 547.66±45.24 µm with ultrasound pachymeter; control group: 551.02±36.28 µm with pentacam vs 541.25±34.96 µm with ultrasound pachymeter. P-values were >0.05 in both groups (statistically not significant.Conclusion and recommendation: Ultrasonic pachymeter and oculus pentacam can be used interchangeably in measuring CCT, and we recommend a nontouch method (in this study, pentacam Scheimpflug camera for measuring CCT during assessment of patients with glaucoma or any ocular disease or surgery. Keywords: CCT, open-angle glaucoma, ultrasound pachymeter, Scheimpflug camera

  12. Behaviour Trees for Evolutionary Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper, Kirk Y. W.; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Coen C.; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this paper we show the first application of the Behaviour Tree framework to a real robotic platform using the Evolutionary Robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behaviour as compared to the traditional Neural Network formulation. As a result, the behaviour is easier to comprehend and manually ad...

  13. A comparative study of pregnancy complications and outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 at a rural hospital in South Africa: Implications for antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Hoque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection and management of high-risk pregnancies, all the way through antenatal care, have been advocated as a high-quality mean of reducing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.Objectives: This study reviewed the demographic variables, pregnancy and obstetric complications and perinatal outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 in a rural hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with the aim of evaluating trends and gaps that may enhance appropriate strategies for improvement of antenatal care.Method: A retrospective comparative study, with representative samples of pregnant women, were randomly selected for the respective years 1999 and 2004. Descriptive statistics were calculated depending on measurement scale. A Z-test was carried out to assess the significant difference (p < 0.05 in proportions between pregnancy complications and outcomes of the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the significant predictors for outcome variables.Results: The numbers of pregnancies among young women (< 25 years increased significantly by 8% (p < 0.05 in the year 2004. Compared with 1999, the reduction in the numbers of pregnancies (1% among higher parity (parity 5 or more women in 2004 was remarkable. There were significant reductions of eclampsia, anaemia and post partum haemorrhage. Women with breech presentation were 3.75 times more likely to deliver preterm, and 5.45 times more likely to deliver low birth-weight babies. Similarly, women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were more likely to have preterm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 2.83; 4.35 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.62; 2.71. Eclampsia was also a risk factor associated with preterm deliveries (OR = 6.14, 95% CI 3.74; 10.09 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 1.83; 6.28.Conclusion: This study suggests that further research is needed to find the causes of higher rate of teenage pregnancies and an increase in

  14. IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaubmayr Christine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the hospitals. Methods In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. Results The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of nearly all clinical IT systems, especially nursing systems, but also PACS and electronic archiving systems, in Austrian than in German hospitals. These findings correspond with a significantly wider use of standardised nursing terminologies and a higher number of PC workstations on the wards (average 2.1 PCs in Germany, 3.2 PCs in Austria. Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals both reported a similar IT budget of 2.6% in Austria and 2.0% in Germany (median. Conclusions Despite the many similarities of the Austrian and German healthcare system there are distinct differences which may have led to a wider use of IT systems in Austrian hospitals. In nursing, the specific legal requirement to document nursing diagnoses in Austria may have stimulated the use of standardised terminologies for nursing diagnoses and the implementation of electronic nursing documentation systems. Other factors which correspond with the wider use of clinical IT systems in Austria are: good infrastructure of medical-technical devices, rigorous organisational changes which had led to leaner processes and to a lower length of stay, and finally a more IT friendly climate. As country size is the most pronounced difference between Germany and Austria it could be that smaller countries, such as Austria, are more ready to translate innovation into

  15. 不同举办主体的两家非营利性医疗机构历史和现状的比较%A comparative study of a private non-proift hospital and a public hospital on history and current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嫣; 朱骞; 齐璐璐; 朱同玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To indicate the difficulties of operating private non-profit hospitals by a comparative study of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital in the development,the scale and the service capability. Methods:In-depth interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted to analyze the development and the operation of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital.Results:There were differences on the development,the scale and the service capacity between the private non-profit hospital and the public hospital. Conclusion:The development of private hospitals largely relies on the innovation in management,the supplement of professionals and the support from the government.%目的:比较两家不同举办主体的医疗机构在发展历程、规模、服务能力的差异,揭示社会资本办医之困境。方法:通过深度访谈和问卷调查,对两家医院历史和运营数据进行描述性分析。结果:两家不同举办主体的医疗机构,在发展演变、医院规模、医疗服务能力等方面存在差异。结论:管理创新是促进民营医院发展的重要因素;人才短缺是制约民营医院发展的重要因素;政府扶持是保证民营医院发展的重要因素。

  16. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour. PMID:17355718

  17. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M. H. Rakha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools

  18. A comparative study of artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy in continuous modeling of the daily and hourly behaviour of runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Muhammad; Kita, Ichiro; Yano, Akira; Nishiyama, Soichi

    2007-04-01

    SummaryModeling of rainfall-runoff dynamics is one of the most studied topics in hydrology due to its essential application to water resources management. Recently, artificial intelligence has gained much popularity for calibrating the nonlinear relationships inherent in the rainfall-runoff process. In this study, the advantages of artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy system in continuous modeling of the daily and hourly behaviour of runoff were examined. Three different adaptive techniques were constructed and examined namely, Levenberg-Marquardt feed forward neural network, Bayesian regularization feed forward neural network, and neuro-fuzzy. In addition, the effects of data transformation on model performance were also investigated. This was done by examining the performance of the three network architectures and training algorithms using both raw and transformed data. Through inspection of the results it was found that although the model built on transformed data outperforms the model built on raw data, no significant differences were found between the forecast accuracies of the three examined models. A detailed comparison of the overall performance indicated that the neuro-fuzzy model performed better than both the Levenberg-Marquardt-FFNN and the Bayesian regularization-FFNN. In order to enable users to process the data easily, a graphic user interface (GUI) was developed. This program allows users to process the rainfall-runoff data, to train/test the model using various input options and to visualize results.

  19. Institutionalism and schizophrenia 30 years on. Clinical poverty and the social environment in three British mental hospitals in 1960 compared with a fourth in 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curson, D A; Pantelis, C; Ward, J; Barnes, T R

    1992-02-01

    In their comparison of chronic schizophrenic patients in three British mental hospitals in 1960, Wing and Brown found a strong association between the poverty of the social environment and the severity of 'clinical poverty' (blunted affect, poverty of speech, and social withdrawal). Between 1960 and 1968 the social environments of all three hospitals improved and a weak causal relationship between social poverty and clinical poverty was reported in a proportion of patients. Using the same assessment instruments as Wing and Brown, the present study re-examined the relationship between social and clinical poverty in the long-stay schizophrenic population of a fourth British mental hospital in 1990. The association found between social and clinical poverty was much weaker than in 1960. Reluctance on the part of patients to be discharged from the institution was unrelated to length of stay. There was no significant difference in severity of illness between the patients in the present study and those in the earlier study. However, patients in the former group spent more time doing nothing than those in the hospital with the most understimulating environment three decades before, with four-fifths doing nothing for over five hours a day, despite a greatly increased ratio of nurses to patients.

  20. Physical health behaviours and health locus of control in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional comparative study with people with non-psychotic mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborn David PJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental illness experience high levels of morbidity and mortality from physical disease compared to the general population. Our primary aim was to compare how people with severe mental illness (SMI; i.e. schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder and non-psychotic mental illness perceive their: (i global physical health, (ii barriers to improving physical health, (iii physical health with respect to important aspects of life and (iv motivation to change modifiable high-risk behaviours associated with coronary heart disease. A secondary aim was to determine health locus of control in these two groups of participants. Methods People with SMI and non-psychotic mental illness were recruited from an out-patient adult mental health service in London. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups was conducted by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results A total of 146 people participated in the study, 52 with SMI and 94 with non-psychotic mental illness. There was no statistical difference between the two groups with respect to the perception of global physical health. However, physical health was considered to be a less important priority in life by people with SMI (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.029. There was no difference between the two groups in their desire to change high risk behaviours. People with SMI are more likely to have a health locus of control determined by powerful others (p p = 0.006. Conclusions People with SMI appear to give less priority to their physical health needs. Health promotion for people with SMI should aim to raise awareness of modifiable high-risk lifestyle factors. Findings related to locus of control may provide a theoretical focus for clinical intervention in order to promote a much needed behavioural change in this marginalised group of people.

  1. Habit versus planned behaviour: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, B; Aarts, H; van Knippenberg, A; Moonen, A

    1998-03-01

    A field experiment investigated the prediction and change in repeated behaviour in the domain of travel mode choices. Car use during seven days was predicted from habit strength (measured by self-reported frequency of past behaviour, as well as by a more covert measure based on personal scripts incorporating the behaviour), and antecedents of behaviour as conceptualized in the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention). Both habit measures predicted behaviour in addition to intention and perceived control. Significant habit x intention interactions indicated that intentions were only significantly related to behaviour when habit was weak, whereas no intention-behaviour relation existed when habit was strong. During the seven-day registration of behaviour, half of the respondents were asked to think about the circumstances under which the behaviour was executed. Compared to control participants, the behaviour of experimental participants was more strongly related to their previously expressed intentions. However, the habit-behaviour relation was unaffected. The results demonstrate that, although external incentives may increase the enactment of intentions, habits set boundary conditions for the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:9554090

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of Ni-BZO and Ni-BZY cermet anodes for Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells (PCFCs) – A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cermet anodes Ni-BaZrO3 (Ni-BZO) & Ni-BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-δ (Ni-BZY) were synthesised • Resultant microstructure of both cermet anodes shown to be similar • Minimum Rp in Ni-BZY in 10%H2/N2 with matrix phase of higher proton conductivity. • Strong links shown between R2 and proton conduction in cermet matrix phase. • Magnitude of R3 lower for Ni-BZO than for Ni-BZY under similar conditions. - Abstract: The matrix phase of protonic ceramic fuel cell (PCFC) cermet anodes potentially plays a vital role in hydrogen oxidation kinetics. The present work aims to investigate such involvement by selecting ceramic-oxide matrices with widely dissimilar levels of proton conduction. The materials chosen were that of the proton conducting phase BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-δ and the nominal composition BaZrO3 of negligible proton conduction. Cermet anodes Ni-BaZrO3 and Ni-BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-δ were synthesized by the acetate-H2O2 combustion method for Ni contents of 40 vol%. The microstructure and electrochemical performance of the cermet anodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) respectively. The polarisation behaviour of the two nickel cermet anodes was studied as a function of temperature, hydrogen partial pressure (pH2) and water vapor partial pressure (pH2O). The results confirm that polarisation resistance is highly sensitive to the composition of the ceramic phase of the cermet anode and that the higher frequency electrode response exhibits strong links to levels of proton transport in the ceramic-oxide matrix

  3. Comparación del estado nutricional, consumo alimenticio y tiempo de hospitalización de pacientes de dos hospitales, uno público y otro privado Comparative analysis of nutritional status, food intake and lenght of hospitalization considering two hospitals: public versus private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV. A. Leandro-Merhi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Conocer el estado nutricional de pacientes hospitalizados es importante para la prevención de la desnutrición hospitalaria y para la planificación de las intervenciones nutricionales. OBJETIVO: Analizarsar comparativamente el estado nutricional, el consumo energético, el proteico y el tiempo de hospitalización internación de pacientes ingresados en plantas enfermerias de un hospital público y uno privado, que atiendan a personas con diferentes perfiles sócio económicos. CASUÍSTICA Y MÉTODOS: Este estudio ha sido del tipo prospectivo con la muestra obtenida entre pacientes de dos hospitales, uno público (HPU y uno privado (HPR, que presentan respectivamente la población más pobre y la de mejor condición socioeconómica. Han sido considerados para el análisis, 51 pacientes del HPU con una edad mediana de 53,9 ± 15,6 años y 51 del HPR con 55,0 ± 13,9 años, dispuestos en parejas y agrupados de acuerdo con las sieguientes enfermedades: neoplasias (n = 25, enfermedades de aparato digestivotório (n = 11 y otras (n = 15. Para el análisis estadístico, ha sido aplicado el test T-Student para comparaciones entre las variaciones del HPU y HPR, con p INTRODUCTION: To assess the nutritional status of hospitalized patients is important for the prevention of hospital malnutrition and planning of nutritional intervention. OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the nutritional status of patients admitted to two hospitals, one public and another private, caring for populations with different socioeconomic profiles. CASE STUDY AND METHODS: This was a prospective study and samples were collected from patients of two hospitals, one public (PUH and another private (PRH, which respectively represent the underprivileged and the more affluent populations. The analysis considered 51 patients from the PUH, aged between 53.9 ± 15.6 years and 51 from the PRH, aged between 55.0 ± 13.9 years, paired and grouped according to the following

  4. Neck-specific training with a cognitive behavioural approach compared with prescribed physical activity in patients with cervical radiculopathy : a protocol of a prospective randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dedering, Åsa; Halvorsen, Marie; Cleland, Joshua; Svensson, Mikael; Peolsson, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with cervical radiculopathy often have neck- and arm pain, neurological changes, activity limitations and difficulties in returning to work. Most patients are not candidates for surgery but are often treated with different conservative approaches and may be sick-listed for long periods. The purpose of the current study is to compare the effectiveness of neck-specific training versus prescribed physical activity. Methods/Design The current protocol is a two armed interventi...

  5. The mortality of acutely ill medical patients for up to 60 days after admission to a resource poor hospital in sub-Saharan Africa compared with patients of similar illness severity admitted to a Danish Regional Teaching Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabayigga, Barbara; Kellett, John; Brabrand, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcomes of patients with the same severity of illness in the developed and developing countries have not been compared. Illness severity can now be measured anywhere by the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). METHODS: An exploratory observational study that compared the 7, 30...

  6. Comparison of organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Abbasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are among the most interactive organizations in which the rate of knowledge transfer and learning is considerably high. The investigation of the level of organizational learning between public and private sector hospitals can be useful for managers to select proper organizational learning strategies aiming at improving service delivery and organizational behaviour (1. This study was carried out to compare the organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. Methods: This descriptive survey was performed on the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. According to Krejcie and Morgan’s table, 175 employees were selected via stratified random sampling from 6 public and 2 private hospitals. The instrument for gathering data was Organizational Learning Capability Questionnaire (OLCQ by Gomez et al. (2005 (2. Data were analysed by inferential statistics (K-S test, Levene’s test, t-test, one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 20.00. Results: The level of organizational learning capabilities of personnel was higher in the private hospitals than in public hospitals, indicating a statistically significant difference between them (T (26= 11.779, P0.01، F (3, 68 = 1.859. Conclusion: With regard to the higher average of knowledge transfer and integration than the other capabilities in public and private hospitals, it seems that the managers of hospitals should make use of this component to promote the organizational knowledge of the personnel and improve other organizational learning capabilities too.

  7. Accounting and comparing of expenditure on the medical services given at neuro-surgery department of Imam Khomeyni Hospital in the year of 1994 (1373

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasi Moghadam M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on analysis of expenditure on all the medical services given at Neuro-Surgery Department of Imam-Khomeini Hospital in the year of 1994 (1373. In this study, all the information on descriptive method and the techniques of cost analysis and cost per unit of service provided accountancy, were analysed. 573 patients were considered in this study. 522 of them underwent 13 different types of neuro-surgery operations. 92.6% of them total departmental costs were related to current expenditures and 7.4% of that was related to the capial expenditures. The personnel costs with 49% was the highest portion of the total costs. Percentage wise, the costs were as follows: Medicine, materials and equipment 22%, food 17.6%, depreciation 7.4%, fuel, water, electricity and telephone 3.5%. The mean duration of stay was 16.3 days for every in-patient. The percentage of occupied bed was 58% if the percentage of desired bed occupancy was supposed 80%, therefore, 22% of the bed, plus 3512 bed-day were gone wasted. The real cost of med-care policy need to be more rational for the operation and hospitalization. It should be mentioned that the wasted time was 886 hours and wasted cost was 71, 708, 410 Rials in operation room.

  8. Mortality associated with gastrointestinal bleeding events: Comparing short-term clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding and acute myocardial infarction in a US managed care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mel Wilcox

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available C Mel Wilcox1, Byron L Cryer2, Henry J Henk3, Victoria Zarotsky3, Gergana Zlateva41University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX; 3i3 Innovus, Eden Prairie, MN, USA; 4Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA Objectives: To compare the short-term mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI bleeding to those of acute myocardial infarction (AMI by estimating the 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality among hospitalized patients.Methods: United States national health plan claims data (1999–2003 were used to identify patients hospitalized with a GI bleeding event. Patients were propensity-matched to AMI patients with no evidence of GI bleed from the same US health plan.Results: 12,437 upper GI-bleed patients and 22,847 AMI patients were identified. Propensity score matching yielded 6,923 matched pairs. Matched cohorts were found to have a similar Charlson Comorbidity Index score and to be similar on nearly all utilization and cost measures (excepting emergency room costs. A comparison of outcomes among the matched cohorts found that AMI patients had higher rates of 30-day mortality (4.35% vs 2.54%; p < 0.0001 and rehospitalization (2.56% vs 1.79%; p = 0.002, while GI bleed patients were more likely to have a repeat procedure (72.38% vs 44.95%; p < 0.001 following their initial hospitalization. The majority of the difference in overall 30-day mortality between GI bleed and AMI patients was accounted for by mortality during the initial hospitalization (1.91% vs 3.58%.Conclusions: GI bleeding events result in significant mortality similar to that of an AMI after adjusting for the initial hospitalization.Keywords: gastrointestinal, bleeding, mortality, acute myocardial infarction, claims analysis

  9. Analysis of Niche Hospitals in Texas and the Financial Impact on General Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet; Su Liu; Gilbert Gimm; Cheryl Fahlman; Laurie Felland; Anneliese Gerland; Michelle Banker; Allison Liebhaber

    2006-01-01

    In Texas, as in other states, the proliferation of niche hospitals has raised concern about the potential financial impact of these hospitals on full-service general hospitals. This report compares the financial status of physician-owned niche hospitals and general hospitals in Texas, analyzes the impact of niche hospitals on general hospital financial margins and levels of uncompensated care, analyzes potential bias in physician-owners' referral patterns, investigates stakeholders' perceptio...

  10. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  11. Hospital fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID

  12. Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladman John RF

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. Methods/design We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home, or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home. Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of

  13. The prediction of the in-hospital mortality of acutely ill medical patients by electrocardiogram (ECG) dispersion mapping compared with established risk factors and predictive scores--a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2011-08-01

    ECG dispersion mapping (ECG-DM) is a novel technique that analyzes low amplitude ECG oscillations and reports them as the myocardial micro-alternation index (MMI). This study compared the ability of ECG-DM to predict in-hospital mortality with traditional risk factors such as age, vital signs and co-morbid diagnoses, as well as three predictive scores: the Simple Clinical Score (SCS)--based on clinical and ECG findings, and two Medical Admission Risk System scores--one based on vital signs and laboratory data (MARS), and one only on laboratory data (LD).

  14. Video interpretations in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Noesgaard, Susanne; Henriksen, Jan Erik;

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital.......This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital....

  15. Hospital Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Welcome to hospitalinspections.org, a website run by the Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) that aims to make federal hospital inspection reports easier...

  16. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  17. Optimal Hospital Layout Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine

    This PhD project presents a design model that generates and evaluates hospital designs with respect to long-term performances and functionalities. By visualizing and quantifying costs and performances in the early design phases, it is possible to make design choices based on a qualified, profound...... foundation. The basis of the present study lies in solving the architectural design problem in order to respond to functionalities and performances. The emphasis is the practical applicability for architects, engineers and hospital planners for assuring usability and a holistic approach of functionalities...... and performances. By formal descriptions, a design model can weigh and compare the impact of different perspectives and, even in the early design phase, it can visualize and quantify consequences for design choices. By qualitative study of hospital design and hospital functionality, formal descriptions develop...

  18. Service Robots for Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    services to maintain the quality of healthcare provided. This thesis and the Industrial PhD project aim to address logistics, which is the most resource demanding service in a hospital. The scale of the transportation tasks is huge and the material flow in a hospital is comparable to that of a factory. We...... believe that these transportation tasks, to a great extent, can be and will be automated using mobile robots. This thesis consequently addresses the key technical issues of implementing service robots in hospitals. In simple terms, a robotic system for automating hospital logistics has to be reliable...... manual work and offer many advantages beyond robotics. Finally, this thesis outlines our contributions in representation of multi-floor buildings, which is a vital requirement to achieve robust and practical, real-world service robot applications....

  19. Medulloblastoma in childhood-King Edward Memorial hospital surgical experience and review: Comparative analysis of the case series of 365 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatraya Muzumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Medulloblastoma is one of the most common posterior fossa tumors in childhood. The treatment-related side effects as well as predictive outcome still remain as a major challenge. The improved understanding of the disease and advances in molecular biology is changing the treatment paradigms from Chang′s staging system to molecular risk stratification. However, surgery still remains as an important mainstay of therapy and is formidable. The role of radical surgery has always been a crucial factor in the outcome of these patients, the best survival being reported in patients who had total excision of the tumor and with no metastasis. Patient and Methods: An analysis of 365 patients (age<18 years of medulloblastoma who underwent treatment at the Seth G.S. Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial hospital (KEM, Mumbai over a 25- year period (1985-2000 and 2001-2010 is presented. The clinical profile, radiological features, pathology and surgical nuances are discussed. Results: The most common age group affected was between 3 and 12 years. 75.3% presented with headaches, vomiting and 63.2% with papilledema. Sitting position was used in majority of cases. A total of 8 patients underwent shunting; all of them were in the postoperative period (5.19%. 92.2% (142 cases had classical medulloblastoma, 5.1% (8 cases had desmoplastic variant, 1.9% (3 cases had anaplastic changes and 0.6% (1 case had glial differentiation. The 5-year and 10-year progression free survival rate was 73 and 41% for average risk disease while for high risk disease rate it was 34%. The mortality rate was 2%. The quality of life was enhanced in patients who survived 5-10 years after treatment. Conclusion: Surgery for medulloblastoma is formidable. The option of sitting position for medulloblastoma surgery is still viable. A vigilant neuroanesthesiologist and a safe surgery are necessary to achieve a good postoperative result. Radiological characteristics are helpful

  20. A Comparative Study of Financial Data Sources for Critical Access Hospitals: Audited Financial Statements, the Medicare Cost Report, and the Internal Revenue Service Form 990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Alisha Bhadelia; Reiter, Kristin L.; Holmes, George M.; Pink, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare Cost Reports (MCR), Internal Revenue Service Form 990s (IRS 990), and Audited Financial Statements (AFS) vary in their content, detail, purpose, timeliness, and certification. The purpose of this study was to compare selected financial data elements and characterize the extent of differences in financial data and ratios across…

  1. Oxytocin versus methyl ergometrine in the management of third stage of labor: a comparative study from a South Indian tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Rajendran

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Intramuscular oxytocin is equally effective but has a better safety profile compared to methyl ergometrine and hence is a more preferable prophylactic uterotonic management of the third stage of labor. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1327-1330

  2. The influence of leadership behaviour on organisational citizenship behaviour in self-managed work teams in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoharah Omar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of transformational-transactional leadership behaviour on organisational citizenship behaviour in self-managed work teams and the augmenting effect of transformational-transactional leadership behaviour. This cross-sectional correlation study was conducted on 93 self-managed work teams in a multinational manufacturing company. Data were collected through group face-to-face administration by the researcher and statistically analysed through Pearson correlation, partial correlation and multiple regressions. Results showed that both transactional and transformational leadership behaviour have a positive influence on organisational citizenship behaviour among team members. Transformational leadership behaviour, however, has a greater influence on organisational citizenship behaviour compared to transactional leadership behaviour. The results also conf rmed the augmenting effect of transformational leadership behaviour on the relationship between transactional leadership behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour.

  3. Key operating and financial ratios for Alberta hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M

    1994-01-01

    Comparative financial and operating ratios in Canadian hospitals are examined to reveal sources of increased efficiency. The study involved 70 Alberta hospitals, which were divided into three groups: teaching hospitals, regional hospitals and smaller rural hospitals. Data were obtained from HS-1 and HS-2 reports. Hospitals across Canada can calculate their own ratios to give them a general idea of how they compare with the hospitals in this report.

  4. Mobile Robots for Hospital Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    Hospitals are complex and dynamic organisms that are vital to the well-being of societies. Providing good quality healthcare is the ultimate goal of a hospital, and it is what most of us are only concerned with. A hospital, on the other hand, has to orchestrate a great deal of supplementary...... services to maintain the quality of healthcare provided. Logistics is the most resource demanding service in a hospital. The scale of the transportation tasks is huge and the material flow in a hospital is comparable to that of a factory. We believe that these transportation tasks, to a great extent, can...... be and will be automated using mobile robots. This talk consequently addresses the key technical issues of implementing service robots in hospitals. In simple terms, a robotic system for automating hospital logistics has to be reliable, adaptable and scalable. Robots have to be semi-autonomous, and should reliably...

  5. A comparative study on patient safety with reference to methods of detection of adverse events in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Moonis Mirza; Farooq A. Jan; Fayaz Ahmad Sofi; Rauf Ahmad Wani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considerable investments have been made to devise methods to detect actual and potential adverse events in health care in order to address risk and improve patient safety. Objective of the study was to compare the methods of detection of number of adverse events taking place in admitted patients. Method: A prospective study for a period of one year. Three adverse events detection modules were studied, i.e. current record review, Incident reporting and cases discussed in Mortal...

  6. Measurement of central corneal thickness by ultrasonic pachymeter and oculus pentacam in patients with well-controlled glaucoma: hospital-based comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid RF; Farhood QK

    2016-01-01

    Riyam Faihan Rashid, Qasim K Farhood Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq Background: The measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma and many corneal diseases.Objective of the study: To compare the measurement of CCT by ultrasonic pachymeter with that measured by oculus pentacam in both normal subjects and patients with well-controlled glaucoma.Patients and methods: In 17...

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF VALACYCLOVIR AND FAMCYCLOVIR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HERPES ZOSTER IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN PUDUCHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of Valacyclovir and Famcyclovir in the management of Acute Herpes Zoster. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant data were taken from 162 patients with herpes zoster who presented within 72 hours of onset of rash and were randomized into 2 groups of 81 each. The 1st group received Valacyclovir 1gm thrice a day for 7 days while those in the 2nd group received Famcyclovir 500 mg thrice a day for 7 days respectively and evaluated at the end of each week upto 6 weeks period and examined for full crusting of lesions, complete healing of the lesion and loss of acute pain (visual analogue scale scores for pain. Safety assessment was based on adverse effects. RESULTS: The intent to treat analysis (162 Pts showed that valacyclovir for 7 days significantly accelerated the resolution of pain in Herpes zoster pts (P=0.00014 compared with famcyclovir; median pain duration were 21 and 22 days respectively. There was no difference between treatments in time taken for healing of lesions. Adverse effects like nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and headache were commonly reported in both groups. Valacyclovir was found to be statistically superior over Famcyclovir in terms of G.I adverse effects. Compliance was also better with Valacyclovir. CONCLUSION: Oral Valacyclovir administered three times daily for 7 days during acute zoster infection offers significant benefit by providing a well-tolerated, cost effective and accelerated rate of resolution of pain and maintains the favorable safety profile compared to oral Famcyclovir.

  8. A comparative study of the serum calcium level in normal pregnant and pre-eclamptic women attending Gauhati Medical College and Hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Karabi; Choudhury (Dutta), Biju; Borgohain, Manas Krishna; Choudhury, Nazlin Hyder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Though several factors have been implicated, the exact aetiology is still unknown. Recent studies have implicated that low serum calcium level may have a role in pre-eclampsia.Aim and Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the relation between serum calcium level and pre-eclampsia by comparing the serum calcium levels in pre-eclampsia with that of normal pregnancy.Materials a...

  9. The comparative study of theories and tools application in performance evaluation of hospital human resources%医院人力资源绩效评价理论与工具应用比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 乐虹

    2012-01-01

    Human resource management is based on the modern theories of human resource management. In recent years, some domestic scholars began to apply some advanced management theories into hospital human resources management, such as incentive theory, psychological contract theory, the theory of organizational commitment and iceberg theory. Human resource management theory has great sense for the performance evaluation, so that the choice of performance appraisal methods is the important content of human resource management. In order to provide reference for the hospital managers, the authors developed a comparative analysis among the key performance indication assessment method, 360 degree evaluation method, Balanced Scorecard to find the suitable performance management tool for hospitals.%医院人力资源管理是建立在现代人力资源管理理论的基础之上的.近年来国内一些学者尝试把一些先进的人力资源管理理论运用到医院人力资源绩效管理中,包括"激励理论"、"心理契约理论"、"组织承诺理论"、"冰山理论"等.人力资源管理理论对绩效考核有重大的指导意义,绩效考核方法的选择是人力资源管理的重要内容.本文通对360度考核法、平衡计分法等的适用性进行比较分析,选择适合的绩效管理工具,以期为医院管理者提供借鉴.

  10. Comparative study of Smear Microscopy, Rapid Slide Culture, and Lowenstein - Jensen culture in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Kumar Muddaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB, a dreadful disease known to mankind continues to be a problem in a developing country like India. The incidence of people getting infected with TB is on the rise due to compounding factors like coinfection with the human immunodefiency virus and multidrug-resistant strains. There is a definitive need for early diagnosis and treatment of TB to curb transmission of the infection. Direct smear microscopy, though cheap and rapid, lacks sensitivity. Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture requires a long time, because of which there is a need for a rapid method which has good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of M. tuberculosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the test which diagnoses TB rapidly and to compare the sensitivity of smear microscopy, concentration method, rapid slide culture, and Lowenstein - Jensen (LJ culture. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 200 patients were subjected to direct smear and concentration by modified Petroff′s method. The concentrated sputum was also taken for slide culture using human blood medium and inoculated on LJ media. Results: LJ culture was positive in 47 (23.5% cases, of which three were nontubercular mycobacteria. Using LJ culture as the standard method, the sensitivity of direct smear, concentration method, and rapid slide culture method was 68, 83, and 89%, respectively, and specificity was 100% in all the three tests. Conclusion: Rapid slide culture showed good sensitivity which was comparable to and next in efficacy to LJ culture and this technique can be adopted in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP as it is a rapid, cheap, sensitive, and specific method.

  11. Health-related quality of life of people living with HIV followed up in hospitals in France: comparing trends and correlates between 2003 and 2011 (ANRS-VESPA and VESPA2 national surveys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douab, Taoufiq; Marcellin, Fabienne; Vilotitch, Antoine; Protopopescu, Camelia; Préau, Marie; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Lert, France; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, France has witnessed both structural changes in the population of people living with HIV and a relative improvement in the social representation of HIV infection. However, potential changes in people's day-to-day experience with HIV have not been documented. We used data from the national surveys ANRS-VESPA (2003) and VESPA2 (2011) to compare the levels and patterns of correlates of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adult HIV-infected patients followed up in French hospitals over a period of eight years. Mean physical and mental SF-12 scores were compared (VESPA, n = 2072; and VESPA2, n = 2267) using analysis of variance (ANOVA) F tests. Heckman regression models were then used to identify independent correlates of physical and mental quality of life in the two surveys, while accounting for possible bias due to missing score values. A common set of potential socio-demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates was tested. Individuals reported a decrease in physical quality of life in VESPA2 compared with VESPA (mean score (standard error): 47.5 (0.2) versus 49.6 (0.2), p mental HRQL (44.3 (0.3) versus 42.3 (0.3), p mental quality of life. Older age and unemployment were independently associated with impaired physical quality of life. Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa reported better mental quality of life. Findings show that quality of life levels in adult HIV-infected patients followed up at hospital in France has significantly, yet modestly, changed in recent years. However, the pattern of quality of life correlates has remained relatively stable. The impact of patient-provider relationships on self-reported outcomes is confirmed. Further research is needed to identify potential differences in quality of life correlates in specific subgroups of patients, such as men who have sex with men, women, immigrants, and injecting drug users.

  12. Adverse birth outcome: a comparative analysis between cesarean section and vaginal delivery at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective record review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Eyowas F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fantu Abebe Eyowas,1 Ashebir Kidane Negasi,1 Gizachew Eyassu Aynalem,1 Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku2 1International NGO, Strengthening Human Resource for Health, Bahir Dar, 2Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Some studies favor elective cesarean delivery, and other surveys benefit vaginal delivery, while others emphasize that the quality of care during labor, birth, and immediate postpartum period plays a great role than the route of delivery. However, little information is locally available regarding the incidences of adverse birth outcome with respect to the route of delivery. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of eligible patient records that included 3,003 pregnant women who had undergone either cesarean or vaginal delivery from July 1, 2012, to June 31, 2013. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. The completeness and consistency of the data were checked, cleaned, and double entered to EPI-INFO 3.5.2 and analyzed with SPSS V20. Independent sample t-test and chi-square test were conducted to compare the outcome of vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS using index variables. Significance was taken at P<0.05. Results: Among the enrolled women, 760 mothers had CS delivery and the remaining 2,243 mothers delivered vaginally. Children born through CS (mean =6.83, standard deviation =1.31 had a significantly lower first-minute Apgar score than those in the vaginal delivery group (mean =7.19, standard deviation =1.18, P=0.001. Similarly, the observed respiratory distress syndrome (c2=0.09, P=0.793 and neonatal transfer rate to neonatal intensive care unit (c2=0.086, P=0.766 were more in neonates delivered by CS than those in the vaginally delivered group. Besides, the observed neonatal death (c2=0.675, P=0.411 and maternal death (c2= 8.878, P=0.003 were higher among CS deliveries compared with vaginal deliveries. Conclusion: Neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality appear

  13. Histological underestimation of a 9-gauge stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system compared with surgical excision at a tertiary hospital in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pieters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Certain lesions encountered on mammography require histological assessment of biopsy samples to identify benign versus malignant disease. Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB is a useful technique, especially for non-palpable microcalcific lesions, and was introduced at our institution in 2011.Objectives: To determine whether the histological underestimation from 9-gauge SVABs performed at our institution is within acceptable limits.Method: In this cross-sectional study, 9-gauge stereotactic biopsy histology results and breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS findings of 158 lesions (from 153 patients were analysed and the histological findings compared with surgical excision histology results (54 lesions to determine histological underestimation (upgrade rates.Results: One out of eight cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS was underestimated, yielding a DCIS underestimation rate of 12.5%.Conclusion: The DCIS underestimation obtained from the present study in our institution was on a par with other authors’ findings and was therefore within acceptable limits. Atypical ductal hyperplasia underestimation could not be reliably obtained with the small study population.Keywords: Stereotactic vacuum assisted breast biopsy; histological underestimation; histological upgrade

  14. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  15. Hospital Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition seen in hospitals usually occurs as some form of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). Primary PEM results from an acute or chronic deficiency of both protein and calories. Secondary PEM, or cachexia, results from a disease or medical condition such as cancer or gastrointestinal disease that alters requirements or impairs utilization of nutrients.

  16. Hospitality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  17. The comparative study of Yaz and Ovocept-ld on patients with simple ovarian cysts referring to Iran-Isfahan Shariati Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Riahinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional ovarian cysts include follicular, corpus luteum, and theca lutein cysts are the most common adnexal masses (about 50% in women of reproductive age. Treatment with the combined monophasic oral contraceptives reduces functional ovarian cysts. Yaz (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol is a low-dose combined oral contraceptive pill containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone. In addition to contraceptive effects, Yaz has anti-mineralocorticoid and anti-adrenergic effects. Ovocept- low-dose LD is also a low-dose combined oral contraceptive drug containing 30 μg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg norgestrol. Ovocept-LD has some side-effects such as weight gain, spotting, breast tenderness, nausea, and headache. Materials and Methods: Being a clinical study, the present research was carried out on 42 patients with the simple ovarian cysts from 2010 to 2012. 84 Patients were assigned to A and B groups. Group A received Yaz once a day for a period of 28 days and group B received Ovocept-LD once a day for a period of 21 days. After treating by Yaz and Ovocept-LD, Cysts were evaluated by ultrasound. Results were analyzed by the SPSS software. A P < 0.05 was considered the significance threshold. Results : Obtained results indicated that both Yaz and Ovocept-LD had an effect on the simple ovarian cysts. Statistical tests, however, has shown that the effect of Yaz has been significantly more than that of Ovocept-LD. Conclusion: Given the faster and better recovery effect, and the lesser side effects of Yaz as compared to Ovocept-LD, it is recommended to use Yaz for the simple ovarian cysts.

  18. Rapid Immuno-Chromatographic Assay for the Detection of Antibodies to HIV Compare with Elisa among Voluntary and Replacement Blood Donor of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, P; Rudra, S; Hossain, M A; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T; Rudra, M

    2015-04-01

    Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from voluntary and replacement blood donors & HIV-infected patients (positive samples from BSMMU, Dhaka). Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical), SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), First Response HIV Card 1-2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd.), HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc) and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Biotech) were evaluated between 1st February to 30th June, 2013 using 400 whole blood samples from voluntary and replacement blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics). Only 01 sample including ten positive samples from BSMMU were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 399 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1-100) while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9) and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7-98.9) respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1-100) on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6-100) while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99-99.9), 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8-99.7), 99.6% (95% CI; 99-99.9) and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3-99.9) for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was concordantly false positive in Uni-Gold™, Determine and SD Bioline assays. An alternative confirmatory HIV testing strategy based on initial testing on either SD Bioline or Determine assays followed by testing of reactive

  19. Retraction: 'rhBNP therapy can improve clinical outcomes and reduce in-hospital mortality compared with dobutamine in heart failure patients: a meta-analysis' by Ming-Yi Lv, Shu-Ling Deng and Xiao-Feng Long.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The above article, published online on 28(th) November 2015 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bcp.12788/full), and in volume 81, pp. 174-185, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Professor A Cohen, and John Wiley & Sons Limited. The retraction has been agreed owing to evidence indicating that the peer review of this paper was compromised. The authors were unaware of the actions of the third party responsible for compromising the peer review. Reference Lv M-Y, Deng S-L, Long X-F. rhBNP therapy can improve clinical outcomes and reduce in-hospital mortality compared with dobutamine in heart failure patients: a meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2016; 81: 174-85. doi:10.1111/bcp.12788.

  20. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  1. Comparing percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombolysis in patients with return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest%介入与溶栓疗法救治院外心脏骤停的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖庆; 柳娜; 胡春林; 魏红艳; 李慧; 李欣; 廖晓星

    2013-01-01

    coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolysis,in patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA),in the presence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).We demonstrated the benefits of the two therapies on ROSC patients in hospital discharge and neurological recovery,and clarified the importance of ROSC,so as to guide the treatments for OHCA in the presence of STEMI.Methods It was performed a meta-analysis of clinical studies located in PUBMED and MEDLINE databases from January 1995 to October 2011.OHCA patients with ROSC were as our study objects,the hospital discharge and neurological recovery rates,of patients with and without PCI or thrombolysis,were assessed in patients with ROSC after OHCA in the presence of STEMI.In the same Cohort Study,between received and rejected PCI,or between received and rejected thrombolysis in OHCA patients with ROSC as treated group and control group,using Review Manager 5.1 software to analyze,respectively.Furthermore,we also compared the differences in hospital discharge and neurological recovery rates between patient groups who received PCI or thrombolysis by Pearson x2 analysis.Results The meta-analysis showed that the rate of hospital discharge improved with both PCI (odds ratio [OR],1.65 ; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.05-2.59,P < 0.01)and thrombolysis (OR,2.03 ; 95% CI,1.24-3.34,P < 0.01) in patients with ROSC after OHCA,in the presence of STEMI.We also found that there were not significant differences between with PCI and with thrombolysis in the rate of hospital discharge (63.00% vs.65.19%,P =0.548) and neurological recovery (88.62% vs.91.25%,P =0.351) for the patients with ROSC after OHCA (P >0.05).Conclusions In patients with ROSC after OHCA in the presence of STEMI,both PCI and thrombolysis improved hospital discharge rates.Furthermore,there were similar efficacy in hospital discharge and neurological recovery rates between with PCI and with thrombolysis.

  2. Rural Hospitals Often Safer, Cheaper for Common Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158884.html Rural Hospitals Often Safer, Cheaper for Common Surgeries: Study Major ... may be safer when done in a rural hospital compared to a suburban or city hospital, a ...

  3. Rural and Urban Hospitals' Role in Providing Inpatient Care, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Rural and Urban Hospitals' Role in Providing Inpatient Care, 2010 Recommend on ... Survey, inpatient hospital utilization What share of inpatient hospital care was delivered in rural compared with urban ...

  4. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  5. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  6. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  7. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  8. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  9. Hospital characteristics and patient populations served by physician owned and non physician owned orthopedic specialty hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan-Sarrazin Mary S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of physician owned specialty hospitals focusing on high margin procedures has generated significant controversy. Yet, it is unclear whether physician owned specialty hospitals differ significantly from non physician owned specialty hospitals and thus merit the additional scrutiny that has been proposed. Our objective was to assess whether physician owned specialty orthopedic hospitals and non physician owned specialty orthopedic hospitals differ with respect to hospital characteristics and patient populations served. Methods We conducted a descriptive study using Medicare data of beneficiaries who underwent total hip replacement (THR (N = 10,478 and total knee replacement (TKR (N = 15,312 in 29 physician owned and 8 non physician owned specialty orthopedic hospitals during 1999–2003. We compared hospital characteristics of physician owned and non physician owned specialty hospitals including procedural volumes of major joint replacements (THR and TKR, hospital teaching status, and for profit status. We then compared demographics and prevalence of common comorbid conditions for patients treated in physician owned and non physician owned specialty hospitals. Finally, we examined whether the socio-demographic characteristics of the neighborhoods where physician owned and non physician owned specialty hospitals differed, as measured by zip code level data. Results Physician owned specialty hospitals performed fewer major joint replacements on Medicare beneficiaries in 2003 than non physician owed specialty hospitals (64 vs. 678, P Conclusion Physician owned specialty orthopedic hospitals differ significantly from non physician owned specialty orthopedic hospitals and may warrant the additional scrutiny policy makers have proposed.

  10. The impact of behavioural screening on intervention outcomes in a randomised, controlled multiple behaviour intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing research focus on multiple health behaviour change interventions, a methodological issue requiring further investigation is whether or not to employ pre-trial behavioural screening to exclude participants who are achieving a pre-specified level of one or more behaviours. Behavioural screening can be used to direct limited resources to participants most in need of a behaviour change intervention; but may reduce the representativeness of the sample and limit comparability with trials that do not employ pre-trial behavioural screening. Furthermore, the impact of this type of screening on intervention participation and intervention effects is unknown. Methods Data for this study come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a randomised, controlled telephone counselling lifestyle intervention trial which did not employ behavioural screening prior to randomisation. Screening for physical activity, diet or the combination was simulated using baseline trial data. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention participation (in terms of participant characteristics, intervention dose received and retention, characteristics of participants included an excluded under the various screening scenarios were compared. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention effects, results from the main trial analysis were compared with results obtained from the same analyses performed separately for each of the screened groups. Results Simulated pre-trial behavioural screening impacted minimally on intervention dose received and trial retention rate. Beyond the anticipated effect of reducing baseline levels of the behaviours being screened for, behavioural screening affected baseline levels of behaviours not targeted by screening, and participants' demographic and health-related characteristics. Behavioural screening impacted on intervention effects in ways that were anticipated and positive, but also

  11. Impact of a hospital improvement initiative in Bangladesh on patient experiences and satisfaction with services: two cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bangladesh government implemented a pilot Hospital Improvement Initiative (HII in five hospitals in Sylhet division between 1998 and 2003. This included management and behaviour change training for staff, waste disposal and procurement, and referral arrangements. Two linked cross-sectional surveys in 2000 and 2003 assessed the impact of the HII, assessing both patients' experience and satisfaction and public views and use of the hospitals. Methods In each survey we asked 300 consecutive outpatients and a stratified random sample of 300 inpatients in the five hospitals about waiting and consultation time, use of an agent for admission, and satisfaction with privacy, cleanliness, and staff behaviour. The field teams observed cleanliness and privacy arrangements, and visited a sample of households in communities near the hospitals to ask about their opinions and use of the hospital services. Analysis examined changes over time in patients' experience and views. Multivariate analysis took account of other variables potentially associated with the outcomes. Survey managers discussed the survey findings with gender stratified focus groups in each sample community. Results Compared with 2000, an outpatient in three of the hospitals in 2003 was more likely to be seen within 10 minutes and for at least five minutes by the doctor, but outpatients were less likely to report receiving all the prescribed medicines from the hospital. In 2003, inpatients were more likely to have secured admission without using an agent. Although patients’ satisfaction with several aspects of care improved, most changes were not statistically significant. Households in 2003 were significantly more likely to rate the hospitals as good than in 2000. Use of the hospitals did not change, except that more households used the medical college hospital for inpatient care in 2003. Focus groups confirmed criticisms of services and suggested improvements

  12. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  13. Practices regarding hospital waste management at public and private sector hospitals of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health care (Biomedical) waste is a term used for all waste arising from health care establishments. In most of health care centers of Pakistan, including Lahore, hospital wastes are simply mixed with the municipal waste in collecting bins at road-sides and disposed off similarly. Proper Management of biomedical waste, especially the hazardous one, being produced in hospital settings is important in terms of their ability to cause harm to the related per-sons and the environment as well. To Observe and compare the practices regarding Hospital Waste management of the public sector hospital with private sector hospital. Descriptive, Cross sectional. Methodology: Standardized checklist was used to assess the practices of nursing and sanitary staff. Practices regarding waste segregation were same at both hospitals. While practices regarding waste collection and transportation were better at The Children's Hospital. Public sector hospital has, paradoxically, better practices regarding hospital waste management in comparison to private sector hospital. (author)

  14. Time perspective and attitude-behaviour consistency in future-oriented behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas; Postmes, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose that the salience of a distant-future time perspective, compared to a near-future time perspective, should increase attitude-behaviour and attitude-intention consistency for future-oriented behaviours. To test this prediction, time perspective was experimentally manipulated in th

  15. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils.

  16. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  17. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vinale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical review of the analysis methods available for studying geotechnical structures under seismic loadings. All of the available methods can be classified into three main classes, including the pseudo-static, pseudo-dynamic and dynamic approaches, each of which is reviewed for applicability. A more advanced analysis procedure, suitable for a so-called performance-based design approach, is also described in the paper. Finally, the seismic behaviour of the El Infiernillo Dam was investigated. It was shown that coupled elastoplastic dynamic analyses disclose some of the important features of dam behaviour under seismic loading, confirmed by comparing analytical computation and experimental measurements on the dam body during and after a past earthquake.

  18. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...

  19. Estudio comparativo de dos dietas enterales en ancianos hospitalizados: proteína de soja frente a proteína caseína Comparative study of two enteral feeding formulas in hospitalized elders: casein versus soybean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. García-Talavera Espín

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Comparar la incidencia de complicaciones gastrointestinales de dos fórmulas de nutrición enteral (NE con distinta fuente proteica (caseína y proteína aisladade soja en ancianos hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre pacientes portadores de SNG a los que se asignó aleatoriamente una fórmula basada en caseína o en proteína de soja. Las variables recogidas fueron: edad, sexo, motivo de indicación y duración de la NE, cantidad máxima diaria de NE administrada, situación nutricional al ingreso y al alta, mortalidad y complicaciones gastrointestinales. Se compararon ambos grupos mediante la Chi Cuadrado de Pearson y la T de Student, fijando en ambas el grado de significación en el 95%. Resultados: Muestra de 50 pacientes mayores de 65 años (48% caseína, 52% soja sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas en edad ni indicación de la NE . Tampoco hubo diferencias en el estado nutricional al inicio o al alta en ambos grupos. El grupo que recibió una fórmula basada en soja presentó menor incidencia de diarrea (C: 45,83%, S: 7,69%, p = 0,009 y vómitos (C: 41,66%, S: 15,38%, p = 0,05, mayor porcentaje de mejora del estado nutricional y menos mortalidad con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusiones: En el grupo que tomó proteína de soja se produjeron menos complicaciones gastrointestinales y de úlceras por presión al tiempo que la situación nutricional mejoraba. Se puede afirmar que esta NE es bien tolerada por el paciente y aporta importantes beneficios clínicos. Por otro lado, la valoración nutricional debe realizarse como rutina al ingreso de los ancianos en el hospital para detectar y tratar precozmente cualquier signo de malnutrición.Objectives: To compare the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects of two enteral feeding formulas with changes in the origin of protein (casein and isolated soy protein in hospitalised elderly patients. Method: A cross sectional survey was done

  20. 固化填埋污泥对Cu2+、Zn2+吸附特征的比较研究%Comparative study on adsorption behaviour of copper and zinc from aqueous solution by solidifying landfilled sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱维琴; 单监利; 张志; 郭丹; 赵由才

    2011-01-01

    比较研究了固化填埋污泥对Cu2+、Zn2+吸附特征差异.结果表明,固化填埋污泥对Cu2+、Zn2+的吸附量及吸附率均在pH3时达最大值;当固化填埋污泥质量浓度为6.0g/L时,其对初始浓度为150mg/L的Cu2+、Zn2+吸附率均可达90%以上.固化填埋污泥对Cu2+、Zn2+的吸附等温式与Henry、Freundlich及Langmiur方程均具有较好的拟合性,且固化填埋污泥分别对Cu2+和Zn2+具有较高的吸附强度和吸附容量.解吸特性研究表明,盐酸仪在pH1时对固化填埋污泥中Cu2+、Zn2+的解吸率达90%以上;随EDTA浓度增加,其对固化填埋污泥中吸附态Cu2+的解吸率显著上升,0.5mmol/L EDTA即可解吸100%的吸附态Cu2+,但对固化填埋污泥中吸附态Zn2+的解吸率仅为10%左右.%Sanitary landfill was considered to be a predominant disposal of sewage sludge, due to its mass consummation and feasibility as well as low cost. Commonly, sewage sludge was landfilled directly or solidified before landfill. However, it was very important that how to recycle the landfilled sludge to save more spaces for sludge disposal. Removal of heavy metals from water was an important environmental problem and the search for economically feasible technologies continues. As adsorbents, mainly activated carbons, clays, iron oxides, and other natural adsorbents have been investigated. Recently, sewage sludge based adsorbents were indicated as promising media for removal of such metals as copper and zinc. The behaviour of Cu2+, Zn2+ adsorption onto solidifying landfilled sludge were comparatively studied. The results showed that both Cu2+ and Zn2+ adsorption capacity reached optimum when initial Ph was 3.0. When initial Cu2+ or Zn2+ concentration being 150mg/L, the removal efficiency could reach more than 90% for both C u2+ and Zn2+ with dosage of solidifying landfilled sludge being 6g/L. Moreover, the adsorption isotherm for Cu2+ or Zn2+ could significantly conform to Henry, Freundlich and

  1. Prognosis after Hospitalization for Erythroderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Thyssen, Jacob P; Gislason, Gunnar H;

    2016-01-01

    Erythrodermic psoriasis (EP) and erythroderma exfoliativa (EE) are acute and potentially life-threatening inflammatory reactions. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of 3-year mortality following hospitalization for EP or EE compared with general population controls, patients hospitalized...... for psoriasis vulgaris, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), respectively. We identified 26 and 48 patients with a first-time hospitalization (1997-2010) for EP and EE, respectively (10 matched population-controls for each patient), 1,998 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, and 60 patients with TEN. During...

  2. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  3. Aspectos relacionados à escolha do tipo de parto: um estudo comparativo entre uma maternidade pública e outra privada, em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil Aspects related to choice of type of delivery: a comparative study of two maternity hospitals in São Luís, State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ribeiro Mandarino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou analisar aspectos relacionados à escolha do tipo de parto em uma maternidade do serviço público e outra do serviço privado, em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo transversal abordando comparativamente 163 primíparas de uma maternidade pública e 89 de maternidade privada, com médias de idade de 21,63 ± 5,24 e 28,8 ± 5,41 anos, respectivamente. Preferiam o parto vaginal 79,1% das gestantes da maternidade pública, e a cesariana 67,4% das da maternidade privada (p This study aimed to analyze aspects related to choice of type of delivery in two maternity hospitals, one public and the other private, in São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. This cross-sectional study compared 163 primiparous women in a public maternity hospital and 89 in a private hospital, with mean ages of 21.63 ± 5.24 and 28.8 ± 5.41 years, respectively. In the public hospital, 79.1% of the women reported preferring vaginal deliveries, while in the private hospital 67.4% of the women preferred cesareans (p < 0.0001. Cesareans were performed in 46% of the women in the public maternity hospital and 97.8% of those in the private hospital (p < 0.0001. Patient satisfaction was high for both modes of delivery, but the desire to repeat the same mode was reported more frequently by women with vaginal deliveries (71.6% vs. 41.3% in the public maternity hospital and 100% vs. 65.5% in the private. In the public maternity hospital, the cesarean subgroup included more white and higher-income women. The cesarean rate was thus high in both maternity hospitals and was significantly higher in the private hospital; the study also showed a preference for vaginal delivery in the public hospital and cesareans in the private.

  4. Detection accuracy of three glucose meters estimated by capillary blood glucose measurements compared with venous blood evaluated by the diabetes unit of the Hospital Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro Gama, Camile Fiorese Cruzeta, Ana Carolina Ossowski, Marina Rech Bay, Mariella Muller Michaelis, Stênio Lujan CamachoEndocrinology and Diabetes Service, Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, BrazilObjective: To compare capillary blood glucose measurements between three different glucose meters and with the serum glucose values of inpatients at the diabetes unit of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil.Materials and methods: A total of 132 non-intensive care unit patients admitted for medical and surgical pathologies were evaluated. All patients reported a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, were under 60 years of age, had no hematocrit alterations, remained hemodynamically stable during the time of data collection, and were given no ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, dopamine, or mannitol during follow-up. Capillary and serum blood glucose samples were collected simultaneously by finger-stick and venipuncture 2 hours after lunch, by the same observer, who was blinded to the serum glucose results. First, between July and November 2009, capillary glucose levels were measured using the blood glucose meters OneTouch SureStep® and MediSense Optium®. Between November 2009 and February 2010, capillary blood glucose levels were measured on the glucose meters OneTouch SureStep and Optium Xceed®. The capillary glucose readings were analyzed between meters and also in relation to the serum blood glucose values by the t-test for paired samples and the Mood two-sample test.Results: The patients’ mean age was 50.45 years. The blood glucose means obtained using the meters OneTouch SureStep, MediSense Optium, and Optium Xceed were, respectively, 183.87 mg/dL, 178.49 mg/dL, and 192.73 mg/dL, and the mean for the serum glucose values was 174.58 mg/dL. A significant difference was found between the capillary measurements taken by the glucose meters and the serum glucose measurements (P < 0.05, and no

  5. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils. PMID:26995062

  6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  7. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  8. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...

  9. Behavioural hybrid process calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, H.; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in th

  10. Hospital Outpatient PPS Partial Hospitalization Program LDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) Partial Hospitalization Program LDS This file contains select claim level data and is derived from 2010 claims...

  11. Can hospitals compete on quality? Hospital competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples. PMID:25711185

  12. Measuring Thermoforming Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, W.; Hopmann, C.; Ederleh, L.; Begemann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoforming is the process of choice for manufacturing thin-gauge or large-area parts for packaging or technical applications. The process allows low-weight parts to be produced rapidly and economically from thermoplastic semi-finished products. A technical and consequently economical problem is the choice of the right material in combination with the thermoformability of the product. The prediction of thermoformability includes the aspired product features and geometry and defined wall thickness distributions, depending on the specific stretchability of the semifinished product. In practice, thermoformability is estimated by empirical tests with the particular semi-finished product using e.g. staged pyramidal moulds or model cars. With this method, it still cannot be ensured that the product can be thermoformed with the intended properties. A promising alternative is the forming simulation using finite element analysis (FEA). For the simulation, it is necessary to describe the material behaviour using defined material models and the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the stress-/strain-behaviour of the semi-finished product under defined conditions is required. There are several, entirely different measurement techniques used in industry and at research facilities. This paper compares a choice of different measurement techniques to provide an objective basis for future work and research. The semi-finished products are examined with the Membrane-Inflation-Rheometer (MIR), an equibiaxial strain rheometer. A flat sample is heated to the desired temperature in silicone oil. During the measurement, a servohydraulic linear drive advances a piston, thus displacing the hot silicone oil and inflating the specimen to form a sphere. Further measurements are carried out with the Karo IV Laboratory Stretching Machine at Brückner Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany. The samples are heated using hot air. During the biaxial stretching, the resulting forces at the

  13. Critical fatigue behaviour in brittle glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajat Banerjee; Bikas K Chakrabarti

    2001-04-01

    The dynamic fatigue fracture behaviour in different glasses under various sub-threshold loading conditions are analysed here employing an anomalous diffusion model. Critical dynamical behaviour in the time-to-fracture and the growth of the micro-crack sizes, similar to that observed in such materials in the case of quasi-static (``instantaneous”) failures for above-threshold conditions, are predicted and compared with some of the experimental observations in different glasses.

  14. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  15. The Magpie Trial follow up study: outcome after discharge from hospital for women and children recruited to a trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for pre-eclampsia [ISRCTN86938761

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Magpie Trial compared magnesium sulphate with placebo for women with pre-eclampsia. 10,141 women were recruited, 8804 before delivery. Overall, 9024 children were included in the analysis of outcome at discharge from hospital. Magnesium sulphate more than halved the risk of eclampsia, and probably reduced the risk of maternal death. There did not appear to be any substantive harmful effects on the baby, in the short term. It is now important to assess whether these benefits persist, and to provide adequate reassurance about longer term safety. The main objective of the Magpie Trial Follow Up Study is to assess whether in utero exposure to magnesium sulphate has a clinically important effect on the child's chance of surviving without major neurosensory disability. Other objectives are to assess long term outcome for the mother, and to develop and assess appropriate strategies for following up large numbers of children in perinatal trials. Study design Follow up is only feasible in selected centres. We therefore anticipate contacting 2800–3350 families, for 2435–2915 of whom the woman was randomised before delivery. A further 280–335 children would have been eligible for follow up if they had survived. The total sample size for the children is therefore 3080–3685, 2680–3210 of whom will have been born to women randomised before delivery. Families eligible for the follow up will be contacted, and surviving children screened using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires. Children who screen positive, and a sample of those who screen negative, will whenever possible have a paediatric and neurodevelopmental assessment. When women are contacted to ask how their child is, they will also be asked about their own health. The primary outcome is a composite measure of death or neurosensory disability for the child at 18 months. Discussion The Follow Up Study began in 2002, and now involves collaborators in 19 countries. Data

  16. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  17. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the availability of structural measures at that hospital. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for...

  18. Hospitals as health educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000862.htm Hospitals as health educators To use the sharing features ... health education, look no further than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals ...

  19. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not. Each hospital must perform its own financial analysis to determine if being a Prospective Payment System (PPS) hospital or a CAH would result in a better financial return. For financially distressed hospitals, even if CAH ...

  20. Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC products that are not commonly stocked in hospital pharmacies. Examples include: Salagen ® , Evoxac ® , and Restasis ® Eye drops, ... of your medication will be sent to the hospital pharmacy for verification. Depending on hospital policy, you may ...

  1. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  2. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  3. Behavioural syndromes differ predictably between 12 populations of three-spined stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Wright, Jonathan; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Thomas, Dawn K.; Hickling, Rachael; Dawnay, Nick

    2007-01-01

    1. Animals often differ in suites of correlated behaviours, comparable with how humans differ in personality. Constraints on the architecture of behaviour have been invoked to explain why such 'behavioural syndromes' exist. From an adaptationist viewpoint, however, behavioural syndromes should evolv

  4. Effectiveness and Safety of Low Dose Vaginal Misoprostol Compared to Trans Cervical Foley Catheter for Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor in Post Term Pregnant Women Admitted to Gandi Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa and Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemariam Segni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post term pregnancy is one of the common indications of induction of labor in contemporary obstetric practice. However, the majority of women with post term pregnancy have unfavorable cervices. Therefore, it is mandatory to achieve cervical ripening in this group of women before proceeding to labor induction. These cervical ripening methods often result in onset of labor which makes them also labor inducing agents. There is paucity of studies comparing the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned methods. Thus, this study compared the effectiveness and safety of low dose vaginal misoprostol with trans cervical Foley catheter for cervical ripening and induction of labor in post term pregnant women. Method: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Gandi Memorial Hospital and Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. Quasi-experimental study design was employed and 111 post term pregnant women were enrolled to each group of cervical ripening methods. Foley catheter, number 18 gauge, was inserted trans cervically and inflated with 50 ml of normal saline in women of group I at FHRH. Women in group II received 25 μg of misoprostol vaginally every 6 hrs for a maximum of 2 doses at GMH. Oxytocin infusion began when an indication comes to picture. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Baseline obstetric variables such as gestational age and parity were not statistically different in both groups. Maternal age was found to be statistically significant (28.40 vs. 26.02 yrs; P=0.000. Change in Bishop score is marginally significant in favour of the Foley catheter group even after controlling for maternal age (5.67 vs. 5.33; P=0.040. Vaginal delivery within 24 hours and ripening to delivery intervals were not statistically different in both groups. Rate of vaginal delivery was found to be marginally significant being higher in the Foley catheter group (84.7% vs. 72.2%; P=0.013. When stratified for parity, the

  5. Randomized clinical trial comparing sodium picosulfate with mannitol on the preparation FOR colonoscopy in hospitalized patients Ensaio clínico randomizado comparando picosulfato de sódio com manitol no preparo para colonoscopia em pacientes hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Müller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cleansing of the colon for a colonoscopy exam must be complete so as to allow the visualization and inspection of the intestinal lumen. The ideal cleansing agent should be easily administered, have a low cost, and minimum collateral effects. Sodium picosulfate together with the magnesium citrate is a cathartic stimulant and mannitol is an osmotic laxative, both usually used for this purpose. AIMS: Assess the colon cleanliness comparing the use of mannitol and sodium picosulfate as well as evaluate the level of patient satisfaction, the presence of foam, pain, and abdominal distension in hospitalized patients undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study with 80 patients that compared two groups: mannitol (40 and sodium picosulfate (40. Both groups received the same dietary orientation. The study was approved by the hospital’s Ethics and Research Committee. The endoscopist was blind to the type of preparation. Outcomes evaluated: level of the colon’s cleanliness, patient’s satisfaction, the presence of foam, abdominal pain and distension, and the duration of the exam. The data was analyzed by means of the chi-squared test for proportions and Mann-Whitney for independent samples. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to the level of the colon’s cleanliness, patient’s satisfaction, the presence of foam, abdominal pain, and the duration of the exam. Fifteen percent of the exams of the mannitol group were interrupted while from the sodium picosulfate group it was 5%. The presence of foam was similar for both groups. The average duration for carrying out the exam was 28.44 minutes for the mannitol group and 35.59 minutes for the sodium picosulfate group. Abdominal distension was more frequent in the mannitol group. If they would have to do the same exam, the answer was that 80% said yes from the mannitol group and 92.5% from the sodium

  6. A nationwide Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Belgian Hospitals: Analysis and Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree; Schrooten, Ward

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure patient safety culture in Belgian hospitals and to examine the homogeneous grouping of underlying safety culture dimensions. Methods The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed organisation-wide in 180 Belgian hospitals participating in the federal program on quality and safety between 2007 and 2009. Participating hospitals were invited to submit their data to a comparative database. Homogeneous groups of underlying safety culture dimensions were sou...

  7. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  8. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  9. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  10. Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

  11. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  12. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict maintenance of a frequently repeated behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, A; Conner, M; Bodansky, H J

    2007-03-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behaviour to predict self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes. Sixty-four adult patients with type 1 diabetes completed a questionnaire assessing the variables of the TPB in addition to demographic variables and a measure of conscientiousness. Self-report measures of daily self-monitoring behaviour were obtained for a two-week period. The extended model predicted 46% of the variance in behavioural intention and 57% of variance in self-monitoring behaviour, suggesting that the TPB is able to predict useful levels of variance, comparable to initiation, even in familiar and frequently repeated maintenance behaviours. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:17365901

  13. Modelling Reactive and Proactive Behaviour in Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mazlina Abdul; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the simulation model behaviour of a traditional and combined discrete event as well as agent based simulation models when modelling human reactive and proactive behaviour in human centric complex systems. A departmental store was chosen as human centric complex case study where the operation system of a fitting room in WomensWear department was investigated. We have looked at ways to determine the efficiency of new management policies for the fitting room operation through simulating the reactive and proactive behaviour of staff towards customers. Once development of the simulation models and their verification had been done, we carried out a validation experiment in the form of a sensitivity analysis. Subsequently, we executed a statistical analysis where the mixed reactive and proactive behaviour experimental results were compared with some reactive experimental results from previously published works. Generally, this case study discovered that simple proactive individual behaviou...

  14. Dokumentation af hjertestop på hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stagelund, Søren; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Documentation of and staff compliance with guidelines during in-hospital cardiac arrest are very important. The purpose of the study is to clarify to what extent treatment of cardiac arrest was documented and whether the staff followed the hospital's protocol for cardiac arrest...... treatment in 2005. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Medical records for 50 consecutive in-hospital cardiac arrests in 2005 were analysed and compared to 50 consecutive cardiac arrests in 2001. The hospital is a tertiary referral hospital with 1100 beds and all medical specialities available. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All in-hospital...... cardiac arrest calls. Essential data for the in-hospital Utstein-style was used as the golden standard for documentation when reviewing medical records. RESULTS: Results are expressed for 2005 (2001), Test: chi2 (Fisher). Treatment documented: Fully: 32 (22). (P=0.0704). Treatment complying with...

  15. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  16. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  17. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  18. In-hospital Cardiac Arrest at Cork University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E; Deasy, C

    2016-01-01

    We describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at Cork University Hospital over a one year time period (2011), prior to the implementation of national early warning scoring (NEWS) systems. There were 43 217 coded CUH admissions, in 2011, to 518 in-patient beds. The Hospital In-Patient Enquiry Database was used to identify adults (>/= 18 years) who sustained IHCA. Available Utstein variables were collected. Fifty-two patients were found to be incorrectly coded IHCA. 17 of 63 (27.0%) IHCA survived to discharge. IHCA with shockable rhythm had significantly higher survival. IHCA survival was significantly lower on wards versus any other hospital location. Median days of stay prior to arrest were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. All survivors (n = 17) had intact neurological outcome post-event. Our outcomes from IHCA are poorest on hospital wards when compared to other areas of the hospital. Those that survive have excellent function and one-year survival.

  19. Hospital marketing revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature. PMID:10283019

  20. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  1. A Comparative Analysis on the Hospitalization Expenses of Diabetes Patients with Different Types of Medical ;Insurance%不同医保类别糖尿病患者住院费用对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟凤英; 吴婧; 李中凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:对新疆某二级医院不同医保类别糖尿病患者住院费用分析,为医保部门在调整政策方面提供参考依据。方法资料来自2010年-2014年新疆某二级医院HIS系统住院患者信息,采用方差检验对不同医保患者住院费进行差异学统计分析。结果不同医保类别糖尿病患者住院费用有差异(P<0.05),经 LSD 方差两两比较发现,P兵团医保VS新农合<0.05。同一医保患者住院费用在各住院天数组间分布存在差异(P<0.05);51岁~60岁组和71岁~80岁组不同医保患者住院费用均存在差异(P<0.05);药品费用仍是患者住院费用的重要构成部分。结论完善各类医保政策,缩小不同医保患者住院费用之间差距,控制住院费用增长的重点是缩短住院天数、控制药品比和加强对糖尿病人群的健康管理。%Objectives To conduct an analysis on the hospitalization expenses of diabetes patients with different types of medical insurance in a second grade hospital, and provide a reference for the medical insurance department in aspect of policy adjustment. Methods The materials were selected from the information of inpatients in the HIS system of a second grade hospital in Xinjiang from 2010 to 2014, nonparametric test was applied to analyze the difference of hospitalization expenses in patients with different types of medical insurance.Results The hospitalization costs of different health insurance diabetic patients had significant difference (P<0.05). Different number of days of hospitalization costs was significantly different for the same type of health insurance (P<0.05).51-60 age group and the 71-80 group’s hospitalization costs were significantly different (P<0.05). Drug costs were an important component of the cost of hospitalization. The drug cost of the Autonomous health insurance was about 1.5 times the new rural cooperative patient. Conclusions To improve health insurance policy

  2. Hypoglycemia in the hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shomali, Mansur

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common adverse event affecting hospitalized patients with diabetes. This paper reviews the data regarding optimization of glucose in hospitalized patients, discusses the scope and significance of hypoglycemia in the hospital, and makes recommendations on how to reduce the risk of this serious adverse event. Keywords: hypoglycemia; hospital; diabetes; insulin(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 7217 - DOI: 10...

  3. Quantitative assessment of organizational culture within hospitals and its relevance to infection prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A; Waisfisz, B; Frank, U

    2015-05-01

    It has been suggested that organizational culture (OC) is an important driver of infection prevention and control (IPC) behaviour among healthcare workers. This study examined OC in seven European hospitals using a validated assessment tool based on Hofstede's model, and identified significant variations in OC scores. Hospitals with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) exhibited high scores for change facilitation and change readiness, whereas hospitals with high prevalence of MRSA exhibited low scores for these determinants. It is possible to use tools, available outside health care, to study OC within hospitals and gain better insight into IPC behaviour change strategies.

  4. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  5. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  6. Moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Povey, Rachel; Sparks, Paul; James, Rhiannon; Shepherd, Richard

    2003-03-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), behavioural intentions and self-reported behaviour were assessed in relation to 20 healthy eating behaviours in a prospective questionnaire design in 232 members of the general public in the UK. Between-participants univariate and multivariate analyses indicated attitude-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships to be weaker in higher ambivalence compared to lower ambivalence respondents. These effects were confirmed in within-participants analyses. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of ambivalence in furthering our understanding of relationships in the TPB.

  7. Moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Povey, Rachel; Sparks, Paul; James, Rhiannon; Shepherd, Richard

    2003-03-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), behavioural intentions and self-reported behaviour were assessed in relation to 20 healthy eating behaviours in a prospective questionnaire design in 232 members of the general public in the UK. Between-participants univariate and multivariate analyses indicated attitude-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships to be weaker in higher ambivalence compared to lower ambivalence respondents. These effects were confirmed in within-participants analyses. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of ambivalence in furthering our understanding of relationships in the TPB. PMID:12713757

  8. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  9. 精神分裂症患者住院期间自杀自伤行为研究%Comparative study of schizophrenic patients who committed suicide or self - injurious behaviors during hospitalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨孔军; 肖水源; 李学武; 廖春平; 戴静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection rate and characteristics of suicide or self - injurious behaviors in schizophren-ic inpatientsin order to predict and prevent thosein schizophrenic patients during hospitalization. Methods 197 consecutive inpatients with schizophrenia were investigated with self - made inventory,the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale(BPRS),Hamilton Depression Scale- 17 item(HAMD - 17),Clinical Global Impression(CGIS),which were divided into two groups according to with or without suicide or self - injurious behaviors. Results ①The detection rate of suicide or self - injurious behaviors of schizophrenic inpatients was 19. 80% . ②Compared with non - suicide or self - injurious behaviors group during hospitalization,the prevalent of the incidence of no career(25. 6% ),poor economic conditions(25. 6% ),poor social support(56. 4% ),positive family history(48. 7% ),history of at-tempted suicide(79. 5% ),having obvious stress events two weeks before admission(46. 2% ),comorbiding with substance abuse (25. 6% ),with hallucinations or delusions(89. 7% ),paranoid type(53. 8% )in suicide or self - injurious behaviors group were sig-nificantly higher(P < 0. 05 or 0. 01). Logistic regression analysis showed that poor economic conditions,obvious stress events two weeks before admission,history of suicide attempts were the risk factors for suicide or self - injurious behaviors. ③Total scores of BPRS、HAMD - 17 in suicide or self - injurious behaviors group were significantly higher than those in non - suicide or self - injurious behaviors group at the time of admission and the 2nd ,4th weekend(P < 0. 01). The score of CGI in suicide or self - injurious behaviors group were significantly higher than those in non - suicide or self - injurious behaviors group in the second weekend(P < 0. 01). Con-clusion The detection rate of suicide or self - injurious behaviors of schizophrenic inpatients is high. We should attach great impor-tance to suicide or self

  10. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  11. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  12. Factors influencing Household Recycling Behaviour A study of Japanese consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Takiyama, Saori

    2008-01-01

    Waste production has been a major social and environmental issue across nations. Recycling has increasingly concerned as one of the effective ways to deal with the issue. Although there has been official recycling system in Japan, recycling rate in households has not been improved, comparing that in industrial sector. This study examines factors influencing recycling behaviour with evidence from Japanese consumers. Several factors have been identified as the predictor of recycling behaviour w...

  13. Te Ira Tangata: A Zelen randomised controlled trial of a treatment package including problem solving therapy compared to treatment as usual in Maori who present to hospital after self harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikiriwhi Karen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves, do so at a higher rate than non-Maori. There have been no previous treatment trials in Maori who self harm and previous reviews of interventions in other populations have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and sending regular postcards after the self harm attempt may be an effective treatment. There is also a small literature on sense of belonging in self harm and the importance of culture. This protocol describes a pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, postcards, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in Maori who present to hospital after self harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be the number of Maori scoring below nine on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Secondary outcomes will be hospital repetition at one year; self reported self harm; anxiety; depression; quality of life; social function; and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit Maori using a Maori clinical team and protocol. It does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. This study is the first randomised control trial to explicitly use cultural assessment and management. Trial

  14. Hospitable Classrooms: Biblical Hospitality and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to a Christian hermeneutic of special education by suggesting the biblical concept of hospitality as a necessary characteristic of classroom and school environments in which students with disabilities and other marginalized students can be effectively incorporated into the body of the classroom. Christian hospitality, seen…

  15. Hospital demand for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, M A; Jensen, G A

    1990-01-01

    This article develops a derived demand for physicians that is general enough to encompass physician control, simple profit maximization and hospital utility maximization models of the hospital. The analysis focuses on three special aspects of physician affiliations: the price of adding a physician to the staff is unobserved; the physician holds appointments at multiple hospitals, and physicians are not homogeneous. Using 1983 American Hospital Association data, a system of specialty-specific demand equations is estimated. The results are consistent with the model and suggest that physicians should be concerned about reduced access to hospitals, particularly as the stock of hospitals declines. PMID:10104050

  16. Attitudes, risk of infection and behaviours in the operating room (the ARIBO Project): a prospective, cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, Gabriel; Azevedo, Christine; Toupet, Gaelle; Pissard-Gibollet, Roger; Grandbastien, Bruno; Fleury, Eric; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inappropriate staff behaviours can lead to environmental contamination in the operating room (OR) and subsequent surgical site infection (SSI). This study will focus on the continued assessment of OR staff behaviours using a motion tracking system and their impact on the SSI risk during surgical procedures. Methods and analysis This multicentre prospective cross-sectional study will include 10 ORs of cardiac and orthopaedic surgery in 12 healthcare facilities (HCFs). The staff behaviour will be assessed by an objective, continued and prolonged quantification of movements within the OR. A motion tracking system including eight optical cameras (VICON-Bonita) will record the movements of reflective markers placed on the surgical caps/hoods of each person entering the room. Different configurations of markers positioning will be used to distinguish between the staff category. Doors opening will be observed by means of wireless inertial sensors fixed on the doors and synchronised with the motion tracking system. We will collect information on the OR staff, surgical procedures and surgical environment characteristics. The behavioural data obtained will be compared (1) to the ‘best behaviour rules’ in the OR, pre-established using a Delphi method and (2) to surrogates of the infectious risk represented by microbiological air counts, particle counts, and a bacteriological sample of the wound at closing. Statistics will be performed using univariate and multivariate analysis to adjust on the aerolic and architectural characteristics of the OR. A multilevel model will allow including surgical specialty and HCFs effects. Through this study, we will develop an original approach using high technology tools associated to data processing techniques to evaluate ‘automatically’ the behavioural dynamics of the OR staff and their impact on the SSI risk. Ethics and dissemination Approbation of the Institutional Review Board of Paris North Hospitals, Paris 7

  17. Estudo comparativo da prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus importado para as unidades de terapia intensiva de hospital universitário, Pernambuco, Brasil Comparative study on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus imported to intensive care units of a university hospital, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria de Morais Cavalcanti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O Staphylococcus aureus é um dos principais patógenos que coloniza indivíduos saudáveis na comunidade e responde por infecções em pacientes hospitalizados. Um estudo transversal foi realizado para determinar a prevalência de S. aureus meticilina-resistente e sensível entre 231 pacientes, internados entre janeiro e abril de 2003, nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs do Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, assim como os possíveis fatores associados à colonização. Foram coletadas secreções de narinas, axilas, região perineal e dermatoses com soluções de continuidade, de todos os pacientes, nas primeiras 48 horas de internamento nas UTIs. O material foi semeado em meios de cultura adequados. A prevalência de S. aureus igualou-se a 37,7% (87/231, sendo 13% (30/231 meticilina-resistente e 24,8% (57/231 meticilina-sensível. Idade, sexo, uso de antibioticoterapia, corticoterapia, motivo e local do internamento não se associaram à presença do S. aureus ou do meticilina-resistente. Houve associação significante entre procedência hospitalar e colonização por S. aureus, independente da cepa, e entre internamento anterior e presença do S. aureus meticilina-resistente. As narinas foram o sítio de colonização mais significante, por S. aureus meticilina-resistente (47/57=82,4% e sensível (23/30=76,7%. Foi alta a prevalência do S. aureus (meticilina resistente ou sensível, assim como do meticilina-resistente entre os pacientes das UTIs deste hospital. Estudos futuros poderão comprovar se os resultados aqui descritos e medidas de rastreamento para S. aureus poderiam ser adotadas, de forma prospectiva, para se avaliar o risco, assim como a magnitude do efeito, no controle de infecções hospitalares provocadas por estes patógenos.Staphylococcus aureus is the most important pathogen that colonizes healthy individuals in the community and is responsible for infections in hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was

  18. Changing physician prescribing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    2006-01-01

    Didactic approaches to educating physicians and/or other health professionals do not produce changes in learner behaviour. Similarly, printed materials and practice guidelines have not been shown to change prescribing behaviour. Evidence-based educational approaches that do have an impact on provider behaviour include: teaching aimed at identified learning needs; interactive educational activities; sequenced and multifaceted interventions; enabling tools such as patient education programs, flow charts, and reminders; educational outreach or academic detailing; and audit and feedback to prescribers. Dr. Jean Gray reflects over the past 25 years on how there has been a transformation in the types of activities employed to improve prescribing practices in Nova Scotia. The evolution of Continuing Medical Education (CME) has resulted in the creation of the Drug Evaluation Alliance of Nova Scotia (DEANS) program, which is one exemplar of an evidence-based educational approach to improving physician prescribing in that province. Key words: Evidence-based, education, prescribing.

  19. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  20. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority. PMID:23424818

  1. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority.

  2. Phototherapy: the hospital as risk factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Enk, A; Leeuw, R.

    1987-01-01

    In a retrospective study over six years the incidence of phototherapy was examined in two groups of healthy neonates who were born spontaneously and at term in hospital. They were comparable in all respects except that one group was cared for at home and the other group was cared for in hospital. It appeared that the infants in hospital received phototherapy seven times more often than those at home, and surveillance at home was not inferior to that in hospital. There is no reason to assume t...

  3. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  4. Hospital antibiogram: A necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The hospital antibiogram is a periodic summary of antimicrobial susceptibilities of local bacterial isolates submitted to the hospital′s clinical microbiology laboratory. Antibiograms are often used by clinicians to assess local susceptibility rates, as an aid in selecting empiric antibiotic therapy, and in monitoring resistance trends over time within an institution. Antibiograms can also used to compare susceptibility rates across institutions and track resistance trends. Some hospitals have adequate support from the computer department to be able to extract data from their reporting module. The WHONET software can be freely downloaded and used for analysis. Consensus guidelines have been developed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI to standardise methods used in constructing antibiograms. These guidelines can be incorporated into the WHONET software for analysis. Only the first isolate from the patient is to be included in the analysis. The analysis should be done on the basis of patient location and specimen type. The percentage susceptibility of the most frequently isolated bacteria should be presented in the antibiogram, preferably in a tabular form. The antibiogram must be printed or put up in the intranet for easy access to all clinicians. Antibiotic policy is one of the mandatory requirements for accreditation, and making an antibiogram is the first step before framing the antibiotic policy. The future of antibiograms would be the incorporation of patient related data to make information more reliable and for predicting outbreaks.

  5. HCAHPS Hospital Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) Hospital Survey The intent of the HCAHPS initiative is to provide a standardized survey...

  6. Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W. Westmoreland

    2008-01-01

    Come in. Welcome. Be my guest and I will be yours. Shall we ask, in accordance with the Derridean question, "Is not hospitality an interruption of the self?" What is the relationship between the interruption and the moment one enters the host's home? Derrida calls us toward a new understanding of hospitality - as an interruption. This paper will illuminate the history of hospitality in the West as well as trace Derrida's discussions of hospitality throughout many of works. The overall goal of...

  7. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  8. Female Pubertal Timing and Problem Behaviour: The Role of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therese; Stattin, Hakan; Ruiselova, Zdena; Ozdemir, Metin

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peer-socialization/contextual-amplification explanation for the link between early female puberty and problem behaviour. We propose that in cultures with high tolerance for adolescent heterosexual involvement, early puberty should be linked with problem behaviour--not in other cultures. We compared girls in two cultures (Slovakia and…

  9. Pharmacotherapy and aggressive behaviour in psychiat r ic pat ients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhard, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is an important problem in mental health care. Aggressive behaviour does not only affect staff and other patients, but also has a negative impact on the patient himself. Studies have shown that aggressive patients are admitted on psychiatric wards longer compared to non-aggressi

  10. Psychiatric morbidity and risk taking behaviour in STD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Sanjay

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the higher risk taking behaviour, mean number of sexual contacts in last 1 year and psychiatric morbidity in 117 consecutive patients attending SVD clinic with 2 groups of matched control and discusses it′s importance on behavioural interventions strategy for the control of STD′s including AIDS.

  11. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  12. A multicomponent model of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the measurement and predictive structure of multiple components of attitude (affective and instrumental), subjective norm (injunctive and descriptive) and an alternative measure of perceived behavioural control (PBC; skills/ability, opportunity, and resources) in the exercise domain. An additional purpose of the study was to compare the validity of the alternative PBC measure to a standard PBC measure for predicting exercise intention and behaviour. Participants were 220 undergraduates who completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and a 2-week follow-up of exercise behaviour. Results supported the discriminant validity in the measurement domains of all TPB components. Predictive validity of exercise behaviour for these components, however, was only evident for attitude and PBC components. Our alternative PBC measure was found commensurate with the standard PBC measure. Finally, intention significantly (p exercise behaviour (R2 = .42), while affective attitude, and perceived opportunity significantly (p < .05) predicted intention (R2 = .47).

  13. Risky traffic behaviour among young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Compared with older adolescents (18-24 years old), young adolescents (10-17 years old) exhibit more risky behaviour. Because of their physical and mental development, young adolescents are attracted to risky challenges, they are more suscep

  14. Inhaled corticosteroids do not affect behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T. W.; van Roon, E. N.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether children with asthma and on inhaled corticosteroids have more behavioural problems, such as aggressiveness and hyperactivity, as compared with healthy controls and with children under medical care because of other disorders. Methods: Questionnaires were given to three group

  15. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  16. Behavioural Real Estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Salzman (Diego); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe behavioural approach to decision making under uncertainty combines insights from psychology and sociology into economic decision making. It steps away from the normative homo economicus and introduces a positive approach to human decision making under uncertainty. We provide an overv

  17. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  18. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  19. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  20. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  1. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  2. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  3. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  4. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  5. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  6. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  7. Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Westmoreland

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Come in. Welcome. Be my guest and I will be yours. Shall we ask, in accordance with the Derridean question, "Is not hospitality an interruption of the self?" What is the relationship between the interruption and the moment one enters the host's home? Derrida calls us toward a new understanding of hospitality - as an interruption. This paper will illuminate the history of hospitality in the West as well as trace Derrida's discussions of hospitality throughout many of works. The overall goal of this project is to provide readers of Derrida with a sort of reference guide for his discussions on and deconstructive approach to hospitality.

  8. High mortality despite good care-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    1997-01-01

    The care-seeking behaviour of mothers of 125 children deceased aged 1-30 months was investigated by verbal autopsy in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau. A total of 93% of the children were seen at a health centre or hospital during the 2 weeks before death. In a previous survey covering the period...... beds resulted in 15 mothers being refused hospitalization for their child. Of hospitalized children, 42% were discharged as improved or recovered during the 30 days preceding death. These results reveal a need for improved hospital admission criteria, improved recognition of the symptoms of serious...... 1987-90 we found that 78% of the children who died had presented for consultation (8); despite this increase in care seeking, infant mortality had not decreased. Comparison of elapsed time from disease onset to first consultation between children who died and matched surviving controls indicated...

  9. Medicare Hospital Spending Per Patient - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...

  10. Hospital networks and the dispersal of hospital-acquired pathogens by patient transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjibbe Donker

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired infections (HAI are often seen as preventable incidents that result from unsafe practices or poor hospital hygiene. This however ignores the fact that transmissibility is not only a property of the causative organisms but also of the hosts who can translocate bacteria when moving between hospitals. In an epidemiological sense, hospitals become connected through the patients they share. We here postulate that the degree of hospital connectedness crucially influences the rates of infections caused by hospital-acquired bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we mapped the movement of patients based on the UK-NHS Hospital Episode Statistics and observed that the proportion of patients admitted to a hospital after a recent episode in another hospital correlates with the hospital-specific incidence rate of MRSA bacteraemia as recorded by mandatory reporting. We observed a positive correlation between hospital connectedness and MRSA bacteraemia incidence rate that is significant for all financial years since 2001 except for 2008-09. All years combined, this correlation is positive and significantly different from zero (partial correlation coefficient r = 0.33 (0.28 to 0.38. When comparing the referral pattern for English hospitals with referral patterns observed in the Netherlands, we predict that English hospitals more likely see a swifter and more sustained spread of HAIs. Our results indicate that hospitals cannot be viewed as individual units but rather should be viewed as connected elements of larger modular networks. Our findings stress the importance of cooperative effects that will have a bearing on the planning of health care systems, patient management and hospital infection control.

  11. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...

  12. Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The 465-bed Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital is the largest medical facility on the California coast between Los Angeles and the San Francisco bay area. The hospital dates back to 1888, when a group of local citizens began raising funds to build a "cottage-style" hospital for the growing community. Their original plans called for a complex in which each medical specialty would be housed in a separate bungalow. Even then, however, such a decentralized plan was too costly, so work began instead on a single cottage for all hospital departments. The first Cottage Hospital opened in 1891, with 25 beds housed in a two story Victorian building. Now a hugh medical complex employing some 1,500 people, the hospital continues to be called "Cottage" after the original home-like building. Rodney J. Lamb has been Hospital Administrator for the last 30 years.

  13. Comparing breast feeding practices in baby friendly and non-accredited hospitals in Salvador, Bahia Comparação das práticas de amamentação em hospitais IHAC e não credenciados em Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Nunes Ortiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to compare compliance with Steps 4 to 10 of "The Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" in two hospitals accredited by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI group with two not yet accredited hospitals in Salvador. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 women in BFHI-accredited hospitals and 103 women in non-BFHI-accredited hospitals by collecting data on their obstetric history, any breast feeding counseling received during antenatal care, and data on delivery and hospitalization. Data were obtained by applying questionnaires and reviewing patients' medical charts. The chi-square test was used for bivariate variables and Student's t test for continuous variables. RESULTS: statistically significant differences (pOBJETIVOS: comparar o cumprimento dos Passos de 4 a 10 dos "Dez Passos para o Sucesso do Aleitamento Materno" nos hospitais credenciados pela Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança (grupo IHAC em relação a hospitais não credenciados em Salvador. MÉTODOS: um estudo de corte transversal foi conduzido com 100 mulheres no grupo IHAC e 103 mulheres no grupo não-IHAC através de entrevista abordando história obstétrica, orientações sobre aleitamento materno durante o pré-natal, informações sobre o parto e internamento. A coleta de dados foi realizada através da aplicação de questionários e pesquisa de prontuários. O teste do quiquadrado foi realizado para variáveis dicotômicas e o t de Student para variáveis contínuas. RESULTADOS: diferença estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 foi encontrada entre os grupos IHAC e não-IHAC na avaliação dos passos 5 (77% vs 35,9%, 6 (81% vs 31%, 8 (77% vs 52,4%, e 9 (100% vs 94,2%. Não houve diferença entre os dois grupos na avaliação dos passos 4, 7 ou 10. O cumprimento satisfatório nos hospitais do grupo IHAC foi encontrado na avaliação dos Passos 6, 7 e 9. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados evidenciam os benefícios do credenciamento na IHAC, mas enfatiza

  14. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  15. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  16. Distributed representations accelerate evolution of adaptive behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Stone

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals with rudimentary innate abilities require substantial learning to transform those abilities into useful skills, where a skill can be considered as a set of sensory-motor associations. Using linear neural network models, it is proved that if skills are stored as distributed representations, then within-lifetime learning of part of a skill can induce automatic learning of the remaining parts of that skill. More importantly, it is shown that this "free-lunch" learning (FLL is responsible for accelerated evolution of skills, when compared with networks which either 1 cannot benefit from FLL or 2 cannot learn. Specifically, it is shown that FLL accelerates the appearance of adaptive behaviour, both in its innate form and as FLL-induced behaviour, and that FLL can accelerate the rate at which learned behaviours become innate.

  17. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders. PMID:23845416

  18. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA

    1998-01-01

    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index score

  19. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy

    OpenAIRE

    De Roos, Carlijn; Greenwald, Ricky; Hollander-Gijsman, Margien den; Noorthoorn, Eric; van Buuren, Stef; Jongh, Ad De

    2011-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. Objective: The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Design...

  20. Education in geriatric medicine for community hospital staff.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hanlon, Shane

    2010-12-01

    Community hospitals provide many services for older people. They are mainly managed by nursing staff, with some specialist input. Little is known about education provided in these facilities. Most education in geriatric medicine is provided in hospitals, despite most elderly care being provided in the community. The authors surveyed senior nursing staff in Irish community hospitals to examine this area in more detail. Staff in all 18hospitals in the Health Service Executive (South) area were invited to participate. The response rate was 100%. Sixteen of the 18 respondents (89%) felt staff did not have enough education in geriatric medicine. Just over half of hospitals had regular staff education sessions in the area, with a minority of sessions led by a geriatrician, and none by GPs. Geriatrician visits were valued, but were requested only every 1-3 months. Staff identified challenging behaviour and dementia care as the areas that posed most difficulty.

  1. Sex differences in clinical characteristics, hospital management practices, and in-hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized in a Vietnamese hospital with a first acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa L Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot study of Hanoi residents hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI at the Vietnam National Heart Institute in Hanoi. The objectives of this observational study were to examine sex differences in clinical characteristics, hospital management, in-hospital clinical complications, and mortality in patients hospitalized with an initial AMI. METHODS: The study population consisted of 302 Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first AMI at the largest tertiary care medical center in Hanoi in 2010. RESULTS: The average age of study patients was 66 years and one third were women. Women were older (70 vs. 64 years and were more likely than men to have had hyperlipidemia previously diagnosed (10% vs. 2%. During hospitalization, women were less likely to have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI compared with men (57% vs. 74%, and women were more likely to have developed heart failure compared with men (19% vs. 10%. Women experienced higher in-hospital case-fatality rates (CFRs than men (13% vs. 4% and these differences were attenuated after adjustment for age and history of hyperlipidemia (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.01, 6.89, and receipt of PCI during hospitalization (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 0.77, 5.09. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot data suggest that among patients hospitalized with a first AMI in Hanoi, women experienced higher in-hospital CFRs than men. Full-scale surveillance of all Hanoi residents hospitalized with AMI at all Hanoi medical centers is needed to confirm these findings. More targeted and timely educational and treatment approaches for women appear warranted.

  2. Social responsibility: a new paradigm of hospital governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina; Duarte, Ivone; Nunes, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Changes in modern societies originate the perception that ethical behaviour is essential in organization's practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Recently the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO on Social Responsibility and Health has addressed this concept of social responsibility in the context of health care delivery suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance. The objective of this paper is to address the issue of corporate social responsibility in health care, namely in the hospital setting, emphasising the special governance arrangements of such complex organisations and to evaluate if new models of hospital management (entrepreneurism) will need robust mechanisms of corporate governance to fulfil its social responsiveness. The scope of this responsible behaviour requires hospitals to fulfil its social and market objectives, in accordance to the law and general ethical standards. Social responsibility includes aspects like abstention of harm to the environment or the protection of the interests of all the stakeholders enrolled in the deliverance of health care. In conclusion, adequate corporate governance and corporate strategy are the gold standard of social responsibility. In a competitive market hospital governance will be optimised if the organization culture is reframed to meet stakeholders' demands for unequivocal assurances on ethical behaviour. Health care organizations should abide to this new governance approach that is to create organisation value through performance, conformance and responsibility.

  3. Social responsibility: a new paradigm of hospital governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina; Duarte, Ivone; Nunes, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Changes in modern societies originate the perception that ethical behaviour is essential in organization's practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Recently the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO on Social Responsibility and Health has addressed this concept of social responsibility in the context of health care delivery suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance. The objective of this paper is to address the issue of corporate social responsibility in health care, namely in the hospital setting, emphasising the special governance arrangements of such complex organisations and to evaluate if new models of hospital management (entrepreneurism) will need robust mechanisms of corporate governance to fulfil its social responsiveness. The scope of this responsible behaviour requires hospitals to fulfil its social and market objectives, in accordance to the law and general ethical standards. Social responsibility includes aspects like abstention of harm to the environment or the protection of the interests of all the stakeholders enrolled in the deliverance of health care. In conclusion, adequate corporate governance and corporate strategy are the gold standard of social responsibility. In a competitive market hospital governance will be optimised if the organization culture is reframed to meet stakeholders' demands for unequivocal assurances on ethical behaviour. Health care organizations should abide to this new governance approach that is to create organisation value through performance, conformance and responsibility. PMID:22481565

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy plus aerobic exercise training to increase activity in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) compared to usual care (OPTIMISTIC): study protocol for randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Engelen, B. G.; Groot, Perry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a rare, inherited chronic progressive disease as well as an autosomal dominant multi-systemic disorder. It is probably one of the most common adult forms of muscular dystrophy, with a prevalence of approximately 10 per 100,000 people affected. With 733 million people in Europe, we estimate that 75,000 people in Europe are affected with DM1. METHODS/DESIGN: OPTIMISTIC is a multi-centre, randomised trial designed to compare an intervention comprisi...

  5. Out of Pocket Expenditure for Hospitalization among Below Poverty Line Households in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anadi Gupt

    Full Text Available Health insurance schemes, like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY, should provide financial protection against catastrophic health costs by reducing out of pocket expenditure (OOPE for hospitalizations. We estimated and compared the proportion and extent of OOPE among below poverty line (BPL families beneficiaries and not beneficiaries by RSBY during hospitalizations in district Solan, H.P., India, 2013.We conducted a cross sectional survey among hospitalized BPL families in the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries groups. We compared proportion incurring OOPE and its extent during hospitalization, pre/post-hospitalization periods in different domains.Overall, proportion of non-beneficiaries who incurred OOPE was higher than the beneficiaries but it was not statistically significant (87.2% vs. 80.9%. The median overall OOPE was $39 (Rs 2567 in the non-beneficiaries group as compared to $11 (Rs 713 in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01. Median expenditure on in house and out house drugs and consumables was $23 (Rs 1500 in the non beneficiaries group as compared to nil in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01. Non-beneficiary status was significantly associated [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3] with OOPE above median independently and also after adjusting for various covariates.RSBY has decreased the extent of OOPE among the beneficiaries; however OOPE was incurred mainly due to purchase of drugs from outside the health facility. The treatment seeking behaviour in beneficiaries group has improved among comparatively older group with chronic conditions. RSBY has enabled beneficiaries to get more facilities such as drugs, consumables and diagnostics from the health facility.

  6. Out of Pocket Expenditure for Hospitalization among Below Poverty Line Households in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupt, Anadi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kamraj, P.; Murthy, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health insurance schemes, like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), should provide financial protection against catastrophic health costs by reducing out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for hospitalizations. We estimated and compared the proportion and extent of OOPE among below poverty line (BPL) families beneficiaries and not beneficiaries by RSBY during hospitalizations in district Solan, H.P., India, 2013. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey among hospitalized BPL families in the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries groups. We compared proportion incurring OOPE and its extent during hospitalization, pre/post-hospitalization periods in different domains. Results Overall, proportion of non-beneficiaries who incurred OOPE was higher than the beneficiaries but it was not statistically significant (87.2% vs. 80.9%). The median overall OOPE was $39 (Rs 2567) in the non-beneficiaries group as compared to $ 11 (Rs 713) in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Median expenditure on in house and out house drugs and consumables was $ 23 (Rs 1500) in the non beneficiaries group as compared to nil in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Non-beneficiary status was significantly associated [OR: 2.4 (1.3–4.3)] with OOPE above median independently and also after adjusting for various covariates. Conclusion RSBY has decreased the extent of OOPE among the beneficiaries; however OOPE was incurred mainly due to purchase of drugs from outside the health facility. The treatment seeking behaviour in beneficiaries group has improved among comparatively older group with chronic conditions. RSBY has enabled beneficiaries to get more facilities such as drugs, consumables and diagnostics from the health facility. PMID:26895419

  7. [Comparative study of 2 series of cases of uterine rupture collected at the Averroès Hospital in Casablanca from 1979 to 1981 and from 1984 to 1986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiri, M A; Aderdour, M; Zaher, N

    1989-01-01

    There were 156 uterine ruptures collected out of 34,807 deliveries in the gynaecological and obstetrical department of the University Hospital of Averroes in Casablanca. This is a rate of 1 per 223 deliveries. The factors that predispose to this complication are low socio-economic status of the patients, multiparity and, above all, a scarred uterus. Surgical abnormalities of the pelvis and dystocia due to malpresentations and above all inappropriate manoeuvres which continue to be practised are all responsible for the condition. The rupture usually occurs in the lower segment. When the lesions are extensive the cervix and the bladder are most often damaged. Treatment should be as conservative as possible to maintain the woman's fertility but at the same time doing whatever is necessary for her.

  8. 基于精益管理的基层医院手术室利用效率评价比较研究%A Comparative Study on the Utilization Efficiency of Primary Hospitals Based on Lean Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艺英; 刘紫燕; 朱洁群

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨精益管理对基层医院手术室利用效率的影响。方法通过手术室工作记录及电子病历系统,收集实施精益管理前后手术室的工作量,记录2014年及2015年全年的手术台次,每台手术预计开台时间及实际开台时间,是否对手术排程进行调整等信息。另外,对实施精益管理前后手术室医护人员的满意度进行调查。结果精益管理实施前,我院手术室全年手术量680台,准时开台率为44.9%,需要调整手术排程的占9.9%;实施精益管理后,全年手术量760台,准时开台率上升至78.2%,需要调整手术排程的数量明显下降,占比1.7%;精益管理实施前后比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。实施精益管理后医护人员的满意度均明显提升(P<0.01)。结论基层医院手术室实施精益管理对于提升手术室利用效率具有重要意义。%Objective To evaluate the influence of lean management on the utilization efficiency of the operation room in primary hospital. Methods According to the records of operating room and electronic medical record system, the workloads of operating room before and after lean management were collected, including the annual operation number of 2014 and 2015, expected start time and actual start time of operation, and adjustment of operation schedule. In addition, the satisfaction degrees of medical staff in operation room before and after lean management were investigated. Results Before lean management, the amount of annual operation in our hospital was 680 units, with the rate of start on time of 44.9%, and rate of adjustment of operation schedule of 9.9%;After lean management, the amount of annual operation in our hospital was 760 units, with the rate of start on time of 78.2%, and rate of adjustment of operation schedule of 1.7%;The differences of rate of start on time and rate of adjustment of operation schedule were statistically significant (P <0

  9. Collection overlap in hospital health sciences libraries: a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Stroyan, S

    1985-01-01

    Given similar demographics (age, size, and user population), to what extent do community hospital libraries differ in collection content? It is sometimes assumed that hospital libraries are relatively homogeneous and therefore subject to standardized procedures and collection development guides. This study compares the holdings of two community hospital libraries in Illinois to determine similarities and differences.

  10. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  11. Hospital diversification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger.

  12. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...

  13. e-Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, C.; Merrilees, B; Jayawardhena, C; Wright, L T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to bring together apparently disparate and yet interconnected strands of research and present an integrated model of e-consumer behaviour. It has a secondary objective of stimulating more research in areas identified as still being underexplored. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on analysis and synthesis of econsumer literature. Findings – Despite a broad spectrum of disciplines that investigate e-cons...

  14. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  15. Internet user behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  16. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2dry matter and 4.96-16.57, respectively. Constant k was between 0.85 and 0.93, and GAB equation was determined to fit very well for bulgur adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  17. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  18. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Heather O

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice. Several interventions have been shown to be effective in changing health care professionals' behaviour, but heterogeneity within interventions, targeted behaviours, and study settings make generalisation difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the 'active ingredients' in professional behaviour change strategies. Theories of human behaviour that feature an individual's "intention" to do something as the most immediate predictor of their behaviour have proved to be useful in non-clinical populations. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour such theories may offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of intervention to use in the implementation of new practice. The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between intention and behaviour in clinicians and how this compares to the intention-behaviour relationship in studies of non-clinicians. Methods We searched: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science/Social science citation index, Current contents (social & behavioural med/clinical med, ISI conference proceedings, and Index to Theses. The reference lists of all included papers were checked manually. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had: examined a clinical behaviour within a clinical context, included measures of both intention and behaviour, measured behaviour after intention, and explored this relationship quantitatively. All titles and abstracts retrieved by electronic searching were screened independently by two reviewers, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Discussion Ten studies were found that examined the relationship between intention and clinical behaviours in 1623 health professionals. The proportion of variance in behaviour explained by

  19. Student nurses’ perceptions of guidance and support in rural hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steppies R. Rikhotso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical guidance and support of nursing students in rural hospitals is a challenge for novice nurses, who rotate amongst accredited hospitals throughout the province for clinical exposure, and fid themselves in an unfamiliar environment. Theory learned at the training college is integrated with clinical exposure at hospitals and supplemented through teaching by hospital staff. Nursing students complain about lack of support and guidance from professional nurses within the hospital, some feeling restricted in execution of their nursing tasks by professional nurses and other staff. Students perceived negative attitudes from clinical staff, a lack of clinical resources, inadequate learning opportunities and a lack of support and mentoring during their clinical exposure.Objectives: This article describes perceptions of guidance and support of nursing students by professional nurses in a rural hospital and suggests guidelines for clinical guidance and support of nursing students.Method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. Two focus group interviews were employed to collect data from a sample drawn from level II nursing students from one training college in Limpopo Province, South Africa, on different days (n = 13; n = 10. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data.Results: Three themes (mutual distrust and disrespect, hospital environment, and clinical guidance and support and subthemes (student behaviour and staff behaviour emerged.Conclusion: Failure to support and guide nursing students professionally may lead to high turnover and absenteeism, resulting in students’ refusal to be allocated to a rural hospital for clinical exposure. Proposed guidelines have been formulated for clinical guidance and support of nursing students at the selected rural hospital. The college and hospital management should foster collaboration between the college tutors and professional nurses

  20. [The real firing wound of type of skull perforation and head penetration compared with the mathematical model of behaviour of FMJ pistol projectile of calibre of 6.35 mm Browning (25 Auto)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurícek, L; Moravanský, N; Sova, M

    2011-10-01

    Searching for the answer whether the bullet cal. 6.35 mm Browning (25 Auto) could entrance the human skull and stay inside without resting the head against the solid barrier inside the vehicle, forensic experts in the field of ammunition and wound ballistics used mathematical model of the monoogival pistol bullet's velocity decrease through the penetration of the several type of human tissue due to physical and mechanical properties. The result of the expert's terminal ballistics task was the mathematical prediction of wound track length at the moment of bullet's stop in the tissue. The results has been compared with the cases where the similar weapon system with the resembling energetic output has been used. PMID:22145206

  1. A Multidisciplinary Hospital-based Antimicrobial Use Program: Impact on Hospital Pharmacy Expenditures and Drug Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette Salama

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ hospital embarked on a three-component, multidisciplinary, hospital-based antimicrobial use program to cut costs and reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use. Initially, antimicrobial use patterns and costs were monitored for 12 months. For the next two years, an antimicrobial use program was implemented consisting of three strategies: automatic therapeutic interchanges; antimicrobial restriction policies; and parenteral to oral conversion. The program resulted in a reduction in the antimicrobial portion of the total pharmacy drug budget from 41.6% to 28.2%. Simultaneously, the average cost per dose per patient day dropped from $11.88 in 1991 to $10.16 in 1994. Overall, mean monthly acquisition cost savings rose from $6,810 in 1992 to $27,590 in 1994. This study demonstrates that a multidisciplinary antimicrobial use program in a Canadian hospital can effect dramatic cost savings and serve as a quality assurance activity of physician antimicrobial prescribing behaviour.

  2. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  3. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. PMID:22465310

  4. Assault and abuse of health care workers in a large teaching hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Yassi, A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the nature, extent and costs of injuries to health care workers caused by physical abuse. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Large acute and tertiary care teaching hospital in Winnipeg. PARTICIPANTS: All health care workers at the hospital who filed reports of abuse-related injuries and of verbal abuse and threatening behaviour from Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of physical and verbal abuse of hospital personnel according to job catego...

  5. Fuel rod behaviour during transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clad deformation code CANSWELL-2 is described. This is used, either as a stand-alone code or within MABEL-2, to predict and analyse the results of LOCA simulations in the Halden and NRU reactors and in the KfK and PROPAT rigs. Experimental evidence on fuel behaviour in RIA, PCM and ATWS events is presented with inclusion of certain FRAP-T5 results. Published calculations from the accident codes FRAP-T4 and FRAP-T5 are compared with experimental results in simulated loss of coolant tests in the Power Burst Facility. The limitations of this code in its treatment of RIA, PCM and ATWS events are considered. (U.K.)

  6. Brief Report: The Association of Autistic Traits and Behavioural Patterns in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abigail R.; McKechanie, Andrew G.; Johnstone, Eve C.; Owens, David G. Cunningham; Stanfield, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The study aim was to describe behaviours associated with autistic traits. Methods: The Childhood Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) were used as measures of behaviour and autistic traits respectively in 331 adolescents receiving educational support. CBCL scores were compared between three groups…

  7. Mental Health, Behaviour and Intellectual Abilities of People with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatta, Tuomo; Tervo-Maatta, Tuula; Taanila, Anja; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2006-01-01

    The mental health, adaptive behaviour and intellectual abilities of people with Down syndrome (n=129) were evaluated in a population-based survey of social and health care records. Females had better cognitive abilities and speech production compared with males. Males had more behavioural problems than females. Behaviour suggestive of attention…

  8. Perceptions of the hospital ethical environment among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2015-01-01

    Hospital social workers are in a unique context of practice, and one where the ethical environment has a profound influence on the ethical behavior. This study determined the ratings of ethical environment by hospital social workers in large nationwide sample. Correlates suggest by and compared to studies of ethical environment with nurses are explored. Positive ratings of the ethical environment are primarily associated with job satisfaction, as well as working in a centralized social work department and for a non-profit hospital. Religiosity and MSW education were not predictive. Implications and suggestions for managing the hospital ethical environment are provided.

  9. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Petrunoff, Nicholas A.; Huilan Xu; Chris Rissel; Li Ming Wen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the ...

  10. Patient-controlled hospital admission for patients with severe mental disorders: study protocol for a nationwide prospective multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Christoffer Torgaard; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Andersen, Per Kragh; Giacco, Domenico; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Larger studies are needed to estimate the effect of patient-controlled hospital admission on the use of coercion and of healthcare services. Design and methods We aim to recruit at least 315 patients who are offered a contract for patient-controlled hospital admissions in eight different hospitals in Denmark. Patients will be followed-up for at least 1 year to compare the use of coercive measures and of healthcare services, the use of medications and suicidal behaviour. Descriptive statistics will be used to investigate hospitalisations, global assessment of functioning (GAF) and patient satisfaction with treatment. To minimise selection bias, we will match individuals using patient-controlled hospital admission and controls with a 1:5 ratio via a propensity score based on the following factors: sex, age group, primary diagnosis, substance abuse as secondary diagnosis, coercion, number of psychiatric bed days, psychiatric history, urbanity and suicidal behaviour. Additionally, a historical control study will be undertaken in which patients serve as their own control group prior to index date. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority (j.nr.: 3-3013-934/1/) and by The Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr.: 2012-58-0004). The study was categorised as a register study by The Danish Health Research Ethics Committee and therefore no further approval was needed (j.nr.: H-2-2014-FSP70

  11. The comparative analysis of board of directors mode and council mode in the separation reform of management affairs and operation affaires in public hospital%公立医院管办分离改革理事会模式与董事会模式对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余正; 张健; 杨婵婵

    2014-01-01

    本文首先对公立医院管办分离改革中的理事会模式和董事会模式进行分析,之后将两种模式的优劣势进行对比,得出理事会模式适合公立医院管办分离改革过渡阶段,并逐渐向董事会模式发展的结论,最后提出改革建议。%This article analysis board of directors mode and council mode in the seperation reform of management affairs and operation affairs in public hospital at first.Then it compares the advantages and disadvantages of the two models, in the next, it gets the conclusion that during the transition phase of separation reform in public hospital, council mode is more suitable.Gradually, the reform mode of public hospital can change to the board mode.At last the article makes some recommendations accordingly.

  12. 基于委托—代理理论视角的我国公立医院四种法人治理模式比较分析%Comparative Analysis Based on Perspective of Principal-Agent of Four Corporate Governance Modes of Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓艳; 熊季霞

    2013-01-01

    With the deepening of medical and health system reform in our country,the implementation of the corporate governance of public hospitals become more and more significant.Modes of corporate governance of public hospitals in country are divided into four,and the principal-agent relationship is inextricably linked with the four modes.Based on the principal-agent theory,this article compared the advantages and disadvantages of four corporate governance models,summarizes and analyzes that the majority of public hospitals of our country adopt the administrative institutions of decentralized governance mode or the council governance model is appropriate.%随着我国的医疗卫生体制改革的深入推进,实行公立医院法人治理的意义越来越重大.我国将公立医院法人治理的模式主要分为四种,而委托-代理关系与该四种模式密不可分.本文基于委托-代理理论,分别比较公立医院四种法人治理模式的优缺点,并对此进行总结分析,认为我国现阶段大多数的公立医院以行政机构分权型治理模式或理事会型治理模式为宜.

  13. Depression as a Predictor of Length of Hospital Stay in Elderly Patients Admitted to Ain Shams University Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Sherine M. Elbanouby, Sarah A.Hamza,Samia A. Abdel Rahman and Ahmed Kamel Mortagy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression among the physically ill is common and frequently under-diagnosed. Elderly patients with depressive symptoms are at higher risk of hospital admission for non psychiatric conditions and are more likely to have longer hospital stays and worse hospital outcomes, compared with non depressed patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out if depression can be considered a predictor of prolonged hospital stay in elderly patients. Design: A prospective cohor...

  14. Antennae hold a key to Varroa-sensitive hygiene behaviour in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Severac, Dany; Rohmer, Marine; Mercer, Alison R.; Le Conte, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In honey bees, Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) behaviour, which involves the detection and removal of brood parasitised by the mite Varroa destructor, can actively participate in the survival of colonies facing Varroa outbreaks. This study investigated the mechanisms of VSH behaviour, by comparing the antennal transcriptomes of bees that do and do not perform VSH behaviour. Results indicate that antennae likely play a key role in the expression of VSH behaviour. Comparisons with the antennal t...

  15. The market for hospital medicine in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Hostenkamp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised. 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume increases and use summary statistics to compare market performance in both sectors. The market for hospital medicine is more concentrated than the pharmaceutical retail sector and the share of generics and parallel imported products is significantly lower. Between 2005 and 2009 expenditures for hospital medicines more than doubled -accounting for almost 40% of the total Danish pharmaceutical market in 2009. Price increases however - although positive and higher than in the pharmaceutical retail sector - were only moderate. The majority of the expenditure growth was due to an increase in utilisation and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run.

  16. Healthcare seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer in Benin : a model to capture therapy choice of patients and healthy community members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Annelies A.; Boerma, Roelien P.; Barogui, Yves; Zinsou, Claude; Johnson, R. Christian; Gbovi, Jules; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2008-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a devastating condition emerging in West Africa. We investigated why patients often report late to the hospital. Health seeking behaviour determinants and stigma were studied by in-depth interviews in patients treated in hospital (n = 107), patients treated traditionally (n = 46) of

  17. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials......, human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...

  18. INFLUENCE OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF RCC SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. ANGALEKAR,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike floor slabs of building, RCC shells require much less steel reinforcement to take care of tensile stresses developed. From the view point of ultimate behaviour of shell structures analysis considering presence of steel reinforcements is thought to be of importance. Paper deals with linear elastic behaviour and elasto-plastic behaviour of RCC shells subjected to uniform vertical surcharge over the top surface and the longitudinal thrust in the span direction. Besides varying the lengths of shells for a fixed section of shells three degree of reinforcements are considered. inite element analysis is performed employing 4 noded plate elements for conduction a parametric investigation in the form of various spans. Results of analysis reveal that so far as elastic behaviour is concerned the difference between concrete and RCC shell is negligibly small. However, elasto-plastic behaviour reveals that in general RCC shell has higher capacity compared with that of concrete shell.

  19. Comparative analysis of narcotic drug use in a hospital before and after intervention%医院麻醉药品合理使用情况干预前后对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓杰; 袁瑞萍; 刘庆彩; 李见雨

    2016-01-01

    Objective Summarize the use of narcotic drugs in our hospital,and provide the basis of standardized treatment of cancer pain with rational use of these drugs. Methods Through a retrospective investigation according to the"Clinical application of the Guiding Principles on Narcotic Drugs"issued by State Planning Commission Guardian,the use of narcotic drugs in our hospital was analyzed before intervention(June 2013 to May 2014)and after intervention (June 2014 to May 2015). Results Before the intervention,the top three were prescription injections. Among them,pethidine hydrochloride injection was used at the highest proportion. After the intervention,defined daily doses(DDDs)decreased significantly with bucinnazine hydrochloride injection,pethidine hydrochloride injection and morphine hydrochloride injection. The consumption and sales amount of pethidine hydrochloride injection decreased the most obviously. The frequency and DDDs of prescription on oral drugs increased significantly. Oral analgesics took up the top three,with oral morphine sulfate sustained-release tablets increased the most obviously. Conclusion By establishing the intervention mechanism,the concept in rational use of narcotic drugs was effectively promoted among medical professionals as well as patients suffering from cancer pain.%目的:了解某院麻醉药品的应用情况,为麻醉药品的合理应用及临床规范化治疗癌性疼痛提供依据。方法利用回顾性调查法,根据国家卫计委《麻醉药品临床应用指导原则》,对干预前(2013年6月~2014年5)和干预后(2014年6月~2015年5月)麻醉药品合理使用情况进行分析。结果干预前,处方排在前三位均为注射剂,其中盐酸布桂嗪注射液占32.8%,盐酸哌替啶注射液占22.8%;干预后,盐酸布桂嗪注射液、盐酸哌替啶注射液和盐酸吗啡注射液用药频度(DDDs)明显下降;盐酸哌替啶注射液消耗量及销售金额下降最为明

  20. 三甲医院中不同个体特征护士职业紧张的比较研究%Comparative survey on the occupational stress for individual characteristic nurses in top three hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蒙; 关素珍; 刘继文

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同个体特征护士的职业紧张情况,为制定有效的职业紧张干预措施提供科学依据。方法采用分层整群抽样的方法,抽取新疆5家三甲医院各科室护土1800名,进行一般人口学和职业紧张量表(OSI-R)的调查。结果本次调查有效回收问卷共1585份。1585名护士中,低、中、高度职业紧张分别占6.1%、47.1%、46.8%;不同民族、科室护士职业任务和个体紧张反应得分差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05);多元分析发现:民族、婚姻状况、科室、业务紧张、娱乐休闲是护士职业紧张的主要影响因素。结论新疆三甲医院护士的职业紧张水平较高,护理管理者应在个人应对、组织应对及家庭和社会支持3个方面进行一定干预,降低职业紧张水平。%Objective To investigate the status of occupational stress for the different individual characteris-ticto provide scientific evidence for formulating the effective interventions against occupational stress for nursing staffs.Methods Using cluster sampling method to select 1 800 nurses from departments of 5 top three hospitals in Xinjiang to fill the general demographic questionnaire and occupational stress scale (OSI-R)survey.Results 1 585 returning questionnaires were effective.Among them,low,medium and high degree of occupational stress accounted for 6.1%,47.1% and 46.8% respectively;the differences in occu-pational tasks and the individual stress response scores for nurses from different ethnic groups and depart-ments were statistically significant (P <0.05);and by multivariate analysis showing:ethnic,marital sta-tus,departments,workload and entertainment were the main factors affecting nurses occupational stress. Conclusion The occupational stress of nurses in top three hospitals in Xinjiang were high,thus the nurs-ing administrators should conduct intervenes by all means in aspects of individual and organization respon

  1. Towards the collaborative hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Thim; Hasle, Peter; Edwards, Kasper;

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are increasingly faced with conflicting demands as they have to respond to increasing patient demands as well as financial, clinical and quality challenges. To handle these demands the hospital need to reconfigure its organization, and we propose to build on a concept for the collaborat......Hospitals are increasingly faced with conflicting demands as they have to respond to increasing patient demands as well as financial, clinical and quality challenges. To handle these demands the hospital need to reconfigure its organization, and we propose to build on a concept...... for the collaborative hospital as new organizational form which is better equipped to respond to the challenges facing modern hospitals. The collaborative hospital is an ambidextrous organization that opens for pursuing both exploration and exploitation within the same organizational structure. The basic principles...... of the collaborative hospital concern the creation of an appropriate balance between standardization and local autonomy, shared purpose centred around providing the best possible care, and use of enabling structures that sustain the new ways of collaborative work. The chapter builds on the theoretical framework...

  2. ROLE OF HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    UDAYSINH R. MANEPATIL

    2013-01-01

    Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers (sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators) and assistant administrators. Administrations range in size and the duties of the administrator depends on the size of the administration.

  3. Mental hospitals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  4. Hospitality, Tourism, and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novachek, James

    The Northern Arizona Hospitality Education Program is an exemplary three-year project designed to help students, mainly Indian, obtain job skills and attitudes necessary for successful employment in the hospitality industry. Nine high schools from Apache, Coconino, and Navajo Counties participated in the project. Objectives included providing an…

  5. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  6. The art of rejection: Comparative analysis between Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR) workstations in the Accident & Emergency and General radiology departments at a district general hospital using customised and standardised reject criteria over a three year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: Reject analysis continues to play an integral part of a Quality Assurance (QA) program. This study aims to show how Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR) reject analysis data can be customised by the user to aid in the interpretation of exported data and identify trends and issues relating to technique and training. Materials and methods: Reject analysis was reviewed for the period of 2011–2014 using exported data from CR and DR systems in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) and General radiology departments at a district general hospital. Reject criteria was customised to departmental needs and standardised across all workstation's with monthly data collection for amalgamation onto a central spreadsheet. Results: Analysis by workstation and department was performed with regards to total number of exposure events, rejects and reject ratios (%) and reasons for film rejection (positional and exposure) were reviewed. Annual overall reject ratios (%) were shown to be on average within levels acceptable by the World Health Organisation (WHO)1 with some variability on monthly basis according to workloads experienced. Conclusions: A number of improvements have been suggested to improve data reliability for future analysis and the continuation of a review of the physical rejected image is recommended as this can highlight problematic areas and help to reveal trends which pure data cannot show. - Highlights: • Retrospective analysis of three years CR/DR rejects using customised QA program. • Reviewed data by individual workstations and departments. • Highlighted trends between workstations and departments. • Overall annual reject rates shown to be within WHO recommendations. • Recommendations for future improvements for reject analysis within department and continued review of JPEG images

  7. 专项整治前后某院喹诺酮类抗菌药应用情况对比分析%Comparative Analysis of the Usage of Quinolones before and after Special Rectification in a Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 王萍; 仲鹏磊; 周如君

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析评价南京某三甲医院抗菌药专项整治前后喹诺酮类抗菌药使用情况和发展趋势,为抗菌药临床应用专项整治活动及管理提供依据。方法:调取该院2010年(整治前)和2011~2013年(整治后)所用喹诺酮类抗菌药的使用记录,采用回顾性方法,对该类药物的销售金额、用药频度( DDDs)、限定日费用( DDC)、细菌耐药情况及药品不良反应进行统计分析。结果:整治后(2011~2013年)喹诺酮类抗菌药销售金额及占抗菌药总销售金额比例较整治前(2010年)有明显下降;整治前注射用门冬氨酸洛美沙星的销售金额和DDDs最高,整治后的2012~2013年,莫西沙星注射剂和盐酸左氧氟沙星注射液的销售金额最高,分别位于第1、2位;盐酸左氧氟沙星片和盐酸左氧氟沙星注射液的DDDs最高,分别位于第1、2位;莫西沙星注射剂DDC最高。主要耐药菌葡萄球菌、肠杆菌科细菌、非发酵菌对左氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、环丙沙星的耐药率有所下降;整治后该院抗菌药所致不良反应例数及喹诺酮类抗菌药所致不良反应占抗菌药不良反应的比例低于整治前。结论:该院通过抗菌药专项整治,喹诺酮类抗菌药的各项应用指标明显改善,喹诺酮类抗菌药的合理应用也取得成效,专项整治的效果比较明显。但该院还应加强对第4代喹诺酮类抗菌药的临床应用加以督导。%Objective:To analyze and evaluate the usage and tendency of quinolones before and after the special rectification of antibacterial in one grade III level A hospital in üanjing to provide evidence for the special rectification of antibacterial and manage-ment. Methods:The usage records of quinolones in 2010( before the special rectification)and in 2011-2013( after the special rectifi-cation)were collected,and the sales revenue,DDDs,defined daily cost( DDC),drug resistance and

  8. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  9. A managerial accounting analysis of hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, W G

    1976-01-01

    Variance analysis, an accounting technique, is applied to an eight-component model of hospital costs to determine the contribution each component makes to cost increases. The method is illustrated by application to data on total costs from 1950 to 1973 for all U.S. nongovernmental not-for-profit short-term general hospitals. The costs of a single hospital are analyzed and compared to the group costs. The potential uses and limitations of the method as a planning and research tool are discussed. PMID:965233

  10. Patient life in hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    Patient life in hospital.A qualitative study of informal relationships between hospitalised patients Introduction Within a patientology framework, this PhD dissertation is about an empirical study on patient life that provides insight into the nature of informal relationships between patients...... in hospitals today. Purpose The purpose was to explore how informal relationships between patients affect their hospital experiences in the hospital. The assumption is that, on the one hand, the impacts on patients' suffering affect the way they act and experience encounters with fellow patients for good....... Methods The study is designed within a phenomenological-hermeneutical philosophic frame of reference and is based on ethnographic fieldwork among hospitalised patients in a Danish university hospital. Data for the study were collected through participant observations over a period of 18 months. Nine males...

  11. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two, six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the

  12. Sexual behaviour in Zulu men and women with genital ulcer disease.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Coetzee, K D; van den Ende, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate patterns of sexual behaviour in men and women with genital ulcer disease (GUD) and their relevance to HIV-1 transmission. METHODS--A sexual behaviour questionnaire was administered by the same interviewer to all participants who were also entered into a study of the microbial aetiology of GUD. SETTING--City Health Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS--100 Zulu men and 100 Zulu women. RESULTS--36 (%) of me...

  13. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  14. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  15. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  16. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process.

  17. 建立院前急救数据库的4种数据录入软件的对照研究%Comparative study of four kinds of data entry software for establishing pre-hospital first aid database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐平; 章成

    2011-01-01

    Objective To choose a software which can perform data entry simply and quickly to establish a pre-hospital first aid database.Methods 20 medical records of pre-hospital first aid in Zigong emergency medical center in 2009 were selected, and 20 participants entered the same 20 medical records into computers by means of SPSS13.0, Microsoft Access 2003, Microsoft Excel 2003 and pre-hospital first aid electronic medical record software of our own design in different time. Entry time,entry accuracy and degrees of customer satisfaction were recorded and compared.Results Comparison of average entry time using pre-hospital first aid electronic medical record software with that using SPSS13.0 showed no statistically difference(P>0.05) , but they were both less than that by means of Microsoft Access 2003 and Microsoft Excel 2003 (P<0.05) ; Comparison of average entry error rates using pre-hospital first aid electronic medical record software with that using Microsoft Access 2003 showed no significantly difference(P>0.05) , but they were both lower than that by means of SPSS13.O and Microsoft Excel 2003(P<0.05) ; Pre-hospital first aid electronic medical record software possessed the highest satisfaction score among the 4 kinds of software while Microsoft Excel 2003scores,the lowest.Conclusion The pre-hospital first aid electronic medical record software is a simple and practical tool for establishing pre-hospital first aid database with features of quick entry and high accuracy.%目的 选择简便、快捷的数据录入软件以构建院前急救数据库.方法 抽取2009年自贡市急救中心院前急救病历20份,20名数据录入人员在不同时间用SPSS13.0、Microsoft Access 2003、Microsoft Excel 2003及自行设计的院前急救电子病历软件录入相同的20份病历数据,记录并比较这4种软件的录入时间、录入准确率及用户满意度.结果 院前急救电子病历软件与SPSS13.0软件平均录入时间比

  18. In-hospital delay to primary angioplasty for patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction between cardiac specialized hospitals and non-specialized hospitals in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Yi-wen; YANG Jin-gang; SONG Li; SUN Yi-hong; LU Chang-lin; YANG Yue-jin; HU Da-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that early reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reduces complications. This study was undertaken to compare the in-hospital delay to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for patients with STEMI between specialized hospitals and non-specialized hospitals in Beijing, China. Methods Two specialized hospitals and fifteen non-specialized hospitals capable of performing PPCI were selected to participate in this study. A total of 308 patients, within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms and undergoing PPCI between November 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006 were enrolled. Data were collected by structured interview and review of medical records.Results The median in-hospital delay was 98 (interquartile range 105 to 180) minutes, and 16.9% of the patients were treated within 90 minutes. Total in-hospital delay and ECG-to-treatment decision-making time were longer in the non-specialized hospitals than in the cardiac specialized hospitals (147 minutes vs. 120 minutes, P<0.001; 55 minutes vs. 45 minutes, P=0.035). After controlling the confounding factors, the non-specialized hospitals were independently associated with an increased risk of being in the upper median of in-hospital delays.Conclusions There were substantial in-hospital delays between arrival at the hospital and the administration of PPCI for patients with STEMI in Beijing. Patients admitted to the cardiac specialized hospitals had a shorter in-hospital delay than those to the non-specialized hospitals because of a shorter time of ECG-to-treatment decision-making.

  19. Does trust influence consumer behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Dierks, Leef H.

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of diverse food scandals this article investigates the role of trust as a determinant of consumer behaviour in Germany. As empirical analyses indicate, the impact of trust on consumer behaviour in a quotidian and presumably safe setting is to be neglected. In the environment of a food scandal, however, trust proves to be a crucial element with regard to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour under uncertainty. Moreover, it is analysed whether different valu...

  20. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  1. Two Belgian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huylebrouck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF has demonstrated activity against recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG in phase II clinical trials. Patients and Methods. Data were collected from patients with recurrent HGG who initiated treatment with BEV outside a clinical trial protocol at two Belgian university hospitals. Results. 19 patients (11 M/8 F were administered a total of 138 cycles of BEV (median 4, range 1–31. Tumor response assessment by MRI was available for 15 patients; 2 complete responses and 3 partial responses for an objective response rate of 26% for the intent to treat population were observed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images; significant regressions on T2/FLAIR were documented in 10 out of 15 patients (67%. A reduced uptake on PET was documented in 3 out of 4 evaluable patients. The six-month progression-free survival was 21% (95% CI 2.7–39.5. Two patients had an ongoing tumor response and remained free from progression after 12 months of BEV treatment. Conclusions. The activity and tolerability of BEV were comparable to results from previous prospective phase II trials. Reduced uptake on PET suggests a metabolic response in addition to an antiangiogenic effect in some cases with favorable clinical outcome.

  2. Behavioural induced severe hypernatremia without neurological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hossam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypernatremia is a relatively common entity and is more prevalent among the elderly and critically ill. A number of medical conditions are commonly associated with hypernatremia, and these differ substantially among children and adults. Severe hypernatremia is usually associated with central nervous system manifestations and carries a high mortality rate. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department of the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with severe hypernatremia and without any associated co-morbid conditions or neurological manifestations. We did not find any etiological background despite extensive eva-luation other than under hydration due to decreased fluid intake, which was secondary to beha-vioural causes.

  3. Suicidal behaviour in first-episode non-affective psychosis: Specific risk periods and stage-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Alcaraz, Elisa García; Hernández, Begoña Vicente; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocío; López Moríñigo, Javier David; Duta, Rina; David, Anthony S; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of premature death in psychosis. Earlier stages have been associated with higher risk. However, such risk periods have not been specifically determined and risk factors for suicidal behaviour may change over those periods, which may have crucial implications for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the highest risk period for suicide in a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Suicidal behaviour prior to first presentation of psychosis and during a 3-year follow-up was examined in a sample of 397 individuals. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour during specific time periods were investigated and compared. The greatest suicide risk was found during the month before and 2 months after first contact with psychiatric services (i.e., 'early' attempts). Severity of depressive symptoms and cannabis use emerged as predominant risk factors across time. 'Early' attempters were characterized as being male, living in urban areas, having poor premorbid adjustment, requiring hospitalization, scoring higher on anxiety measures and unusual thought content than non-attempters. Greater suspiciousness and more severe depressive symptoms distinguished the 'late' attempters. In conclusion, there is a specific high risk period for suicide in FEP around the time of the first presentation. Early intervention programmes targeting phase-specific risk factors, particularly psychotic symptoms management and secondary depression prevention strategies may be useful for suicide prevention in psychosis. PMID:26475577

  4. Determinants of physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Van Hal, Guido; Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The non-medical use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement becomes a more and more common practice among college and university students. Although physicians are a source of access, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might lead to physicians' intention and behaviour of prescribing methylphenidate to improve students' academic performance. Applying Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we tested whether attitudes, subjective norms (controllability and self-efficacy) and perceived behavioural control predicted the intention and the prescribing behaviour of physicians. Participants were 130 physicians (62.3% males). Structural equation modelling was used to test the ability of TPB to predict physicians' behaviour. Overall, the present study provides support for the TPB in predicting physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement. Subjective norms, followed by attitudes, are the strongest predictors of physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate. To a lesser extent, controllability predicts the intention of physicians, and self-efficacy predicts the self-reported behaviour. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians seem to have more negative attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement, feel less social pressure and perceive more control over their behaviour. Intervention programmes that want to decrease physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate for improving academic performance should primarily focus on alleviating the perceived social pressure to prescribe methylphenidate and on converting physician neutral or positive attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate into negative attitudes. PMID:23713799

  5. Fertility behaviour of recent immigrants to Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fertility practices of immigrants are a particularly interesting field of study for demographers, providing an insight into the fertility behaviour of individuals when both the society and the individual undergo a period of rapid change. This paper describes and compares the fertility behaviour of two large groups of immigrants, from the former Soviet Union (FSU and from Ethiopia to Israel in the last 20 years. The changes in fertility behaviour undergone in the same society and at the same time by two very different groups are examined. The findings reveal that the fertility behaviour of immigrants is indeed changing. The fertility of FSU immigrants is increasing and that of the Ethiopian immigrants decreasing, with accompanying changes in the proximate determinants of fertility. Although the fertility of immigrants is becoming more similar to that of the receiving society, the methods employed to achieve the fertility change are not necessarily similar, and, in some cases, diverge from the norms of the receiving society.

  6. A síndrome de burnout e os valores organizacionais: um estudo comparativo em hospitais universitários Burnout and organizational values: a comparative study in university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Oliveira Borges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa o relacionamento entre os valores organizacionais e os níveis da síndrome de burnout, em três hospitais universitários do Rio Grande do Norte. Foi desenvolvido com uma amostra de 205 profissionais de saúde, através da aplicação de questionários estruturados. Os dados foram submetidos a análises quantitativas (por exemplo, análises das distribuições de freqüência, de variância e de regressão. Os resultados apontam convergência dos escores nos fatores dos valores ideais por organização participante e divergências no que se refere tanto aos escores dos fatores dos valores reais quanto às descompensações axiológicas (diferenças entre ideal e real. Os participantes diferem quanto ao avanço do processo de desenvolvimento da síndrome de burnout por organizações. Constatou-se o papel de mediação das organizações no relacionamento entre valores organizacionais e a síndrome de burnout, de modo que os pólos axiológicos efetivamente relacionados à referida síndrome e/ou aos seus fatores dependem da configuração geral da cultura organizacional de cada uma e dos conflitos que lhe são inerentes.The present study analyzes the relationship between the organizational values and the levels of the burnout syndrome in three universitarian hospitals. It was developed with the sample of 205 health professionals, though to an application of structured questionnaires. The data were submitted quantitative analysis (for example, analysis of frequency distributions, analyses of variance and regression analyses. The results show a convergence among scores of ideal values for organizations and divergences among the scores of real values and the differences from ideal and real values. The participants differ in the advance of the burnout syndrome process for organizations. The results evidences the mediation role of the organizations in the relationship between organizational values and the burnout syndrome

  7. Estudo comparativo sobre a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em idosos hospitalizados, institucionalizados e residentes na comunidade Comparative study on depression symptoms in hospitalized, day-care and in-home elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Luiz Vallim

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A depressão no idoso e suas conseqüências vêm atraindo crescente atenção científica e clínica a medida que a população mundial envelhece. Com o objetivo de investigar características quantitativas e qualitativas dos sintomas depressivos em diferentes populações de idosos, entrevistamos idosos hospitalizados, institucionalizados e residentes na comunidade, representados por amostras de trinta idosos com 60 anos ou mais. O instrumento escolhido para a investigação dos sintomas depressivos foi a Escala de Hamilton para Avaliação de Depressão - versão adaptada por Blacker (HAM-D. Os idosos asilados apresentaram escores mais altos na HAM-D, condizentes com depressão grave e muito grave. A menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi encontrada entre os idosos residentes em domicílio. As mulheres apresentaram uma maior porcentagem de sintomas depressivos muito graves. Os resultados do presente trabalho apontam para a importância de se dedicar a atenção adequada à saúde mental do idoso objetivando o diagnóstico e o tratamento desta enfermidade tão freqüenteDepression in elderly and its consequences have been attracting scientific and clinical attention as the world population is getting older. In order to investigate depressive symptoms, we interviewed a sample of 30 elderly people, over 60 years old, in hospitals, asylums and in the community. They were evaluated by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. The elderly people living in asylums showed the highest scores of HAM-D, demonstrating severe depressive symptoms. The smallest rate of depressive symptoms was found in those people who lived in the community. The women presented a greater amount of severe depressive symptoms. Results show the importance of depression as a frequent mental disease in elderly people, which requires adequate diagnosis and treatment

  8. A comparative study of the C-reactive protein and the ST-score (ECG as prognostic indicators in acute myocardial infarction in a rural resource-constrained hospital setting in central India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Jain

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis used: We used Student′s t test to compare means, Chi-square test to compare proportions and Mann Whitney test to compare medians. P value <0.05 will be considered significant. Crude odds ratios were computed to assess the strength of association between risk factors and independent variable along with 95% confidence intervals. Results: STS was significantly higher in patients with poor outcome, when compared with good outcome (20.27mm vs.12.47mm, P = 0.002. On multivariate regression model STS was significant predictor of composite outcome events (OR = 2.74; 95% [CI], 1.46 to 5.17; P = 0.002. The area under the ROC curve was 0.70, with sensitivity of 73.5%, specificity of 58.7%; PPV of 68.3% and NPV of 64.2%. hs-CRP in patients with poor outcome vs. good outcome (6mg/L vs. 3.74mg/L, P = 0.003 and (P = 0.06, 0.85 and 0.12 respectively. Conclusions: STS on admission is independent predictor while hs- CRP is not in resource constrained settings.

  9. Models for describing the behaviour of light water reactors in serious accidents for the programs SCDAP/RELAP5, ATHLET/SA, CATHARE/ICARE, MELCOR etc.. First technical report on BMFT-sponsored research project 1500 831 7: Comparative assessment of different computer codes for severe accident analysis, contribution to the ATHLET/CD code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of the project BMFT No. 15008317 entitled ''Comparative Assessment of Different Computer Codws for Severe Accident Analysis, Contribution to the ATHLET/SA-Code Development'' the codes ATHLET/SA, CATHARE/ICARE, MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 are investigated. Emphasis is put on a comparison and an assessment of the governing modelling features implemented and operating in the codes under consideration. The codes are evaluated and compared on the base of selected experiments (especially the CORA experimental program of the Karlsruhe Research Center) and relevant severe accident scenarios. The present report is a reference study dealing with the governing models implemented in the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, ATHLET/SA, CATHARE/ICARE, MELCOR, KESS-III, MAAP and MELPROG/TRAC. Emphaisis is laid on the following models (molstly implemented in form of modules in the respective codes) dealing with: - thermal hydraulics; - heat generation and heat structures; - Radiation heat transfer; - mechanical (rod) behaviour; - core heatup, meltdown and relocation; - chemical reaction; - fission product release and transport; - material properties; - specific components. (orig.)

  10. Comparing the Convergence Behaviour of Binomial and Trinomial Models

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Horasanli

    2007-01-01

    An American option differs from a European one by the early exercise possibility. An American option can be exercised at any time up to the maturity date. In general, there is unfortunately no analytical solution to the American option problem. Binomial and trinomial approximations are useful to solve this problem but using a lattice model introduces approximation error. Both models have the property of convergence to Black & Scholes prices thus; can be used alternatively to solve the Black &...

  11. Comparing the Convergence Behaviour of Binomial and Trinomial Models

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Horasanli

    2008-01-01

    An American option differs from a European one by the early exercise possibility. An American option can be exercised at any time up to the maturity date. In general, there is unfortunately no analytical solution to the American option problem. Binomial and trinomial approximations are useful to solve this problem but using a lattice model introduces approximation error. Both models have the property of convergence to Black & Scholes prices thus; can be used alternatively to solve the Black &...

  12. The downstream industry compared to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.L. Schilansky introduces here the difficult question of the downstream industry compared to market in recalling the recent structural changes (behaviour of customers, behaviour of the USA- and China-governments), the increase of the European and French regulations, the climatic change and the conjectural impact of the crisis on the refining industry. (O.M.)

  13. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival. PMID:3300300

  14. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  15. Development of hospital formulary for a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D′Almeida R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulary is a continually revised compilation of pharmaceuticals (plus important ancillary information that reflects the current clinical judgment of medical staff. Kasturba Hospital is a 1400 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital with different specialties, having more than 3000 brands and ancillary products in use. The hospital does not have a formulary of any kind. Present study involved development of a formulary for the hospital and comparing it with WHO Model Formulary. Monographs of the drugs were prepared as per the recommendation of Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee of the hospital. Prepared hospital formulary consisted of 476 generic drugs of various categories and 95 fixed dose combinations. Availability of brands varied from single to many. About 75 medicines recommended by the essential medicine list were not present in the prepared hospital formulary. The drugs to be avoided or used with caution in renal failure, hepatic failure and in pregnancy were categorized and included in the formulary as additional information. The prepared hospital formulary was recommended for implementation in the hospital, which could thereby help as a tool to promote rational drug use.

  16. The unbooked maternity patient in an academic hospital in Durban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gcaba

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unbooked maternity patient in an academic hospital in Durban, Natal; This hospital is the biggest hospital serving the underprivileged population of this area. Of the 16000 annual deliveries in this hospital, about 12% are unbooked patients. The health belief model of Rosenstock, as interpreted by Mikhail and Cox’s interaction model of client health behaviour were used as a theoretical framework for this research. A qualitative case study methodology was undertaken and semi-structured interviews were conducted with unbooked mothers who had utilized appropriate health services in a previous pregnancy. The aim of such interviews was to explore reasons given by mothers for non-use of facilities in the current pregnancy. The basic trends reflected in the findings regarding non-utilization of health services were client instability, health service failure and socio-cultural constraints, The study is innovative and addresses the problem from a social-cultural and midwifery perspective.

  17. Behaviour Problems in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As more children survive with congenital heart diseases, management of their behavioural problems are becoming increasingly important. In this article we aim to review the current status of knowledge on this aspect. Children with congenital heart diseases have more behavioural problems compared to children without chronic illnesses. Behavioural problems in children can be classified into externalizing behaviours and internalizing behaviours. Externalizing behaviours are marked by defiance, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disruptiveness, aggression and antisocial features. Internalizing behaviours are evidenced by withdrawal, dysphoria and anxiety. Boys with congenital heart diseases have more externalizing problems compared to girls. Preoperative hypoxia as well as peri and postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency can lead to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in future. High treatment intensity and palliative interventions are associated with poor behavioral outcomes. Children who underwent open heart surgery at very young age are prone to develop attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on reaching school age. A comprehensive approach in this field is essential, so that effective early interventions and guidance can be planned.

  18. Association of Hospital Prices for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With Hospital Quality and Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Bria D; Cram, Peter; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Zhou, Yunshu; Girotra, Saket

    2016-04-01

    Although prices for medical services are known to vary markedly between hospitals, it remains unknown whether variation in hospital prices is explained by differences in hospital quality or reimbursement from major insurers. We obtained "out-of-pocket" price estimates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from a random sample of US hospitals for a hypothetical patient without medical insurance. We compared hospital CABG price to (1) "fair price" estimate from Healthcare Bluebook data using each hospital's zip code and (2) Society of Thoracic Surgeons composite CABG quality score and risk-adjusted mortality rate. Of 101 study hospitals, 53 (52.5%) were able to provide a complete price estimate for CABG. The mean price for CABG was $151,271 and ranged from $44,824 to $448,038. Except for geographic census region, which was weakly associated with price, hospital CABG price was not associated with other structural characteristics or CABG volume (p >0.10 for all). Likewise, there was no association between a hospital's price for CABG with average reimbursement from major insurers within the same zip code (ρ = 0.07, p value = 0.6), Society of Thoracic Surgeoncomposite quality score (ρ = 0.08, p value = 0.71), or risk-adjusted CABG mortality (ρ = -0.03 p value = 0.89). In conclusion, the price of CABG varied more than 10-fold across US hospitals. There was no correlation between price information obtained from hospitals and the average reimbursement from major insurers in the same market. We also found no evidence to suggest that hospitals that charge higher prices provide better quality of care.

  19. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

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    Andrea Galbiati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  20. On spaces of hospitality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    Although specialists in hospitality have worked extensively on hospitality with respect to relations between different nations or between nations and individuals of a different nationality, for instance when they seek asylum, Jacques Derrida preferred to focus instead upon the relationship between...... the market place, the religious sanctuary and places for the performing arts and cultural heritage. For the modern city they are the tightly woven fabric of social reality, and their configuration can make certain cities more hospitable than others, is the leading idea....