Sample records for behaviour 1994-2006 findings

  1. Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994-2006: findings from Europe and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Due, Pernille


    OBJECTIVES: To identify trends over 12 years in the prevalence of bullying and associated victimization among adolescents in North American and European countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11-15 year old school children...... in 21 countries in 1993/94 and in 27 countries in each of 1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06. Measures included involvement in bullying as either a perpetrator and/or victim. RESULTS: Consistent decreases in the prevalence of bullying were reported between 1993/94 to 2005/06 in most countries. Geographic...... patterns show consistent decreases in bullying in Western European countries and in most Eastern European countries. An increase or no change in prevalence was evident in almost all English speaking countries participating in the study (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Canada, but not in the USA...

  2. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) for Connecticut, 1994-2006-era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0038580) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is the 1994-2006-era classification for Connecticut, a subset of zone 65. This data set utilized 41 full or partial Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes...

  3. Immigrants and natives in U.S. science and engineering occupations, 1994-2006. (United States)

    Sana, Mariano


    Between 1994 and 2006, the ratio of foreign-born scientists and engineers (FSE) to native scientists and engineers (NSE) doubled. I decompose this change into a migration effect (which accounts for migration in general), a proportional college effect (which accounts for the relative proportions of college graduates among migrant and native workers), and a proportional science and engineering (S&E) effect (which accounts for the relative proportions of S&Es among migrant and native college-educated workers). Results show that the migration effect explains about three-quarters of the increase in FSE/NSE during the entire period under study. The proportional S&E effect, which captures changes in the ratio as a result of immigration of S&Es in excess of what would be expected from general migration alone, was largest in 1995-1998, which were years of sustained economic growth. Conversely, a slower economy coincided with a declining proportional S&E effect after 2000. Increases in the annual cap on H-lB visas, an important avenue of entryforforeign-born S&Es, had little effect on the ratio. In short, during 1994-2006, the association between economic swings and the specific, more than proportional migration of S&Es was much stronger than the association between the latter and changes in the H-1B cap.

  4. CT findings of cerebral palsy and behaviour development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Zenji


    It is well recognized that CT scan is very useful in the early diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The author has studied this time the CT scan findings of cerebral palsy children in their relations to the type of palsy, cause of palsy, complications in the central nervous system, and prognosis of behaviour development, in order to predict the prognosis of behaviour development. Dilatation of the contralateral cerebral ventricle was found in 82 % of hemiplegic type. Abnormal EEG was found in 73 %, but their behaviour development was satisfactory, with good development of speech regardless to the side of palsy. This might be helped by compensational function of the brain due to plasticity. Diplegia presented bilateral moderate dilatation of ventricles with favorable prognosis. Tetraplegia was caused mostly by asphyxia or congenital anomaly and revealed marked dilatation of ventricles or severe cortical atrophy. Some cases presented diffuse cortical low-density, often associated with abnormal EEG, and their prognosis was worst. Athetosis had normal CT finding or mild ventricular dilatation, but all cases of ataxia presented normal CT findings. Hypotonia had mild ventricular dilatation. Two of three mixed type cases had normal CT findings and another had mild ventricular dilatation. No correlation was found between ventricular dilatation and behaviour development, but statistically significant difference was found in the cases with 30 % or more Evans' ratio (P < 0.05). Prognosis of severe ventricular dilatation cases was poor.

  5. Extended prospect theory: findings on choice behaviour from economics and the behavioural sciences and their relevance for travel behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.


    In Transport Sciences different implementations of Utility Theory are commonly used for the description and prediction of human choice behaviour. Almost 30 years ago Kahneman and Tversky proposed an alternative behavioural-economic model of choice behaviour called Prospect Theory. In contrast to Ut

  6. Leadership Behaviour and Upward Feedback: Findings from a Longitudinal Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); C. Haynes; C. Borrill; C. Stride


    textabstractA sample of 48 managers and 308 staff members of a community health care organization took part in a study to investigate the influence of participating in an upward feedback program on leadership behaviour, both as indicated be self-ratings and subordinates’ ratings. The research design

  7. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.


    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  8. Host finding behaviour of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis. (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C


    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal is passive drifting with the wind and because they are highly specialized on their host plant. Consequently, the probability of landing on a suitable host is very low, let alone to land in their specific microhabitat within the host. How coconut mites manage to find their microhabitat within a host plant is still underexplored. We tested the hypothesis that they use volatile chemical information emanating from the plant to find a specific site within their host plants and/or use non-volatile plant chemicals to stay at a profitable site on the plant. This was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer (i.e. under conditions of a directed wind flow) and on cross-shaped arenas (i.e. under conditions of turbulent air) that either allowed contact with odour sources or not. The mites had to choose between odours from specific parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of a non-infested coconut plant and clean air as the alternative. In the olfactometer experiments, no mites were found to reach the upwind end of the Y-tube: coconut mites was found only when the arm of the arena contained discs of fruit epidermis and contact with these discs was allowed. The results suggest that coconut mites on palm trees are not attracted to specific sites on the plant by volatile plant chemicals, but that they arrested once they contact the substrate of specific sites. Possibly, they perceive non-volatile chemicals, but these remain to be identified.

  9. Narcissism and consumer behaviour: a review and preliminary findings. (United States)

    Cisek, Sylwia Z; Sedikides, Constantine; Hart, Claire M; Godwin, Hayward J; Benson, Valerie; Liversedge, Simon P


    We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition.

  10. Emotional, behavioural problems and cigarette smoking in adolescence: findings of a Greek cross-sectional study

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    Rotsika Vasiliki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere.

  11. Climatic conditions at the Mittivakkat Glacier catchment (1994-2006), Ammassalik Island, SE Greenland, and in a 109-year perspective (1898-2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Hansen, Birger; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm


    the catchment, meteorological conditions are monitored at the coast (Station Coast, 25 m a.s.l.) for the period 1998-2006 and in the glacier area (Station Nunatak, 515 m a.s.l.) for 1994-2006. During this 13-year period, solar radiation shows increasing values, averaging 0.5 W m-2 y-1, at the nunatak...... and decreasing values, averaging 1.4 W m-2 y-1, at the coast. The mean annual solar radiation at Station Coast is 102 W m-2 y-1, which is about 10% lower than at Station Nunatak, and is probably caused by increasing and higher percentages of dense clouds and sea fog in the coastal area. The mean annual air...... temperature is increasing by 0.10ºC y-1 at the nunatak and by 0.05ºC y-1 at the coast, extending the thawing periods by about 50 days and 5 days, respectively. A snow-free period of 64 days is observed at the nunatak. The coastal area is highly dominated by air temperature inversion and sea breezes during...

  12. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues. (United States)

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter


    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association.

  13. Sickness absence following coronary revascularisation. A national study of women and men of working age in Sweden 1994-2006.

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    Margaretha Voss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based and gender specific knowledge about sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is lacking. The objective was to investigate sickness absence after a first coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI among women and men in a national Swedish study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients 30-63 years of age, who underwent a first CABG (n = 22,985, 16% women or PCI (40,891, 22% women in Sweden between 1994 and 2006 were included. Information on sickness absence, co-morbidity, and other patient characteristics was obtained from national registers. Long-term sickness absence (LTSA was defined as >180 and >90 sick-leave days in the first sick-leave spell following CABG and PCI, respectively. Prevalence ratio (PR and 95% confidence interval (CI of LTSA were calculated. FINDINGS: LTSA followed the interventions in 41% and 36% for CABG and PCI patients, respectively. Women had more often LTSA compared with men, (CABG PR = 1.23: 95% CI 1.19-1.28 and PCI PR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.16-1.23. A history of sickness absence the year before the intervention increased the risk for LTSA after the intervention in both genders. Among women, older age, or being self employed or unemployed was associated with a lower risk for LTSA. Among men previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes and low socio-economic position increased the risk. During the observation period, there was no change in sickness absence rates among PCI patients but an increase among CABG patients adjusting for patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: This national study covering a 13-year period shows that long-term sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is common in Sweden, especially among women, and is associated with socio-economic position, co-morbidity, and sickness absence during the year before the intervention. Gender specific scientific knowledge about use and effects of sickness absence following coronary

  14. Using cognitive behaviour therapy with South Asian Muslims: Findings from the culturally sensitive CBT project. (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Phiri, Peter; Munshi, Tariq; Rathod, Shanaya; Ayub, Muhhhamad; Gobbi, Mary; Kingdon, David


    It has been suggested that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) needs adaptation for it to be effective for patients from collectivistic cultures, as currently CBT is underpinned by individualistic values. In prior studies we have demonstrated that CBT could be adapted for Pakistani patients in Southampton, UK, and for local populations in Pakistan. Findings from these studies suggest that CBT can be adapted for patients from collectivistic cultures using a series of steps. In this paper we focus on these steps, and the process of adapting CBT for specific groups. The adaptation process should focus on three major areas of therapy, rather than simple translation of therapy manuals. These include (1) awareness of relevant cultural issues and preparation for therapy, (2) assessment and engagement, and (3) adjustments in therapy. We also discuss the best practice guidelines that evolved from this work to help therapists working with this population. We reiterate that CBT can be adapted effectively for patients from traditional cultures. This is, however, an emerging area in psychotherapy, and further work is required to refine the methodology and to test adapted CBT.

  15. Does School-Wide Positive Behaviour System Improve Learning in Primary Schools? Some Preliminary Findings (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Mooney, Mary; Barker, Katrina; Dobia, Brenda


    Background: A school-wide program known as Positive Behaviour for Learning (PBL) that systematically reinforces positive behaviours in schools based on the USA model of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) but also emphasizes learning processes and outcomes was implemented in the Western Sydney Region (WSR) of Australia. Aim: The…

  16. What Behaviours Do Students Consider Academically Dishonest? Findings from a Survey of Canadian Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Jurdi, Rozzet; Hage, H. Sam; Chow, Henry P. H.


    This paper identifies those behaviours that students perceive to be academically dishonest and sheds light on several demographic, academic and situational factors that predict students' perceptions of academic dishonesty. Data for this investigation were obtained through self-administered questionnaires from a sample of 321 undergraduate students…

  17. Dietary behaviours during pregnancy: findings from first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia

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    Simpson Judy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited prevalence data are available for nutrition related health behaviours during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess dietary behaviours during pregnancy among first-time mothers, and to investigate the relationships between these behaviours and demographic characteristics, so that appropriate dietary intervention strategies for pregnant women can be developed. Method An analysis of cross-sectional survey was conducted using data from 409 first-time mothers at 26-36 weeks of pregnancy, who participated in the Healthy Beginnings Trial conducted in southwestern Sydney, Australia. Dietary behaviours, including consumption of vegetables, fruit, water, milk, soft drinks, processed meat products, fast foods/take away and chips, were assessed using the New South Wales Health Survey questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with dietary behaviours were determined by logistic regression modeling. Log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR. Results Only 7% of mothers reported meeting the recommended vegetable consumption and 13% reported meeting the recommended fruit consumption. Mean and median intakes per day were 2.3 (SD 1.3 and 2 serves of vegetables, and 2.1 (SD 1.4 and 2 serves of fruit respectively. About one fifth of mothers (21% reported drinking 2 cups (500 ml or more of soft drink per day and 12% reported consuming more than 2 meals or snacks from fast-food or takeaway outlets per week. A small percentage of mothers (5% had experienced food insecurity over the past 12 months. There were significant inverse associations between water and soft drink consumption (Spearman's ρ -0.20, P Conclusions There were low reported levels of vegetable and fruit consumption and high reported levels of soft drink and takeaway/fast food consumption among pregnant women. Dietary interventions to prevent adverse health consequences need to be tailored to meet the needs of pregnant women

  18. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial. (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A


    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  19. Distinct spatial scale sensitivities for early categorisation of Faces and Places: Neuromagnetic and Behavioural Findings

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    Bhuvanesh eAwasthi


    Full Text Available Research exploring the role of spatial frequencies in rapid stimulus detection and categorisation report flexible reliance on specific spatial frequency bands. Here, through a set of behavioural and magnetoencephalography (MEG experiments, we investigated the role of low spatial frequency (LSF(<8 cpf and high spatial frequency (HSF(>25 cpf information during the categorisation of faces and places. Reaction time measures revealed significantly faster categorisation of faces driven by LSF information, while rapid categorisation of places was facilitated by HSF information. The MEG study showed significantly earlier latency of the M170 component for LSF faces compared to HSF faces. Moreover, the M170 amplitude was larger for LSF faces than for LSF places, whereas the reverse pattern was evident for HSF faces and places. These results suggest that spatial frequency modulates the processing of category specific information for faces and places.

  20. Single case methodology in neurobehavioural rehabilitation: preliminary findings on biofeedback in the treatment of challenging behaviour. (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian; Findlay, Gemma


    The use of single-case methodology (SCM) in brain injury rehabilitation is described and contrasted with other methodologies. SCM is optimal when attempting to meet highly individual presentations or to trial innovative solutions. Portable biofeedback is a potentially effective means of helping persons with brain injury to recognise and regulate emotional states. Emotional dysregulation, associated with disinhibition on tests of executive function, is hypothesised to underpin aggressive challenging behaviour and may be amenable to feedback on heart rate variability, a marker for stress. Two case studies of a novel biofeedback intervention, emWave2, to address aggression directed towards the self and towards others are presented. Data from two A-B designs were analysed using the non-overlap all pairs (NAP) statistical method. Clinical significance of outcome is reported in both cases but only Case 2 reached statistical significance. The discussion highlights limitations of the methodology. Results are discussed in relation to the device helping participants differentiate the physiological state associated with stress. The future application of wearable physiological sensing and feedback systems is explored.

  1. Rough set based decision rule generation to find behavioural patterns of customers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Rough sets help in finding significant attributes of large data sets and generating decision rules for classifying new instances. Though multiple regression analysis, discriminant analysis, log-it analysis and several other techniques can be used for predicting results, they consider insignificant information also for processing which may lead to false positives and false negatives. In this study, we proposed rough set based decision rule generation framework to find reduct and to generate decision rules for predicting the Decision class. We conducted experiments over data of Portuguese Banking institution. From the proposed method, the dimensionality of data is reduced and decision rules are generated which predicts deposit nature of customers by 90%accuracy.

  2. Effect of Religious Beliefs on the Smoking Behaviour of University Students: Quantitative Findings From Malaysia. (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Alkoudmani, Ramez M; Elsayed, Tarek M; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair


    The Malaysian official Islamic authorities have issued a "fatwa" (Islamic ruling) regarding smoking practice which prohibits Muslims from smoking because of its potential harm to health. Since the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian students is high, this study was designed to explore the perceptions and opinions of Malaysian Muslim students towards smoking in International Islamic University of Malaysia. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among School of Science students in International Islamic University Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 323 students based on sample size calculation. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. Non-smokers highly supported the fatwa on smoking forbiddance than smokers (94 vs 64.3 %, p = 0.001). A significant proportion of non-smokers believed that Islam prohibits smoking because of its potential harm (94.9 vs 71.4 %, p = 0.001). Majority of smokers agreed that addiction is the main barrier towards smoking cessation (78.6 vs 61.5 %, p = 0.019). The results showed positive influences of Islamic beliefs on the non-smokers. Further studies are required to validate these findings by surveying other universities of Malaysia.

  3. Do executive function and impulsivity predict adolescent health behaviour after accounting for intelligence?:Findings from the ALSPAC cohort


    Stautz, Kaidy; Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Deary, Ian J.; Theresa M Marteau


    OBJECTIVE: Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence.METHODS: Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were analysed to investigate whether components of executive function (selective attention, attentional control, working mem...

  4. Do Executive Function and Impulsivity Predict Adolescent Health Behaviour after Accounting for Intelligence? Findings from the ALSPAC Cohort


    Stautz, Kaidy; Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Deary, Ian J.; Theresa M Marteau


    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from PLOS via Objective Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence. Methods Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents an...

  5. Modelling and modifying young heterosexuals' HIV-preventive behaviour; a review of theories, findings and educational implications. (United States)

    Abraham, C; Sheeran, P


    Studies applying social cognitive frameworks such as the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action to HIV-prevention are reviewed. These models suggest that appropriate beliefs, attitudes, social norms, intentions and perceived self-efficacy are sufficient psychological conditions for safer sexual behaviour. Limitations inherent in these accounts are identified and additional factors which need to be incorporated in psychological models and health education programmes are highlighted. These include, the motivational complexity of sexual behaviour, the emotional and arousal states in which it is enacted, the difficulties of planning what is regarded as spontaneous interaction and contextual factors which can undermine HIV-preventive intentions. Health education interventions aimed at individual, group and community levels are examined in light of this theoretical review and action-focused, empowering interventions grounded in youth culture are recommended.

  6. Disruption of glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle significantly impacts on suicidal behaviour: survey of the literature and own findings on glutamine synthetase. (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Tausch, Anne; Wagner, Rebecca; Steiner, Johann; Seeleke, Patrick; Walter, Martin; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bogerts, Bernhard


    The aetiology of suicide is complex and still not completely understood. The present communication, which consists of two parts, aims to shed some light on the role of amino acidergic neurotransmission in suicide. In the first part we provide an overview of the literature showing that with the exception of certain gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters, virtually all components of the glutamate-glutamine- gamma-aminobutyric acid cycle are, in some way or other, abnormal in suicide victims, which indicates a prominent involvement of the glutamatergic and gammaaminobutyric acidergic neurotransmitter systems in suicidal behaviour. In the second part we present own immunohistochemical findings showing that densities of glutamine synthetase expressing glial cells in the mediodorsal thalamus as well as in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic suicide completers are significantly elevated compared with controls and non-suicide individuals with schizophrenia, thus calling into question the belief that cerebral glutamine synthetase deficit is indicative of suicidal behaviour.

  7. Mice behavioural models with pooled data analysis of Gelsemium studies and new findings about Ignatia and Aconitum

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    Anita Conforti


    effect of Gelsemium was evident at variance with the effect of the standard drugs diazepam and buspirone, suggesting an increase in exploratory behavior and a decrease in thigmotaxis or in neophobia, instead of a pure anxiolytic effect; in LD test the effects of Gelsemium were in the same direction as those of benzodiazepines. Ignatia showed statistically significant effects only in the LD test parameters (peak at 9CH dilution/dynamization, while Aconitum anxiolytic-like effects were evident only in one experiment where the basal anxiety level of mice was very high. In addition, we observed a tendency of Ignatia to decrease the number of urinations and of Aconitum to decrease the number of stools produced by animals, an effect that was in the same direction as the activity of diazepam. Homeopathic medicines did not alter the general locomotion of mice in the OF, indicating that their effect was actually anxiolytic-like and not sedative, while buspirone significantly inhibited this parameter. Conclusions: Pharmacological effects of highly diluted/dynamized medicines on behavioural and emotional symptoms are clearly detectable also in experimental animals. Among the three tested remedies, in these model paradigms Gelsemium showed the highest activity, which was statistically significant as compared with pure solvent even in solutions diluted beyond the Avogadro constant. The effects of different medicines on the anxiety-like symptoms were qualitatively different and differed also from those of benzodiazepines and of serotonin partial agonists. These experiences raise some technical issues related to the animal models and to the possible translation to homeopathy in humans.

  8. Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, on maize, and its effect on host finding by Trichogramma egg parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Dutton, A.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.


    Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of Ostrinia nubilalis is reviewed based on published information and new research. The position of egg masses of O. nubilalis on maize plants and leaves were sampled in the field. Most egg masses were found on the lower leaf side, on the middle part of the

  9. An exploration of lifestyle beliefs and lifestyle behaviour following stroke: findings from a focus group study of patients and family members

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    Paton Gillian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of disability and family disruption and carries a high risk of recurrence. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk of recurrence include smoking, unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. Guidelines recommend that secondary prevention interventions, which include the active provision of lifestyle information, should be initiated in hospital, and continued by community-based healthcare professionals (HCPs following discharge. However, stroke patients report receiving little/no lifestyle information. There is a limited evidence-base to guide the development and delivery of effective secondary prevention lifestyle interventions in the stroke field. This study, which was underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, sought to explore the beliefs and perceptions of patients and family members regarding the provision of lifestyle information following stroke. We also explored the influence of beliefs and attitudes on behaviour. We believe that an understanding of these issues is required to inform the content and delivery of effective secondary prevention lifestyle interventions. Methods We used purposive sampling to recruit participants through voluntary sector organizations (29 patients, including 7 with aphasia; 20 family members. Using focus group methods, data were collected in four regions of Scotland (8 group discussions and were analysed thematically. Results Although many participants initially reported receiving no lifestyle information, further exploration revealed that most had received written information. However, it was often provided when people were not receptive, there was no verbal reinforcement, and family members were rarely involved, even when the patient had aphasia. Participants believed that information and advice regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour was often confusing and contradictory and that this influenced their behavioural intentions. Family

  10. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults

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    Bain Chris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of physical activity (PA, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours are changing rapidly in Asia. Little is known about their relationship with obesity in this context. This study investigates in detail the relationship between obesity, physical activity, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours in a Thai population. Methods 74,981 adult students aged 20-50 from all regions of Thailand attending the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University in 2005-2006 completed a self-administered questionnaire, including providing appropriate self-reported data on height, weight and PA. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between obesity, defined according to Asian criteria (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥25, and measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours (exercise-related PA; leisure-related computer use and television watching ("screen-time"; housework and gardening; and sitting-time adjusted for age, sex, income and education and compared according to a range of personal characteristics. Results Overall, 15.6% of participants were obese, with a substantially greater prevalence in men (22.4% than women (9.9%. Inverse associations between being obese and total weekly sessions of exercise-related PA were observed in men, with a significantly weaker association seen in women (p(interaction Conclusions Domestic activities and sedentary behaviours are important in relation to obesity in Thailand, independent of exercise-related physical activity. In this setting, programs to prevent and treat obesity through increasing general physical activity need to consider overall energy expenditure and address a wide range of low-intensity high-volume activities in order to be effective.

  11. Translating formative research findings into a behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and iron and folic acid supplementation in western Kenya. (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L; Seim, Gretchen L; Wawire, Salome; Chapleau, Gina M; Young, Sera L; Dickin, Katherine L


    The World Health Organization now recommends integrating calcium supplements into antenatal micronutrient supplementation programmes to prevent pre-eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal mortality. As countries consider integrating calcium supplementation into antenatal care (ANC), it is important to identify context-specific barriers and facilitators to delivery and adherence. Such insights can be gained from women's and health workers' experiences with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 pregnant and post-partum women and 20 community-based and facility-based health workers in Kenya to inform a calcium and IFA supplementation programme. Interviews assessed awareness of anaemia, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia; ANC attendance; and barriers and facilitators to IFA supplement delivery and adherence. We analyzed interviews inductively using the constant comparative method. Women and health workers identified poor diet quality in pregnancy as a major health concern. Neither women nor health workers identified pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, anaemia or related symptoms as serious health threats. Women and community-based health workers were unfamiliar with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and considered anaemia symptoms normal. Most women had not received IFA supplements, and those who had received insufficient amounts and little information about supplement benefits. We then developed a multi-level (health facility, community, household and individual) behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and IFA supplementation. Formative research is an essential first step in guiding implementation of antenatal calcium supplementation programmes to reduce pre-eclampsia. Because evidence on how to implement successful calcium supplementation programmes is limited, experiences with antenatal IFA supplementation can be used to guide programme development.

  12. Evaluation of Self-Ratings for Health Information Behaviour Skills Requires More Heterogeneous Sample, but Finds that Public Library Print Collections and Health Information Literacy of Librarians Needs Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman


    Full Text Available Objective – To understand public library users’ perceptions of ability to locate, evaluate, and use health information; to identify barriers experienced in finding and using health information; and to compare self-ratings of skills to an administered instrument. Design – Mixed methods. Setting – Main library and two branches of one public library system in Florida. Subjects – 20 adult library users purposively selected from 131 voluntary respondents to a previously conducted survey (Yi, 2014 based on age range, ethnicity, gender, and educational level. Of the 20, 13 were female; 11 White, 8 Black, 1 Native American; most had attained college or graduate school education levels (9 each, with 2 having graduated from high school. 15 respondents were aged 45 or older. Methods – Intensive interviews conducted between April and May 2011 used critical incident technique to inquire about a recalled health situation. Participants responded to questions about skill self-appraisal, health situation severity, information seeking and assessment behaviour, use of information, barriers, and outcome. Responses were compared to results of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA test, administered to participants. Main Results – On a scale of 100, participants’ S-TOFHLA scores measured at high levels of proficiency, with 90% rating 90 points or above. Self-ratings of ability to find health information related to recalled need were ”excellent” (12 participants or “good” (8 participants. Fourteen participants did not seek library assistance; 12 began their search on the Internet, 5 searched the library catalogue, and 3 reported going directly to the collection. Resource preferences were discussed, although no frequency descriptions were provided. 90% of participants self-rated their ability to evaluate the quality of health information as “good” or “excellent.” Participants selected authority

  13. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J


    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  14. Behavioural Modernity


    McLean, Laura


    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  15. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten


    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  16. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare


    Economics offers an analytical framework to consider human behaviour including religious behaviour. Within the realm of Expected Utility Theory, religious belief and activity could be interpreted as an insurance both for current life events and for afterlife rewards. Based on that framework, we...... and religious behaviour is driven by the subgroup of individuals who believe in an afterlife. In addition, when re-analysing our results using panel data analyses which cancel out shared factors among twin pairs, we find that the correlation found between risk aversion and religious behaviour is no longer...... significant indicating that other factors might explain differences in religious behaviour. Caution is needed in the interpretation of our results as the insignificant association between risk aversion and religious behaviour in the panel data analyses potentially might be due to measurement error causing...

  17. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice


    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  18. Buying behaviour of children at secondary school


    Snížková, Kateřina


    The bachelor thesis deals with buying behaviour of children at secondary school. The aim is to describe their buying behaviour and find out their motivational factors to purchase factors with a focus on advertisement. In the theoretical part is specified buying behaviour and factors influencing consumer. Gen Z and Net generation, in which children at secondary school class, are characterized. It described their buying behaviour and specification that characterize this generation. A part of th...

  19. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  20. "Half plate of rice to a male casual sexual partner, full plate belongs to the husband": Findings from a qualitative study on sexual behaviour in relation to HIV and AIDS in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwanga Joseph R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. Methods We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. Results The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV

  1. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben


    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions, h...... and pitfalls of regulation and self-regulation and presents some initiatives that might help bridge the gap. The conclusions will be supported by recent findings from primarily Northern European evaluations and research...

  2. Oral and general health behaviours among Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin


    . In factor analysis of general and oral health-related behaviours, three factors were isolated: (a) risk behaviours (loadings 0.48-0.66), (b) health-promoting behaviours (loadings 0.60-0.64) and (c) help-seeking behaviours (loadings 0.56-0.67). CONCLUSION: The findings support a multidimensional model...

  3. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  4. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ It took 14 years--and just two min-utes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family. July 21 this year marked the first anniversary of Haley Butler's finding of her biological parents in Maanshan in east China's Anhui Province.

  5. Rock Finding (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.


    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  6. The conditioning impact of information environments on EU public opinion dynamics, Germany 1994-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klingeren, M.; Boomgaarden, H.G.


    This study investigates the circumstances under which both identity- and utilitarian focused explanations of public EU support come into play. It is claimed that in particular the salience of relevant issues in the mass media environment conditions the impact of individual level explanatory factors.

  7. How do individual-level sociodemographics and neighbourhood-level characteristics influence residential location behaviour in the context of the food and built environment? Findings from 25 years of follow-up in the CARDIA Study (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Guilkey, David K; Shikany, James M; Reis, Jared P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny


    Background Little is known about how diet-related and activity-related amenities relate to residential location behaviour. Understanding these relationships is essential for addressing residential self-selection bias. Methods Using 25 years (6 examinations) of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n=11 013 observations) and linked neighbourhood-level data from the 4 CARDIA baseline cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California, USA), we characterised participants’ neighbourhoods as having low, average or high road connectivity and amenities using non-hierarchical cluster analysis. We then used repeated measures multinomial logistic regression with random effects to examine the associations between individual-level sociodemographics and neighbourhood-level characteristics with residential neighbourhood types over the 25-year period, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. Results Being female was positively associated with living in neighbourhoods with low (vs high) road connectivity and activity-related and diet-related amenities among high-income individuals only. At all income levels, a higher percentage of neighbourhood white population and neighbourhood population physical activity opportunities, and may help mitigate residential self-selection bias in built environment studies. PMID:27660400

  8. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Discovering her birth parents was an exciting adventure for a 15-year-old girl It took 14 years-and just two minutes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family.July 21 this year marked the first

  9. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans


    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... and find that research findings appear scattered and unrelated. Most of the previous research has been concerning with generating lists of criteria used by retailers when deciding whether or not t accept a new product. Other areas that have caught the interest of researcher are: the role of buying...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  10. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.


    , a globalscale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here,we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour diers among...

  11. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change. (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria


    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  12. Predicting behaviour from perceived behavioural control: tests of the accuracy assumption of the theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Armitage, Christopher J


    The theory of planned behaviour assumes that the accuracy of perceived behavioural control (PBC) determines the strength of the PBC-behaviour relationship. However, this assumption has never been formally tested. The present research developed and validated a proxy measure of actual control (PMAC) in order to test the assumption. In two studies, participants completed measures of intention and PBC, and subsequently completed measures of behaviour and the PMAC. Validity of the PMAC was established by findings showing; (a). that the PMAC moderated the intention-behaviour relation, and (b). that PMAC scores did not reflect attributions for participants' failure to enact their stated intentions. Accuracy was operationalized as the difference between PBC and PMAC scores. Consistent with theoretical expectations, several analyses indicated that greater accuracy of PBC was associated with improved prediction of behaviour by PBC.

  13. The behavioural ecology of climbing plants. (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto


    Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Vines that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Therefore, the location of a suitable support is a key process in the life history of climbing plants. Numerous studies on climbing plant behaviour have elucidated mechanistic details of support searching and attachment. Far fewer studies have addressed the ecological significance of support-finding behaviour and the factors that affect it. Without this knowledge, little progress can be made in the understanding of the evolution of support-finding behaviour in climbers. Here I review studies addressing ecological causes and consequences of support finding and use by climbing plants. I also propose the use of behavioural ecology theoretical frameworks to study climbing plant behaviour. I show how host tree attributes may determine the probability of successful colonization for the different types of climbers, and examine the evidence of environmental and genetic control of circumnutation behaviour and phenotypic responses to support availability. Cases of oriented vine growth towards supports are highlighted. I discuss functional responses of vines to the interplay between herbivory and support availability under different abiotic environments, illustrating with one study case how results comply with a theoretical framework of behavioural ecology originally conceived for animals. I conclude stressing that climbing plants are suitable study subjects for the application of behavioural-ecological theory. Further research under this framework should aim at characterizing the different stages of the support-finding process in terms of their fit with the different climbing modes and environmental settings. In particular, cost-benefit analysis of climbing plant behaviour should be helpful to infer the selective pressures that have operated to shape current climber ecological

  14. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour (United States)

    Larmar, Stephen


    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  15. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian


    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  16. Efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in Reducing Bullying Behaviour among In-School Adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria (United States)

    Alabi, Yahaya Lasiele; Lami, Mustapha Mulikat


    Bullying behaviour refers to repeated negative behaviour displayed by one or more person (s) with the intention of hurting the feeling, personality and power of the victim. The objective of this study therefore was to find out the efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in reducing bullying behaviour among in-school…

  17. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad


    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  18. Organizational Behaviour Study Material


    P. Sreeramana Aithal


    An overview of Organizational Behaviour – History of Organisational Behaviour and its  emergence as a disciple-emerging perspective Organizational Behaviour.  Individual process in organisation – Learning, perception and attribution- Individual differences - Basic concepts of motivation - Advanced concepts of motivation. Group process in Organisation – Group dynamics, leadership theories - Power, politics and conflict - inter- personal communication. Enhancing individu...

  19. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom


    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties. Utili...... that a conceptualization based on the distinction between strong and weak ties provides a promising framework for future research.......There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  20. Personality Traits and Investment Behaviour


    Cecchini, Marco


    In this thesis I construct a unique dataset to test the role of individual characteristics in affecting the investor behaviour. In particular, I present two empirical research papers that investigate trading patterns unlikely to be driven by rational models, and a literature review in which are summarized the main findings within the new field of “personality finance”. Using an experimental analysis that combine a trading simulation with a Big-Five personality questionnaire, Paper 1 and Paper...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský


    Full Text Available Purpose – to present the issue of dealing with negative word-of-mouth under the newly created conditions of social media and formulate a set of rules for dealing with negative contributions in social networks such as Facebook. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents findings from both a quantitative survey of Czech Facebook users and expert interviews. Findings – The results of the survey that was done among internet users has proven, that Czech Facebook users are fully aware of the fact that by complaining publicly via social media they can get a company in a serious trouble and want to use it to their advantage. Expert interviews agreed on necessity of good knowledge of the community, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions. Research limitations/implications – the empirical research is focused on the Czech market that is specific in the field of internet user behaviour. Findings are primarily valid solely for the social network Facebook. Other platforms may differ in complaining behaviour of the users. Practical implications – research findings show, that social media play an important role in complaining behaviour of Czech internet users. This fact results in the necessity of the presence in social media and careful monitoring the word-of-mouth. Crucial factors of successful communication in social media are knowledge of the com munity, quick response to the posts and careful consideration of deleting negative contributions.Originality/Value – Word of mouth, nowadays the most powerful marketing tool and the strongest argument in the decision making process, is now not limited to the circle of nearest friends of family. Social media gives people a voice that is immediate and can have impact. Without an effective and fast reaction of the company, a serious harm can be suffered. The significance of social network Facebook in complaining behaviour of Czech consumers is assessed

  2. Understanding Casual-Leisure Information Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsweiler, David; Wilson, Max L.; Lunn, Brian Kirkegaard


    Originally grounded in library and information science, the majority of information behaviour and information-seeking theories focus on task-based scenarios where users try to resolve information needs. While other theories exist, such as how people unexpectedly encounter information, for example......, they are typically related back to tasks, motivated by work or personal goals. This chapter, however, focuses on casual-leisure scenarios that are typically motivated by hedonistic needs rather than information needs, where people engage in searching behaviours for pleasure rather than to find information....... This chapter describes two studies on (1) television information behaviour and (2) the casual information behaviours described by users of Twitter. The first study focuses on a specific casual-leisure domain that is familiar to many, while the second indicates that our findings generalise to many other casual...

  3. Mesophase behaviour of polyhedral particles

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Umang


    Translational and orientational excluded-volume fields encoded in particles with anisotropic shapes can lead to purely entropy-driven assembly of morphologies with specific order and symmetry. To elucidate this complex correlation, we carried out detailed Monte Carlo simulations of six convex space-filling polyhedrons, namely, truncated octahedrons, rhombic dodecahedrons, hexagonal prisms, cubes, gyrobifastigiums and triangular prisms. Simulations predict the formation of various new liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases at intermediate volume fractions. By correlating these findings with particle anisotropy and rotational symmetry, simple guidelines for predicting phase behaviour of polyhedral particles are proposed: high rotational symmetry is in general conducive to mesophase formation, with low anisotropy favouring plastic-solid behaviour and intermediate anisotropy (or high uniaxial anisotropy) favouring liquid-crystalline behaviour. It is also found that dynamical disorder is crucial in defining mesophase behaviour, and that the apparent kinetic barrier for the liquid-mesophase transition is much lower for liquid crystals (orientational order) than for plastic solids (translational order). © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings


    Plomin, R.; Deary, I.J.


    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for...

  5. Cognitive psychological theories of suicidal behaviour


    Saška Roškar


    Suicidal behaviour is a consequence of simultaneous influences of many factors. Basically it can be regarded as a consequence of an interplay of two risk factors, namely genetic and environmental, which express themselves in the form of sociological, biological and psychological factors. It is difficult to find a theory of suicidal behaviour which would cover or consider all factors, and although present theories are overlapping, they emphasize different risk factors. More recent studies are ...

  6. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN


    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioural present value


    Krzysztof Piasecki


    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  8. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour


    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean


    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  9. Foraging currencies, metabolism and behavioural routines. (United States)

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M


    A fundamental issue in foraging theory is whether it is possible to find a simple currency that characterizes foraging behaviour. If such a currency exists, then it is tempting to argue that the selective forces that have shaped the evolution of foraging behaviour have been understood. We review previous work on currencies for the foraging behaviour of an animal that maximizes total energy gained. In many circumstances, it is optimal to maximize a suitably modified form of efficiency. We show how energy gain, predation and damage can be combined in a single currency based on reproductive value. We draw attention to the idea that hard work may have an adverse effect on an animal's condition. We develop a model of optimal foraging over a day when a forager's state consists of its energy reserves and its condition. Optimal foraging behaviour in our model depends on energy reserves, condition and time of day. The pattern of optimal behaviour depends strongly on assumptions about the probability that the forager is killed by a predator. If condition is important, no simple currency characterizes foraging behaviour, but behaviour can be understood in terms of the maximization of reproductive value. It may be optimal to adopt a foraging option that results in a rate of energy expenditure that is less than the rate associated with maximizing efficiency.

  10. Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents. (United States)

    Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I


    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

  11. Stabilization of behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van der Robert


    In this paper we characterize the set of all restrictions on the behaviour of a plant that shape the characteristic polynomial of the closed-loop system. These control laws include both classical feedback laws and singular feedback laws. One of the results is the behavioural version of the Youla-Jab

  12. Behavioural aspects of terrorism. (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J


    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  13. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette


    Although childhood obesity has long been in focus, little is known about the sensitivity of behavioural choices to measure parental resource constraints. The aim of this study is to examine the heterogeneous effects of children’s (or their parents’) choices of lifestyle subject to information......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...... and weight is a choice made by children, or their parents. Although childhood obesity has long been in focus, little is known about the sensitivity of behavioural choices to measure parental resource constraints. The aim of this study is to examine the heterogeneous effects of children’s (or their parents...

  14. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour. (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A


    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  15. How to encourage enterprising behaviour in students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh


    Our history of learning has an impact on the way we organise lessons today. We still have many teacher-led lectures with considerable focus on the content to be learnt. This paper discusses how we can give the initiative back to the students. The paper search for didactic elements in the teaching...... across educations: 1) active students, 2) involvement of practice, 3) creation of visible relevance and sense, and 4) the teacher as a didactic element per se. The findings underline the need for teachers to focus on their own enterprising behaviour in class as well as the enterprising behaviour...... methods applied, which will provide the students with enterprising behavioural skills. For students to be enterprising we know that the learning environment must leave room for them to behave in an enterprising manner. Besides teaching methods that enhance enterprising behaviour we also need to consider...

  16. Behavioural repertoire of working donkeys and consistency of behaviour over time, as a preliminary step towards identifying pain-related behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran H Regan

    Full Text Available The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram.Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males. Instantaneous (scan and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001. Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001. Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001. However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001. Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001 and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies.All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys.

  17. Teachers’ Perception of Aggressive Behaviour in Children: Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina


    Tahirovic, Senija


    Aggressive behaviour in children and youth is a widespread phenomenon. Antisocial behaviour that includes certain kind of aggressive behaviour can occur and disappear again during a child’s development. However, from a psychological perspective aggression can be one of the problematic types of behaviour in children with long-lasting negative consequences.The aim of this research is to examine teachers’ perceptions of the types of aggressive behaviour as well as to find out the causes for the ...

  18. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours. (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio


    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours.

  19. Health Behaviour and Health Assessment: Evidence from German Microdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit S. Schneider


    Full Text Available The importance of the individual’s health behaviour for the health production process is beyond controversy. Health relevant behaviour can be viewed as a key variable in the health production process. Changes in the behaviour may influence individual’s assessment of health. Following this idea, we use German microdata to identify determinants of smoking, drinking, and obesity and their impact on health. Our empirical approach allows for the simultaneity of behaviours and self-reported health. In addition, we account for endogeneity of health behaviours and take aspects of reporting heterogeneity of self-reported health into account. We find that health behaviour is directly related to the socioeconomic status and observe gender-specific differences in the determinants of drinking, smoking, and heavy body weight in particular. The influence on health is also gender specific. While we do not find any impact of smoking, overweight is relevant only for males and no clear pattern for alcohol exists.

  20. AIDS awareness and VCT behaviour: An application of the integrated model of behaviour prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Diteweg


    Full Text Available In order to limit the expansion of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is important to develop targeted prevention strategies. The voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT programme appears to be effective for preventing the spread of the HI virus. This study adapted guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 years of age completed the questionnaire. Results suggested that beliefs about the outcomes of behaviour and beliefs about the expectations of others had a direct influence on the intention to undergo HIV counselling and testing. Efficacy beliefs, namely beliefs that there are factors that can facilitate behaviour, can lead to actual testing behaviour if accompanied by self-efficacy. Knowledge, intention and stigma are not related to VCT behaviour. Findings show that some constructs influence intention and test behaviour, but in ways not predicted by the model. Thus, the adequacy of the IMBP to determine HIV and AIDS-preventative behavioural intentions is questioned.

  1. Moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Povey, Rachel; Sparks, Paul; James, Rhiannon; Shepherd, Richard


    The present study examined the moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), behavioural intentions and self-reported behaviour were assessed in relation to 20 healthy eating behaviours in a prospective questionnaire design in 232 members of the general public in the UK. Between-participants univariate and multivariate analyses indicated attitude-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships to be weaker in higher ambivalence compared to lower ambivalence respondents. These effects were confirmed in within-participants analyses. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of ambivalence in furthering our understanding of relationships in the TPB.

  2. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan


    Udo, Miyako


    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  3. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas


    The introduction of smartphones and the accompanying profusion of mobile data services have had a profound effect on individuals' lives. One of the most influential service categories is location-based services (LBS). Based on insights from behavioural decision-making, a conceptual framework is d...... on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  4. Positive behavioural support for adults with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge\\ud


    Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin


    Positive behavioural support (PBS) may be a potentially interesting service for adults with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge, improving outcomes and lowering the cost of care in the longer term. This is the main finding of our initial look at the economic case in collaboration with a small local authority in England, with funding from the National Institute for Health Research School for Social Care Research (NIHR SSCR).

  5. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;


    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching...

  6. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus


    Kalz, M., Börner, D., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2013, 31 January). Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Presentation given at the symposium "Groene ICT en Duurzame ontwikkeling: Meters maken in het Hoger Onderwijs", Driebergen, The Netherlands.

  7. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...

  8. Velocity dependant splash behaviour (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.


    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  9. Cognitive psychological theories of suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saška Roškar


    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviour is a consequence of simultaneous influences of many factors. Basically it can be regarded as a consequence of an interplay of two risk factors, namely genetic and environmental, which express themselves in the form of sociological, biological and psychological factors. It is difficult to find a theory of suicidal behaviour which would cover or consider all factors, and although present theories are overlapping, they emphasize different risk factors. More recent studies are focusing on neuropsychological and cognitive functioning of suicidal persons. The most cited psychological theory of suicidal behaviour is the Cry of Pain model which understands the suicidal behaviour as a consequence of a situation signaling defeat, entrapment and no rescue, which subsequently can lead to feelings of hopelessness. The psychobiological theory of two vulnerability components of sucidal behaviour extends existing psychological theories and helps to understand why some persons with depressive disorder engage in suicidal behaviour and the other don't. Both theories imply impaired cognitive abilities in suicidal persons. It is still not entirely understood if these cognitive impairments can be regarded as a state or a trait feature. What happens with cognitive functions after the initial crisis is over, explains the Theory of differential activation. The purpose of the present paper is to introduce and combine these theories and discuss their practical implications.

  10. The effect of enforcement on speed behaviour : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.


    The objective of this literature study is to give an overview of research on speed enforcement and its effect on speed behaviour and safety. This study will be used to find new strategies and tactics to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of speed enforcement by the police in terms of behaviour

  11. Antisocial and callous behaviour in children. (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; McCrory, Eamon J


    Antisocial behaviour is one of the most common reasons for a childhood referral to mental health and educational services and represents a substantial public health cost. Callous-unemotional traits can be used to distinguish children who are capable of pre-meditated antisocial behaviour and violence from those whose antisocial behaviour and violence are primarily impulsive and threat reactive. Decades of developmental psychopathology research have shown that children with antisocial behaviour are thus a heterogeneous group and, for interventions to be successful, it is critical that distinct subgroups of children receive services that best match their profile of vulnerabilities and strengths. Recent advances in genetic and brain imaging research in the field have made important contributions to our understanding of the developmental vulnerability that callous-unemotional traits represent. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current evidence base with regard to genetic and neuroscience findings of callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behaviour with callous-unemotional traits. We also discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and intervention, and finish by outlining what we consider are necessary directions for future research.

  12. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar


    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  13. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente


    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  14. The behavioural ecology of climbing plants


    Gianoli, Ernesto


    Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Vines that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Therefore, the location of a suitable support is a key process in the life history of climbing plants. Numerous studies on climbing plant behaviour have elucidated mechanistic details of support searching and attachment. Far fewer studies have addressed the ecological significance of support-find...

  15. Communication and abnormal behaviour. (United States)

    Crown, S


    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  16. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework. (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora


    This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of animal abuse in their law enforcement, prevention, and treatment decisions.

  17. Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment. (United States)

    Fowler, James H; Johnson, Tim; Smirnov, Oleg


    Altruistic punishment is a behaviour in which individuals punish others at a cost to themselves in order to provide a public good. Fehr and Gächter present experimental evidence in humans indicating that negative emotions towards non-cooperators motivate punishment, which, in turn, provokes a high degree of cooperation. Using Fehr and Gächter's original data, we provide an alternative analysis of their experiment that suggests that egalitarian motives are more important than motives for punishing non-cooperative behaviour. This finding is consistent with evidence that humans may have an evolutionary incentive to punish the highest earners in order to promote equality, rather than cooperation.

  18. Functional MRI studies in disruptive behaviour disorders. (United States)

    Bellani, M; Garzitto, M; Brambilla, P


    Aggressive or antisocial behaviours with violations of social rules are the main features of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), which are developmental diseases and include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. In the last decade, several efforts have been made to shed light on the biological underpinnings of DBDs. In this context, the main findings of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in DBD are reported here. There are indications of neural dysfunctions in response to affective stimuli, especially regarding medial and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex and connected subcortical structures.

  19. Progress in Documentation; Research in User Behaviour in University Libraries (United States)

    Ford, Geoffrey


    Perhaps the most important finding of this review of research in user behaviour is that it has yet to be demonstrated that the use of lbiraries has any definite influence on anything else. (111 references) (Author/NH)

  20. Changing physician prescribing behaviour. (United States)

    Gray, J


    Didactic approaches to educating physicians and/or other health professionals do not produce changes in learner behaviour. Similarly, printed materials and practice guidelines have not been shown to change prescribing behaviour. Evidence-based educational approaches that do have an impact on provider behaviour include: teaching aimed at identified learning needs; interactive educational activities; sequenced and multifaceted interventions; enabling tools such as patient education programs, flow charts, and reminders; educational outreach or academic detailing; and audit and feedback to prescribers. Dr. Jean Gray reflects over the past 25 years on how there has been a transformation in the types of activities employed to improve prescribing practices in Nova Scotia. The evolution of Continuing Medical Education (CME) has resulted in the creation of the Drug Evaluation Alliance of Nova Scotia (DEANS) program, which is one exemplar of an evidence-based educational approach to improving physician prescribing in that province. Key words: Evidence-based, education, prescribing.

  1. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano


    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  2. Redes de citación de las revistas españolas de Ciencias Sociales 1994-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salinas, Daniel


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make an analysis of the citation networks between the Spanish Social Science journals using the citations index IN-RECS. Different maps were generated representing the overall structure of Social Sciences and a specific analysis of Library and Information Science was conducted. The indicator betweeness was used as a measure of interdisciplinarity. The results reveal the existence of two main clusters, one formed by the Psychology and the Education and other with a prominent location of the Economics and the Political Science; Sociology is the main connexion between the two clusters. The journals with the highest rate of betweeness were Revista de Educación and Papeles de Economía. The Library and Information Science appears in a marginal side of the different maps. Revista Española de Documentación Científica is the most relevant journal with the largest betweeness rate due to its significant relationships with international journals. The results show that IN-RECS is a useful tool for the structural study of the Spanish Social Sciences.

    El objetivo de este estudio es realizar un análisis de las redes de citación entre revistas españolas de ciencias sociales empleando el índice de citas IN-RECS. Se han generado diferentes mapas representando la estructura general de las ciencias sociales y se llevó a cabo un análisis específico del área de Biblioteconomía y Documentación (ByD. Asimismo se empleó el indicador de Intermediación como medida de interdisciplinariedad. Los resultados revelan la existencia de dos clusters. Uno dominado por la Psicología y la Educación y otro donde dominan, principalmente, la Economía y la Ciencia Política, entre ambos clusters actúa de interfaz la Sociología. Las revistas con mayor índice de intermediación son la y Papeles de Economía. La ByD aparece en un lugar marginal de los grafos, dentro de esta especialidad destaca la Revista Española de Documentación Científica con la mayor intermediación debido a sus relaciones con revistas internacionales. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la utilidad de IN-RECS como fuente de información para el estudio estructural de las ciencias sociales españolas.

  3. Evaluación y calidad en las bibliotecas universitarias: experiencias españolas entre 1994-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, María


    Full Text Available This article describes the various signposts which have marked the culture and implantation of Total Quality Management in Spanish university libraries over the last decade, via the implementation of a number of quality plans, namely: the Experimental Plan for Quality Evaluation of the University System; the European Pilot Projects; the National University Quality Evaluation Plans; the Quality Evaluation for the Catalan University Libraries; and the Andalusian University Quality Plan. Starting out from the EFQM model of excellence and the ISO 9000 standards, the text discusses Quality Certification Systems, Strategic Planning, and other management and improvement instruments. For the future, the emphasis will be on quality assurance systems grounded in the new, student-learning-centred educational paradigm, as well as in the principle of the accessible library, based on the continual improvement of service quality as both received and perceived by the users.

    Se describen los distintos hitos que han marcado la cultura y la implantación de la gestión de calidad total en el ámbito de las bibliotecas universitarias españolas durante la última década a través de la puesta en marcha de distintos planes de calidad: Plan Experimental para la Evaluación de la Calidad del Sistema Universitario; Proyectos Pilotos Europeos; Planes Nacionales de Evaluación de la Calidad de las Universidades; Evaluación de la Calidad de las Bibliotecas Universitarias Catalanas y Plan Andaluz de Calidad de las Universidades. Basados en el modelo de excelencia EFQM y en las normas ISO 9000, se abordan los sistemas de Certificación de Calidad así como la Planificación Estratégica y otros instrumentos de gestión y mejora. Para el futuro se apuesta por sistemas de aseguramiento de la calidad que tengan como referencia tanto el nuevo paradigma pedagógico, centrado en los procesos de aprendizaje del estudiante, como el principio de disponibilidad de la biblioteca, basado en la mejora continua de la calidad de servicio que los usuarios reciben y perciben.

  4. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Heather O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice. Several interventions have been shown to be effective in changing health care professionals' behaviour, but heterogeneity within interventions, targeted behaviours, and study settings make generalisation difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the 'active ingredients' in professional behaviour change strategies. Theories of human behaviour that feature an individual's "intention" to do something as the most immediate predictor of their behaviour have proved to be useful in non-clinical populations. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour such theories may offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of intervention to use in the implementation of new practice. The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between intention and behaviour in clinicians and how this compares to the intention-behaviour relationship in studies of non-clinicians. Methods We searched: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science/Social science citation index, Current contents (social & behavioural med/clinical med, ISI conference proceedings, and Index to Theses. The reference lists of all included papers were checked manually. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had: examined a clinical behaviour within a clinical context, included measures of both intention and behaviour, measured behaviour after intention, and explored this relationship quantitatively. All titles and abstracts retrieved by electronic searching were screened independently by two reviewers, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Discussion Ten studies were found that examined the relationship between intention and clinical behaviours in 1623 health professionals. The proportion of variance in behaviour explained by

  5. Leadership empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and turnover intention in a manufacturing division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Bester


    Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ perceptions of their leaders’ behaviour play a role in creating empowering environments where employees are willing to do more than what is expected, with retention of employees as a result.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to theoretically conceptualise and empirically determine the relationships between employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and intention to leave within a manufacturing division of an organisation.Motivation for the study: In the ever-changing work environment, organisations must capitalise on their human capital in order to maintain competitiveness. It is therefore important to identify the role of employees’ perception of leadership in contributing to the establishment of an environment where employees feel empowered, are willing to do more than what is expected and want to stay in the organisation.Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used. The total population (N = 300 employed at the manufacturing division was targeted. Two hundred completed questionnaires were obtained. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire and Intention to Leave Scale were administered.Main findings: Employees’ perception of their leaders’ empowering behaviour (keeping employees accountable, self-directed decision-making and people development, psychological empowerment (attitude and influence and organisational citizenship behaviours (loyalty, deviant behaviour and participation predict intention to leave the organisation.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should foster the elements of a positive organisation, in this case leader empowering behaviours, if they want to retain their employees.Contribution/value-add: The results of this research contribute to

  6. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David


    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  7. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  8. Sudden gains in behavioural activation for depression. (United States)

    Masterson, Ciara; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Richards, David; Toner-Clewes, Benjamin; McMillan, Dean


    Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation.

  9. Perceptions of Deviant Behaviour in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Carvalho Wilks


    Full Text Available Employee misconduct in the workplace is relatively common and may be counterproductivein social and material terms. To identify which undesirable behavioursare considered acceptable is the first step to develop ways to reducedeviance in organizational settings. The purpose of this study was to examinethe perceived acceptability of deviant behaviour in the workplace, and to analysethe relation between the degree of such acceptance with organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction, and organizational tenure. Data was obtainedfrom 223 adults employed full-time. Results suggest a positive relationshipbetween the degree of acceptability of certain forms of deviant behaviour andorganizational commitment, but not with job satisfaction. They further indicatethat tenure was the factor having the most impact on the acceptanceof deviant behaviours. Implications of the findings for the management arediscussed.

  10. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie


    ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821

  11. Punish Them or Engage Them? Teachers' Views of Unproductive Student Behaviours in the Classroom (United States)

    Sullivan, Anna M.; Johnson, Bruce; Owens, Larry; Conway, Robert


    This paper reports on a study that investigated the extent to which student behaviour is a concern for school teachers. A questionnaire was used to investigate teachers' views about student behaviour in their classes. The results suggest that low-level disruptive and disengaged student behaviours occur frequently and teachers find them difficult…

  12. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  13. Observing behaviour categorically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Cheng, Allan


    In an attempt to understand the relationships and differences between the extensive amount of research within the field of bisimulation equivalences, Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel recently proposed an abstract category-theoretic definition of bisimulation. They identify spans of morphisms satisfyin......, in fact, captures not only bisimulations but many other behavioural equivalences. We also briefly present presheaf models as an abstract model of computation....

  14. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian


    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...

  15. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  16. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; den Hartog, D.


    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  17. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir


    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  18. Behavioural Real Estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Salzman (Diego); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)


    textabstractThe behavioural approach to decision making under uncertainty combines insights from psychology and sociology into economic decision making. It steps away from the normative homo economicus and introduces a positive approach to human decision making under uncertainty. We provide an overv

  19. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark


    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  20. Predicting intentions and behaviours in populations with or at-risk of diabetes: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Akbar


    Conclusions: Few studies tested predictability of the TPB in populations with or at-risk of diabetes. This review highlighted differences in the predictive utility of the TPB suggesting that the model is behaviour and population specific. Findings on key determinants of specific behaviours contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms of behaviour change and are useful in designing targeted behavioural interventions for different diabetes populations.

  1. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik


    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  2. Behaviour change communication targeting four health behaviours in developing countries: a review of change techniques. (United States)

    Briscoe, Ciara; Aboud, Frances


    Behaviour change communication is vital for increasing the enactment of particular behaviours known to promote health and growth. The techniques used to change behaviour are important for determining how successful the intervention is. In order to integrate findings from different interventions, we need to define and organize the techniques previously used and connect them to effectiveness data. This paper reviews 24 interventions and programs implemented to change four health behaviours related to child health in developing countries: the use of bed nets, hand washing, face washing and complementary feeding. The techniques employed are organized under six categories: information, performance, problem solving, social support, materials, and media. The most successful interventions use three or even four categories of techniques, engaging participants at the behavioural, social, sensory, and cognitive levels. We discuss the link between techniques and theories. We propose that program development would be more systematic if researchers considered a menu of technique categories appropriate for the targeted behaviour and audience when designing their studies.

  3. Find a Cancer Doctor (United States)

    ... Home > Find a Cancer Doctor Find a Cancer Doctor Status message Locating you... The Find an Oncologist ... and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health professionals from certain ASCO membership ...

  4. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour


    Caughey, Sarah Dawn


    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  5. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy. (United States)

    Rachman, S


    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated.

  6. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA


    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index score

  7. The CASPAR finding aids


    Meghini, Carlo; Avancini, Henry; Versienti, Loredana


    One of the CASPAR key components is the FIND Components, which is implementing the Finding Aids of OAIS. According to OAIS, FIND manages Description Information that is associated to Information Packages in order to support the discovery of those Packages. FIND allows defining, creating, persisting, querying, browsing, and accessing both Description Information and the association between Information Packages and Description Information

  8. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour


    Vainikka, Bianca


    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  9. The strange flight behaviour of slowly spinning soccer balls (United States)

    Mizota, Taketo; Kurogi, Kouhei; Ohya, Yuji; Okajima, Atsushi; Naruo, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoshiyuki


    The strange three-dimensional flight behaviour of slowly spinning soccer balls is one of the most interesting and unknown phenomenon associated with the trajectories of sports balls. Many spectators have experienced numerous exciting and emotional instances while observing the curious flight behaviour of these balls. We examine the aerodynamic mechanisms of erratic ball behaviours through real flight observations, unsteady force measurements and flow pattern visualisations. The strange behaviour is elucidated by the relationship between the unsteady forces on the ball and the wake flow. The irregular changes in position for twin longitudinal vortices have already been discovered in the supercritical Reynolds number region of a sphere with a smooth surface. This finding is applicable to the strange behaviour of the flight of soccer balls with this supercritical flow. The players, spectators, and television viewers will gain greater insight into the effects of soccer ball flights.

  10. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Hospital Corporate Image and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obamiro John Kolade


    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour, hospital corporate image and performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 350 patients and 298 usable questionnaires were returned representing a return rate of 85.7%. The study employs a Structural Equation Model to test four hypotheses on organizational citizenship behaviours, hospital corporate image and performance. The findings reveal that hospitals can increase performance through organizational citizenship behaviour and positive corporate image. However, it was also discovered that there is a negative covariance between organizational citizenship behaviour and hospital corporate image despite their individual positive contribution to performance. Therefore, hospital management should develop an organizational climate (such as recognition, additional reward, promotion, etc. that can promote organizational citizenship behaviour and enhance a positive corporate image while preventing situations that will discourage staff from rendering extra positive discretionary work related services.

  11. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long


    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  12. Long-term behaviour of GRP pipes


    Faria, H; A Vieira; Reis, J; Marques, A. T.; Guedes, R.M.; Ferreira, A. J. M.


    The main objective of the research programme /1/ described is the study of creep and relaxation behaviour of glass-rein forced thermosetting (GRP) pipes, in order to find alternative methods to predict the long-term properties, rendering a considerable reduction of the time needed for testing and assuring, as far as possible, equivalent reliability when compared to the existing methods. Experimental procedures were performed and are presented here, together with discussion of results, as well...

  13. Relationships between perceived teachers' controlling behaviour, psychological need thwarting, anger and bullying behaviour in high-school students. (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Koka, Andre; Hagger, Martin S


    We tested a model of the associations between students' perceptions of their physical education teacher's controlling behaviour, perceptions of basic psychological need thwarting, anger and bullying behaviour. School students (N = 602; M age = 12.88, SD = 1.37) from 10 schools completed measures of perceived teachers' controlling behaviour and perceived thwarting of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in physical education context and self-reported bullying and anger. A well-fitting structural equation model demonstrated that students' perceptions of the negative conditional regard and intimidation exhibited by the teacher had significant indirect effect on students' feelings of anger and bullying behaviour through the perceived psychological need thwarting in physical education. Findings suggest that physical education teachers who avoid the use of negative conditional regard and intimidation in their classes have students who perceive less need thwarting and report less bullying behaviour.

  14. Gendered Perceptions of Sexual Behaviour in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ndinda


    Full Text Available This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts.

  15. Fertility behaviour of recent immigrants to Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The fertility practices of immigrants are a particularly interesting field of study for demographers, providing an insight into the fertility behaviour of individuals when both the society and the individual undergo a period of rapid change. This paper describes and compares the fertility behaviour of two large groups of immigrants, from the former Soviet Union (FSU and from Ethiopia to Israel in the last 20 years. The changes in fertility behaviour undergone in the same society and at the same time by two very different groups are examined. The findings reveal that the fertility behaviour of immigrants is indeed changing. The fertility of FSU immigrants is increasing and that of the Ethiopian immigrants decreasing, with accompanying changes in the proximate determinants of fertility. Although the fertility of immigrants is becoming more similar to that of the receiving society, the methods employed to achieve the fertility change are not necessarily similar, and, in some cases, diverge from the norms of the receiving society.

  16. Osteoarthritis: Research Findings (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Research Findings When osteoarthritis involves the hands, small, bony knobs may appear ...

  17. Find a Massage Therapist (United States)

    ... for Members Student Experience AMTA News Find a Massage Therapist » Browse by location » Browse by technique » Find ... massage therapy school Proprietary Information and Legal Notice Massage is Good Medicine A growing body of research ...

  18. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes. (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan


    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  19. Suicide and suicidal behaviour (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A.


    Summary Suicide is a complex public health problem of global dimension. Suicidal behaviour (SB) shows marked differences between genders, age groups, geographic regions and socio-political realities, and variably associates with different risk factors, underscoring likely etiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors may facilitate the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent SB; additionally, regular follow-up of suicide attempters by mental health services is key to prevent future SB. PMID:26385066



    Ober, Martina


    The purpose of this thesis was to find out differences in the behaviour and expectations of customers in restaurants in different countries, and how those differences affect the restaurant industry. The countries Finland and Germany were chosen to be compared with each. Respondents of both countries were asked in questionnaires about their preferences of service, complaining and tipping behaviour. In addition restaurant owners/managers were asked about their way of conducting service in their...

  1. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian


    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders.

  2. The need for a behavioural analysis of behavioural addictions. (United States)

    James, Richard J E; Tunney, Richard J


    This review discusses research on behavioural addictions (i.e. associative learning, conditioning), with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual differences, psychopathologies and biases, often translating from pathological gambling indicators. An associative model presently captures the core elements of behavioural addiction included in the DSM (gambling) and identified for further consideration (internet gaming). Importantly, gambling has a schedule of reinforcement that shows similarities and differences from other addictions. While this is more likely than not applicable to internet gaming, it is less clear whether it is so for a number of candidate behavioural addictions. Adopting an associative perspective, this paper translates from gambling to video gaming, in light of the existing debates on this matter and the nature of the distinction between these behaviours. Finally, a framework for applying an associative model to behavioural addictions is outlined, and it's application toward treatment.

  3. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour


    Rognerud, Audhild Meckelborg; Wisting, Line Norøm


    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  4. Inclusive Education: Teachers' Intentions and Behaviour Analysed from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Sin, Kuen-fung


    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) claims that behaviour can be predicted by behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control, while behavioural intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. This study aims at providing explanation and prediction of teachers' inclusive…

  5. Driver behaviour at roadworks. (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm


    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  6. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder. (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea


    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process.

  7. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  8. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aase Heidi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is often described as highly variable, in addition to being hyperactive, impulsive and inattentive. One reason might be that they do not acquire complete and functional sequences of behaviour. The dynamic developmental theory of ADHD proposes that reinforcement and extinction processes are inefficient because of hypofunctioning dopamine systems, resulting in a narrower time window for associating antecedent stimuli and behaviour with its consequences. One effect of this may be that the learning of behavioural sequences is delayed, and that only short behavioural sequences are acquired in ADHD. The present study investigated acquisition of response sequences in the behaviour of children with ADHD. Methods Fifteen boys with ADHD and thirteen boys without, all aged between 6–9 yr, completed a computerized task presented as a game with two squares on the screen. One square was associated with reinforcement. The task required responses by the computer mouse under reinforcement contingencies of variable interval schedules. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures and small trinkets. Measures related to response location (spatial dimension and to response timing (temporal dimension were analyzed by autocorrelations of consecutive responses across five lags. Acquired response sequences were defined as predictable responding shown by high explained variance. Results Children with ADHD acquired shorter response sequences than comparison children on the measures related to response location. None of the groups showed any predictability in response timing. Response sequencing on the measure related to the discriminative stimulus was highly related to parent scores on a rating scale for ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The findings suggest that children with ADHD have problems with learning long sequences of behaviour, particularly related to response location. Problems with

  9. Efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in Reducing Bullying Behaviour among in-School Adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Lasiele Alabi


    Full Text Available Bullying behaviour refers to repeated negative behaviour displayed by one or more person (s with the intention of hurting the feeling, personality and power of the victim. The objective of this study therefore was to find out the efficacy of Client-Centred and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapies in reducing bullying behaviour among in-school adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research method using a 3×2 factorial design made up of three (3 row groups (two experimental and one control. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select three secondary schools on the basis of location to prevent experimental contamination. Self-report questionnaire was used to purposively select the participants. The primary dependent variable was bullying behaviour and respondents with high score on bullying items and low scores on victimisation items were selected to participate in the treatment. The findings revealed a significant reduction in the bullying behaviour of the in-school adolescents exposed to experimental treatments; Client-Centred Therapy (CCT produced significant reduction in the bullying behaviour among the in-school adolescents, and Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT produced significant reduction in the bullying behaviour of the in-school adolescents. It was recommended that CCT and REBT procedures should be employed in modifying bullying behaviours.

  10. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Luo-Luo


    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount impor...

  11. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias. (United States)

    Galbiati, Andrea; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara


    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  12. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galbiati


    Full Text Available Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  13. Internet user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.


    Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.

  14. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe


    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  15. Fact Finding Nuclear Energy; Fact Finding Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Seebregts, A.J.; Lako, P. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Blom, F.J.; Van Gemert, F. [Sociaal-Economische Raad SER, Den Haag (Netherlands)


    Facts and figures on nuclear energy are presented to enable a discussion on the role of nuclear power in the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the Netherlands. The following issues are presented: Nuclear technology, safety and security (including non-proliferation and protection against terrorism); Environmental aspects (including greenhouse gas emissions of the nuclear energy lifecycle); Nuclear power and the power market (including impact of nuclear power on electricity market prices); Economic aspects (including costs of nuclear power and external costs and benefits); Policy issues (including sustainable development); Social acceptance of nuclear energy; Knowledge infrastructure for nuclear energy in the Netherlands; and Nuclear power in long term energy scenarios for the Netherlands and Europe. Using two long-term energy scenarios the report also presents a social impact analysis of an increasing share of nuclear power in the Dutch electricity supply. [Dutch] In dit onderzoek zijn feiten en gegevens over kernenergie verzameld op basis van bestaande inzichten en een veelheid aan literatuur (fact finding). Voor technologische expertise heeft ECN zich laten bijstaan door de Nucleair Research and consultancy Group (NRG). Op basis van de fact-finding studie bereidt de SER een advies voor over de rol van kernenergie in de toekomstige nationale elektriciteitsproductie. In de eerste acht hoofdstukken worden feiten en gegevens gepresenteerd over verschillende onderwerpen die bij kernenergie van belang zijn. In Hoofdstuk 2 wordt de kernenergietechnologie beschreven, inclusiefde veiligheid van kernenergie besproken, omdat die nauw met de technologie samenhangt. Hierbij gaat het om de technische veiligheid van de installaties, maar ook om beveiliging tegen misbruik van technologie en nucleair materiaal, waaronder beveiliging tegen terrorisme. De milieuaspecten door radioactiviteit en door emissies van kooldioxide die met het gebruik van kernenergie samenhangen

  16. The psychoactive pollutant fluoxetine compromises antipredator behaviour in fish. (United States)

    Martin, Jake M; Saaristo, Minna; Bertram, Michael G; Lewis, Phoebe J; Coggan, Timothy L; Clarke, Bradley O; Wong, Bob B M


    Pharmaceuticals are increasingly being detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Particularly concerning are pharmaceutical pollutants that can adversely impact exposed wildlife, even at extremely low concentrations. One such contaminant is the widely prescribed antidepressant fluoxetine, which can disrupt neurotransmission and behavioural pathways in wildlife. Despite this, relatively limited research has addressed the behavioural impacts of fluoxetine at ecologically realistic exposure concentrations. Here, we show that 28-day fluoxetine exposure at two ecologically relevant dosages-one representing low surface water concentrations and another representing high effluent flow concentrations-alters antipredator behaviour in Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). We found that fluoxetine exposure at the lower dosage resulted in increased activity levels irrespective of the presence or absence of a predatory dragonfly nymph (Hemianax papuensis). Additionally, irrespective of exposure concentration, fluoxetine-exposed fish entered the predator 'strike zone' more rapidly. In a separate experiment, fluoxetine exposure reduced mosquitofish freezing behaviour-a common antipredator strategy-following a simulated predator strike, although, in females, this reduction in behaviour was seen only at the lower dosage. Together, our findings suggest that fluoxetine can cause both non-monotonic and sex-dependent shifts in behaviour. Further, they demonstrate that exposure to fluoxetine at environmentally realistic concentrations can alter antipredator behaviour, with important repercussions for organismal fitness.

  17. Adding 'epi-' to behaviour genetics: implications for animal domestication. (United States)

    Jensen, Per


    In this review, it is argued that greatly improved understanding of domestication may be gained from extending the field of behaviour genetics to also include epigenetics. Domestication offers an interesting framework of rapid evolutionary changes caused by well-defined selection pressures. Behaviour is an important phenotype in this context, as it represents the primary means of response to environmental challenges. An overview is provided of the evidence for genetic involvement in behavioural control and the presently used methods for finding so-called behaviour genes. This shows that evolutionary changes in behaviour are to a large extent correlated to changes in patterns of gene expression, which brings epigenetics into the focus. This area is concerned with the mechanisms controlling the timing and extent of gene expression, and a lot of focus has been placed on methylation of cytosine in promoter regions, usually associated with genetic downregulation. The review considers the available evidence that environmental input, for example stress, can modify methylation and other epigenetic marks and subsequently affect behaviour. Furthermore, several studies are reviewed, demonstrating that acquired epigenetic modifications can be inherited and cause trans-generational behaviour changes. In conclusion, epigenetics may signify a new paradigm in this respect, as it shows that genomic modifications can be caused by environmental signals, and random mutations in DNA sequence are therefore not the only sources of heritable genetic variation.

  18. Applying statistics in behavioural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.


    Applying Statistics in Behavioural Research is written for undergraduate students in the behavioural sciences, such as Psychology, Pedagogy, Sociology and Ethology. The topics range from basic techniques, like correlation and t-tests, to moderately advanced analyses, like multiple regression and MAN

  19. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.


    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  20. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  1. Infant Predictors of Behavioural Inhibition (United States)

    Moehler, Eva; Kagan, Jerome; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Brunner, Romuald; Poustka, Luise; Haffner, Johann; Resch, Franz


    Behavioural inhibition in the second year of life is a hypothesized predictor for shyness, social anxiety and depression in later childhood, adolescence and even adulthood. To search for the earliest indicators of this fundamental temperamental trait, this study examined whether behavioural characteristics in early infancy can predict behavioural…

  2. Nest architecture shapes the collective behaviour of harvester ants. (United States)

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa


    Structures influence how individuals interact and, therefore, shape the collective behaviours that emerge from these interactions. Here I show that the structure of a nest influences the collective behaviour of harvester ant colonies. Using network analysis, I quantify nest architecture and find that as chamber connectivity and redundancy of connections among chambers increase, so does a colony's speed of recruitment to food. Interestingly, the volume of the chambers did not influence speed of recruitment, suggesting that the spatial organization of a nest has a greater impact on collective behaviour than the number of workers it can hold. Thus, by changing spatial constraints on social interactions organisms can modify their behaviour and impact their fitness.

  3. Hysterosalpingographic findings in infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. S.; Bai, B. C. [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Four hundred and fifty four cases of H.S.G. in infertility were analyzed and following brief results were obtained. 1. Most frequent age group was 25-29 year old, and those number of patient were 188 (41.4%). 2. Most frequent abnormal uterine findings was intravasation (113 cases), and malposition (119), irregular margin (104), filling defect (37), and diverticulum (6) in decreasing order. 3. Most frequent abnormal tubal finding was obstruction (199 cases), and hydrosalpinx (99), diverticulosis (22), intravasation (17), peritubal adhesion (13), and beaded tube (10) in decreasing order. 4. Nagative findings was seen in 155 cases (34.1%) of uterus and in 227 cases (50.0%) of fallopian tubes. 5. Nagative findings in both uterus and fallopian tubes was seen only 87 cases (19.2%)

  4. Find a Physical Therapist (United States)

    ... There are numerous benefits to treatment by a physical therapist. Go There » For Patients Choosing Your PT Preparing ... need to know before your appointment with your physical therapist. Go There » Find a PT For Health Professionals ...

  5. Generalizing Experimental Findings (United States)


    Generalizing Experimental Findings Judea Pearl University of California, Los Angeles Computer Science Department Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1596, USA...Selection Bias The classical problem of generalizing experimental findings from the trial sample to the population as a whole, also known as the problem...of “sample selection-bias” (Heckman, 1979; Bareinboim et al., 2014), has received renewed attention in the past decade, as more researchers come to

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality. (United States)

    Zietsch, B P; Verweij, K J H; Bailey, J M; Wright, M J; Martin, N G


    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed that personality is related to sexual behaviour via biological underpinnings of both. Here we test the viability of this perspective by analysing data from identical and non-identical twins (N = 4,904) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attitudes and behaviour as well as personality. Using genetic modelling of the twin data, we found that risky sexual behaviour was significantly positively correlated with Impulsivity (r = .27), Extraversion (r = .24), Psychoticism (r = .20), and Neuroticism (r = .09), and that in each case the correlation was due primarily to overlapping genetic influences. These findings suggest that the genetic influences that shape our personality may also predispose us to risky sexual behaviour.

  7. Measuring Thermoforming Behaviour (United States)

    Michaeli, W.; Hopmann, C.; Ederleh, L.; Begemann, M.


    Thermoforming is the process of choice for manufacturing thin-gauge or large-area parts for packaging or technical applications. The process allows low-weight parts to be produced rapidly and economically from thermoplastic semi-finished products. A technical and consequently economical problem is the choice of the right material in combination with the thermoformability of the product. The prediction of thermoformability includes the aspired product features and geometry and defined wall thickness distributions, depending on the specific stretchability of the semifinished product. In practice, thermoformability is estimated by empirical tests with the particular semi-finished product using e.g. staged pyramidal moulds or model cars. With this method, it still cannot be ensured that the product can be thermoformed with the intended properties. A promising alternative is the forming simulation using finite element analysis (FEA). For the simulation, it is necessary to describe the material behaviour using defined material models and the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the stress-/strain-behaviour of the semi-finished product under defined conditions is required. There are several, entirely different measurement techniques used in industry and at research facilities. This paper compares a choice of different measurement techniques to provide an objective basis for future work and research. The semi-finished products are examined with the Membrane-Inflation-Rheometer (MIR), an equibiaxial strain rheometer. A flat sample is heated to the desired temperature in silicone oil. During the measurement, a servohydraulic linear drive advances a piston, thus displacing the hot silicone oil and inflating the specimen to form a sphere. Further measurements are carried out with the Karo IV Laboratory Stretching Machine at Brückner Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany. The samples are heated using hot air. During the biaxial stretching, the resulting forces at the

  8. Healthcare seeking behaviour among Chinese elderly. (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Xu, Ling; Li, Zhenhong; Ding, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Fei


    Purpose The Chinese population is rapidly ageing before they are rich. The purpose of this paper is to describe healthcare seeking behaviour and the critical factors associated with healthcare seeking behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Using a purposive sampling method, the authors recruited 44 adults aged 60 years or older from three provinces, representing the developed (Shanghai), undeveloped (Ningxia) regions and the regions in between (Hubei). From July to September 2008, using a semi-structured guide, the authors interviewed participants in focus group discussions. Findings The healthcare needs for chronic and catastrophic diseases were high; however, the healthcare demands were low and healthcare utilizations were even lower owing to the limited accessibility to healthcare services, particularly, in underdeveloped rural areas. "Too expensive to see a doctor" was a prime complaint, explaining substantial discrepancies between healthcare needs, demands and use. Care seeking behaviour varied depending on insurance availability, perceived performance, particularly hospital services, and prescription medications. Participants consistently rated increasing healthcare accessibility as a high priority, including offering financial aid, and improving service convenience. Improving social security fairness was the first on the elderly's wish list. Originality/value Healthcare demand and use were lower than needs, and were influenced by multiple factors, primarily, service affordability and efficiency, perceived performance and hospital service quality.

  9. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour. (United States)

    Dodd, Luke F; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Piehler, Michael F; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B


    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour.

  10. Study of rheological behaviour of wines (United States)

    Trávníček, Petr; Burg, Patrik; Krakowiak-Bal, Anna; Junga, Petr; Vítěz, Tomáš; Ziemiańczyk, Urszula


    This study deals with rheological properties of various wine varieties. Samples of the following wines were used for this experiment: André, Cabernet Moravia, Laurot, Saint Laurent, Gruner Veltliner, Pinot Blanc, Müller Thurgau, and Riesling Italico. These samples were obtained from wine produced from the grapes collected in the Czech Republic (Morava region, subregion Velke Pavlovice). In the first phase, the chemical composition of the samples was determined. The following chemical parameters were determined: total acidity, pH, content of the alcohol, reduced sugars, free SO2, total SO2, and volatile acids. In the second phase of the study, the physical properties of the samples were determined and the samples of the wines were subjected to rheological tests. These tests consisted in determination of apparent viscosity in relation to temperature, hysteresis loop tests, and apparent viscosity related to time. The dependence of the shear rate on the shear stress was described with the Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. The experiment yielded the following findings: seven out of the eight samples behaved as non-Newtonian fluids at low temperature (5°C); non-Newtonian behaviour was changed into Newtonian at the temperature higher than 10°C; non-Newtonian behaviour was characterised as thixotropic behaviour; the degree of thixotropy is relatively small and reaches 1.85 Pa s-1 ml-1.

  11. Behavioural management of migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown


    Full Text Available It is important to recognise that migraine is a ′biological′ and not a ′psychological′ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1 Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2 Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3 Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4 Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.

  12. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.


    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  13. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean-atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data. (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri


    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds' vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean-atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds' co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  14. Discounting Behaviour and the Magnitude Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel


    We evaluate the claim that individuals exhibit a magnitude effect in their discounting behaviour, where higher discount rates are inferred from choices made with lower principals, all else being equal. If the magnitude effect is quantitatively significant, it is not appropriate to use one discount...... rate that is independent of the scale of the project for cost–benefit analysis and capital budgeting. Using data from a field experiment in Denmark, we find statistically significant evidence of a magnitude effect that is much smaller than is claimed. This evidence surfaces only if one controls...

  15. Time-Averaged Behaviour at the Critical Parameter Point of Transition to Spatiotemporal Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A time-averaged behaviour is found to be important for investigating the critical behaviour in parameter space for the transition from temporal chaos to spatiotemporal chaos by using an energy representation. Considering any wave solution as a superposition of the steady wave with its perturbation wave, we find that when approaching the critical parameter point the averaged positive interaction energy for the k = 1 mode becomes competitive with the negative one, with the summation displaying a scaling behaviour of power law.

  16. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lancaster


    The BetterPoints system is unique in it’s flexibility and ability to draw on multiple behaviour change models to create high quality interventions. Early findings from existing programmes being implemented for Local Authorities in the UK suggest that BetterPoints can demonstrate real-world behaviour change. We would like to work with academic partners to further investigate these real-world changes in behaviour and establish a robust evidence base.

  17. Existing Analytical Frameworks for Information Behaviour Don’t Fully Explain HIV/AIDS Information Exchange in Rural Communities in Ontario, Canada. A Review of: Veinot, T., Harris, R., Bella, L., Rootman, I., & Krajnak, J. (2006. HIV/AIDS Information exchange in rural communities: Preliminary findings from a three‐province study. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 30(3/4, 271‐290.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kelly


    Full Text Available Objective – To explore and analyze, against three theoretical frameworks of information behaviours, how people with HIV/AIDS, their friends, and their family living in rural communities find information on HIV/AIDS.Design – Qualitative, individual, in‐depth, semi‐structured interviews.Setting – Two rural regions in Ontario, Canada.Subjects – Sixteen participants; 10 people with HIV/AIDS (PHAs and 6 family members or friends.Methods – Participants were recruited through health care providers, social service agencies and through snowball sampling. Semi‐structure interviews were conducted focusing on participants’ experience with HIV/AIDS, how they find and use information on HIV/AIDS, networks for information exchange and the effect of technology on information exchange. Interviews were taped, transcribed, analyzed qualitatively using NVivo software. Results were compared to three theoretical frameworks for information behaviour: 1. purposeful information seeking (i.e., the idea that people purposefully seek information to bridge perceived knowledge gaps; 2. non‐purposeful or incidental information acquisition (i.e., the idea that people absorb information from going about daily activities; and 3. information gate keeping (i.e., the concept of private individuals who act as community links and filters for information gathering and dissemination.Main Results – Consistent with the theories:•PHAs prefer to receive information from people they have a personal relationship with, particularly their physician and especially other PHAs.•PHAs’ friends and families rely on their friends and family for information, and are particularly reliant upon the PHA in their lives.•Fear of stigma and discrimination cause some to avoid seeking information or to prefer certain sources of information, such as healthcare providers, who are bound by codes of professional conduct.•Emotional support is important in information provision and

  18. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.


    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  19. Mobious syndrome: MR findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskal Revanna Srinivas


    Full Text Available Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder. We report a case of Möbius syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with bilateral convergent squint and left-sided facial weakness. The characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of Möbius syndrome, which include absent bilateral abducens nerves and absent left facial nerve, were noted. In addition, there was absence of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and absence of bilateral facial colliculi. Clinical features, etiology, and imaging findings are discussed.

  20. Sex and the syndrome: individual and population consistency in behaviour in rock pool prawn Palaemon elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben B Chapman

    Full Text Available Animal personality has been widely documented across a range of species. The concept of personality is composed of individual behavioural consistency across time and between situations, and also behavioural trait correlations known as behavioural syndromes. Whilst many studies have now investigated the stability of individual personality traits, few have analysed the stability over time of entire behavioural syndromes. Here we present data from a behavioural study of rock pool prawns. We show that prawns are temporally consistent in a range of behaviours, including activity, exploration and boldness, and also that a behavioural syndrome is evident in this population. We find correlations between many behavioural traits (activity, boldness, shoaling and exploration. In addition, behavioural syndrome structure was consistent over time. Finally, few studies have explicitly studied the role of sex differences in personality traits, behavioural consistency and syndrome structure. We report behavioural differences between male and female prawns but no differences in patterns of consistency. Our study adds to the growing literature on animal personality, and provides evidence showing that syndromes themselves can exhibit temporal consistency.

  1. Hepatic angiosarcoma: CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余日胜; 章士正; 华建明


    @@ Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is very difficult if the patient does not have any history of exposure to specific carcinogens including thorotrast, arsenicals and vinyl chloride monomer. We describe CT findings in two cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in combination with a review of the literature.

  2. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings. (United States)

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  3. Finding Health Care Services (United States)

    If you have been diagnosed with cancer, finding a doctor and treatment facility for your cancer care is an important step to getting the best treatment possible. Learn tips for choosing a doctor and treatment facility to manage your cancer care.

  4. Find a Therapist (United States)

    ... Teens Treatment Tips for Parents and Caregivers Anxiety Disorders at School School Refusal Test Anxiety News and Research College Students Facts Find Help Tips National Stress Øut Day News and Research Resources Women Facts News and Research Pregnancy and Medication Postpartum ...

  5. Tongue schwannoma: clinicopathological findings. (United States)

    Catalfamo, Luciano; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Nava, Carla; Familiari, Elena; Petrocelli, Marzia; Iudicello, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; De Ponte, Francesco Saverio


    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Approximately 25% of extracranial schwannomas are located in the head and neck district, but only 1% shows an intraoral origin. We report a case of a 28-year-old patient with a tongue schwannoma. Morphologic analysis and immunohistochemical findings strongly support the diagnosis. Surgical treatment is discussed.

  6. Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria: neuroimaging findings. (United States)

    Berenguer, J; Blasco, J; Cardenal, C; Pujol, T; Cruces Prado, M J; Herrero, C; Mascaró, J M; de la Torre, C; Mercader, J M


    CT and MR findings in two patients with hepatoerythropoietic porphyria are presented. CT scans showed atrophy and cortical mineralization at the same level. MR examination performed in one of the two patients showed mainly frontal cortical atrophy and punctate bright signal on T1- and T2-weighted sequences.

  7. Heritability of antisocial behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; DeLisi, Matt


    This chapter reviews important strands of research on the heritability of antisocial behavior and crime, including both quantitative genetic studies using twin or adoption designs as well as molecular genetic approaches. Study designs are introduced and findings discussed. Contemporary avenues inclu

  8. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne


    Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  9. Where is behavioural ecology going? (United States)

    Owens, Ian P F


    Since the 1990s, behavioural ecologists have largely abandoned some traditional areas of interest, such as optimal foraging, but many long-standing challenges remain. Moreover, the core strengths of behavioural ecology, including the use of simple adaptive models to investigate complex biological phenomena, have now been applied to new puzzles outside behaviour. But this strategy comes at a cost. Replication across studies is rare and there have been few tests of the underlying genetic assumptions of adaptive models. Here, I attempt to identify the key outstanding questions in behavioural ecology and suggest that researchers must make greater use of model organisms and evolutionary genetics in order to make substantial progress on these topics.

  10. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne


    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  11. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour. (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo


    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  12. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  13. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    Full Text Available In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI, which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6 until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3 in very high income countries.

  14. Collective behaviour across animal species. (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio


    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  15. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings. (United States)

    Plomin, R; Deary, I J


    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for 'positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century-Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)-which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture

  16. Behavioural flexibility and problem-solving in a tropical lizard. (United States)

    Leal, Manuel; Powell, Brian J


    The role of behavioural flexibility in responding to new or changing environmental challenges is a central theme in cognitive ecology. Studies of behavioural flexibility have focused mostly on mammals and birds because theory predicts that behavioural flexibility is favoured in species or clades that exploit a diversity of habitats or food sources and/or have complex social structure, attributes not associated with ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we present the results of a series of experiments designed to test cognitive abilities across multiple cognitive modules in a tropical arboreal lizard: Anolis evermanni. This lizard shows behavioural flexibility across multiple cognitive tasks, including solving a novel motor task using multiple strategies and reversal learning, as well as rapid associative learning. This flexibility was unexpected because lizards are commonly believed to have limited cognitive abilities and highly stereotyped behaviour. Our findings indicate that the cognitive abilities of A. evermanni are comparable with those of some endothermic species that are recognized to be highly flexible, and strongly suggest a re-thinking of our understanding of the cognitive abilities of ectothermic tetrapods and of the factors favouring the evolution of behavioural flexibility.

  17. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar


    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  18. Management of violent behaviour in acutely relapsed schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koen


    Full Text Available The management of aggressive behaviour has always been a criticai issue in psychiatry. Finding measures that can be used to accurately predict the likelihood of assaultative behaviour and thus ensure timeous appropriate pharmacological management remains a dilemma. The study objective was to investigate the naturalistic, pharmacological management of inpatient aggressive behaviour in a group of 50 schizophrenic subjects with a view to determine: (1 whether a presenting history of recent violence lead to altered pharmacological management and (2 whether the NOSIE could be regarded as a useful assessment tool with regards to inpatient behaviour management. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the 2 subsets of subjects (history of violence vs none with respect to total doses of medication administered. No statistical correlation could be found between the total NOSIE score and the dose of psychotropic medication used. The relationship between a subset of NOSIE-items and the total dose of medication was more complex and a clear linear relationship could be demonstrated for a total score of 0 to 5. In this particular ward setting a presenting history of recent violent behaviour did not influence the administration of medication and neither could the clinical judgement employed by the nursing staff to manage inpatient behaviour be captured by the NOSIE. However, a five-item subset of the NOSIE with questions relating to aggression and irritability warrants further scrutiny in this regard.

  19. Intermittent motion in desert locusts: behavioural complexity in simple environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bazazi

    Full Text Available Animals can exhibit complex movement patterns that may be the result of interactions with their environment or may be directly the mechanism by which their behaviour is governed. In order to understand the drivers of these patterns we examine the movement behaviour of individual desert locusts in a homogenous experimental arena with minimal external cues. Locust motion is intermittent and we reveal that as pauses become longer, the probability that a locust changes direction from its previous direction of travel increases. Long pauses (of greater than 100 s can be considered reorientation bouts, while shorter pauses (of less than 6 s appear to act as periods of resting between displacements. We observe power-law behaviour in the distribution of move and pause lengths of over 1.5 orders of magnitude. While Lévy features do exist, locusts' movement patterns are more fully described by considering moves, pauses and turns in combination. Further analysis reveals that these combinations give rise to two behavioural modes that are organized in time: local search behaviour (long exploratory pauses with short moves and relocation behaviour (long displacement moves with shorter resting pauses. These findings offer a new perspective on how complex animal movement patterns emerge in nature.

  20. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Hee [CHA General Hospital of Seoul, Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  1. Gallstone ileus: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrousse, E.; Bartholomot, B.; Sohm, O.; Kastler, B. [Dept. of Radiology A, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France); Wallerand, H. [Dept. of Surgery, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France)


    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of recurrent gallstone cholecystitis. The classic radiographic triad of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia and ectopic gallstone on abdominal plain radiograph is described with CT imaging. Because of the better resolution of CT compared with abdominal radiography and its recent accession to emergency use, radiologists should be aware of CT findings of gallstone ileus. We report a case in which gallstone ileus was initially diagnosed by CT. (orig.)

  2. Teachers' Characteristics and Science Teachers' Classroom Behaviour: Evidence from Science Classroom Surveys (United States)

    Ajaja, Patrick O.; Eravwoke, Urhievwejire Ochuko


    The major purpose of this study was to find out if there is any influence of teachers' characteristics on science teacher's classroom behaviours and determine the kind of relationship between teachers' characteristics and classroom behaviours. To guide this study, five research questions and hypotheses were raised, stated, answered, and tested at…

  3. Behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships: Review and integration of empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nils Bøgelund; Skytte, Hans


    This paper reviews the empirical research on behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships. Systematically examining nine international journals, we find 49 papers on behavioural processes. On the basis of the hypothesis tests in the papers, we discuss the results and integrate...

  4. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie


    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  5. Bangladeshi Teachers' Perceptions about Student Behaviour in Primary Schools (United States)

    Malak, Saiful; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Sharma, Umesh


    This paper reports on a study of Bangladeshi teachers' perceptions of student behaviour. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with 22 teachers from six primary schools in one district in Bangladesh. Thematic analysis technique was used to analyse the data. The findings indicated that teachers conceptualized students' inappropriate…

  6. Asymptotic behaviour of the stochastic Gilpin-Ayala competition models (United States)

    Lian, Baosheng; Hu, Shigeng


    In this paper, we investigate a stochastic Gilpin-Ayala competition system, which is more general and more realistic than the classical Lotka-Volterra competition system.We discuss the asymptotic behaviour in detail of the stochastic Gilpin-Ayala competition system, and comparing the classical Lotka-Volterra with Gilpin-Ayala competition system, we find that the latter has better properties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena Diacon


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly analyze the economic transition of Romania from a behavioural economics perspective. Despite the adverse effects experienced in the past regime, the paper finds out that the suitable macroeconomic policies implemented had fundamental effects, generating economic welfare and higher standards of living, life satisfaction, and happiness / subjective well-being.

  8. Semi-automated tracking of behaviour of Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durey, Maëlle; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Matessi, Giuliano


    In this paper, a novel software system for animal behaviour tracking is described. It is used for tracking fish filmed in aquariums using a low quality acquisition system. The tracking is based on a multiscale template matching technique that finds both the position and the orientation of the tra...

  9. Inscription of Behaviour and Flexible Interpretation in Information Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Zinner Henriksen, Helle


    on the duality of organizations using the IT artefacts of the European e-Customs IIs to inscribe harmonised behaviour into the operation of the infrastructure and how the IT artefacts are divergently interpreted by the users of the II. We find a tension between the need for artefacts with strong inscription...

  10. Job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists. (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Noyce, Peter R; Ashcroft, Darren M


    Healthcare practitioners' fitness to practise has often been linked to their personal and demographic characteristics. It is possible that situational factors, such as the work environment and physical or psychological well-being, also have an influence on an individual's fitness to practise. However, it is unclear how these factors might be linked to behaviours that risk compromising fitness to practise. The aim of this study was to examine the association between job characteristics, well-being and behaviour reflecting risky practice amongst a sample of registered pharmacists in a region of the United Kingdom. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional self-report survey of 517 pharmacists. These data were subjected to principal component analysis and path analysis, with job characteristics (demand, autonomy and feedback) and well-being (distress and perceived competence) as the predictors and behaviour as the outcome variable. Two aspects of behaviour were found: Overloading (taking on more work than one can comfortably manage) and risk taking (working at or beyond boundaries of safe practice). Separate path models including either job characteristics or well-being as independent variables provided a good fit to the data-set. Of the job characteristics, demand had the strongest association with behaviour, while the association between well-being and risky behaviour differed according to the aspect of behaviour being assessed. The findings suggest that, in general terms, situational factors should be considered alongside personal factors when assessing, judging or remediating fitness to practise. They also suggest the presence of different facets to the relationship between job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.

  11. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity


    Godin Gaston; Amireault Steve; Vohl Marie-Claude; Pérusse Louis


    Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC)- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, parti...

  12. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.


    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing eff

  13. The Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Derivatives Markets: A Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuen Hon


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in Hong Kong’s derivatives markets. The study period covers the global economic crisis of 2011- 2012, and we focus on small investors’ behaviour during and after the crisis. We attempt to identify and analyse the key factors that capture their behaviour in derivatives markets in Hong Kong. The data were collected from 524 respondents via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to analyse the data, and some interesting findings were obtained. Our study enhances our understanding of behavioural finance in the setting of an Asian financial centre, namely Hong Kong.

  14. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin


    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  15. MR findings of ulegyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momoshima, Suketaka; Shiga, Hayao; Yuasa, Yuji; Imai, Yutaka; Higuchi, Nobuya (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Maezawa, Mariko


    Magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the brains diagnosed to have ulegyria were reviewed. The reviewed subjects comprised six epileptic children, ranged from 2 to 16 years of age. All patients had convulsion of tonic-clonic type of various severity and had histories of ischemic-hypoxic or hypoglycemic episode in the perinatal or postnatal period. T{sub 1}-weighted images demonstrated the findings precisely reflecting the salient macroscopic features of ulegyria; localized atrophy of the brain with mushroom-shaped cortical gyri with narrow roots and relatively spared wider crowns. T{sub 2}-weighted images showed the areas of hyperintensity in the subcortical and deep white matter subjacent to the atrophic cortex, suggestive of cicatrical gliosis as well as cystic degeneration. The atrophic gyri were seen in the anterior and/or posterior parasagittal arterial border zones bilaterally with minimal asymmetry. Although these findings were nearly pathognomonic to ulegyria, polymicrogyria could mimic it since both are characterized by abnormally diminutive cortical gyri seen in epileptic children. In polymicrogyria, however, affected gyri are uniformly diminutive and not mushroom-shaped, the cortex is rather thickened than atrophic, the underlying white matter shows no focal hyperintensity, subcortical cystic changes are not present, and affected cortex is not restricted to arterial border zones. Even in one of our cases with extensive ulegyria, it was easy to differentiate it from polymicrogyria since parasagittal regions were most severely affected. Although the previous reports on ulegyria have been exclusively based on postmortem pathological examinations or experimental models, its easy recognition on MRI would contribute to further understanding of its clinical significance and mechanisms. (author).

  16. MR findings of spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojiri, Hiroya; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Hashimoto, Toru; Doi, Michiko; Irie, Takeo; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Tada, Shinpei (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Toyoda, Keiko


    We reviewed MR images of 50 patients with spondylolisthesis to disclose MR findings of spondylolysis. In almost half of our series, spondylolysis was detected as a low signal intensity band traversing in the pairs interarticularis on both T1 and T2 weighted images. Sagittal images was superior to axial image in detection of the low signal intensity band. In some patients, a focal high signal intensity accompanying the low signal intensity band was considered to be fluid collection within pseudoarthrosis due to spondylolysis on T2-weighted image. (author).

  17. Finding things out

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Rhona; McCullough, Sheila


    Packed with useful information and adviceCovers modern and traditional routes to accessing informationHelps you evaluate the reliability of sourcesHandy checklists at the end of each section summarize the key points Finding Things Out offers solutions to anyone who has ever had trouble tracking down essential information. It describes the techniques that will lead to a successful outcome and covers the full range of resources available, including the World Wide Web, libraries and public record offices. It is a boon to students and researchers needing to trac

  18. Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh


    This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between…

  19. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.


    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  20. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective. (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco


    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  1. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour. (United States)

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N


    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.

  2. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)


    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  3. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links betwe...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  4. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour


    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.


    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  5. Prosocial behaviour and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paz eEspinosa


    Full Text Available This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in neutral baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context, and (ii gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  6. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour (United States)


    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. PMID:27581484

  7. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour. (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X


    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans.

  8. Positive and Negative Effects of Parental Conflicts on Children’s Condition and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Barthassat


    Full Text Available Previous research focused on the negative consequences of parental conflict behaviours. In contrast, this review is about the positive and negative effects that constructive and destructive parental conflict behaviours have on a child’s condition and behaviour. It employs the cognitive-contextual framework of Grych and Fincham (1990 and the emotional security hypothesis of Davies and Cummings (1994. Parental conflicts are represented as a continuum from very destructive to very constructive behaviours. Depending on the style of parental conflict behaviour, children’s emotional reactions and behaviour vary from positive to negative, and are moderated or mediated by different variables. A replication of previous findings and additional research are needed for a comprehensive understanding of this relationship and of the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Predicting actual weight loss: A review of the determinants according to the theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming


    Weight reduction that corresponds with lifestyle modification is difficult to foster. The theory of planned behaviour has been actively cited in explaining health-related behaviour. This review evaluated the application of the theory of planned behaviour to weight-loss behaviour. Among the three reviewed papers, cross-sectional survey designs and subjective outcome measurements were commonly applied. All of the studies recruited obese female adults as participants, limiting the generalisability of the studies' findings. The theory of planned behaviour can be effectively applied in weight-reduction programmes targeting female obese patients. This review confirmed critiques citing the limitations of experimental studies, the subjective measurement of behaviour and short follow-up periods.

  10. High CO₂ and marine animal behaviour: potential mechanisms and ecological consequences. (United States)

    Briffa, Mark; de la Haye, Kate; Munday, Philip L


    Exposure to pollution and environmental change can alter the behaviour of aquatic animals and here we review recent evidence that exposure to elevated CO₂ and reduced sea water pH alters the behaviour of tropical reef fish and hermit crabs. Three main routes through which behaviour might be altered are discussed; elevated metabolic load, 'info-disruption' and avoidance behaviour away from polluted locations. There is clear experimental evidence that exposure to high CO₂ disrupts the ability to find settlement sites and shelters, the ability to detect predators and the ability to detect prey and food. In marine vertebrates and marine crustaceans behavioural change appears to occur via info-disruption. In hermit crabs and other crustaceans impairment of performance capacities might also play a role. We discuss the implications for such behavioural changes in terms of potential impacts at the levels of population health and ecosystem services, and consider future directions for research.

  11. Scaling Behaviour and Memory in Heart Rate of Healthy Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shi-Min; PENG Hu; YANG Hui-Jie; ZHOU Tao; ZHOU Pei-Ling; WANG Bing-Hong


    We investigate a set of complex heart rate time series from healthy human in different behaviour states with the detrended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy (DE) method. It is proposed that the scaling properties are influenced by behaviour states. The memory detected by DE exhibits an approximately same pattern after a detrending procedure. Both of them demonstrate the long-range strong correlations in heart rate. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying dynamical evolution process in the heart rate control system, as well as to model the cardiac dynamic process.

  12. Online and Smartphone Consumer Behaviour of Spanish Millennials


    Perez Montesa, Luis


    Conducts a deep research of the online and smartphone consumer behaviour with a focus on the Spanish Millennials. The main goal of the thesis is to identify a different online and smartphone pattern among Millennials in Spain, compared to the general population. At the same time, obtaining valuable and insightful information about the Spanish Millennials consumer behaviour and trends is another goal of the thesis. This thesis aims to provide key findings on the topic, adding valuable knowledg...

  13. Success of behaviour modification in a child with Asperger's syndrome


    Šteh, Urška


    The topic of this degree dissertation is the success rate of behaviour modification in a child with the autistic spectrum disorder Asperger’s syndrome. I decided to pursue this subject based on my work in a kindergarten, where I became acquainted with a boy with Asperger’s syndrome. The issue I encountered was that I could find no sources where the method of behaviour modification was implemented with persons that have Asperger’s syndrome. For this reason I decided to determine, by using...

  14. Radiologic findings in neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dai Young; Jeon, Seok Chol; Lee, Kwan Se; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Neurofibromatosis is an uncommon but certainly not a rare hereditary disorder, probably of neuralcrest origin, involving not only neuroectoderm and mesoderm but also endoderm and characterized by cafe au lait spots and cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors, with secondary mesodermal defects responsible for protean osseous abnormalities and various manifestations in other systems. This paper is a study of confirmed 143 cases of neurofibromatosis collected for past 8 years. In this analysis, special attention was given to the selected 37 cases which showed abnormal findings on radiological examinations. Overall male to female ratio was 1 : 1.3. The most frequent kind of abnormalities was vertebral kyphoscoliosis in 12 cases. Among the more pathognomonic but uncommon abnormalities to neurofibromatosis, we experienced each 2 cases of lambdoid defect, pseudoarthrosis and renovascular hypertension, and 1 cases of sphenoid bone absence.

  15. A targeted review of the neurobiology and genetics of behavioural addictions: an emerging area of research. (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N


    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered.

  16. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  17. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    . The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...... method is concluded to be a superior method in estimating the post peak behaviour as well as the combined capacity of bucket foundations in relation to the offshore wind turbine problem....

  18. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  19. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos


    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...

  20. Customer behaviour and student satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enache, I. C.


    Full Text Available Having to overcome new challenges, the higher education institutions need to understand their customer behaviour. The students’ satisfaction is becoming an important objective for universities and society as the role of the tertiary level institution is being questioned. The aim of this paper is to provide a concrete marketing approach to the student satisfaction problem. The literature review section aims to present resources that deliver relevant and updated information about the marketing perspectives on student satisfaction. A short survey is developed in order to provide insights on student behaviour and student satisfaction.

  1. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review. (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan


    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  2. It's not just the television: survey analysis of sedentary behaviour in New Zealand young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Louise S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviour has been linked with adverse health outcomes in young people; however, the nature and context of being sedentary is poorly understood. Accurate quantification and description of sedentary behaviour using population-level data is required. The aim of this research was to describe sedentary behaviour among New Zealand (NZ youth and examine whether sedentary behaviour differs by Body Mass Index (BMI status in this population. Methods A national representative cross-sectional survey of young people aged 5-24 years (n = 2,503 was conducted in 2008-2009. Data from this survey, which included subjectively (recall diary; n = 1,309 and objectively (accelerometry; n = 960 measured sedentary behaviour for participants aged 10-18 years were analysed using survey weighted methods. Results Participants self-reported spending on average 521 minutes per day (standard error [SE] 5.29 in total sedentary behaviour, 181 minutes per day (SE 3.91 in screen-based sedentary activities (e.g., television and video games, and 340 minutes per day (SE 5.22 in other non-screen sedentary behaviours (e.g., school, passive transport and self-care. Accelerometer-measured total sedentary behaviour was on average 420 minutes per day (SE 4.26, or 53% (SE 0.42% of monitored time. There were no statistically significant differences in time spent in sedentary behaviour among overweight, obese and healthy/underweight young people. Conclusions Both subjective and objective methods indicate that NZ youth spend much of their waking time being sedentary. No relationships were found between sedentary behaviour and BMI status. These findings extend previous research by describing engagement in specific sedentary activities, as well as quantifying the behaviour using an objective method. Differences in what aspects of sedentary behaviour the two methods are capturing are discussed. This research highlights the potential for future interventions to

  3. Collective behaviours in the stock market -- A maximum entropy approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bury, Thomas


    Scale invariance, collective behaviours and structural reorganization are crucial for portfolio management (portfolio composition, hedging, alternative definition of risk, etc.). This lack of any characteristic scale and such elaborated behaviours find their origin in the theory of complex systems. There are several mechanisms which generate scale invariance but maximum entropy models are able to explain both scale invariance and collective behaviours. The study of the structure and collective modes of financial markets attracts more and more attention. It has been shown that some agent based models are able to reproduce some stylized facts. Despite their partial success, there is still the problem of rules design. In this work, we used a statistical inverse approach to model the structure and co-movements in financial markets. Inverse models restrict the number of assumptions. We found that a pairwise maximum entropy model is consistent with the data and is able to describe the complex structure of financial...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinziana BALTATESCU


    Full Text Available The ”mainstream” neoclassical assumptions about human economic behavior are currently challenged by both behavioural researches on human behaviour and other theoretical approaches which, in the context of the recent economic and financial crisis find arguments to reinforce their theoretical statements. The neoclassical “perfect rationality” assumption is most criticized and provokes the mainstream theoretical approach to efforts of revisiting the theoretical framework in order to re-state the economic models validity. Uncertainty seems, in this context, to be the concept that allows other theoretical approaches to take into consideration a more realistic individual from the psychological perspective. This paper is trying to present a comparison between the neoclassical and Keynesian approach of the uncertainty, considering the behavioural arguments and challenges addressed to the mainstream theory.

  5. Current Behaviours and Attitudes Towards Texting While Driving in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Beasley, Keiran


    This paper aims to understand the behaviour of texting and driving among the broader driving public in Australia and uncover whether attitudes are congruent with behaviours. Recent studies have generally been focussing on the behaviours of 18-24 year olds suggesting that the practice is mainly...... confined to people in this age bracket. Findings from an anonymous online survey show that the practice of texting and driving is widespread in Australia and not just confined to the younger demographic. Additionally, evidence suggests smart phone users are more likely to engage in texting while driving....... The paper also reveals that a majority of people continue to text and drive despite having strong views on the dangers associated with the practice....

  6. Early time perturbations behaviour in scalar field cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, F; Perrotta, Francesca; Baccigalupi, Carlo


    We consider the problem of the initial conditions and behaviour of the perturbations in scalar field cosmology with general potential. We use the general definition of adiabatic and isocurvature conditions to set the appropriate initial values for the perturbation in the scalar field and in the ordinary matter and radiation components. In both the cases of initial adiabaticity and isocurvature, we solve the Einstein and fluid equation at early times and on superhorizon scales to find the initial behaviour of the relevant quantities. In particular, in the isocurvature case, we consider models in which the initial perturbation arises from the matter as well as from the scalar field itself, provided that the initial value of the gauge invariant curvature is zero. We extend the standard code to include all these cases, and we show some results concerning the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. In particular, it turns out that the acoustic peaks follow opposite behaviours in...

  7. Requisite leader behavioural competencies for sustainable organisational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Grobler


    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations constantly strive to understand the impact of leader behaviour on continued superior organisational performance.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to establish a framework of requisite leader behavioural competencies for sustainable (repeated organisational performance and to determine the interrelationship between leader behaviour and sustainable organisational performance.Rationale/ motivation: Many studies have been conducted investigating the impact of leadership on organisational performance, but a gap exists in studying the interplay between leader behavioural competencies, organisational performance and organisational context.Research design, approach and method: A case study research design was used employing a qualitative approach with a constructivist grounded theory research philosophy. Data collection comprised archival document review and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with senior executives in a high performing multinational listed South African organisation as case. Data analysis was conducted with the aid of qualitative data analysis computer software, as well as through iterative open and axial coding to discover patterns and themes.Main findings: The study resulted in a leader behavioural competency framework purporting a model founded strongly in context and simplicity.Practical/ Managerial implications: Requisite leader behavioural competencies were identified as: 1 simple focus and providing direction; 2 a sincere regard for people, or employee well-being; 3 creating an environment of absolute trust and empowerment; 4 enforcing innovation and entrepreneurship; 5 full leader support and backup; and 6 affording profound reward and recognition for achievements.Contribution: Organisations can benefit from an insight into understanding how the identified requisite leader behavioural competencies possibly can impact organisational performance in their respective environments.

  8. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Glaucia; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)


    Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: this was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: the majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: it is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. (author)

  9. Behavioural problems in children with enuresis (United States)

    Birdal, Seval; Doğangün, Burak


    Aim: Enuresis is defined as involuntary or intentional repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for a period of three consecutive months in children older than five years old. It is one of the most frequent chronic childhood disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of behavioural problems in children with enuresis. Material and Methods: The research compared 30 children aged between 7 and 11 years who had consulted to Bakırköy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics and diagnosed with enuresis with their 30 peers who were randomly selected from a state elementary school. The Child Behaviour Checklist was applied to both groups. Results: The subdimension scores of both groups were compared, it was observed that children with enuresis had higher scores compared to their peers in all sub-tests except for the Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Anxiety Disorders, and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder sub-tests. Enuretic children had higher scores in externalizing (penuresis exhibit behavioral problems with a higher rate compared to their healthy peers. The results are in line with the literature. Moreover, compered to the results of the studies conducted in different countries, significantly higher scores in internalizing problems were obtained. It was thought is possible that this might be related with cultural factors. However, these findings need to be verified with data from larger scale studies. PMID:27738398

  10. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  11. Investment Behaviour of Institutional Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rubbaniy (Ghulame)


    textabstractThis study examines the portfolio choice anomalies and trading strategies of two types of institutional investors, Dutch pension funds (PFs) and US mutual funds (MFs), and presents some explanation for the unexpected behaviour in their trading. Particularly we focus on the determinants o

  12. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan


    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  13. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P


    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  14. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vinale


    Full Text Available This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical review of the analysis methods available for studying geotechnical structures under seismic loadings. All of the available methods can be classified into three main classes, including the pseudo-static, pseudo-dynamic and dynamic approaches, each of which is reviewed for applicability. A more advanced analysis procedure, suitable for a so-called performance-based design approach, is also described in the paper. Finally, the seismic behaviour of the El Infiernillo Dam was investigated. It was shown that coupled elastoplastic dynamic analyses disclose some of the important features of dam behaviour under seismic loading, confirmed by comparing analytical computation and experimental measurements on the dam body during and after a past earthquake.

  15. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim


    appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  16. Handbook of Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties (United States)

    Clough, Peter; Garner, Philip; Pardeck, John T.; Yuen, Francis K.O.


    The behaviour of children in primary/elementary and secondary/high schools has been a consistent source of interest and controversy since the 19th century. As education systems in First World democracies struggle to meet changing social, economic and educational conditions, one group of children has increasingly become the focus of attention.…

  17. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.


    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original (tr

  18. Creep behaviour of flexible adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.; Berg, A. van den; Beers, P. van


    Since flexible adhesives are used more and more in structural applications, designers should have a better understanding of its behaviour under various conditions as ultimate load, fatigue load, long-term load and environmental conditions. This paper focuses on long-term load conditions and its effe

  19. Promoting VET teachers’ innovative behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Piety; Bednall, Timothy; Sanders, Karin; Yang, Huadong


    Changing employer demands, new technological and pedagogical insights are examples of developments which urge Vocational Education and Training (VET) institutes to continually renew and innovate their educational programmes. This, in turn, requires teachers to show innovative behaviour. Our study

  20. Measuring human behaviour with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van


    The paper presents human motion measurements with the experimental Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar at TNO-FEL. The aim of these measurements is to analyse the Doppler velocity spectrum of humans. These analysis give insight in measuring human behaviour with radar for security applica

  1. Gustatory Behaviour in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.K. Hukema (Renate)


    textabstractThe nematode C. elegans is an ideal model-organism to study the genetics of behaviour (Brenner, 1974). It is capable of sensing salts and we discriminate three different responses: it is attracted to low salt concentrations (Ward, 1973; Dusenbery et al., 1974), it avoids high salt concen

  2. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  3. Immunological findings in autism. (United States)

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit


    elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  4. Protection motivation theory and social distancing behaviour in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic. (United States)

    Williams, Lynn; Rasmussen, Susan; Kleczkowski, Adam; Maharaj, Savi; Cairns, Nicole


    Epidemics of respiratory infectious disease remain one of the most serious health risks facing the population. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. hand-washing or wearing face masks) can have a significant impact on the course of an infectious disease epidemic. The current study investigated whether protection motivation theory (PMT) is a useful framework for understanding social distancing behaviour (i.e. the tendency to reduce social contacts) in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic. There were 230 participants (109 males, 121 females, mean age 32.4 years) from the general population who completed self-report measures assessing the components of PMT. In addition, participants completed a computer game which simulated an infectious disease epidemic in order to provide a measure of social distancing behaviour. The regression analyses revealed that none of the PMT variables were significant predictors of social distancing behaviour during the simulation task. However, fear (β = .218, p < .001), response efficacy (β = .175, p < .01) and self-efficacy (β = .251, p < .001) were all significant predictors of intention to engage in social distancing behaviour. Overall, the PMT variables (and demographic factors) explain 21.2% of the variance in intention. The findings demonstrated that PMT was a useful framework for understanding intention to engage in social distancing behaviour, but not actual behaviour during the simulated epidemic. These findings may reflect an intention-behaviour gap in relation to social distancing behaviour.

  5. Behavioural breaks in the heterogeneous agent model: The impact of herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment (United States)

    Kukacka, Jiri; Barunik, Jozef


    The main aim of this work is to incorporate selected findings from behavioural finance into a Heterogeneous Agent Model using the Brock and Hommes (1998) [34] framework. Behavioural patterns are injected into an asset pricing framework through the so-called ‘Break Point Date’, which allows us to examine their direct impact. In particular, we analyse the dynamics of the model around the behavioural break. Price behaviour of 30 Dow Jones Industrial Average constituents covering five particularly turbulent US stock market periods reveals interesting patterns in this aspect. To replicate it, we apply numerical analysis using the Heterogeneous Agent Model extended with the selected findings from behavioural finance: herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment. We show that these behavioural breaks can be well modelled via the Heterogeneous Agent Model framework and they extend the original model considerably. Various modifications lead to significantly different results and model with behavioural breaks is also able to partially replicate price behaviour found in the data during turbulent stock market periods.

  6. Not in their genes: Phenotypic flexibility, behavioural traditions and cultural evolution in wild bonnet macaques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anindya Sinha


    Phenotypic flexibility, or the within-genotype, context-dependent, variation in behaviour expressed by single reproductively mature individuals during their lifetimes, often impart a selective advantage to organisms and profoundly influence their survival and reproduction. Another phenomenon apparently not under direct genetic control is behavioural inheritance whereby higher animals are able to acquire information from the behaviour of others by social learning, and, through their own modified behaviour, transmit such information between individuals and across generations. Behavioural information transfer of this nature thus represents another form of inheritance that operates in many animals in tandem with the more basic genetic system. This paper examines the impact that phenotypic flexibility, behavioural inheritance and socially transmitted cultural traditions may have in shaping the structure and dynamics of a primate society – that of the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata), a primate species endemic to peninsular India. Three principal issues are considered: the role of phenotypic flexibility in shaping social behaviour, the occurrence of individual behavioural traits leading to the establishment of social traditions, and the appearance of cultural evolution amidst such social traditions. Although more prolonged observations are required, these initial findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity, behavioural inheritance and cultural traditions may be much more widespread among primates than have previously been assumed but may have escaped attention due to a preoccupation with genetic inheritance in zoological thinking.

  7. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy


    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  8. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach


    Full Text Available Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  9. Foundations of Session Types and Behavioural Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; Vasconcelos, Vasco


    Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patterns...

  10. Behavioural social choice: a status report. (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R


    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  11. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours (United States)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam


    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  12. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents (United States)

    Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John


    Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours) perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals’ engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years), who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman’s ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants’ reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends’ norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered. PMID:28294999


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David NEWCOMBE; Robert All


    these countries. To facilitate this process, countries were grouped arbitrarily into two regions Asia and Europe (including Iran). Data were also collected from a small cohort of patients enrolled in ST in Adelaide, South Australia, to allow data from nations with less resource to be compared to those collected from an established ST program. Methods: This was a prospective observational study where participants newly enrolled into ST were interviewed at baseline,and again at 3 and 6- month follow - ups. Participants were administered a battery of instruments designed to collect demographic information, and data on physical and psychological health, HIV risk behaviours (injecting and sexual practices), and involvement in employment and criminal activity. The time frame of questions was the month prior to entering treatment, or the one - month prior to the 3 and 6 -month follow- up interview. Blood was also tested to determine HIV and Hep C serostatus. Results:A total of 730 participants were enrolled into the study ( Australia = 42, Asia = 321, Europe = 367 ).Rates of HIV seropositivity were 3%, 16% and 35 %, for Australia, Europe, and Asia, respectively.There were significant reductions in illicit drug use and risky injecting practices, and significant self reported improvements in physical and psychological health, in those patients remaining in treatment.Furthermore, there were also increases in employment activity, and reduction in criminal involvement.Conclusion: These outcome evaluation data are consistent with findings from developed economies and show that the implementation of ST in less resourced economies can be effective in reducing HIV risk behaviours, and improving health well being of those who remain in treatment.

  14. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion (United States)

    Jull, Stephen K.


    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  15. Intuitionistic Assessment Of Behavioural Present Value*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Krzysztof


    Full Text Available The article discussesd the impact of chosen behavioural factors on the imprecision of present value assessment. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. The behavioural present value is described here as an intuitionistic fuzzy set. The significance of the replacement of a fuzzy set by an intuitionistic fuzzy set is proved.

  16. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrul, J.; Stemmler, M.; Bühler, A.; Kuntsche, E.N.


    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) ag

  17. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen


    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is a

  18. A Cognitive Behavioural Group Approach for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour in Schools (United States)

    Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.


    Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…

  19. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud


    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  20. Random Behaviour in Quantum Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Garbaczewski, P


    We demonstrate that a family of radial Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic processes displays an ergodic behaviour appropriate for known quantum chaos universality classes of nearest neighbour spacing distributions. A common feature of those parametric processes is an asymptotic balance between the radial (Bessel-type) repulsion and the harmonic attraction, as manifested in the general form of forward drifts $b(x) = {{N-1}\\over {2x}} - x$, ($N = 2,3,5$ correspond respectively to the familiar GOE, GUE and GSE cases).

  1. Considerations concerning cosumer behaviour theory


    Ioan Cucu; Codruta Dura


    The consumer`s scale of preference, which is the starting point of the theory of consumer behaviour can be ilustrated very clearly by indifference curves. The point where budget line meets the highest possible indifference curve compatible with the consumer`s income and prices represents the state of equilibrum for the consumer. Consumer behaviuor theory gains still more practical importance if consumer preferences are subjected to detailed psychological and sociological analysis.

  2. Multifractal behaviour of -simplex lattic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Kumar; Debaprasad Giri; Sujata Krishna


    We study the asymptotic behaviour of resistance scaling and fluctuation of resistance that give rise to flicker noise in an -simplex lattice. We propose a simple method to calculate the resistance scaling and give a closed-form formula to calculate the exponent, , associated with resistance scaling, for any . Using current cumulant method we calculate the exact noise exponent for -simplex lattices.

  3. Community pressure for green behaviour


    Heyes, A.; Kapur, Sandeep


    The desire to avoid rousing community hostility may encourage firms to behave in an environmentally responsible manner. It has been conjectured that such 'informal regulation' could effectively replace formal intervention in some settings, and usefully complement it in others. We explore these conjectures with mixed results. Informal regulation is necessarily less efficient than a well-designed formal alternative and the pattern of green behaviour induced by the threat of community hostility ...

  4. Customer Complaint Behaviour in Service


    Tronvoll, Bård


    It is vital for every service provider to get feedback from its customers. This is especially important when a customer has perceived an unfavourable service experience. One way to receive feedback from these customers is to encourage and make it easy for them to complain. Scholarly knowledge about complaint behaviour gives the service provider valuable insight about service problems and how to improve e.g. service offerings, service processes and interactions, to increase customer satisfacti...

  5. The typical behaviour of relays


    Alamino, Roberto C.; Saad, David


    The typical behaviour of the relay-without-delay channel and its many-units generalisation, termed the relay array, under LDPC coding, is studied using methods of statistical mechanics. A demodulate-and-forward strategy is analytically solved using the replica symmetric ansatz which is exact in the studied system at the Nishimori's temperature. In particular, the typical level of improvement in communication performance by relaying messages is shown in the case of small and large number of re...

  6. Glycans pattern the phase behaviour of lipid membranes (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Guidotti, Guido; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Stone, Howard A.


    Hydrated networks of glycans (polysaccharides)—in the form of cell walls, periplasms or gel-like matrices—are ubiquitously present adjacent to cellular plasma membranes. Yet, despite their abundance, the function of glycans in the extracellular milieu is largely unknown. Here we show that the spatial configuration of glycans controls the phase behaviour of multiphase model lipid membranes: inhomogeneous glycan networks stabilize large lipid domains at the characteristic length scale of the network, whereas homogeneous networks suppress macroscopic lipid phase separation. We also find that glycan-patterned phase separation is thermally reversible—thus indicating that the effect is thermodynamic rather than kinetic—and that phase patterning probably results from a preferential interaction of glycans with ordered lipid phases. These findings have implications for membrane-mediated transport processes, potentially rationalize long-standing observations that differentiate the behaviour of native and model membranes and may indicate an intimate coupling between cellular lipidomes and glycomes.

  7. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain (United States)

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.


    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  8. Eating behaviour and stress: a pathway to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer


    Full Text Available Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviours so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hours following this, however, there is a glucocorticoid-mediated stimulation of hunger and eating behaviour. In the case of an acute stress that requires a physical response, such as a predator-prey interaction, this hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulation of food intake allows the stressful event to be dealt with and the energy used to be replaced afterwards. In the case of ongoing psychological stress, however, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can lead to chronically stimulated eating behaviour and excessive weight gain. In particular, stress can enhance the propensity to eat high calorie palatable food via its interaction with central reward pathways. Activation of this circuitry can also interact with the HPA axis to suppress its further activation, meaning not only can stress encourage eating behaviour, but eating can suppress the HPA axis and the feeling of stress. In this review we will explore the theme of eating behaviour and stress and how these can modulate one another. We will address the interactions between the HPA axis and eating, introducing a potential integrative role for the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We will also examine early life and epigenetic modulation of the HPA axis and how this can influence eating behaviour. Finally, we will investigate the clinical implications of changes to HPA axis function and how this may be contributing to obesity in our society.

  9. Genetics and criminal behaviour: recent accomplishments. (United States)

    Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa


    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.

  10. Co-evolutionary behaviour selection in adaptive social networks predicts clustered marginalization of minorities

    CERN Document Server

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Engemann, Denis A; Levermann, Anders


    Human behaviour is largely shaped by local social interactions and depends on the structure of connections between individuals in social networks. These two dimensions of behaviour selection are commonly studied in isolation by different disciplines and are often treated as independent processes. To the contrary, empirical findings on spread of behaviour in social networks suggest that local interactions between individuals and network evolution are interdependent. Empirical evidence, however, remains inconclusive as social network studies often suffer from limited sample sizes or are prohibitive on ethical grounds. Here we introduce a co-evolutionary adaptive network model of social behaviour selection that provides insights into generative mechanisms by resolving both these aspects through computer simulations. We considered four complementary models and evaluated them with regard to emulating empirical behaviour dynamics in social networks. For this purpose we modelled the prevalence of smoking and and the...

  11. Locus of control, hardiness, and emotional intelligence as predictors of waste prevention behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi, A.


    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is an economic and environmental problem for nations and governments, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge on the etiology of waste prevention behaviours. This study aimed to investigate about the relationships between the locus of control, hardiness, emotional intelligence, and waste prevention behaviours. Four hundred and forty participants (226 females and 214 males from Universiti Putra Malaysia completed a survey questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated that individuals who were high in emotional intelligence and hardiness showed better waste prevention behaviours as well as those individuals with internal locus of control. Also, the results showed that older students tend to have better waste prevention behaviours. These findings reinforce the importance of personality traits and emotional intelligence in waste prevention behaviours.

  12. The behavioural profile of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and of their siblings. (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Zülli-Weilenmann, Nicole; Brandeis, Daniel; Müller, Ueli C; Valko, Lilian; Drechsler, Renate


    The behavioural profiles in N = 69 index children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),N = 32 siblings with ADHD, N = 35 siblings without ADHD, and N = 36 normal controls were compared by the use of standardized parent and teacher rating scales. The four groups were matched by age and IQ. The behavioural profiles of the two ADHD groups were very similar not only in the behavioural domains of ADHD, but also in scales measuring emotional and conduct problems. Siblings without ADHD shared more similarities with normal controls except for more emotional problems. These general trends were stronger in the parent compared to the teacher ratings. These findings indicate that not only ADHD-related but also other behaviours show a strong family aggregation. The informant differences may reflect context dependent differences in child behaviour and contrast effects particularly in parental ratings.

  13. Influence of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health and Behaviour of Immigrant Children in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anne George


    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of perceived discrimination on the health and behaviour of ethnic minority immigrant children in British Columbia, Canada. Using data from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, we examine perceived discrimination experienced by the parent, family, and cultural group in Canada to test the influence of micro-, meso-, and macrolevels of discrimination on children. Families from 6 ethnic backgrounds participated in the study. Parents’ perceptions of the child’s health and six behavioral scales (hyperactivity, prosocial behaviour, emotional problems, aggression, indirect aggression, and a general combined behaviour scale were examined as outcome variables. After controlling for ethnicity and background variables, our findings suggest that perceived micro- and macrodiscrimination has the greatest influence on the health and behaviour of our immigrant child sample. Variation among ethnic groups provided the largest explanation of health and behavioural discrepancies in our study.

  14. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers. (United States)

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh


    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level.

  15. Soft drinks, aggression and suicidal behaviour in US high school students. (United States)

    Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David


    Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been rising among teens, and recent research has identified potential links to violence, depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal behaviour. We analyse a national data-set, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to examine the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggression, depression and suicidal behaviours among US adolescents. We find that higher soft drink consumption is associated with a range of undesirable behaviours: being in a physical fight, feeling sad or hopeless and having suicidal thoughts and actions. The data display a 'dose-response' relationship, with the percentage engaged in aggression or suicidal behaviour increasing steadily with greater quantities of soft drinks consumed. While further research is needed to determine if the association is causal, soft drink consumption may be a useful indicator for both aggression and suicidal behaviours among American high school students.

  16. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator. (United States)

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David


    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions.

  17. Consistent behavioural traits and behavioural syndromes in pairs of the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris. (United States)

    Wong, M Y L; Medina, A; Uppaluri, C; Arnold, S; Seymour, J R; Buston, P M


    Using the social clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris, whether individuals exhibited consistency in activity levels, boldness and sociability in a paired context, and whether these three behavioural traits were positively correlated within a single behavioural syndrome, was investigated. The results highlight that consistent individual differences in behaviour are expressed in a social fish and suggest that consistent behavioural traits and behavioural syndromes could influence the structure and functioning of their societies.

  18. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour.



    Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS). Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of ...

  19. New model describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration rates (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru; Minagawa, Hiroe; Chiba, Michiko


    We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

  20. Semi-automated tracking of behaviour of Betta splendens


    Durey, Maëlle; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Matessi, Giuliano; Dabelsteen, Torben


    In this paper, a novel software system for animal behaviour tracking is described. It is used for tracking fish filmed in aquariums using a low quality acquisition system. The tracking is based on a multiscale template matching technique that finds both the position and the orientation of the tracked fish. The template is matched in the background subtracted frames, where the background is estimated using a median based approach. The system is very stable and has been used in a large behaviou...

  1. Rheological behaviour of lahar flow (United States)

    Lafarge, N.; Chambon, G.; Thouret, J. C.; Laigle, D.


    Lahars are mixtures of water and debris flowing down the flanks of volcanoes. These flows generally occur after heavy rainfalls and carry sediments deposited by volcanic eruptions. They are among the most destructive volcanic phenomena, and were responsible, in the 20th century, for 40% of the fatalities associated with volcanic eruptions worldwide. However, the mechanical behaviour and the propagation of these particular debris flows still remain poorly understood. In the frame of the research project Laharisk, Mount Semeru in Java (Indonesia) was chosen as a test site to monitor lahar activity and flows properties owing to the frequent occurrence of lahars on its flanks during the monsoon rainy period. Two observation stations, situated 510 m apart, were installed in the Curah Lengkong Valley on the southeast flank of Semeru volcano. The relatively straight and box-shaped channel between the two stations represents a natural flume well suited to study the hydraulics of the flows. Both stations are equipped with video cameras, pore-pressure and load sensors, AFM geophones, and one broad-band seismometer to measure the evolution over time of lahar flow height, speed, and discharge. Bucket samples are also directly taken in the flows at regular time-intervals in order to provide sediment concentration and grain-size distribution. The rheological behaviour of the material is studied through laboratory vane tests at constant imposed shear rate conducted on the fine-sized fraction (independent of the shear rate. In addition, the friction coefficient increases with sediment concentration. At the scale of the flow, the rheology of the material can also be investigated through the relationship between flow height and discharge in control sections. The obtained relationship has the form of a power law, and is also indicative of a frictional mechanical behaviour. Here also, the concentration appears as an important parameter controlling the rheological behavior of flow

  2. Findings (United States)

    ... injury and repair. Read Issue Elizabeth Grice, Geneticist Body Bacteria Elizabeth Grice studies the bacteria that live on human skin. Her work could lead to new ways to treat chronic wounds like diabetic foot ulcers. Read Issue George Hightower, M.D.-Ph.D. Graduate Student HIV on the Brain George ...

  3. Finding the missing link: examining the mediating role of sustainable public procurement behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandia, J.


    Governments use sustainable public procurement to reduce the negative aspects of production and consumption. The more sustainable the goods and services that the government buys are, the greater the impact on the market and the environment. However, studies show that the degree of sustainable procur

  4. Fostered Children's Behavioural and Emotional Difficulties: Findings from one Independent Foster Care Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Staines


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pone de manifiesto la presencia de altos niveles de dificultades emocionales y de comportamiento en los niños y jóvenes que viven en acogimiento y la necesidad de promover terapias para gestionar estas dificultades. Si bien el apoyo que recibieron los niños en acogimiento fue muy positivo, no se hallaron cambios significativos durante el curso del estudio. Los niños que presentan los niveles más altos de dificultad en los primeros momentos del acogimiento fueron más propensos a experimentar perturbaciones que aquellos con niveles más bajos de dificultad. La investigación sugiere que es posible identificar a los niños en situación de riesgo, utilizando herramientas de detección, como el Cuestionario de Fortalezas y Dificultades (Goodman, 1997.Por otra parte, la investigación pone de manifiesto que los mecanismos de apoyo, incluyendo las intervenciones terapéuticas, necesitan ser implementados lo antes posible para contribuir a estabilizar y mantener estos acogimientos; una demora en hacerlo podría poner en peligro dicho acogimiento.

  5. Major research findings in 1984. Unmarried female factory workers' knowledge, attitude on sexual and contraceptive behaviours. (United States)


    The Korea Institute for Population and Health (KIPH) conducted a survey from January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984, to identify the sociopsychological and demographic characteristics of unmarried female factory workers and to develop a strategy for planning and implementing organized sex and family planning education and service programs for unmarried female workers in the factory setting. The respondents were 918 female factory workers in the industrial areas of Guro, Gumi, and Masan. Their average age was 21 years with a 3.4 year work career. Respondents' knowledge level of sex, pregnancy, and contraceptive methods was low. The female factory workers preferred counselors outside rather than inside the work place. Although there was no question about the need for counseling for sexual problems among the female factory workers, their user rate was low.

  6. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB


    examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally......In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits......, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner...

  7. ”Relaciones Comerciales entre México y España: el problema de la diversificación comercial, 1994-2006



    En este trabajo se estudian las relaciones comerciales entre México y España y se le da una explicación al fenómeno de la no existencia de diversificación comercial en los productos que México exporta a dicha nación. El trabajo se divide en dos apartados, el primero contiene la respuesta a la formulación de la primera hipótesis de investigación, ésta explica el problema de la diversificación comercial a través de los resultados arrojados por el índice de la Ventaja Comparati...

  8. Inseguridad, orden y castigo en México : definiciones sobre la fuerza del Estado : una mirada a los discursos públicos. 1994-2006 /



     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, presenta Angela Graciela Oyhandy Cioffi ; asesor Fernando Castañeda Sabido. 296 páginas. Doctorado en Ciencias Políticas y Sociales UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, 2009

  9. Impact of the University of Colorado's Advanced Clinical Training and Service (ACTS) Program on dental students' clinical experience and cognitive skills, 1994-2006. (United States)

    Berg, Rob; Call, Richard L; Maguire, Kerry; Berkey, Douglas B; Karshmer, Bernard A; Guyton, Brad; Tawara-Jones, Karen


    The University of Colorado Denver School of Dental Medicine has operated a community-based dental education program for all of its students since 1985. A database of student productivity has been maintained in a standardized format, capable of multiyear compilation, since 1994. This study utilizes twelve years of these data to profile the type and amount of clinical treatment that can be provided by a typical fourth-year dental student during a 100-day community-based training experience. Between 1994 and 2006, the school's 423 graduates provided a mean of 922 treatment procedures per student at a mean of 498 patient visits per student. During a typical four-week clinical affiliation, each student provided a mean of approximately twenty-seven restorations on permanent teeth, sixteen restorations on primary teeth, and twenty-four oral surgery procedures (extractions). Students also gained considerable experience in periodontics, fixed and removable prosthodontics, and endodontics. Self-assessed competency ratings tended to increase after completing the program, as did willingness to treat underserved populations after graduation. About 16 percent of graduates reported planning to practice in the public sector after completing dental school. A community-based experience such as this appears to offer an opportunity to substantially augment dental students' clinical training experiences.

  10. Mercado de empresarios: Una visión propositiva aplicada a las Pymes de Antioquia en el período 1994-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Hurtado Rendón


    Full Text Available Los empresarios tienen incentivos, es decir, esperan beneficios (demanda de empresarios pero además deben cumplir ciertos requerimientos, tales como conocimiento del oficio, liderazgo, iniciativa, persistencia, entre otros (oferta de empresarios, Es así como se puede reconocer entonces la existencia de un cuarto factor de producción como lo señalaron Marshall (1954 y Say (2001 y, por ende la existencia de un mercado de empresarios, en donde el precio del factor empresario se encuentra determinado por el juego de oferta y demanda. En este trabajo se plantea la discusión acerca del mercado de empresarios partiendo de una visión alternativa, donde el empresario es uno de los factores fundamentales del análisis económico separándolo del factor productivo capital*, presentando para este fin una visión propositiva de aplicación empírica alternativa del modelo propuesto por J.M O´kean (2000 para el caso de la región antioqueña, en particular, de los empresarios de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PYMES en el período 1994:1-2006:4. Donde se encontró que la principal función de los empresarios de este período fue la búsqueda de oportunidades empresariales (Kirzner, 1998, pero soportados sobre un tejido empresarial de tipo imitador.

  11. Public self-consciousness moderates the link between displacement behaviour and experience of stress in women. (United States)

    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart


    When stressed, people typically show elevated rates of displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching that seem irrelevant to the ongoing situation. Growing evidence indicates that displacement behaviour may play a role in regulating stress levels, and thus may represent an important component of the coping response. Recently, we found evidence that this stress-regulating effect of displacement behaviour is found in men but not in women. This sex difference may result from women's higher levels of public self-consciousness, which could inhibit expression of displacement behaviour due to the fear of projecting an inappropriate image. Here, we explored the link between public self-consciousness, displacement behaviour and stress among 62 healthy women (mean age = 26.59 years; SD = 3.61). We first assessed participants' public self-consciousness, and then quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Public self-consciousness was negatively correlated with rate of displacement behaviour, and positively correlated with both the subjective experience of stress post-TSST and the number of mistakes in the cognitive task. Moderation analyses revealed that for women high in public self-consciousness, high levels of displacement behaviour were associated with higher reported levels of stress and poorer cognitive performance. For women low in public self-consciousness, stress levels and cognitive performance were unrelated to displacement behaviour. Our findings indicate that public self-consciousness is associated with both the expression of displacement behaviour and how such behaviour mediates responses to social stress.

  12. Contraceptive Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour among Federal University Students in Nigeria: The Case of University of Ibadan (United States)

    Babalola, Blessing


    This study looked into contraceptives knowledge and sexual behaviour among federal university students in Ibadan. The main objective of this study was to find out the level of knowledge of contraceptive and the relationship between level of knowledge of contraceptive and safe sexual behaviour of federal university students in Ibadan. It is…

  13. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil


    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  14. Individual and Social Predictors of Prosocial Behaviour among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H.Y. Lai


    Full Text Available Based on the human ecological model, this study hypothesized that individual competence in empathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and social influence from parents, peers, and school are the key determinants of prosocial behaviour among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. We recruited a sample of high school students who engaged in volunteering activities regularly (N = 580. They completed a self-administrated questionnaire designed to measure prosocial behaviour and its hypothesized predictors using a number of standardized instruments. The results of multiple regression show that social influence factors, including peer, school, and parent influence, are strong predictors of helping intention and prosocial behaviour, while individual competence factors like empathy and prosocial moral reasoning are not. Male participants had higher empathy scores and helping intention than males, perceived their parents as more helpful, and their schools as more supportive of prosocial behaviour. However, the significant predictors of prosocial behaviour and helping intention were similar across gender. The findings indicate that social influence is strongly linked to prosocial behaviour. This implies that socialization and social support for prosocial norms and behaviour can exert a powerful influence on the behaviour of young people in a Chinese population.

  15. International note: association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth. (United States)

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna


    Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours.

  16. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours. (United States)

    Wiegman, O; Kuttschreuter, M; Baarda, B


    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the viewing of prosocial behaviour on television. Positive correlations were found, however, between aggression and television violence viewing. This relationship disappeared almost completely when corrections for the starting level of aggression and intelligence were applied. The hypothesis, formulated on the basis of social learning theory, that television violence viewing leads to aggressive behaviour could not be supported. Our findings are further discussed and compared with the results found in the other countries participating in the international study.

  17. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes? (United States)

    Liebal, Katja; Vaish, Amrisha; Haun, Daniel; Tomasello, Michael


    Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus) help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food) compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  18. Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Liebal

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific's food compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others.

  19. Learning dynamics explains human behaviour in prisoner's dilemma on networks. (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Sánchez, Angel


    Cooperative behaviour lies at the very basis of human societies, yet its evolutionary origin remains a key unsolved puzzle. Whereas reciprocity or conditional cooperation is one of the most prominent mechanisms proposed to explain the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas, recent experimental findings on networked Prisoner's Dilemma games suggest that conditional cooperation also depends on the previous action of the player-namely on the 'mood' in which the player is currently in. Roughly, a majority of people behave as conditional cooperators if they cooperated in the past, whereas they ignore the context and free ride with high probability if they did not. However, the ultimate origin of this behaviour represents a conundrum itself. Here, we aim specifically to provide an evolutionary explanation of moody conditional cooperation (MCC). To this end, we perform an extensive analysis of different evolutionary dynamics for players' behavioural traits-ranging from standard processes used in game theory based on pay-off comparison to others that include non-economic or social factors. Our results show that only a dynamic built upon reinforcement learning is able to give rise to evolutionarily stable MCC, and at the end to reproduce the human behaviours observed in the experiments.

  20. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management. (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I


    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species.

  1. Cannabis and suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a pilot study from Trinidad. (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Konings, Monique


    Cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Changing trends in these behaviours in younger age groups, higher incidence, gender differences and sociocultural variations present an enormous challenge. There is no consensus whether these complex relationships are either a direct or an indirect effect due to other mental disorders, or a social response of disclosure of drug taking habits to family members and school authorities. This paper reviews the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and cannabis use among adolescents and looks at the relationship of these behaviours regionally and internationally. The Caribbean islands have an established use of cannabis with higher suicidal rates, which provides an ideal setting to investigate the interrelationship of these disorders. Preliminary research findings in Trinidad indicate high rates of cannabis use among school students with higher rates in vocational schools compared to grammar schools. Utilising the CAPE questionnaire, depressive and psychotic experiences were common findings in adolescent cannabis users with a significant preponderance of depressive experiences (prelationship between suicidal behaviour and cannabis use, the latter awakening depressive experiences. Suicidal behaviour and cannabis use are major public health problems and require a multidimensional approach with culturally competent preventive interactions. School based prevention programmes are necessary at the levels of parent-teacher partnership and classroom intervention. The treatment of adolescent disorders remains a major challenge of the future. Double disorders such as cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are uncharted areas and need novel approaches.

  2. A novel set of behavioural indicators for measuring perception of food by cats. (United States)

    Savolainen, Saila; Telkänranta, Helena; Junnila, Jouni; Hautala, Jaana; Airaksinen, Sari; Juppo, Anne; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi


    Behavioural indicators provide a promising approach for objective assessment of the perceptions of animals. In cats, the frequency of specific behaviours as indicators of perception has been studied in connection with food palatability. The aim of this study was to expand that knowledge by identifying behavioural indicators correlating with three degrees of palatability. Thirty-four pet cats were presented with three types of items: favoured food (FF), favoured food with a placebo mini-tablet hidden inside (TFF) and non-favoured food (NFF). The items were presented in a pseudo-randomised sequence, with six trials per item and 18 trials per cat. The behaviour of cats before, during and after eating, or refusing to eat, was video-recorded. Two trained observers, blinded to the types of food items, independently determined the frequency of 16 behavioural patterns on the video recordings. The data were analysed using a mixed logistic regression model. Five behavioural patterns differentiated FF from NFF; 'flick ears backwards', 'lick nose, not eaten', 'flick tail' and 'groom body' were more frequent with NFF, whereas 'lick lips' was more frequent with FF. One indicator, 'drop item', was more frequent with TFF than FF. These findings provide evidence of new behavioural indicators for objective assessment of food perception in cats. The findings also have practical applicability in designing a novel palatability test to be utilised in developing veterinary pharmaceuticals with improved palatability for cats.

  3. Ratings of parent behaviours for delinquents from two-parent and single-parent homes. (United States)

    Wilgosh, L; Paitich, D


    Mother and son ratings of parent behaviours on the dimensions of loving, demanding and punishing, using the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behaviour Questionnaire, were compared for juvenile delinquents from two-parent and single-parent homes respectively. Mean rating for all variables were in the average range, and little difference in ratings of mothers' behaviours was found, for either boys or mothers, between the single-parent and two-parent groups. These findings are in contrast to the frequently suggested link between delinquency and disturbed family interactions.

  4. Personal Values and Moral Disengagement Promote Aggressive and Rule-Breaking Behaviours in Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviour Disorders: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Paciello, Marinella; Muratori, Pietro; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Buonanno, Carlo; Capo, Rosario; Lochman, John E; Barcaccia, Barbara


    The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared with a community sample, adolescents with DBD are more inclined to use moral disengagement (MD) to legitimize their aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours. Moreover, regression models showed that self-enhancement values and MD foster externalizing behaviours taking into account both gender and the group they belonged to, that is, either clinical or community sample. Instead, self-transcendence values could prevent externalizing problems by inhibiting MD. Implications of these findings for assessment and therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  5. Search engines: a first step to finding information: preliminary findings from a study of observed searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Madden


    Full Text Available Introduction. This is a working paper which aims to present the preliminary results of a study into the search behaviour of the general public. The paper reports on the findings of the first six months of an eighteen-month data collection excercise. Method. . Detailed observations were made of nine volunteers, engaged on a variety of search tasks. Some of the tasks were self-selected, others were set by the researchers. Most tasks however, were designed to enable the volunteers to search within their own areas of interest and expertise. Analyses. A set of 'search dimensions' is proposed and qualitative findings based on these are presented. In addition, some initial quantitative findings are discussed. Result. Findings to date suggest that the best search strategy is a combination of simplicity and scrutiny. Volunteers who entered a few search terms but then carefully studied the results, appeared to be more successful than those who attempted to be prescriptive and entered a long series of terms.

  6. The selection of altruistic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, R; Serva, M


    Altruistic behaviour is disadvantageous for the individual while is advantageous for its group. If the target of the selection is the individual, one would expect the selection process to lead to populations formed by wholly homogeneous groups, made up of either altruistic or egoistic individuals, where the winning choice depends on the balance beetwen group advantage and individual disadvantage. We show in a simple model that populations formed by inhomogeneous groups can be stabilized in some circumstances. We argue that this condition is realized when there is a relative advantage conferred by the presence of a few altruists to all the members of the group.

  7. Water behaviour in nanoporous aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel, E-mail: Konstantin.Smirnov@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, Universite Lille 1, Sciences et Technologie, CNRS, Batiment C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)


    This paper briefly reviews results of molecular dynamics simulation studies of water confined in nanoporous aluminosilicates. The behaviour of confined molecules is shown to be influenced by the nature of the host structure, and the size and the topology of the voids. For some of the systems discussed the ambiguity in results of different modelling studies call for the use of extended potential and structural models. Thus, the use of polarizable force fields was shown to be necessary to take into account the variation of the molecular dipole of confined molecules in different environments.

  8. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish (United States)

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid


    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  9. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein


    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  10. Determinants of voter behaviour at presidential elections in a post-socialist context: the case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Hafner Fink


    Full Text Available This article attempts to fill the gap in the literature regarding the determinants of voter behaviour at presidential elections in a post-socialist context, taking into acco - unt the changing patterns of competition both within the party system (parliamentary elections and at presidential elections. Slovenia is taken as a case study of predictors of voting behaviour at presidential elections (1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012 based on bivariate and multivariate methods using Politbarometer public opinion survey data. The key findings are that the predictors of voting behaviour change over time and that party identification has recently been declining in importance as a predictor of voting behaviour at presidential elections.

  11. Silymarin improves the behavioural, biochemical and histoarchitecture alterations in focal ischemic rats: a comparative evaluation with piracetam and protocatachuic acid. (United States)

    Muley, Milind M; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Kshirsagar, Ajay D; Naik, Suresh R


    Comparative neuroprotective potential of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) was evaluated in focal ischemic rats. Various pharmacological, biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite content, brain water content) and behavioural (memory impairment, motor control, neurological score) including infarct size and histopathological alterations were evaluated. Silymarin (200mg/kg) and PCA treatment significantly improved behavioural, biochemical and histopathological changes, and reduced water content and infarct size. However, piracetam only improved behavioural and histopathological changes, reduced water content and infarct size. The findings indicate that silymarin exhibits neuroprotective activity better than PCA and piracetam in focal ischemia/reperfusion reflected by its better restoration of behavioural and antioxidant profile.

  12. Design Dimensions Enabling Divergent Behaviour across Physical, Digital, and Social Library Interfaces (United States)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    What design dimensions across physical, digital, and social library interfaces may enable and trigger users to find more information resources than planned or known in advance? The paper outlines a conceptual framework with libraries as integrative interfaces across physical, digital, and social affordances and users that mix convergent (goal-directed) and divergent (exploratory) information behaviour. Ten design dimensions that enable and trigger divergent behaviour are outlined. Implications for persuasive design are discussed.

  13. Violent Behaviour: The effect of civil conflict on domestic violence in Colombia


    Noe, Dominik; Rieckmann, Johannes


    In this paper we analyse the impact of civil conflict on domestic violence in Colombia and find that higher conflict intensity increases the likelihood of women to become a victim of domestic violence. The idea behind this is that the experience of conflict changes behaviour, attitude and culture. As an observable outcome of this change in behaviour we look at domestic violence. Taking advantage of the uneven spatial distribution of the conflict we assess its impact, using micro data from Col...

  14. Herd behaviour experimental testing in laboratory artificial stock market settings. Behavioural foundations of stylised facts of financial returns (United States)

    Manahov, Viktor; Hudson, Robert


    Many scholars express concerns that herding behaviour causes excess volatility, destabilises financial markets, and increases the likelihood of systemic risk. We use a special form of the Strongly Typed Genetic Programming (STGP) technique to evolve a stock market divided into two groups-a small subset of artificial agents called ‘Best Agents’ and a main cohort of agents named ‘All Agents’. The ‘Best Agents’ perform best in term of the trailing return of a wealth moving average. We then investigate whether herding behaviour can arise when agents trade Dow Jones, General Electric, and IBM financial instruments in four different artificial stock markets. This paper uses real historical quotes of the three financial instruments to analyse the behavioural foundations of stylised facts such as leptokurtosis, non-IIDness, and volatility clustering. We found evidence of more herding in a group of stocks than in individual stocks, but the magnitude of herding does not contribute to the mispricing of assets in the long run. Our findings suggest that the price formation process caused by the collective behaviour of the entire market exhibit less herding and is more efficient than the segmented market populated by a small subset of agents. Hence, greater genetic diversity leads to greater consistency with fundamental values and market efficiency.

  15. Consumer behaviour towards organic food in porto alegre: an application of the theory of planned behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Hoppe


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental friendly, although being less attractive and more expensive than conventional food. Respondents from the farmers' market represent a specific segment whose values are more oriented toward society. The findings showed an alignment between positive attitude and consumption behaviour among the surveyed consumers. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes more valued by consumers can help retailers to play the role of coordinators of this supply chain, stimulating producers to adhere to organic certification, helping them to upgrade their production practices and improve their income. Consumers are also benefiting from this offer in the market.

  16. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin


    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  17. Wear behaviour of Al 261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mathan Kumar


    Full Text Available Al 2618 matrix material was mixed with the Silicon Nitride (Si3N4, Aluminium Nitride (AlN and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2 reinforced particles. AMC was synthesized successfully by the stir casting method with the various X-wt.% of reinforcements (X = 0,2,4,6,8. Tribological behaviour was studied in this composite with various temperature conditions. The working conditions were Temperature (°C, Load (N, Velocity (m/s and Sliding Distances (m. Before wear testing the mechanical behaviour has been analysed. EDAX was confirmed by the matrix material composition. The Al 2618 alloy and the reinforcement mixers were confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction analysis. Wear rate (mm3/m, Wear resistance (m/mm3, Specific Wear rate (m/Nm and Co-efficient of friction (μ were analysed with various conditions. The worn surfaces were analysed before and after wear testing by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Influence of process parameters and Percentage of contribution were analysed by Taguchi and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA methods. Genetic Algorithm (GA was adopted for optimizing the best and mean of the wear rate and to identify the exact influence of input parameters.

  18. Limit cycle behaviour in FELIX (United States)

    Jaroszynski, D. A.; Bakker, R. J.; Oepts, D.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; van Amersfoort, P. W.


    The free electron laser for infrared experiments (FELIX) operates at wavelengths up to λ = 110 μm. A radio-frequency linear accelerator is used to produce electron micropulses with a duration of about 3 ps. With N = 38 undulator periods, this puts FELIX well into the regime where the slippage length, Nλ, exceeds the electron micropulse length, and prominent short pulse effects are expected. One of these effects, stable limit cycle oscillations of the pulse energy, has not been detected experimentally before. Such oscillations occur when the saturated optical pulses move away from the electron pulses, due to the changing balance between lethargy and desynchronism, while new subpulses grow periodically. In FELIX, limit cycle behaviour is clearly demonstrated. The observations are in agreement with numerical simulations of the pulse propagation, and the oscillation period is given by a simple formula containing the slippage length and the desynchronism between optical and electron pulses. We also show how lethargic behaviour can be used to reduce the optical bandwidth of the FEL and to store optical energy in the optical cavity without saturation limiting the energy stored.

  19. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.


    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  20. Fracture behaviour of polycrystalline tungsten (United States)

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Rupp, Daniel; Aktaa, Jarir


    Fracture behaviour of round blank polycrystalline tungsten was studied by means of three point bending Fracture-Mechanical (FM) tests at temperatures between RT and 1000 °C and under high vacuum. To study the influence of the anisotropic microstructure on the fracture toughness (FT) and ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) the specimens were extracted in three different, i.e. longitudinal, radial and circumferential orientations. The FM tests yielded distinctive fracture behaviour for each specimen orientation. The crack propagation was predominantly intergranular for longitudinal orientation up to 600 °C, whereas transgranular cleavage was observed at low test temperatures for radial and circumferentially oriented specimens. At intermediate test temperatures the change of the fracture mode took place for radial and circumferential orientations. Above 800 °C all three specimen types showed large ductile deformation without noticeable crack advancement. For longitudinal specimens the influence of the loading rate on the FT and DBT was studied in the loading rate range between 0.06 and 18 MPa m1/2/s. Though an increase of the FT was observed for the lowest loading rate, no resolvable dependence of the DBT on the loading rate was found partly due to loss of FT validity. A Master Curve approach is proposed to describe FT vs. test temperature data on polycrystalline tungsten. Fracture safe design space was identified by analysis compiled FT data.

  1. Frequency of behavioural problems at one year following traumatic brain injury: correspondence between patient and caregiver reports. (United States)

    Marsh, Nigel V; Kersel, Denyse A


    A group of 62 adults with significant (i.e., ventilation required for > 24 hours) traumatic brain injury (TBI) were assessed approximately one year following their injury. The people with TBI and their primary caregivers completed the patient and relative/friend versions respectively, of the 20-item Head Injury Behaviour Rating Scale (HIBS). Responses by the patient and caregiver groups were compared for the total number of problems reported and the frequency of specific problem behaviours. The caregiver group reported a greater total number of problem behaviours and a higher frequency for 19 of the 20 specific behaviours. These differences between the patients' and caregivers' reports were statistically significant for seven of the 19 problem behaviours. The majority (86%) of these significant differences were on items from the Behavioural Regulation, rather than the Emotional Regulation, subscale of the HIBS. The implications of these findings for the practice of neuropsychological rehabilitation are presented.

  2. Factors that affect self-care behaviour of female high school students with dysmenorrhoea: a cluster sampling study. (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Fang; Chuang, Mei-hua


    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the self-care behaviour of female high school students with dysmenorrhoea. This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire-based survey to understand the self-care behaviour of female high school students dysmenorrhoeal, along with the factors that affect this behaviour. A cluster random sampling method was adopted and questionnaires were used for data collection. Study participants experienced a moderate level of discomfort from dysmenorrhoea, and perceived dysmenorrhoea as serious. This investigation finds that cues to action raised perceived susceptibility to dysmenorrhoea and the perceived effectiveness of self-care behaviour and, therefore, increased the adoption of self-care behaviour. Hence, school nurses should offer female high school students numerous resources to apply correct self-care behaviour.

  3. Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: a theory of planned behaviour approach. (United States)

    Murnaghan, Donna A; Blanchard, Chris M; Rodgers, Wendy M; LaRosa, Jennifer N; MacQuarrie, Colleen R; MacLellan, Debbie L; Gray, Bob J


    This paper elicited context specific underlying beliefs for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoke-free behaviour from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and then determined whether the TPB explained significant variation in intentions and behaviour over a 1 month period in a sample of grade 7-9 (age 12-16 years) adolescents. Eighteen individual interviews and one focus group were used to elicit student beliefs. Analyses of this data produced behavioural, normative and control beliefs which were put into a TPB questionnaire completed by 183 students at time 1 and time 2. The Path analyses from the main study showed that the attitude/intention relationship was moderately large for fruit and vegetable consumption and small to moderate for being smoke free. Perceived behavioural control had a large effect on being smoke free and a moderately large effect for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Intention had a large direct effect on all three behaviours. Common (e.g. feel better, more energy) and behaviour-specific (e.g., prevent yellow fingers, control my weight) beliefs emerged across the three health behaviours. These novel findings, to the adolescent population, support the importance of specific attention being given to each of the behaviours in future multi-behavioural interventions.

  4. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  5. Schizotypy and behavioural adjustment and the role of neuroticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Völter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Additionally, we investigated whether such a relationship would be explained by individual differences in neuroticism, a non-specific measure of negative trait emotionality known to be correlated with schizotypy. METHODS: 106 healthy volunteers (mean age: 25.1, 60% females took part. Post-conflict adjustment was measured in a computer-based version of the Stroop paradigm. Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ and Neuroticism using the NEO-FFI. RESULTS: We found a negative correlation between schizotypy and post-conflict adjustment (r = -.30, p<.01; this relationship remained significant when controlling for effects of neuroticism. Regression analysis revealed that particularly the subscale No Close Friends drove the effect. CONCLUSION: Previous findings of deficits in cognitive control in schizophrenia patients were extended to the subclinical personality expression of the schizophrenia phenotype and found to be specific to schizotypal traits over and above the effects of negative emotionality.

  6. Prize level and debt size: impact on gambling behaviour. (United States)

    Crewe-Brown, Courtney; Blaszczynski, Alex; Russell, Alex


    No studies to date have specifically determined the relationship between prize levels, debt size, and impulsivity on reported gambling behaviour on Electronic Gaming Machines (EGM). The present study reports the findings of a pilot study designed to investigate whether or not the likelihood of increasing the size of a bet was related to the level of prize offered and personal debt. The sample consisted of 171 first year psychology students (61 males and 120 females). Participants completed a series of gambling vignettes designed to elicit data on reported bet size according to different prize levels and debt sizes; the Eysenck Impulsivity Scale (Eysenck and Eysenck 1977); the Canadian Problem Gambling Index; and an author-constructed questionnaire eliciting data on demographic and gambling behaviours. Results indicated that as prize levels increase the odds (relative risk) of an individual placing a bet on an EGM and the amount of money reportedly bet tends to increase. A negative relationship between debt size and reported gambling behaviour moderated by prize level was found. No differences were found in the odds of placing a bet according to impulsivity. It was concluded that prize and debt sizes do influence propensities to gamble and level of bets. The findings have implications for restricting jackpot and general prize levels as a responsible gambling strategy designed to reduce motivations to gamble.

  7. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges (United States)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano


    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  8. Behavioural and biomaterial coevolution in spider orb webs. (United States)

    Sensenig, A; Agnarsson, I; Blackledge, T A


    Mechanical performance of biological structures, such as tendons, byssal threads, muscles, and spider webs, is determined by a complex interplay between material quality (intrinsic material properties, larger scale morphology) and proximate behaviour. Spider orb webs are a system in which fibrous biomaterials--silks--are arranged in a complex design resulting from stereotypical behavioural patterns, to produce effective energy absorbing traps for flying prey. Orb webs show an impressive range of designs, some effective at capturing tiny insects such as midges, others that can occasionally stop even small birds. Here, we test whether material quality and behaviour (web design) co-evolve to fine-tune web function. We quantify the intrinsic material properties of the sticky capture silk and radial support threads, as well as their architectural arrangement in webs, across diverse species of orb-weaving spiders to estimate the maximum potential performance of orb webs as energy absorbing traps. We find a dominant pattern of material and behavioural coevolution where evolutionary shifts to larger body sizes, a common result of fecundity selection in spiders, is repeatedly accompanied by improved web performance because of changes in both silk material and web spinning behaviours. Large spiders produce silk with improved material properties, and also use more silk, to make webs with superior stopping potential. After controlling for spider size, spiders spinning higher quality silk used it more sparsely in webs. This implies that improvements in silk quality enable 'sparser' architectural designs, or alternatively that spiders spinning lower quality silk compensate architecturally for the inferior material quality of their silk. In summary, spider silk material properties are fine-tuned to the architectures of webs across millions of years of diversification, a coevolutionary pattern not yet clearly demonstrated for other important biomaterials such as tendon, mollusc

  9. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina


    Full Text Available Abstract The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2x2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent

  10. Managing agitated behaviour in older people. (United States)

    King, Camille


    Older people diagnosed with dementia can have complex needs, especially when they exhibit agitated behaviour. Patients with agitated behaviour challenge the delivery of health care. Often the behaviour is a symptom of unmet needs in this population (Dewing 2010). It is important for nurses to understand the underlying causes and apply evidence-based interventions in their nursing practice to promote health, safety and the highest quality of life possible. This article defines and classifies agitated behaviours, discusses implications for their management and then presents evidence-based interventions nurses can use. The interventions are categorised according to each of the five senses.

  11. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles


    Urszán, Tamás Janós; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Z; Herczeg, Gábor


    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, w...

  12. Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity. (United States)

    Fox, Naomi J; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S; White, Piran C L; Hutchings, Michael R


    Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance) can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes is required to

  13. Arginine Vasotocin Regulation of Interspecific Cooperative Behaviour in a Cleaner Fish (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Mendonça, Rute; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Oliveira, Rui F.


    In an interspecific cooperative context, individuals must be prepared to tolerate close interactive proximity to other species but also need to be able to respond to relevant social stimuli in the most appropriate manner. The neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin and their non-mammalian homologues have been implicated in the evolution of sociality and in the regulation of social behaviour across vertebrates. However, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms of interspecific cooperative interactions. In interspecific cleaning mutualisms, interactions functionally resemble most intraspecific social interactions. Here we provide the first empirical evidence that arginine vasotocin (AVT), a non-mammalian homologue of arginine vasopressin (AVP), plays a critical role as moderator of interspecific behaviour in the best studied and ubiquitous marine cleaning mutualism involving the Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Exogenous administration of AVT caused a substantial decrease of most interspecific cleaning activities, without similarly affecting the expression of conspecific directed behaviour, which suggests a differential effect of AVT on cleaning behaviour and not a general effect on social behaviour. Furthermore, the AVP-V1a receptor antagonist (manning compound) induced a higher likelihood for cleaners to engage in cleaning interactions and also to increase their levels of dishonesty towards clients. The present findings extend the knowledge of neuropeptide effects on social interactions beyond the study of their influence on conspecific social behaviour. Our evidence demonstrates that AVT pathways might play a pivotal role in the regulation of interspecific cooperative behaviour and conspecific social behaviour among stabilized pairs of cleaner fish. Moreover, our results suggest that the role of AVT as a neurochemical regulator of social behaviour may have been co-opted in the evolution of cooperative behaviour in an

  14. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  15. Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Fox

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes

  16. Computed tomographic findings of trichuriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naime Tokmak; Zafer Koc; Serife Ulusan; Ismail Soner Koltas; Nebil Bal


    In this report, we present computed tomographic findings of colonic trichuriasis. The patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain, and weight loss.Diagnosis was achieved by colonoscopic biopsy. Abdominal computed tomography showed irregular and nodular thickening of the wall of the cecum and ascending colon.Although these findings are nonspecific, they may be one of the findings of trichuriasis. These findings, confirmed by pathologic analysis of the biopsied tissue and KatoKatz parasitological stool flotation technique, revealed adult Trichuris. To our knowledge, this is the first report of colonic trichuriasis indicated by computed tomography.

  17. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor


    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word......-of-mouth communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...... one has to assign to social media as a source of reputation for companies and brands, which eventually impact consumers’ choices....

  18. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls. (United States)

    Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J


    This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier.

  19. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael


    behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet...... pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health......Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...

  20. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work. (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A


    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  1. Comparison Shopping Agents and Czech Online Customers’ Shopping Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilik Michal


    Full Text Available The internet has changed the lifestyles and shopping behaviours of customers. Online purchasing enables people to obtain information about products and services provided more effectively and easily, with the result that home shopping has become ordinary and usual. This paper presents part of a research focusing on online shopping customers’ behaviour in the Czech Republic. The article pertains to comparison shopping agents (CPAs, a tool which provides information to customers and helps find the best offer. The research was conducted on the basis of an online questionnaire available on an internet web page. The main results confirmed a dependency between online purchasing and the use of shopping agents, which are very popular in the Czech Republic. Almost two-thirds of online shoppers use CPAs when they engage in internet shopping. The final part of the paper addresses references and customers’ reviews as an important factor for the selection of online retailer.

  2. Illness-behaviour, attitude, and knowledge in newly diagnosed diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, B E; Vesterdal Jørgensen, H; Sestoft, L


    Sixty-five consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type I diabetes, aged 15-52, were exposed to a systematic educational programme and followed up by three-monthly controls for two to four years. In order to identify psychic, social and behavioural factors associated with good metabolic control...... were not associated with illness-related behaviour and attitudes and neither was metabolic control. There were no psychological or social differences between the patients with good and those with poor control. A possible interpretation of these findings is that an increase of quality of life...... and appropriate adaptation to illness, they were clinically tested and filled in a questionnaire. The study shows that the illness and the therapeutic regime created few problems regarding practical circumstances of daily living, but there were a vast number of psychological problems: perceived disability...

  3. Word of mouth and universal voting behaviour in proportional elections

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunato, S; Castellano, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo


    Human societies exhibit many examples of nontrivial collective behaviour generated by the interaction of a large number of individuals. To characterize these emergent phenomena and understand their origin it is crucial to discover regularities in the macroscopic patterns of data describing collective social phenomena. Elections are a prominent example of collective social phenomenon, and a quantitative statistical analysis has begun. Here we show that, in proportional elections, the distribution of the number of votes received by candidates is universal, i.e. it is the same function in different countries and years, when the number of votes is rescaled according to the strength of the party each candidate belongs to. A simple dynamical model for the behaviour of voters, based on the spreading of word of mouth, reproduces well the universal distribution. This finding reveals the existence in the voting process of a general underlying dynamics that does not depend on the specific historical, political and/or ec...

  4. Kosovo beer markets - Consumer preferences and baying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gjonbalaj


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and presents important findings on the consumers buying behaviour and their preferences for beer. The paper also tests whether there is dependency of frequencies buying beer with demographic and economic factors. The data were entered and processed in Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS, while common statistical models have been used for interpretation of results and tested hypotheses. A research was part of the project ‘’Marketing Support of Food Products in Kosovo’’ which was founded by European Agency for Reconstruction. The aim of this project was to support Kosovo producers of food industry by offering them relevant information on beer market, consumers buying behaviour and their preferences.

  5. Mechanical behaviour of aluminum screws. Pt. 2. Cyclic behaviour; Tragfaehigkeit von Aluminiumschrauben. T. 2. Zyklische Tragfaehigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.O. [Deutscher Schraubenverband, Hagen (Germany); Marx, T. [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Berger, C. [Zentrum fuer Konstruktionswerkstoffe, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde der Technischen Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Arz, U.


    This article is the second part of a description of the mechanical behaviour of aluminum screws. The first part describes the mechanical behaviour under static conditions, while the second part details the cyclic behaviour. An overview of the influences to the cyclic behaviour of high strength aluminum screws made of the wrought alloys EN AW 6013, EN AW 6056 and EN AW 7075 is given. In some cases values for EN AW 6082 are presented.

  6. Dynamic Behaviour of Suction Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liingaard, Morten

    to account for the possibilities of dynamic effects of the soil-structure interaction. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of foundations for offshore wind turbines, with the intention that the dynamic properties of the foundation can be properly included...... and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the skirt length, soil stiffness and the Poisson's ratio of the subsoil. Subsequently, the high-frequency impedance has been determined for the use in lumped...... the last 25 years. In order to reduce the costs, the overall weight of the wind turbine components is minimized, which means that the wind turbine structures become more flexible and thus more sensitive to dynamic excitation. Since the first resonance frequency of the modern offshore wind turbines is close...

  7. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila


    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing the information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emerge of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regards to content.

  8. Chaotic behaviour in speculative markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Artiles, María Dolores


    Full Text Available An asset price model of speculative financial market with fundamentalists and chartists is analyzed. Our model explains bursts of volatility in financial markets, which are not well explained by the traditional finance paradigms, as we will show. Depending on the time lag in the formation of chartists' expectations, the system evolves through several dynamic regimes finishing in a strange attractor. Chaos provides a self-sustained motion around the rationally expected equilibrium that corresponds to a speculative bubble. In order to explain the role of Chartism, chaotic motion is a very interesting theoretical feature for a speculative financial market model. It provides a complex non-linear dynamic behaviour around the Walrasian equilibrium price produced by deterministic interactions between fundamentalists and chartists

  9. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž


    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.

  10. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John


    ago." It continues to be true that a funda-mental requirement for success in this endeavour is consumers' active support and willing participation (Norwegian Ministry of Environment, 1994). Information is an important tool in this connection. Not only for marshalling public support...... is mainly directed at economists, I start with the importance of information for getting the full potential out of economic instruments. However, my main emphasis is on the importance of information for cre-ating and facilitating consumers' willing participation in solving envi-ronmental problems...... for the environmental cause, but for facilitating environmentally responsible behaviour in many specific ways. Research dealing with the diverse roles of information in the environmental field shows a need to distinguish between different forms and objectives of information, but also, it needs to be stressed...

  11. Nanostructured systems with GMR behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Bergenti, I; Savini, L; Bonetti, E; Bosco, E; Baricco, M


    Fe/Fe-oxide core-shell systems obtained by inert-gas condensation and Au sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 nanostructured alloys prepared by fast-quenching techniques followed by thermal treatment have been studied by polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The particle-size distribution was derived from the fit of the scattering curves. In the core-shell samples, the results support the model of a magnetic iron core surrounded by a surface layer (oxide shell) with a reduced magnetisation. The SANS measurements on the Au sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 alloys do not show any appreciable magnetic signal, indicating that the iron precipitates have a superparamagnetic behaviour. Thermal treatment induces the formation of small precipitates of atomic size. (orig.)

  12. Nanostructured systems with GMR behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenti, I.; Deriu, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Universita di Parma (Italy); Savini, L.; Bonetti, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Universita di Bologna (Italy); Bosco, E.; Baricco, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica I.F.M. and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Universita di Torino (Italy)


    Fe/Fe-oxide core-shell systems obtained by inert-gas condensation and Au{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanostructured alloys prepared by fast-quenching techniques followed by thermal treatment have been studied by polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The particle-size distribution was derived from the fit of the scattering curves. In the core-shell samples, the results support the model of a magnetic iron core surrounded by a surface layer (oxide shell) with a reduced magnetisation. The SANS measurements on the Au{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} alloys do not show any appreciable magnetic signal, indicating that the iron precipitates have a superparamagnetic behaviour. Thermal treatment induces the formation of small precipitates of atomic size. (orig.)

  13. Whole School Behaviour Management and Perceptions of Behaviour Problems in Australian Primary Schools (United States)

    De Nobile, John; London, Teola; El Baba, Mariam


    Over the past decade and a half, whole school behaviour management systems have been implemented in many Australian schools in efforts to reduce undesirable behaviours and improve outcomes for students with behaviour problems. There is evidence in the literature suggesting that whole school approaches are more effective at managing student…

  14. The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications (United States)

    LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.


    Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

  15. Person Focused Training: A Model for Delivering Positive Behavioural Supports to People with Challenging Behaviours (United States)

    McClean, B.; Dench, C.; Grey, I.; Shanahan, S.; Fitzsimons, E.; Hendler, J.; Corrigan, M.


    Person Focused Training is introduced as a model of service delivery for people with severe challenging behaviours. It is defined as training and supporting staff to conduct functional assessments and to design and implement positive behavioural support for specific individuals with challenging behaviours. Longitudinal outcome data are presented…

  16. The Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCBS): Dimensionality in Social Competence and Antisocial Behaviours (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje


    The study investigated dimensionality in the Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCSBS) that assess social competence (Peer Relations and Self-Management/Compliance) and antisocial behaviour (Defiant/Disruptive and Antisocial/Aggressive behaviour) in children and adolescents. The four scales comprising 64 items were completed by 551…

  17. MRI Findings In Dengue Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf V.V


    Full Text Available Neurological manifestations are rare in dengue fever. Two cases with encephalopathy and systemic features of dengue fever with abnormal CSF and MR imaging are reported. Striking MRI finding was bilateral symmetrical thalamic lesions similar to those reported in Japanese encephalitis. This report highlights that MRI findings can be similar in dengue and Japanese encephalitis.

  18. Electroencephalographic Findings in Posthypoxic Myoclonus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zijl, J C; Beudel, M; van der Hoeven, H J; Lange, F; Tijssen, M A J; Elting, J W J


    The physical examination findings of early posthypoxic myoclonus (PHM) are associated with poor prognosis. Recent findings indicate that patients with multifocal PHM, assumed to have a cortical origin, have a comparable outcome to resuscitated patients without PHM. Generalized PHM, assumed to have a

  19. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Goodacre


    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  20. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty. (United States)

    Goodacre, Sara L; Martin, Oliver Y


    Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  1. Attitudes, norms, identity and environmental behaviour: using an expanded theory of planned behaviour to predict participation in a kerbside recycling programme. (United States)

    Nigbur, Dennis; Lyons, Evanthia; Uzzell, David


    In an effort to contribute to greater understanding of norms and identity in the theory of planned behaviour, an extended model was used to predict residential kerbside recycling, with self-identity, personal norms, neighbourhood identification, and injunctive and descriptive social norms as additional predictors. Data from a field study (N=527) using questionnaire measures of predictor variables and an observational measure of recycling behaviour supported the theory. Intentions predicted behaviour, while attitudes, perceived control, and the personal norm predicted intention to recycle. The interaction between neighbourhood identification and injunctive social norms in turn predicted personal norms. Self-identity and the descriptive social norm significantly added to the original theory in predicting intentions as well as behaviour directly. A replication survey on the self-reported recycling behaviours of a random residential sample (N=264) supported the model obtained previously. These findings offer a useful extension of the theory of planned behaviour and some practicable suggestions for pro-recycling interventions. It may be productive to appeal to self-identity by making people feel like recyclers, and to stimulate both injunctive and descriptive norms in the neighbourhood.

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of testicular tumors: Correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Joo; Koh, Byung Hee; Oh, Jae Cheon; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyen Chul; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Hae Young; Lee, Jung Dal [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Scrotal sonography is a valuable tool for assessing the testis and surrounding structures, and has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the scrotum. Scrotal sonography is also helpful for differentiating cystic from slid mass and testicular from extratesticular mass, but is sometimes difficult in differentiating malignant tumor from various benign conditions such as epidermoid cyst, focal orchitis, testicular hematoma, and abscess. We demonstrate the sonographic findings of the various testicular mass, and correlation with pathologic findings.

  3. Healthy lifestyle behaviour decreasing risks of being bullied, violence and injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia R Turagabeci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bullying and violence are problems of aggression in schools among adolescents. Basic daily healthy practices including nutritious diet, hygiene and physical activity are common approaches in comprehensive health promotion programs in school settings, however thier relationship to these aggressive behaviours is vague. We attempted to show the advantages of these healthy lifestyle behaviours in 9 developing countries by examining the association with being frequently bullied, violence and injury. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional cross-national survey of 9 countries using the WHO Global School Based Student Health Survey dataset was used. Measurements included experiences of "being frequently bullied" in the preceding 30 days and violence/injury in the past 12 months. Association of risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol, sexual behaviour and healthy lifestyle (nutrition, hygiene practices, physical activity to being bullied, and violence/injury were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Hygiene behaviour showed lower risks of being frequently bullied [male: RR = 0.7 (97.5CI: 0.5, 0.9; female: RR = 0.6 (0.5, 0.8], and lower risk of experiences of violence/injury [RR = 0.7 (0.5, 0.9 for males], after controlling for risk behaviours, age, education, poverty, and country. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Healthy lifestyle showed an association to decreased relative risk of being frequently bullied and violence/injury in developing countries. A comprehensive approach to risk and health promoting behaviours reducing bullying and violence is encouraged at school settings.

  4. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonet van Schalkwyk


    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders, employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the effects of job insecurity and leadership on employee engagement and turnover intention will contribute to improved talent management.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. A total of 169 employees in a petrochemical laboratory were studied. The measuring instruments included the Job Insecurity Index, the Leadership Empowerment Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Two questions were used to measure intention to leave.Main findings: The results showed that job insecurity was not statistically significantly related to employee engagement and turnover intention. Leadership empowerment behaviour contributed statistically significantly to employee engagement and low turnover intention. Employee engagement partially mediated the relationship between leadership empowerment behaviour and turnover intention.Practical implications: Leaders should be developed to show empowerment behaviour, because it affects employee engagement, which in turn affects their turnover intentionContribution: This was the first study that demonstrated the effect of empowerment behaviour of leaders on the engagement and turnover intention of employees.

  5. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.


    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  6. Sedentary behaviour as an emerging risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth. (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S


    Sedentary behaviour (e.g. TV viewing, seated video game playing, prolonged sitting) has recently emerged as a distinct risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth. This narrative review provides an overview of recent evidence in this area and highlights research gaps. Current evidence suggests that North American children and youth spend between 40% and 60% of their waking hours engaging in sedentary pursuits. Although data are lacking concerning temporal trends of objectively measured sedentary time, self-reported sedentary behaviours have increased over the past half century, with a rapid increase since the late 1990s. Excessive sedentary behaviour has been found to have independent and deleterious associations with markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk. These associations are especially consistent for screen-based sedentary behaviours (TV viewing, computer games, etc), with more conflicting findings observed for overall sedentary time. The above associations are possibly mediated by the influence of screen-based sedentary behaviours on energy intake. Although excessive sitting has been reported to have adverse acute and chronic metabolic impacts in adults, research on children is lacking. Research is particularly needed to investigate the impact of characteristics of sedentary behaviour (i.e. type/context, sedentary bout length, breaks in sedentary time, etc), as well as interventions that examine the health and behavioural impacts of sitting per se.

  7. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Drahokoupilová


    Full Text Available Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1 activity during 24 hours and (2 specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of A. vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only.

  8. Interpersonal Teacher Behaviour and Student Outcomes (United States)

    den Brok, Perry; Brekelmans, Mieke; Wubbels, Theo


    In this study, the effectiveness of secondary education teachers' interpersonal behaviour is investigated by analysing data from 2 samples: a study on 45 Physics teachers and their 3rd-year classes and a study on 32 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and their 3rd-year classes. Teacher interpersonal behaviour was studied by means of…

  9. Interconnection of J-lossless behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan


    In this paper, motivated by the phenomenon of the interconnection of lossless electrical networks, a class of behaviours known as J-lossless behaviours is introduced, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. It is shown that for certain values of J, interconnection of J-lossless behav

  10. Enterprising behaviour in an integrating competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, Sharda; Orhei, Loredana; Born, Marise


    We present insights from literature on enterprising behaviour and competence followed by an application of the competence perspective. Data collection is based on the critical incident technique among 205 entrepreneurs. The study shows how entrepreneurial behaviour benefits from an integrating compe

  11. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise. (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A


    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  12. Mobbing Behaviour: Victims and the Affected (United States)

    Erturk, Abbas


    The purpose of this research was to identify the level of mobbing behaviour faced by teachers and managers working in primary schools, their responses to such behaviour and the difference in these responses according to the gender variable. The sample of the research consists of a total of 1,316 teachers and managers including 691 men and 625…

  13. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)


    textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by inform

  14. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour Among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)


    textabstractIn recent years it has become increasingly important for companies to ensure strategically aligned behaviour, i.e., employee actions that are consistent with the company’s strategy. This study provides insights into the way companies can stimulate such behaviour through motivating and in

  15. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.


    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  16. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford


    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  17. Managing Disruptive Behaviour in the Classroom (United States)

    Deering, Catherine


    Both faculty and students at many colleges and universities report numerous incidents of disruptive and uncivil behaviour. However, studies show that faculty are often reluctant to confront these situations, or they feel ill-equipped to intervene. If the behaviour escalates, a disproportionate amount of time and effort can be spent trying to…

  18. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT – case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Głuszek-Osuch


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to further elucitate the specifics cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT based on the treatment of 2 patients. The theoretical background of the therapy is based on the idea that the learning processes determine behaviour (behavioural therapy, acquisition and consolidation of beliefs and view of the world (cognitive therapy. The CBT is short-term (usually 12–20 weekly sessions. It assumes close links between the patient’s thoughts (about self, the world and the future and his/her emotions, behaviour and physiology. The patient’s work in between sessions consists in observation of their own thoughts, behaviours, and emotions, and introduction of changes within the scope of their thoughts and behaviours. The goal of cognitive behavioural therapy is autonomy and independence of a patient, attainment of the patient’s objectives, and remedying the most important problems of the patient. The therapist should be active, warm and empathic. Cognitive behavioural therapy is structured and active. Between sessions, the patient receives homework assignments to complete. During therapy, information is collected by experiments and verification of hypotheses. It should be emphasized that for changes to occur in the process of psychotherapy it is necessary to establish a strong therapeutic alliance.

  19. Editorial: Design Research for Sustainable Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.


    For better or worse, products contribute to shaping the behaviour of their users. Hence, designers have the opportunity, or if you are so inclined the responsibility, to take those potential behaviour changes into account in their design process. Through thoughtful design, they may aim to change use

  20. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    Aims: This study aims to clarify the incidence and nature of behavioural problems in children with PLI using a prognostic design in mainstream education. This design should provide valuable insights into the general relationship between PLI and various behavioural problems. Methods & Procedures: Tea

  1. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  2. Virus-Induced Behavioural Changes in Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Oers, van M.M.; Houte, van C.G.J.; Ros, V.I.D.


    Increasing evidence shows that host behaviour often changes following infection by a variety of parasites, including viruses. The altered behaviour is either induced by the parasites to enhance parasite survival and transmission, or is a response of the host to avoid spread of infection in the host

  3. Training staff to manage challenging behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorsouw, W.M.W.J. van; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Jahoda, A.


    Background - A training package for staff working with clients presenting challenging behaviour was developed to (1) increase their knowledge regarding challenging behaviour, and (2) to improve the quality of physical intervention techniques. The latter aim was intended to reduce staff anxiety about

  4. Training Staff to Manage Challenging Behaviour (United States)

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Jahoda, Andrew


    Background: A training package for staff working with clients presenting challenging behaviour was developed to (1) increase their knowledge regarding challenging behaviour, and (2) to improve the quality of physical intervention techniques. The latter aim was intended to reduce staff anxiety about dealing with incidents and limit physical risk of…

  5. The Power of Behavioural Approaches--We Need a Revival (United States)

    Buckley, Sue


    Behavioural approaches can be used effectively to teach new skills and to change behaviours that are challenging and not socially adaptive. The behaviour modification approach--now called applied behaviour analysis--is based on the assumption that all behaviours are learned, both the useful ones (new skills) and the ones that are not so useful…

  6. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard;


    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P

  7. Healthy eating behaviour - a social marketing perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura

    at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2......) lack of availability and application of theories that explain the process of specific behavioural change, 3) predominance of "downstream" approaches, and 4) ethical issues. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide insights into healthy eating behaviour using the social marketing approach...

  8. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates]. (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard


    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population.

  9. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and lo...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues.......This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav NEKORANEC


    Full Text Available Experience has shown that it is necessary to focus more on organizational behaviour. This requires managers to get familiar with several social and psychological scientific disciplines which can help them answer the questions related to the impact of the organization and organizational philosophy on the behaviour of managers and employees. In addition, organizational behaviour includes knowing individual differences between people in the organization and their impact on fulfilling organization’s objectives. It also explains the relationships between people in connection to organizational culture, functioning of work teams, communication, etc. Analysis and interpretation of organizational behaviour should become part of managers’ training so that they are able to explain and predict behaviour of people in the organization they manage.

  11. Chest radiographic findings of leptospirosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mee Hyun; Jung, Hee Tae; Lee, Young Joong; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    1. A study on chest radiographic findings of 54 cases with pneumonia like symptoms was performed. Of 54 cases, 8 cases were confirmed to be leptospirosis and 7 cases were leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever. 2. Of 8 cases of leptospirosis, 4 cases showed abnormal chest radiographic findings: acinar nodular type 2, massive confluent consolidation type 2. Of 7 cases of leptospirosis combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever: acinar nodular type 3, massive confluent consolidation type 1, and increased interstitial markings type 1 respectively. 3. It was considered to be difficult to diagnose the leptospirosis on chest radiographic findings alone, especially the case combined with Korean hemorrhagic fever.

  12. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.


    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...

  13. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franquet, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Gimenez, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Alegret, X. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Rivas, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)


    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  14. Can self-reported disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians be explained? Applying the ASE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy to identify the determinants of the disability assessment behaviour among insurance physicians. The research question of this study is how Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy and Intention shape the behaviour that insurance physicians themselves report with regard to the process (Behaviour: process and content of the assessment (Behaviour: assessment while taking account of Knowledge and Barriers. Methods This study was based on 231 questionnaires filled in by insurance physicians, resulting into 48 scales and dimension scores. The number of variables was reduced by a separate estimation of each of the theoretical ASE constructs as a latent variable in a measurement model. The saved factor scores of these latent variables were treated as observed variables when we estimated a path model with Lisrel to confirm the ASE model. We estimated latent ASE constructs for most of the assigned scales and dimensions. All could be described and interpreted. We used these constructs to build a path model that showed a good fit. Results Contrary to our initial expectations, we did not find direct effects for Attitude on Intention and for Intention on self reported assessment behaviour in the model. This may well have been due to the operationalization of the concept of 'Intention'. We did, however, find that Attitude had a positive direct effect on Behaviour: process and Behaviour: Assessment and that Intention had a negative direct effect on Behaviour: process. Conclusion A path model pointed to the existence of relationships between Attitude on the one hand and self-reported behaviour by insurance physicians with regard to process and content of occupational disability

  15. Comparative analysis of articulated and behavioural social networks in a social news sharing website (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Gonzalez, Gustavo; Ruiz De Querol, Ricard; Volkovich, Yana


    This study analyses and contrasts the explicit (articulated) and implicit (behavioural) social networks on the Spanish Digg-like social news website The explicit network is given in the form of declared but not necessarily bidirectional friendship links; the behavioural network is extracted from conversations through comments to the shared links. These two directed social networks and their intersection are analysed and described in detail, which leads to some important conclusions about user behaviour on link sharing websites and online conversation habits in general. We find that reply interactions are more likely to occur between non-friends and that these interactions are (if bidirectional) also more balanced in the case of non-friends. A k-core decomposition of the networks reveals a fundamental difference in the practice of establishing behavioural and articulated links.

  16. Relationship between Age and Size of Firm on Corporate Entrepreneurial Behaviour among Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarinah bt. Abu Yazid


    Full Text Available Previous innovation literature regarding firm age, firm size and innovation has received a great deal of attention. Some arguments proposed that large firms were more effective innovators than smaller firms. However, there are arguments that smaller firms are more flexible, better able to adapt and effect change, and experience more advantages in innovation. This study therefore, attempts to examine whether size and age of firm has influence the level of corporate entrepreneurial behaviour among employees. A cross-sectional survey was used to determine how the independent variables influence the corporate entrepreneurial behaviour within manufacturing sectors in Malaysia. The population consisted of 155 respondents from six multinational corporations (MNC in Klang Valley and Penang. The six companies were manufacturing-based companies. Findings revealed that size, as a company characteristic did not influence corporate entrepreneurial behaviour. However, the age of companies showed a negative relationship with corporate entrepreneurial behaviour and the internal antecedents.

  17. Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A literature review. (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Singh, Devinder Pal


    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating various facets of consumer behaviour towards functional foods. It focuses on published international research on functional food attitude and behaviour from across the world. Research papers (n = 112) that were identified were coded in terms of study type, variables studied, product type, participant profile, research methodology and analysis details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which behaviour towards functional foods have been examined in the past and provide a synthesis of findings in four categories of determinants, namely (1) Personal Factors, (2) Psychological Factors, (3) Cultural & Social Factors, and (4) Factors relating to the functional food product. A reference model for the relationships between these factors and behaviour of consumers is derived.

  18. Eating behaviours are different in youth with obesity and severe obesity. (United States)

    Gross, A C; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Foy, A M H; Kelly, A S


    The study purposes were to: (i) Investigate eating behaviours among patients in a paediatric weight management clinical practice and (ii) Compare eating behaviour phenotypes between children with severe obesity and obesity. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using data collected during clinical encounters. Participants were included if they were 2-12 years old, had a body mass index ≥95th percentile and if a parent or guardian completed the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Participants (n = 149) were children with severe obesity (n = 108) and obesity (n = 41). The mean Satiety Responsiveness score was significantly lower for children with severe obesity than for children with obesity. Girls with severe obesity had significantly higher Enjoyment of Food and significantly lower Satiety Responsiveness and Slowness in Eating than girls with obesity. The findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the CEBQ for informing tailored treatment strategies through identifying eating behaviour phenotypes.

  19. Modifying behaviour to reduce over-speeding in work-related drivers: an objective approach. (United States)

    Newnam, Sharon; Lewis, Ioni; Warmerdam, Amanda


    The goal of this study was to utilise an objective measurement tool, via an on-board Diagnostic tool (OBDII), to explore the effectiveness of a behaviour modification intervention designed to reduce over-speed violations in a group of work-related drivers. It was predicted that over-speed violations would be decreased following participation in a behaviour modification intervention where drivers received weekly feedback on their speeding performance and goal setting exercises. The final analysis included the on-road behaviour of 16 drivers, all of whom completed each stage of the intervention programme. As predicted, over-speed violations significantly decreased from pre-test to post-test, after controlling for kilometres driven. These findings offer practical guidance for industry in developing interventions designed to improve work-related driving behaviour.

  20. HIV risk and prevention behaviours, intentions, perceptions and knowledge among youth in Goa, India. (United States)

    Gong, J; Saxena, V; Mathur, A; Li, X; Stanton, B; Kaljee, L; Kamat, D


    In order to examine the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and perceptions, and risk intentions and behaviours among adolescents in Goa, India, cross-sectional data from 942 youth were collected and assessed. The prevalence rates in the past six months for fighting, smoking, drinking and drug use were 16.5%, 3.8%, 17.8% and 1.1%, respectively; 5.2% acknowledged ever having engaged in sex. Prior risk involvement was significantly correlated with future risk intention (odds ratio [OR]: 9.7-19.7), and those involved in one risk behaviour were more likely to engage in other risk behaviours (OR: 1.3-23.5). The findings suggest the importance of targeted interventions for youth engaging or intending to engage in risk behaviours and universal interventions regarding basic facts and skills for all youth in Goa.

  1. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict exercise intention in obese adults. (United States)

    Boudreau, François; Godin, Gaston


    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical framework for understanding the intention to be physically active among a group of obese individuals. Individuals (n = 96) classified as obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing intention to be physically active and its theoretically related variables. The TPB explained 66% of the variance in physical activity intentions. Significant independent predictors of intention were perceived behavioural control (beta = .40) and attitude (beta = .36). The consideration of past behaviour (beta = .32) explained an additional 7% of the variance. These findings support the idea that, in designing interventions for obese individuals, nurses should focus on developing skills to overcome barriers to physical activity and on developing a positive attitude towards this behaviour.

  2. Emergence of global scaling behaviour in the coupled Earth-atmosphere interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fallah, Bijan; Sodoudi, Sahar


    Scale invariance property in the global geometry of Earth may lead to a coupled interactive behaviour between various components of the climate system. One of the most interesting correlations exists between spatial statistics of the global topography and the temperature on Earth. Here we show that the power-law behaviour observed in the Earth topography via different approaches, resembles a scaling law in the global spatial distribution of independent atmospheric parameters. We report on observation of scaling behaviour of such variables characterized by distinct universal exponents. More specifically, we find that the spatial power-law behaviour in the fluctuations of the near surface temperature over the lands on Earth, shares the same universal exponent as of the global Earth topography, indicative of the global persistent role of the static geometry of Earth to control the steady state of a dynamical atmospheric field. Such a universal feature can pave the way to the theoretical understanding of the chao...

  3. Deformation behaviour of dispersion hardened nanocrystalline copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Stobrawa


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to describe deformation behaviour of nanocrystalline copper dispersion-hardened with nanoparticles of tungsten carbide and yttria.Design/methodology/approach: Tests were made with the Cu, Cu-WC and Cu-Y2O3 micro-composites containing up to 3 % of a hardening phase. These were obtained by powder metallurgy techniques, i.e. milling the input powders in the planetary ball mills, compacting and sintering. The mechanical properties (hardness, 0,2 YS, elongation during compression test and microstructure were examined by the optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.Findings: Analysis of the initial nanocrystalline structure of these materials was made, and its evolution during deformation process was investigated with an account of the hardening effect and the changes in the mechanical and plastic properties. Results of this analysis have been discussed based on the existing theories related to hardening of nanocrystalline materials.Research limitations/implications: The powder metallurgy techniques make it possible to obtain copper-based bulk materials by means of milling input powders in the planetary ball, followed by compacting and sintering. Additional operations of hot extrusion are also often used. There is some threat, however, that during high-temperature processing or using these materials at elevated or high temperatures this nanometric structure may become unstable. The studies have shown the importance of “flows” in the consolidated materials such as pores or regions of poor powder particles joining which significantly deteriorate mechanical properties of compacted and sintered powder micro composites.Practical implications: A growing trend to use new copper-based functional materials is observed recently world-wide. Within this group of materials particular attention is drawn to those with nanometric grain size of a copper matrix, which exhibit higher mechanical properties than

  4. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology. (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren


    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained.

  5. Juvenile Galapagos pelicans increase their foraging success by copying adult behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Brumm

    Full Text Available Social learning is the building block of culture and traditions in humans and nonhuman animals, and its study has a long history. Most investigations have addressed either the causation or the function of social learning. Though much is known about the underlying mechanisms of social learning, demonstrations of its adaptive value in a natural setting are lacking. Here we show that juvenile brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis can increase their foraging efficiency by copying adult diving behaviour, suggesting that social learning helps juveniles to find profitable food patches. Our findings demonstrate the potential fitness consequences of behavioural copying and thus highlight the possible adaptive importance of social learning.

  6. A Family Finds Its Way (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... are living with serious health conditions as a family. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, ...

  7. Dermoscopy Findings of Hidroacanthoma Simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Sato


    Full Text Available Hidroacanthoma simplex (HAS, also known as intraepidermal eccrine poroma, is a rare eccrine adnexal tumor that tends to be misdiagnosed as other types of benign skin tumor, including clonal seborrheic keratosis. Notably, HAS is sometimes misdiagnosed and treated by cryosurgery as seborrheic keratosis, which could trigger the later development of porocarcinoma. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of HAS is indispensable for dermatologists to avoid the development of malignant tumors by an unsuitable treatment. In this report, we present the characteristic dermoscopy findings of HAS. Indeed, the dermoscopy findings might be related to the melanin-rich necrotic cells in the epidermis, which are quite different from dermoscopy findings of clonal seborrheic keratosis. As a previous report suggested, it is difficult for a dermatologist to differentiate HAS from clonal seborrheic keratosis by the naked eye. Our findings might be supportive for the early diagnosis of HAS.

  8. Finding an Eye Care Professional (United States)

    ... article rating hospitals in the United States. Website: For More Information ... ophthalmologists in the United States and abroad. Website: The American ...

  9. Stability and continuity of parentally reported child eating behaviours and feeding practices from 2 to 5 years of age. (United States)

    Farrow, C; Blissett, J


    Previous research suggests that many eating behaviours are stable in children but that obesigenic eating behaviours tend to increase with age. This research explores the stability (consistency in individual levels over time) and continuity (consistency in group levels over time) of child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices in children between 2 and 5 years of age. Thirty one participants completed measures of child eating behaviours, parental feeding practices and child weight at 2 and 5 years of age. Child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices remained stable between 2 and 5 years of age. There was also good continuity in measures of parental restriction and monitoring of food intake, as well as in mean levels of children's eating behaviours and BMI over time. Mean levels of maternal pressure to eat significantly increased, whilst mean levels of desire to drink significantly decreased, between 2 and 5 years of age. These findings suggest that children's eating behaviours are stable and continuous in the period prior to 5 years of age. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings and to explore why later developmental increases are seen in children's obesigenic eating behaviours.

  10. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy. (United States)

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J


    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18.

  11. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverthorn, K.G.; Houston, C.S.; Newman, D.E.; Wood, B.J.


    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: Harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18.

  12. The influence of insecticide exposure and environmental stimuli on the movement behaviour and dispersal of a freshwater isopod. (United States)

    Augusiak, Jacqueline; Van den Brink, Paul J


    Behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes and can be very sensitive towards environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. As such, behavioural indicators of toxicity are well suited for assessing impacts of pesticides at sublethal concentrations found in the environment. Recent developments in video-tracking technologies offer the possibility of quantifying behavioural patterns, particularly locomotion, which in general has not been studied and understood very well for aquatic macroinvertebrates to date. In this study, we aim to determine the potential effects of exposure to two neurotoxic pesticides with different modes of action at different concentrations (chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid) on the locomotion behaviour of the water louse Asellus aquaticus. We compare the effects of the different exposure regimes on the behaviour of Asellus with the effects that the presence of food and shelter exhibit to estimate the ecological relevance of behavioural changes. We found that sublethal pesticide exposure reduced dispersal distances compared to controls, whereby exposure to chlorpyrifos affected not only animal activity but also step lengths while imidacloprid only slightly affected step lengths. The presence of natural cues such as food or shelter induced only minor changes in behaviour, which hardly translated to changes in dispersal potential. These findings illustrate that behaviour can serve as a sensitive endpoint in toxicity assessments. However, under natural conditions, depending on the exposure concentration, the actual impacts might be outweighed by environmental conditions that an organism is subjected to. It is, therefore, of importance that the assessment of toxicity on behaviour is done under relevant environmental conditions.

  13. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  14. The Role of Memory in Document Re-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, X; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fulton, Crystal


    services. Practical implications – The results include recommendations for future PIM tool design. Originality/value – This research identifies documents’ characteristics that participants use to re-find documents and the importance of these characteristics. It also examines the usage and expectations......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore graduate students’ behaviour and perspectives regarding personal digital document management, as well as insights into the connections between memory and document re-finding. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews were conducted...... with 15 graduate students studying information and library science. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. The transcripts were analysed using open and axial coding. Findings – Participants were overall positive about the importance of managing their digital documents but they had little...

  15. Novel behavioural characteristics of female APPSwe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice. (United States)

    Cheng, David; Low, Jac Kee; Logge, Warren; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim


    Murine models are commonly used to evaluate progression of Alzheimer's disease. APPSwe/PS1ΔE9 (APPxPS1) mice have previously been reported to demonstrate impaired learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. However, this paradigm introduces a variety of behaviours that may confound performance of the mice, thus an alternative was sought. A battery of behavioural tests (light-dark test, elevated plus maze, novel object recognition task, social recognition test, cheeseboard task and prepulse inhibition) was used to investigate various behavioural and cognitive domains with relevance to Alzheimer's disease. We found 9-month old female APPxPS1 mice exhibited impaired spatial memory in the reversal cheeseboard task. In addition, task-dependent hyperlocomotion and anxiolytic-like behaviours were observed in the light-dark test. Female APPxPS1 demonstrated intact object recognition memory and sensorimotor gating was not significantly decreased compared to control mice except for one particular interstimulus interval. The social recognition test failed to detect preference for social novelty in control females. In conclusion, this is the first study to describe a memory deficit in female APPxPS1 mice in the hidden cheeseboard task. Transgenic females also exhibited task-dependent reduction in anxiety behaviours and hyperlocomotion. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the behavioural phenotype of APPxPS1 females and present the cheeseboard as a valid alternative to other established spatial memory tests. Furthermore, the task-dependency of some of our findings suggests that behavioural profiling of APPxPS1 transgenic mice should be assessed using a variety of behavioural paradigms.

  16. A structured review of reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviours: pointers for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the health risks of using ecstasy warrant intervention development, a recent meta-analysis of determinants of ecstasy use identified a number of lacunae in the literature. Specifically, no studies were included that address behaviours other than 'using ecstasy' (e.g. 'trying out ecstasy' or 'ceasing ecstasy use'. However, because meta-analyses aim to integrate study results quantitatively, the resulting rigid exclusion criteria cause many studies to be discarded on the basis of their qualitative methodology. Such qualitative studies may nonetheless provide valuable insights to guide future research. To provide an overview of these insights regarding ecstasy use, the current study summarizes and combines what is known from qualitative and exploratory quantitative literature on ecstasy use. Methods The databases PsycINFO and MedLine were searched for publications reporting reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviour, and the results were structured and discussed per behaviour and compared over behaviours. Results Two main categories of reasons were found. The first category comprised reasons to start using ecstasy, use ecstasy, use ecstasy more often, and refrain from ceasing ecstasy use. The second category comprised reasons to refrain from starting to use ecstasy, use less ecstasy, and cease using ecstasy. Reasons for related behaviours within each of these two categories appear to differ, but not as substantially as between the two categories. A large number of reasons that were not yet explored in quantitative research emerged. Conclusion The current summary and combination of exploratory studies yields useful lists of reasons for each behaviour. Before these lists can inform interventions, however, they beg quantitative verification. Also, similarity of determinant configurations of different behaviours can be assessed by addressing determinants of several behaviours in one study. Another important finding is that

  17. Near-Earth objects finding them before they find us

    CERN Document Server

    Yeomans, Donald K


    Of all the natural disasters that could befall us, only an Earth impact by a large comet or asteroid has the potential to end civilization in a single blow. Yet these near-Earth objects also offer tantalizing clues to our solar system's origins, and someday could even serve as stepping-stones for space exploration. In this book, Donald Yeomans introduces readers to the science of near-Earth objects--its history, applications, and ongoing quest to find near-Earth objects before they find us. In its course around the sun, the Earth passes through a veritable shooting gallery of million

  18. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  19. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  20. Stimulation of behavioural and nutritional satiety in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.


    Keywords: sows; nutrition; welfare; stereotyped behaviour; foraging behaviour; feeding motivation; satiety; dietary fibre; non-starch polysaccharides; blood glucose; fermentation; volatile fatty acidsNon-lactating sows often show abnormal stereotyped behaviour, which indicates impa

  1. Nurses' interpersonal behaviours and the development of helping skills. (United States)

    Sellick, K J


    This study investigates the interpersonal behaviours of general nurses and evaluates the effectiveness of a nine-week program in developing helping skills. Ninety-nine nurses undertaking tertiary studies were administered the FIRO-B Scale, which assesses six dimensions of interpersonal behaviours, before and after the skills program. Changes in interpersonal behaviours were examined for the total sample and for six clinical subgroups based on the nurse's area of clinical practice. Nurses' FIRO-B scores at pre-test were also compared with results from a sample of occupational therapy students. The results of this study showed that nurses, when compared with occupational therapists, had less desire to belong and a stronger need to influence or control interpersonal relationships. When clinical subgroups of nurses were contrasted, significant differences in the need for inclusion and affection were identified. Evaluation of the communication skills program demonstrated some significant improvements in helping attitudes for the sample as a whole, but no differences when specific nursing subgroups were examined. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to the helping role of nurses, methodological limitations, and directions for future investigation.

  2. Information transfer and behavioural inertia in starling flocks (United States)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Jelić, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano


    Collective decision-making in biological systems requires all individuals in the group to go through a behavioural change of state. During this transition fast and robust transfer of information is essential to prevent cohesion loss. The mechanism by which natural groups achieve such robustness, however, is not clear. Here we present an experimental study of starling flocks performing collective turns. We find that information about direction changes propagates across the flock with a linear dispersion law and negligible attenuation, hence minimizing group decoherence. These results contrast starkly with present models of collective motion, which predict diffusive transport of information. Building on spontaneous symmetry breaking and conservation-law arguments, we formulate a theory that correctly reproduces linear and undamped propagation. Essential to this framework is the inclusion of the birds' behavioural inertia. The theory not only explains the data, but also predicts that information transfer must be faster the stronger the group's orientational order, a prediction accurately verified by the data. Our results suggest that swift decision-making may be the adaptive drive for the strong behavioural polarization observed in many living groups.

  3. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans. (United States)

    Schroeder, K B; Nettle, D; McElreath, R


    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such 'strong situations' will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background.

  4. The relationship between coaching behaviours and sport anxiety in athletes. (United States)

    Baker, J; Côté, J; Hawes, R


    Previous research has identified the relationship between athlete sport anxiety and various sport outcomes (e.g., performance and dropout). For the majority of athletes involved in sport, the coach is an influential element of the competitive experience. Two hundred and twenty-eight athletes from 15 sports, completed the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). The predictive ability of athletes' perceived frequency of seven coaching behaviours (physical training, mental preparation, goal setting, technical skills, competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport) on four forms of sport anxiety (total anxiety, somatic anxiety, concentration disruption and worry) was examined. Results indicate that negative personal rapport was a significant predictor of all measured forms of sport anxiety while competition strategies was a significant predictor for total anxiety, concentration disruption, and worry. Other behaviours were not significant. The findings suggest that negative rapport between coach and athlete is an important contributor to athlete anxiety. In addition, behaviours that the coach demonstrates relative to competition can be influential in reducing athlete anxiety.

  5. Magnetoreception in birds: II. Behavioural experiments concerning the cryptochrome cycle. (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Gehring, Dennis; Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Wiltschko, Wolfgang


    Behavioural tests of the magnetic compass of birds and corresponding immunohistological studies on the activation of retinal cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule, showed oriented behaviour and activated Cry1a under 373 nm UV, 424 nm blue, 502 nm turquoise and 565 nm green light, although the last wavelength does not allow the first step of photoreduction of cryptochrome to the semiquinone form. The tested birds had been kept under 'white' light before, hence we suggested that there was a supply of semiquinone present at the beginning of the exposure to green light that could be further reduced and then re-oxidized. To test the hypothesis in behavioural experiments, we tested robins, Erithacus rubecula, under various wavelengths (1) after 1 h pre-exposure to total darkness and (2) after 1 h pre-exposure to the same light as used in the test. The birds were oriented under blue and turquoise light, where the full cryptochrome cycle can run, but not under green light. This finding is in agreement with the hypothesis. Orientation under green light appears to be a transient phenomenon until the supply of semiquinone is depleted.

  6. System dynamics of behaviour-evolutionary mix-game models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gou Cheng-Ling; Gao Jie-Ping; Chen Fang


    In real financial markets there are two kinds of traders:one is fundamentalist,and the other is a trend-follower.The mix-game model is proposed to mimic such phenomena.In a mix-game model there are two groups of agents:Group 1 plays the majority game and Group 2 plays the minority game.In this paper,we investigate such a case that some traders in real financial markets could change their investment behaviours by assigning the evolutionary abilities to agents:if the winning rates of agents are smaller than a threshold,they will join the other group;and agents will repeat such an evolution at certain time intervals.Through the simulations,we obtain the following findings:(i) the volatilities of systems increase with the increase of the number of agents in Group 1 and the times of behavioural changes of all agents;(ii) the performances of agents in both groups and the stabilities of systems become better if all agents take more time to observe their new investment behaviours;(iii) there are two-phase zones of market and non-market and two-phase zones of evolution and non-evolution;(iv) parameter configurations located within the cross areas between the zones of markets and the zones of evolution are suited for simulating the financial markets.

  7. System dynamics of behaviour-evolutionary mix-game models (United States)

    Gou, Cheng-Ling; Gao, Jie-Ping; Chen, Fang


    In real financial markets there are two kinds of traders: one is fundamentalist, and the other is a trend-follower. The mix-game model is proposed to mimic such phenomena. In a mix-game model there are two groups of agents: Group 1 plays the majority game and Group 2 plays the minority game. In this paper, we investigate such a case that some traders in real financial markets could change their investment behaviours by assigning the evolutionary abilities to agents: if the winning rates of agents are smaller than a threshold, they will join the other group; and agents will repeat such an evolution at certain time intervals. Through the simulations, we obtain the following findings: (i) the volatilities of systems increase with the increase of the number of agents in Group 1 and the times of behavioural changes of all agents; (ii) the performances of agents in both groups and the stabilities of systems become better if all agents take more time to observe their new investment behaviours; (iii) there are two-phase zones of market and non-market and two-phase zones of evolution and non-evolution; (iv) parameter configurations located within the cross areas between the zones of markets and the zones of evolution are suited for simulating the financial markets.

  8. Attitudes and behaviour of Greek households regarding food waste prevention. (United States)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Lasaridi, Katia; Chroni, Christina


    Food waste is a waste stream with serious economic, environmental and social implications. The emphasis of the reported research is on the food waste generated by households in Greece. A structured questionnaire was utilised in order to identify the attitudes of the respondents and investigate the prevalence of certain behavioural good practices that can prevent the generation of food waste. The research, to our knowledge the first of its kind in Greece, took place in February and March 2012. Face-to-face interviews were employed, resulting to a total of 231 consumers fully completing the questionnaire. Results indicate that, based on self-reported behaviour, people in Greece have positive attitudes towards food waste prevention and that their habits are close to the good practices suggested in the literature for reducing food waste. For instance, most respondents do plan their food shopping in a multitude of ways and are very careful in their purchases of fresh food supplies. However, about 40% misunderstand the meaning of food date labels. The positive findings are strongly influenced by the severe recession experienced in the country, which makes consumers more conscious of their spending. Results may serve as a yardstick to further promote and establish food waste prevention behaviour at the household level on an environmental and social awareness basis that may outlast the economic crisis.

  9. Balancing selection shapes density-dependent foraging behaviour. (United States)

    Greene, Joshua S; Brown, Maximillian; Dobosiewicz, May; Ishida, Itzel G; Macosko, Evan Z; Zhang, Xinxing; Butcher, Rebecca A; Cline, Devin J; McGrath, Patrick T; Bargmann, Cornelia I


    The optimal foraging strategy in a given environment depends on the number of competing individuals and their behavioural strategies. Little is known about the genes and neural circuits that integrate social information into foraging decisions. Here we show that ascaroside pheromones, small glycolipids that signal population density, suppress exploratory foraging in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that heritable variation in this behaviour generates alternative foraging strategies. We find that natural C. elegans isolates differ in their sensitivity to the potent ascaroside icas#9 (IC-asc-C5). A quantitative trait locus (QTL) regulating icas#9 sensitivity includes srx-43, a G-protein-coupled icas#9 receptor that acts in the ASI class of sensory neurons to suppress exploration. Two ancient haplotypes associated with this QTL confer competitive growth advantages that depend on ascaroside secretion, its detection by srx-43 and the distribution of food. These results suggest that balancing selection at the srx-43 locus generates alternative density-dependent behaviours, fulfilling a prediction of foraging game theory.

  10. The effect of a prudent adaptive behaviour on disease transmission (United States)

    Scarpino, Samuel V.; Allard, Antoine; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent


    The spread of disease can be slowed by certain aspects of real-world social networks, such as clustering and community structure, and of human behaviour, including social distancing and increased hygiene, many of which have already been studied. Here, we consider a model in which individuals with essential societal roles--be they teachers, first responders or health-care workers--fall ill, and are replaced with healthy individuals. We refer to this process as relational exchange, and incorporate it into a dynamic network model to demonstrate that replacing individuals can accelerate disease transmission. We find that the effects of this process are trivial in the context of a standard mass-action model, but dramatic when considering network structure, featuring accelerating spread, discontinuous transitions and hysteresis loops. This result highlights the inability of mass-action models to account for many behavioural processes. Using empirical data, we find that this mechanism parsimoniously explains observed patterns across 17 influenza outbreaks in the USA at a national level, 25 years of influenza data at the state level, and 19 years of dengue virus data from Puerto Rico. We anticipate that our findings will advance the emerging field of disease forecasting and better inform public health decision making during outbreaks.

  11. Photochemical behaviour of phenylurea herbicides. (United States)

    Amine-Khodja, Amina; Boulkamh, Abdelaziz; Boule, Pierre


    The photochemical behaviour of phenylurea herbicides in aqueous solution is highly dependent on the nature and position of substituents on the ring. Most of these herbicides are methylated on the urea moiety, the other substituents are usually halogens or methoxy groups. The main reaction involving the aromatic ring of unhalogenated phenylureas excited at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm is an intramolecular rearrangement, similar to photo-Fries rearrangement, whereas with halogenated derivatives, photohydrolysis is the main transformation pathway. In the particular case of para-halogenated phenylureas, the intermediate formation of a carbene is observed. When the urea moiety is substituted with a methoxyl group, demethoxylation is a competitive reaction. N-Demethylation or oxidation of methyl groups is also observed, but with a lower yield. Photooxidation of phenylureas can also be induced by photocatalysis, iron salts or humic substances. In the absence of water, the main route for phototransformation of diuron is the oxidation or elimination of methyl groups. It is entirely possible that a photochemical intermediate could turn out to be more toxic than the initial herbicide.

  12. Dynamic Behaviour of Ventilated Hydrofoils. (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Arndt, Roger; Wosnik, Martin


    In certain types of pumping applications oscillations are induced by operation with liquids containing a free gas load. In order to understand the physics of this process, a series of tests with a ventilated A 2D NACA 0015 hydrofoil were performed in the water tunnel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota. The special bubble removal feature of the water tunnel allowed continuous ventilation without experiencing visible bubbles upstream the hydrofoil. These studies build on previous work on cavitation-induced oscillations. Gas injection studies were made over a range of gas flow rates and test section pressure. The results clearly show that lift oscillations increase in intensity when the gas load is increased. The point of maximum unsteadiness is also associated the rapid decline of the foil performance as measured as average lift. Further increase of the gas injection load gives a steady behaviour with almost no lift. These experiments are compared with traditional cavitation experiments. The similarities between gas injection- and cavitation induced unsteadiness on the hydrofoil are many, but the amplitude of lift oscillations found on the foil with gas injection corresponds to about 50% of that found for cavitating hydrofoils. The fact that the oscillations are periodic leads to the consideration of both passive and active control.

  13. Personality Type and Workforce Diversity as Predictors of Ethical Behaviour and Job Satisfaction among Nigerian Policemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Afolabi


    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of personality type (A and B and work force diversity on ethical behaviour and job satisfaction of a sample of Nigerian police. The sample consisted of one hundred and twenty two policemen and women whose ranks are from Constable to Assistant Superintendent of police in the Irrua Area Command, Edo State, Nigeria. To achieve the objective of the study, four hypotheses were formulated and tested. The data were analysed using the student t-test and multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that type B persons have higher job satisfaction and are more ethical in behaviour compared to the type A persons. Also, there was a significant joint prediction of age, gender, educational attainment and work experience on job satisfaction and ethical behaviour of the sample. Here, age, gender and work experience have a significant independent contributions to job satisfaction and ethical behaviour. However, the independent contribution of education on job satisfaction and ethical behaviour was non-significant.Based on these findings, it was recommended, among other things that more of type B persons be recruited into the force and efforts should be made to encourage professional ethics in the force. Suggestions were also made and conclusion drawn based on the findings that were discussed.

  14. Avoiding unseen obstacles: Subcortical vision is not sufficient to maintain normal obstacle avoidance behaviour during reaching. (United States)

    Ross, Alasdair I; Schenk, Thomas; Billino, Jutta; Macleod, Mary J; Hesse, Constanze


    Previous research found that a patient with cortical blindness (homonymous hemianopia) was able to successfully avoid an obstacle placed in his blind field, despite reporting no conscious awareness of it [Striemer, C. L., Chapman, C. S., & Goodale, M. A., 2009, PNAS, 106(37), 15996-16001]. This finding led to the suggestion that dorsal stream areas, that are assumed to mediate obstacle avoidance behaviour, may obtain their visual input primarily from subcortical pathways. Hence, it was suggested that normal obstacle avoidance behaviour can proceed without input from the primary visual cortex. Here we tried to replicate this finding in a group of patients (N = 6) that suffered from highly circumscribed lesions in the occipital lobe (including V1) that spared the subcortical structures that have been associated with action-blindsight. We also tested if obstacle avoidance behaviour differs depending on whether obstacles are placed only in the blind field or in both the blind and intact visual field of the patients simultaneously. As expected, all patients successfully avoided obstacles placed in their intact visual field. However, none of them showed reliable avoidance behaviour - as indicated by adjustments in the hand trajectory in response to obstacle position - for obstacles placed in their blind visual field. The effects were not dependent on whether one or two obstacles were present. These findings suggest that behaviour in complex visuomotor tasks relies on visual input from occipital areas.

  15. Hard Sphere Diffusion Behaviour of Polymer Translocating through Interacting Pores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Zhen; LUO Meng-Bo


    The translocation of polymer chain through a small pore from a high concentration side (cis side) to a low concentration side (trans side) is simulated by using Monte Carlo technique. The effect of the polymer-pore interaction on the translocation is studied. We find a special interaction at which the decay of the number of polymer chain, N, at the cis side obeys Fick's law, i.e. N decreases exponentially with time. The behaviour is analogous to the diffusion of hard sphere.

  16. Scaling behaviour in temporal fluctuations of crustal seismicity in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telesca


    Full Text Available The crustal seismicity of Taiwan was investigated by means of the Allan Factor analysis and Count-based Periodogram, which allow to identify scaling behaviour in point processes and to quantify their temporal fluctuations by means of the estimate of the scaling exponent. Our findings point out to the presence of two time-scaling regions in the crustal Taiwanese seismicity. The first region, involving the intermediate timescales can be probably linked with aftershock activity, while the second region, involving the large timescales could be related with the background seismicity.

  17. CT finding of cryptococcal meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, H.; Ueda, M.; Ito, K.; Matsuoka, T. (Ohkawara Neurosurgical Hospital, Muroran (Japan))


    We have experienced 14 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in the last 6 years. Their neurological signs, CT findings, and prognoses were studied. They fall into three types: the brain-stem-encephalitis type, the cortical-encephalitis type, and the meningitis type, according to the clinical course. The first type (6 cases) revealed mainly cerebellar signs, eye-movement damage, and so forth. The second type (5 cases) demonstrated ''Personality'' changes, chiefly aphasia. The third type (5 cases) did not show any focal signs. Prognosis of the brain-stem-encephalitis type was very poor, with a 50% mortality rate. In the survivors, also, clinical signs did not disappear for a long time. Repeated CT was performed in 13 among the 14 cases; abnormal CT findings were revealed in 5 cases because of cryptococcal infection. Granuloma shadow and ventriculitis shadow were observed in 3 cases each. These abnormal findings disappeared upon treatment except in one case. The clinical signs are not completely related with the CT finding, but it is useful that the site which has been infiltrated by the cryptococcus can be observed. Abnormal CT findings were observed in the 4 cases of the brain-stem-encephalitis type among the 5 abnormal cases. It is very useful to know the severity of the condition.

  18. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage.

  19. Cannabis and Suicidal Behaviour Among Adolescents: A Pilot Study from Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh


    Full Text Available Cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Changing trends in these behaviours in younger age groups, higher incidence, gender differences and sociocultural variations present an enormous challenge. There is no consensus whether these complex relationships are either a direct or an indirect effect due to other mental disorders, or a social response of disclosure of drug taking habits to family members and school authorities. This paper reviews the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and cannabis use among adolescents and looks at the relationship of these behaviours regionally and internationally. The Caribbean islands have an established use of cannabis with higher suicidal rates, which provides an ideal setting to investigate the interrelationship of these disorders. Preliminary research findings in Trinidad indicate high rates of cannabis use among school students with higher rates in vocational schools compared to grammar schools. Utilising the CAPE questionnaire, depressive and psychotic experiences were common findings in adolescent cannabis users with a significant preponderance of depressive experiences (p<0.01. Our findings suggest that there is a convincing relationship between suicidal behaviour and cannabis use, the latter awakening depressive experiences. Suicidal behaviour and cannabis use are major public health problems and require a multidimensional approach with culturally competent preventive interactions. School based prevention programmes are necessary at the levels of parent-teacher partnership and classroom intervention. The treatment of adolescent disorders remains a major challenge of the future. Double disorders such as cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are uncharted areas and need novel approaches.

  20. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)


    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  1. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong [Sansung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment.

  2. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)


    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  3. CT findings of the thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  4. Musculoskeletal Findings in Behcet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bicer


    Full Text Available Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, relapsing uveitis, mucocutaneous, articular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vascular manifestations. Rheumatologic manifestations may also occur in Behcet's disease, and arthritis and arthralgia are the most common musculoskeletal findings followed by enthesopathy, avascular necrosis, myalgia, and myositis. Although the main pathology of Behcet's disease has been known to be the underlying vasculitis, the etiology and exact pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear. Musculoskeletal findings of Behcet's disease, the relationship between Behcet's disease and spondyloarthropathy disease complex, and the status of bone metabolism in patients with Behcet's disease were discussed in this paper.

  5. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School; Mizutani, Masaru [and others


    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  6. Neurological findings of Lyme disease. (United States)

    Pachner, A. R.; Steere, A. C.


    Neurologic involvement of Lyme disease typically consists of meningitis, cranial neuropathy, and radiculoneuritis, alone or in combination, lasting for months. From 1976 to 1983, we studied 38 patients with Lyme meningitis. Headache and mild neck stiffness, which fluctuated in intensity, and lymphocytic pleocytosis were the common findings. Half of the patients also had facial palsies, which were unilateral in 12 and bilateral in seven. In addition, 12 patients had motor and/or sensory radiculoneuropathies; asymmetric weakness of extremities was the most common finding. Although incomplete presentations of neurologic involvement of Lyme disease may be confused with other entities, the typical constellation of neurologic symptoms represents a unique clinical picture. PMID:6516450

  7. Scintigraphic findings in ankylosing spondylitis. (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I


    A prospective study of bone scintigraphic findings has been carried out in 63 patients, firmly diagnosed as having ankylosing spondylitis. In addition to abnormal uptake of the radiotracer at the sacroiliac joints, a peripheral arthropathy has been a common finding, particularly in the proximal joints, occurring in up to 50% of patients. Increased uptake of radiotracer in the spine has also been found both diffusely and focally. Focal increases have been noted at the apophyseal joints in 40% of patients and in three patients with a sterile intervertebral diskitis, an unusual complication of this disease only diagnosed in two patients after bone scintigraphy.

  8. Fucosidosis: MRI and MRS findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oner, Ali Y.; Akpek, Sergin [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Cansu, Ali; Serdaroglu, Ayse [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Ankara (Turkey)


    Fucosidosis is a rare, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease in which fucose-containing glycolipids, glycoproteins, and oligosaccharides accumulate in tissues as a consequence of {alpha}-l-fucosidase enzyme deficiency. We present the MR imaging findings of diffuse white-matter hyperintensity and pallidal curvilinear streak hyperintensity in a 6-year-old Caucasian girl with a diagnosis of fucosidosis based on cDNA isolated from skin fibroblasts. This report also includes the MRS findings of a decreased N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio together with an abnormal peak at 3.8 ppm which expand the knowledge of the neuroradiological spectrum of this rare disease. (orig.)

  9. Finding low-tension communities


    Galbrun, Esther; Golshan, Behzad; Gionis, Aristides; Terzi, Evimaria


    Motivated by applications that arise in online social media and collaboration networks, there has been a lot of work on community-search and team-formation problems. In the former class of problems, the goal is to find a subgraph that satisfies a certain connectivity requirement and contains a given collection of seed nodes. In the latter class of problems, on the other hand, the goal is to find individuals who collectively have the skills required for a task and form a connected subgraph wit...

  10. Co-evolution of behaviour and social network structure promotes human cooperation. (United States)

    Fehl, Katrin; van der Post, Daniel J; Semmann, Dirk


    The ubiquity of cooperation in nature is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by defectors. Recent theoretical work shows that if dynamic networks define interactions between individuals, cooperation is favoured by natural selection. To address this, we compare cooperative behaviour in multiple but independent repeated games between participants in static and dynamic networks. In the latter, participants could break their links after each social interaction. As predicted, we find higher levels of cooperation in dynamic networks. Through biased link breaking (i.e. to defectors) participants affected their social environment. We show that this link-breaking behaviour leads to substantial network clustering and we find primarily cooperators within these clusters. This assortment is remarkable because it occurred on top of behavioural assortment through direct reciprocity and beyond the perception of participants, and represents a self-organized pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between ecological context and selective pressures on cooperation.

  11. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte


    different forms of absence are interrelated provides important novel insights into student absence behaviour. Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the concept of absence and the way absence behaviour is developed. This may help to provide a basis for further research on how and when...... of a single school conducted over a continuous six-month period. It used participant observation followed by semi-structured interviews and school documents. Results: Findings suggest that student absence consists of interrelated forms of absence behaviour that have specific consequences for student...... performance. It is helpful to describe these findings using theoretical frameworks from sociology and psychology: specifically, spill-over theory and symbolic capital theory. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated how different forms of absence become dynamically interrelated through ongoing negotiations...

  12. Analyzing Sport Consumer Behaviour toward Sportswear Store: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafedh Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate in sportswear store setting the relationships among psychological traits, loyalty to salesperson and behavioural intentions in three different sport consumers according to their switching behaviour. By means of structural equation modelling, we find a clear difference in the behaviour of the three groups. The results show that loyalty to salesperson is more influenced by need for social affiliation for the stayer customers. Whereas, for the dissatisfied and the satisfied switchers, need for variety makes the greatest contribution in explaining customer loyalty toward salespersons. These findings imply that sportswear stores must concentrate on employing enthusiastic, sociable salespersons who genuinely like being with people; and salesperson should be trained to solve patron problems and become personally concerned with the customer.

  13. Transfusional hemosiderosis; correlation of MR findings with clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi Ok; Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Suh, Soo Jhi [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Parenchymal iron deposition occurs in hemochromatosis, while iron is deposited in reticuloendothelial cells after blood transfusions(Hemosiderosis). We studied correlation between MR finding and clinical findings(serum ferritin, TSI, LFT, disease duration) of hemosiderosis. 12 patients with chronic renal failure and one patient with aplastic anemia, who have received multiple transfusion, were performed MRI with a 2.0 Tesla unit. In all of 13 patients(17 cases), the liver revealed low signal intensity equal to background noise. In 4 of 17 cases whose serum ferritin level was below 1000 ng/ml, pancreas, gastric wall, adrenal gland were involved in 1 case. In 4 cases with serum ferritin level between 1000 and 1500, pancreas was involved in 2 cases, and other organ was involved in 1 case. In 9 cases with serum ferritin level above 1500ng/ml, pancreas was involved in 9 cases, and other origin 4 cases. The MR findings are well correlated with serum ferritin level whereas the TSI, LFT, disease duration are not correlated with involved organ on MR.

  14. Collective self and individual choice: the effects of inter-group comparative context on environmental values and behaviour. (United States)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A; Postmes, Tom; Verplanken, Bas


    Self-categorization theory suggests that inter-group comparisons inform individual behaviour by affecting perceived in-group stereotypes that are internalized by group members. The present paper provides evidence for this chain of effects in the domain of environmental behaviour. In two studies, inter-group comparative context was manipulated. Study 1 found that the perceived in-group stereotype, self-stereotype (as represented by the reported value centrality), and behavioural intentions shifted away from a comparison out-group (irrespective of whether this was an upward or downward comparison). Study 1 also revealed that the effect of comparative context on individual environmental intentions was mediated by the perceived in-group stereotype and by changes in personal values. Study 2 extrapolated the observed effect on actual behavioural choices. The findings demonstrate the utility of a self-categorization approach to individual behaviour change.

  15. Why older adults spend time sedentary and break their sedentary behaviour: a mixed methods approach using life-logging equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon L Dontje


    It can be concluded that a mixed methods approach, by combining objective data of an activity monitor with contextual information from time-lapse photos and subjective information from people regarding their own behaviour, is an useful method to provide indepth information about (breaking sedentary behaviour in older adults. The results of this study showed that there is a difference in what older adults believe that are reasons for them to remain sedentary or break their sedentary time and what their actual reasons are. A personal story board based on objective measurements of sedentary behaviour can be a useful method to raise awareness and find individual and tailored ways to reduce sedentary behaviour and to increase the number of breaks in sedentary behaviour without much interference in daily routine.

  16. The impact of behavioural screening on intervention outcomes in a randomised, controlled multiple behaviour intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing research focus on multiple health behaviour change interventions, a methodological issue requiring further investigation is whether or not to employ pre-trial behavioural screening to exclude participants who are achieving a pre-specified level of one or more behaviours. Behavioural screening can be used to direct limited resources to participants most in need of a behaviour change intervention; but may reduce the representativeness of the sample and limit comparability with trials that do not employ pre-trial behavioural screening. Furthermore, the impact of this type of screening on intervention participation and intervention effects is unknown. Methods Data for this study come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a randomised, controlled telephone counselling lifestyle intervention trial which did not employ behavioural screening prior to randomisation. Screening for physical activity, diet or the combination was simulated using baseline trial data. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention participation (in terms of participant characteristics, intervention dose received and retention, characteristics of participants included an excluded under the various screening scenarios were compared. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention effects, results from the main trial analysis were compared with results obtained from the same analyses performed separately for each of the screened groups. Results Simulated pre-trial behavioural screening impacted minimally on intervention dose received and trial retention rate. Beyond the anticipated effect of reducing baseline levels of the behaviours being screened for, behavioural screening affected baseline levels of behaviours not targeted by screening, and participants' demographic and health-related characteristics. Behavioural screening impacted on intervention effects in ways that were anticipated and positive, but also

  17. MRI findings of enteroviral encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad


    Conclusion: Enterovirus encephalomyelitis has characteristic lesion locations in the posterior portions of the brain stem, substantia nigra, dentate nucleus and within the anterior horns of spinal cord. Recognition of these findings in the presence of suggestive clinical presentation can help to establish the diagnosis of enterovirus encephalomyelitis.

  18. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record (United States)

    ... record, you can search for evidence of your vaccination history. Look in places where you might find other important documents. Here are some tips: Ask parents or other caregivers if they have records of your childhood immunizations. Look through baby books or other saved documents ...

  19. Finding Cryptography in Object Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason L. Wright


    Finding and identifying Cryptography is a growing concern in the malware analysis community. In this paper, a heuristic method for determining the likelihood that a given function contains a cryptographic algorithm is discussed and the results of applying this method in various environments is shown. The algorithm is based on frequency analysis of opcodes that make up each function within a binary.

  20. Learning as way-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne


    Based on empirical case-study findings and the theoretical framework of learning by Illeris coupled with Nonaka & Takeuchis´s perspectives on knowledge creation, it is stressed that learning are conditioned by contextual orientations-processes in spaces near the body (peripersonal spaces) through...

  1. MEMS AO for Planet Finding (United States)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul


    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  2. Finding Reliable Health Information Online (United States)

    ... at NHGRI About About the Institute Budget and Financial Information Divisions Director's Page How to Contact Us Institute ... una búsqueda saludable en Internet Finding Reliable Health Information Online As Internet users quickly discover, an enormous amount of health information ...

  3. Electroencephalographic findings in panic disorder. (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Velasques, Bruna Brandao; Cagy, Mauricio; Marques, Juliana Bittencourt; Teixeira, Silmar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro


    Some studies have reported the importance of electroencephalography (EEG) as a method for investigating abnormal parameters in psychiatric disorders. Different findings in time and frequency domain analysis with regard to central nervous system arousal during acute panic states have already been obtained. This study aimed to systematically review the EEG findings in panic disorder (PD), discuss them having a currently accepted neuroanatomical hypothesis for this pathology as a basis, and identify limitations in the selected studies. Literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, using the keywords electroencephalography and panic disorder; 16 articles were selected. Despite the inconsistency of EEG findings in PD, the major conclusions about the absolute power of alpha and beta bands point to a decreased alpha power, while beta power tends to increase. Different asymmetry patterns were found between studies. Coherence studies pointed to a lower degree of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity at the frontal region and intra-hemispheric at the bilateral temporal region. Studies on possible related events showed changes in memory processing in PD patients when exposed to aversive stimuli. It was noticed that most findings reflect the current neurobiological hypothesis of PD, where inhibitory deficits of the prefrontal cortex related to the modulation of amygdala activity, and the subsequent activation of subcortical regions, may be responsible to trigger anxiety responses. We approached some important issues that need to be considered in further researches, especially the use of different methods for analyzing EEG signals.

  4. Consumo de sustancias y suicidios en México: resultados del sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de las adicciones, 1994-2006 Substance use in suicides in Mexico: results of the epidemiological surveillance system of addictions, 1994-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Ocampo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación que existe entre el consumo y número de sustancias y la presentación del suicidio. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos se tomaronde la cédula forense del Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de las Adicciones entre 1994 y 2006 de 27 entidades federativas participantes en México. RESULTADOS: El suicidio se presentó en 8.7% de las defunciones por causa violenta en el periodo de estudio. En los hombres se observó que a medida que aumentaba el número de sustancias se elevaba la posibilidad para fallecer por suicidio, en comparación con los decesos por otras causas (una sustancia: RM= 1.8; dos o más: RM= 3.3. En las mujeres, dicha posibilidad se mantiene prácticamente igual en relación con el aumento del número de sustancias detectadas (una sustancia: RM= 3.2; dos o más: RM= 3.6. CONCLUSIÓN: El consumo de sustancias es un factor importante vinculado con el suicidio en los sujetos cuya causa de defunción fue dictaminada por el Servicio Médico Forense mexicano.OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between substance use and the number of substances with the presentation of suicide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were taken from the forensic certificate of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Addictions in the period between 1994 and 2006 from 27 states in Mexico. RESULTS: Suicide was detected in 8.7% of the violent deaths during the study period. Among men, it was observed that the increased number of substances increased the possibility for death by suicide, compared to deaths from other causes (one substance: OR = 1.8; two or more: OR = 3.3. In women, that possibility remains virtually unchanged with the increase in the number of substances detected (one substance: OR = 3.2; two or more: OR = 3.6. DISCUSSION: The use of substances is a major factor associated with suicide in the population whose cause of death was issued by the Mexican Forensic Medical Services.

  5. On the nonlinear anelastic behaviour of AHSS (United States)

    Torkabadi, A.; Meinders, V. T.; van den Boogaard, A. H.


    It has been widely observed that below the yield stress the loading/unloading stress-strain curves of plastically deformed metals are in fact not linear but slightly curved, showing a hysteresis behaviour during unloading/reloading cycles. In addition to the purely elastic strain, extra dislocation based micro-mechanisms are contributing to the reversible strain of the material which results in the nonlinear unloading/reloading behaviour. This extra reversible strain is the so called anelastic strain. As a result, the springback will be larger than that predicted by FEM considering only the recovery of the elastic strain. In this work the physics behind the anelastic behaviour is discussed and experimental results for a dual phase steel are demonstrated. Based on the physics of the phenomenon a model for anelastic behaviour is presented that can fit the experimental results with a good accuracy.

  6. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last......This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...

  7. Modelling Reactive and Proactive Behaviour in Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mazlina Abdul; Aickelin, Uwe


    This research investigated the simulation model behaviour of a traditional and combined discrete event as well as agent based simulation models when modelling human reactive and proactive behaviour in human centric complex systems. A departmental store was chosen as human centric complex case study where the operation system of a fitting room in WomensWear department was investigated. We have looked at ways to determine the efficiency of new management policies for the fitting room operation through simulating the reactive and proactive behaviour of staff towards customers. Once development of the simulation models and their verification had been done, we carried out a validation experiment in the form of a sensitivity analysis. Subsequently, we executed a statistical analysis where the mixed reactive and proactive behaviour experimental results were compared with some reactive experimental results from previously published works. Generally, this case study discovered that simple proactive individual behaviou...

  8. Interacting personalities: behavioural ecology meets quantitative genetics. (United States)

    Dingemanse, Niels J; Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G


    Behavioural ecologists increasingly study behavioural variation within and among individuals in conjunction, thereby integrating research on phenotypic plasticity and animal personality within a single adaptive framework. Interactions between individuals (cf. social environments) constitute a major causative factor of behavioural variation at both of these hierarchical levels. Social interactions give rise to complex 'interactive phenotypes' and group-level emergent properties. This type of phenotype has intriguing evolutionary implications, warranting a cohesive framework for its study. We detail here how a reaction-norm framework might be applied to usefully integrate social environment theory developed in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics. The proposed emergent framework facilitates firm integration of social environments in adaptive research on phenotypic characters that vary within and among individuals.

  9. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.


    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between boundedly rational costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic sub

  10. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.


    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic substitutes and exhibi

  11. Supporting Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Innovation in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lukeš


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on existence and support of entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation in larger organizations. It first suggests why it is important to pay attention to entrepreneurship and innovation and then defines corporate entrepreneurship. Typical barriers of entrepreneurial activities are described as well as innovation dilemmas organizations solve. Innovation process is not linear, but six components of innovation behaviour may be identified, together with specific roles employees play when moving the idea forward from idea creation to implementation. Important factors influencing the success of entrepreneurial behaviour are discussed, involving the role of middle managers and reward systems. Recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation are provided together with a simple inventory for measuring employee perception of manager's and organizational support for innovation.

  12. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.


    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  13. Picture analysing method of slag foaming behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhart, M.; Peter, M.; Koch, K. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallurgy; Lamut, J. [Faculty of Natural Science and Technology, Univ. Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Hot tests of foaming behaviour of steelmaking slags were conducted on a laboratory scale up to 1760 C using a Tammann furnace. The foaming behaviour of the slags was quantified on the basis of a new measuring method. The volume increase and the progress of the foaming process can be continuously observed and calculated by means of picture analysis. The gas content of foaming slags was compared with the results of the measurements performed in steel plants. The influence of the magnesia content on the foaming behaviour is investigated. The chemical composition of the slag is beside the CO evolution the decisive factor influencing slag foaming behaviour. The highest volume increase values observed lie in the region of 2500% in relation to the initial volume. (orig.)

  14. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carmona


    Full Text Available A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  15. Natural selection can favour 'irrational' behaviour


    McNamara, J. M.; Trimmer, P. C.; Houston, A. I.


    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory....

  16. Behaviour of Polariton in a Simple Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Shao-Long; MA Shuang-Ge; WANG Ke-Lin


    Behaviour of a simple model polariton system is restudied. The distribution of phonons in polariton never is sub-Poisson given by computation of the thermal counterpart of the Q parameter and the matrix m'3\\ The polariton complex as a whole shows non-classical behaviour below a threshold temperature, which depends on the photon-phonon coupling strength, when the distribution of phonons is always classical at any temperature.

  17. Critical fatigue behaviour in brittle glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajat Banerjee; Bikas K Chakrabarti


    The dynamic fatigue fracture behaviour in different glasses under various sub-threshold loading conditions are analysed here employing an anomalous diffusion model. Critical dynamical behaviour in the time-to-fracture and the growth of the micro-crack sizes, similar to that observed in such materials in the case of quasi-static (``instantaneous”) failures for above-threshold conditions, are predicted and compared with some of the experimental observations in different glasses.

  18. Econometric Studies of Stock Market Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Reng

    This thesis consists of three sefcontained essays, all centering around the topic of stock market behaviour. The papers focus on the empirical performance of a number of asset pricing models, all attempting to quantify and price asset risk. We look at how well these models actually do in describing...... the historic behaviour of the stock market, allowing us to get further insight into what drives the markes....

  19. Using Intelligent Agents to understand organisational behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Celia, Helen; Robinson, Mark; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Sprigg, Christine


    This paper introduces two ongoing research projects which seek to apply computer modelling techniques in order to simulate human behaviour within organisations. Previous research in other disciplines has suggested that complex social behaviours are governed by relatively simple rules which, when identified, can be used to accurately model such processes using computer technology. The broad objective of our research is to develop a similar capability within organisational psychology.

  20. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ying-Ting


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight.