WorldWideScience

Sample records for behaviors prevalence correlates

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexting Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Maziarz, Lauren; Ward, Britney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of…

  2. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  4. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents: prevalence and psychosocial correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal ...

  6. The prevalence and correlates of risky driving behavior among National Guard soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Prescott, Marta R; Goldmann, Emily; Tamburrino, Marijo; Calabrese, Joseph R; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that risky driving is associated with deployment and combat exposure in military populations, but there is limited research on risky driving among soldiers in the National Guard and Reserves, a group increasingly deployed to active international conflicts. The goal of this analysis was to assess the prevalence of risky driving and its demographic, mental health, and deployment-related correlates among members of the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG). The study group comprised 2,616 eligible OHARNG soldiers enlisted as of June 2008, or who enlisted between June 2008 and February 2009. The main outcome of interest was the prevalence of risky driving behavior assessed using six questions: "How often do you use seat belts when you drive or ride in a car?"; "In the past 30 days, how many times have you driven when you've had perhaps too much to drink?"; "In the past year, have you ever become impatient with a slow driver in the fast lane and passed them on the right?"; "In the past year have you crossed an intersection knowing that the traffic lights have already changed from yellow to red?"; "In the past year have you disregarded speed limits late at night or early in the morning?"; and "In the past year have you underestimated the speed of an oncoming vehicle when attempting to pass a vehicle in your own lane?" We fit multiple logistic regression models and derived the adjusted prevalence of risky driving behavior for soldiers with mental health conditions, deployment experience, exposure to combat or trauma, and psychosocial stressors or supports. The prevalence of risky driving was higher in soldiers with a history of mental health conditions, deployment to a conflict area, deployment-related traumatic events, and combat or post-combat stressors. In contrast, the prevalence of risky driving was lower for soldiers who reported high levels of psychosocial support. Efforts to mitigate risky driving in military populations may be more

  7. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: a prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brief Report: Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Older Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Stale; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Molde, Helge; Sorensen, Eli; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of "behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BIISS)" which is a newly defined hypersomnia, among adolescents. BIISS is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, short habitual sleep duration and sleeping considerably longer than usual during weekend/vacations.…

  9. Prevalence and correlates of conduct disorder and problem behavior in Caribbean and Filipino immigrant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Hassan, Ghayda; Measham, Toby; Lashley, Myrna

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the prevalence and subtypes of conduct disorder (CD) and behavioral problems among youth in two communities characterized by prolonged parent-child separation upon immigration. CD and problem behaviors were assessed in 252 Caribbean-Canadian and Filipino-Canadian adolescents (12-19-year-old) using the DISC-C, the YSR and the CBCL cross-informant construct. Adolescents reported less problem behaviors than their host country peers, despite immigrant background or parent-child separation. The high adolescent-onset CD rate supports the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors play a role in the emergence of the disorder. Specifically, high levels of perceived racism and low collective self-esteem predicted problem behaviors in these youngsters.

  10. Prevalence, correlates, and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Although suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, or treatment of its immediate precursors, adolescent suicidal behaviors (ie, suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). To estimate the lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors among US adolescents and the associations of retrospectively reported, temporally primary DSM-IV disorders with the subsequent onset of suicidal behaviors. Dual-frame national sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires for parents. A total of 6483 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age and their parents. Lifetime suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. The estimated lifetime prevalences of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among the respondents are 12.1%, 4.0%, and 4.1%, respectively. The vast majority of adolescents with these behaviors meet lifetime criteria for at least one DSM-IV mental disorder assessed in the survey. Most temporally primary (based on retrospective age-of-onset reports) fear/anger, distress, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders significantly predict elevated odds of subsequent suicidal behaviors in bivariate models. The most consistently significant associations of these disorders are with suicide ideation, although a number of disorders are also predictors of plans and both planned and unplanned attempts among ideators. Most suicidal adolescents (>80%) receive some form of mental health treatment. In most cases (>55%), treatment starts prior to onset of suicidal behaviors but fails to prevent these behaviors from occurring. Suicidal behaviors are common among US adolescents, with rates that approach those of adults. The vast majority of youth with suicidal behaviors have preexisting mental disorders. The disorders most powerfully predicting ideation, though, are different from those most powerfully predicting conditional

  11. Prevalence of sedentary behavior and its correlates among primary and secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Wiltgen Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the students’ exposure to four different sedentary behavior (SB indicators and their associations with gender, grade, age, economic status and physical activity level. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. The SB was collected using the HELENA instrument, composed by screen time questions (TV, video games and internet and sitting activities on school opposite shift. The cut point of ≥2h/day was used to categorize the outcome. The Poisson regression was used for associations between the outcome and the independent variables (95% significance level, controlling for confounding variables and the possible design effect. Results: The sample was composed by 8661 students. The overall prevalence of SB was 69.2% (CI95% 68.1–70.2 on weekdays, and 79.6% (CI95% 78.7–80.5 on weekends. Females were more associated with the outcome, except to electronic games. Advanced grades students were more involved in sitting tasks when compared to the early grades. Older students were more likely to surf on net for ≥2h/day. Higher economic level students were more likely to engage in video games and internet. Active individuals were less likely to engage in SB on weekdays. Conclusions: The prevalence of SB was high, mainly on weekends. The associations with sex, age, grade and physical activity level should be considered into elaboration of more efficient interventions on SB control.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Fishermen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K K Choo

    Full Text Available Fishermen in Southeast Asia have been found to be highly vulnerable to HIV, with research evidence highlighting the role of sexual risk behaviors. This study aims to estimate the rate of HIV as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV infections among Malaysian fishermen, and the risky sexual and injection drug use behaviors that may contribute to these infections. The study also includes an assessment of socio-demographic, occupational and behavioral correlates of testing positive for HIV or HCV, and socio-demographic and occupational correlates of risk behaviors. The study had a cross-sectional design and recruited 406 fishermen through respondent-driven sampling (RDS. Participants self-completed a questionnaire and provided biological specimens for HIV and HCV testing. We conducted and compared results of analyses of both unweighted data and data weighted with the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool (RDSAT. Of the participating fishermen, 12.4% were HIV positive and 48.6% had HCV infection. Contrary to expectations and findings from previous research, most fishermen (77.1% were not sexually active. More than a third had a history of injection drug use, which often occurred during fishing trips on commercial vessels and during longer stays at sea. Of the fishermen who injected drugs, 42.5% reported unsafe injection practices in the past month. Reporting a history of injection drug use increased the odds of testing HIV positive by more than 6 times (AOR = 6.22, 95% CIs [2.74, 14.13]. Most fishermen who injected drugs tested positive for HCV. HCV infection was significantly associated with injection drug use, being older than 25 years, working on a commercial vessel and spending four or more days at sea per fishing trip. There is an urgent need to strengthen current harm reduction and drug treatment programs for Malaysian fishermen who inject drugs, especially among fishermen who work on commercial vessels and engage in deep-sea fishing.

  13. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  14. Leisure-time physical exercise : Prevalence, attitudinal correlates, and behavioral correlates among young Europeans from 21 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Fuller, R; Holte, A; Justo, J; Sanderman, R; Wichstrom, L; Wichstroem, L.

    1997-01-01

    Background. Increasing leisure time physical exercise is a major target of public health programs throughout the developed world, but few international comparisons of exercise habits among people from diverse cultures have been published, The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of

  15. Tattooing among high school students in southern Taiwan: The prevalence, correlates and associations with risk-taking behaviors and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the prevalence and sociodemographics, family and peer correlates of tattooing among high school students in southern Taiwan, and to examine the associations between tattooing and a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors and depression. A total of 9755 high school students (grades 7 to 12 in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of tattooing among the adolescents was calculated. The responses were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis models. It was found that 1% of high school students in southern Taiwan had 1 or more tattoos on their bodies. The older students who were perceived to have low family monitoring and who had friends who drink regularly, used illicit drugs, had a criminal record or were in a gang were more likely to have a tattoo. Tattooing was also found to be associated with violence, weekly alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, dropping out of school, unprotected sex, suicidal ideation/attempt, and depression. The results indicate that several demographics, family and peer factors are associated with adolescent tattooing. Tattooing may be an indicator of risk-taking behaviors in high school students.

  16. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its clinical correlates in a VA primary care behavioral health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Zhang, Jinxin; Phillips, Katharine A

    2015-07-30

    We examined the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care behavioral health clinic. Of 100 Veterans, 11% (95% CI = 6.3-18.6%) had current BDD and 12% (95% CI = 7.0-19.8%) had lifetime BDD. However, only 8.3% of these Veterans had been diagnosed with BDD. BDD was significantly associated with a substantially elevated rate of suicide attempts, major depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This severe disorder appears to be underdiagnosed in VA settings. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Janikian, M; Dreier, M; Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Tzavara, C; Richardson, C; Tsitsika, A

    2015-05-01

    Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3% of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6% of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1% being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident.

  18. Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.

  19. Bad Dream Frequency in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Prevalence, Correlates, and Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

  20. Prevalence of behavioral changes in senile dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Jeronimo Svicero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Owing to improvements in animal welfare, such as in nutrition, preventive medicine, and diagnostic tools, older dogs have become increasingly more prevalent than before. Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of dogs presenting behavioral changes correlated with this growth in the geriatric population. However, many of these owners consider these signs as normal for old age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs related with behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science College of Universidade Estadual Paulista. The owners of 800 old dogs completed a questionnaire about disorientation, changes in social interaction, loss of training (house soiling, changes in the wake-sleep cycle, physical activity, memory, learning, consciousness, and perception. The results showed that the prevalence of behavioral changes in the canine geriatric population was 90.7% of dogs that presented at least one of these behavioral changes, and 22.3% with at least six changes, and with changes in physical activity (58.5% and loss of acquired training (30.2% being the highest percentage groups that were reported by the owners. We concluded that the prevalence of behavioral changes related with aging in the canine geriatric population was high, and that it was important to include questions about behavioral changes during regular veterinary clinical appointments to identify these clinical signs earlier and investigate the possible causes of the cognitive impairment, including neurological diseases, such as Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home ...

  2. Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Schweitzer, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings confirm that PCD is under‐recognized and under‐researched. There appears to be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a reliable measure. Schweitzer RD, O'Brien J, and Burri A. Postcoital dysphoria: Prevalence and psychological correlates. Sex Med 2015;3:229–237.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among new soldiers in the U.S. Army: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Jain, Sonia; Raman, Rema; Sun, Xiaoying; Chiu, Wai Tat; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Gilman, Stephen E; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Rosellini, Anthony J; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide among U.S. Army soldiers has risen dramatically in recent years. Prior studies suggest that most soldiers with suicidal behaviors (i.e., ideation, plans, and attempts) had first onsets prior to enlistment. However, those data are based on retrospective self-reports of soldiers later in their Army careers. Unbiased examination of this issue requires investigation of suicidality among new soldiers. The New Soldier Study (NSS) of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) used fully structured self-administered measures to estimate preenlistment histories of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among new soldiers reporting for Basic Combat Training in 2011-2012. Survival models examined sociodemographic correlates of each suicidal outcome. Lifetime prevalence estimates of preenlistment suicide ideation, plans, and attempts were 14.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. Most reported onsets of suicide plans and attempts (73.3-81.5%) occurred within the first year after onset of ideation. Odds of these lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers were positively, but weakly associated with being female, unmarried, religion other than Protestant or Catholic, and a race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal behaviors among new soldiers are consistent with retrospective reports of preenlistment prevalence obtained from soldiers later in their Army careers. Given that prior suicidal behaviors are among the strongest predictors of later suicides, consideration should be given to developing methods of obtaining valid reports of preenlistment suicidality from new soldiers to facilitate targeting of preventive interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among soldiers: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Stein, Murray B; Heeringa, Steven G; Ursano, Robert J; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-05-01

    The suicide rate among US Army soldiers has increased substantially in recent years. To estimate the lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic, Army career, and psychiatric predictors of suicidal behaviors among nondeployed US Army soldiers. A representative cross-sectional survey of 5428 nondeployed soldiers participating in a group self-administered survey. Lifetime suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. The lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts are 13.9%, 5.3%, and 2.4%. Most reported cases (47.0%-58.2%) had pre-enlistment onsets. Pre-enlistment onset rates were lower than in a prior national civilian survey (with imputed/simulated age at enlistment), whereas post-enlistment onsets of ideation and plans were higher, and post-enlistment first attempts were equivalent to civilian rates. Most reported onsets of plans and attempts among ideators (58.3%-63.3%) occur within the year of onset of ideation. Post-enlistment attempts are positively related to being a woman (with an odds ratio [OR] of 3.3 [95% CI, 1.5-7.5]), lower rank (OR = 5.8 [95% CI, 1.8-18.1]), and previously deployed (OR = 2.4-3.7) and are negatively related to being unmarried (OR = 0.1-0.8) and assigned to Special Operations Command (OR = 0.0 [95% CI, 0.0-0.0]). Five mental disorders predict post-enlistment first suicide attempts in multivariate analysis: pre-enlistment panic disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.8]), pre-enlistment posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.7]), post-enlistment depression (OR = 3.8 [95% CI, 1.2-11.6]), and both pre- and post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder (OR = 3.7-3.8). Four of these 5 ORs (posttraumatic stress disorder is the exception) predict ideation, whereas only post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder predicts attempts among ideators. The population-attributable risk proportions of lifetime mental disorders predicting post

  5. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitude and behavior are correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  7. Correlation between caries prevalence and chronic perodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Entezari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Periodontitis and dental caries may be synergistically associated, negatively associated, or completely independent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these two diseases and investigate the prevalence of dental caries in periodontitis. Methods: This cross- sectional study has been performed in 180 samples in two groups: periodontal and control group during 2012-2013 in Babol Dental School.All 180 patients were divided into two groups, including 90 cases with chronic periodontitis as the periodontal group (PG and 90 cases with healthy gums as the control group ( probing depth between 2- 3 mm (HG.Clinical measurments including Gingival Index ( GI, Bleeding Index( BI, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL, Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD were used to assess the severity of periodontal disease . The clinical features of control group were healthy gums , probing less than 3 mm in depth, and CAL< 1mm . The examination to measure AL was conducted using a Williams’s periodontal probe .In chronic periodontitis group , the patients had GI≥1 and CAL ≥ 1 .The assessment of caries of patients was conducted using bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection , dent on the use of explorer and direct observation. A p-value≤0.05 is considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT in periodontal group was 4.32 ± 0.17, and in healthy group was 2.16 ± 0.17.DFT in males with periodontitis was 4.85 ± 0.17 and in females was 4.3 ± 0.17 ,while the healthy males was 2.54 ± 0.17, and females was 2.25 ± 0.17 therefore, the mean DFT in the periodontal group was more than the healthy group (p≤0.05 . Conclusion : Based on our findings, in patients with periodontitis, more dental carries were more significant than the healthy group.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression: findings from the South African Stress and Health Study. ... This paper attempts to address this gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug progression among South Africans. Method: Data on substance use and other ...

  9. Prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young people in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Timothy L

    2010-02-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships are an important behavioral driver of HIV epidemics. This analysis examines the prevalence and correlates of concurrency among young adults in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa. 13% reported concurrency during their last sexual partnership with variability by sex and race. Concurrency was associated with race, knowledge of a partner's infidelity, and other risky sexual behaviors.

  10. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  11. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of steal...

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... regulating CAM use in Nigeria. Keywords: Cancer patients, complementary and alternative medicine, correlates, .... products, such as herbs and food; manipulative therapies, such as chiropractic and massage; and ..... immunity and hence a better quality of life and treatment outcome.[7] These findings are ...

  13. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Ventricular Arrhythmias on 24 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of ventricular arrhythmias in individuals without apparent heart disease. Method 24-Hour ambulatory electrocardiogram was recorded in 60 apparently healthy subjects with normal echocardiography findings. Premature ventricular complex was analyzed and

  14. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  15. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2 is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.54, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.41, P<0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.42, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.49, P<0.001. Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs.

  16. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence of psychotic-like experiences and symptoms. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general population sample: findings from the South African Stress and. Health Study. H Temmingh1, DJ Stein1, S Seedat2, DR Williams3. 1Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ...

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Maternal Anemia in Rural Sidama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal anemia, a survey was conducted among 700 randomly selected pregnant women in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. The prevalences of anemia, Iron Deficiency (ID) and ID anemia were 31.6%, 17.4% and 8.7%, respectively. The burden of anemia was ...

  18. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris Richard; Tsoumanis, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R 2 = 0.54, P < 0.001; 2008: R 2 = 0.41, P < 0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R 2 = 0.42, P < 0.001; 2008: R 2 = 0.49, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs. PMID:27069710

  19. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively. PMID:29415426

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christine Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-02-06

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  3. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of snoring among adults in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and correlates of snoring in addition to morbidity in an adult population in Nigeria. Design: A cross – sectional survey of 370 young adult and adult living in Abuja, Nigeria.. Data were collected on socio- demographic characteristics, sleep pattern as well as occurrence of snoring, ...

  5. HIV Testing in Recent College Students: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Singer, Barbara J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing were examined in a sample of 957 unmarried recent college students in the United States. Participants were asked about HIV testing, past-six-months sexual activities, lifetime treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STI), past-year health service utilization, and DSM-IV criteria for alcohol and other…

  6. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi. We also assessed associations between relevant explanatory variables and current cigarette smoking among the adolescents. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in. Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005. A.S. MUULA1,4, S. SIZIYA2* and E. RUDATSIKIRA3.

  7. Prevalence And Correlates Of Mental Distress Among Regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student integration in Universities is usually difficult and involves many factors which are potentially stressing. Objective: To assess the prevalence of mental distress (Common mental disorders) among regular undergraduate students of Hawassa University, and to study its correlates Method: This cross sectional study was ...

  8. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  9. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates for mental illness among inmates at Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia. Design: Cross sectional study. Main outcome measure: Mental illness. Results: Of the 206 inmates in Lusaka, 63.1% had current mental illness. Among the factors considered in the ...

  10. 1. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    INTRODUCTION. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for. Mental Illness Among Inmates at Lusaka Central. Prison, Zambia. 1. 2*. Mweene Tembalami Nseluke , S Siziya. 1 Clinical Care Department, Chainama Hills College Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. 2 Public Health Unit, Clinical Sciences Department, School of ...

  11. Prevalence, perception and correlates of low back pain among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common cause of disability worldwide. Healthcare workers are particularly prone to it because of the physical and emotional factors associated with their profession. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, perception and correlates of LBP among healthcare workers in tertiary health ...

  12. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and recognition in an outpatient mental health setting. KM Wyman1,JA Chamberlain1, DJ Castle2. 1Frameworks for Health, St Vincent's Health, Melbourne, Australia. 2Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Health and The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, ...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C seropositivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health care workers are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B and C infections from patients in the course of providing care to them. The study is thus aimed at determining the prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C amongst health care workers of a secondary health care facility in northcentral Nigeria as a ...

  14. Prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance use among adolescents in Botswana. The study was a cross-sectional study in which a random sample of 3,763 students aged 10 to 19 years. A survey questionnaire was self-administered using a ...

  15. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005. ... Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall ...

  16. Prevalence & correlates of tobacco use among adolescents in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Jaisoorya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents reported in this study was relatively lower than those reported from other Indian States. However, it correlates with multiple negative outcomes suggesting a need to promote specific interventions to prevent adolescent tobacco use.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression in a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postpartum depression is a common and disabling disorder seen in new mothers having many deleterious effects on the new mother, the new infant, the father, the family and the society at large. This study determined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of postpartum depression among new ...

  18. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  1. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2013-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165

  2. Prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cynthia C; Blanchard, Chris M; Mummery, W Kerry; Courneya, Kerry

    2015-03-01

    To identify and compare the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
 Cross-sectional, descriptive survey.
 Nova Scotia, Canada.
 741 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
. A stratified sample of 2,063 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors diagnosed from 2003-2011 were identified and mailed a questionnaire. Descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine any correlations among the main research variables. 
 Strength exercise behavior; medical, demographic, and motivational correlates using the Theory of Planned Behavior.
 Of 741 respondents, 23% were meeting the strength exercise guidelines of two or more days per week. Cancer survivors were more likely to meet guidelines if they were younger, more educated, had a higher income, better perceived general health, fewer than two comorbidities, and a healthy body weight. In addition, those meeting guidelines had significantly more favorable affective attitude, instrumental attitude, injunctive norm, perceived behavioral control, planning, and intention. The correlates of strength exercise did not differ by cancer site.
 The prevalence of strength exercise is low among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia and the correlates are consistent across those survivor groups. 
. Nurses should take an active role in promoting strength exercise among cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior, particularly among those survivors at higher risk of not performing strength exercise. 


  3. Prevalence and Polysomnographic Correlates of Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Roth, Thomas; Hudgel, David W.; Budhiraja, Pooja; Drake, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia in subjects with self-reported medical disorders. Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants: Community-based sample of 3282 men and women aged 18 to 65 years old, with a subset who underwent polysomnography. Measurements: Self-reported measures of sleep habits and current health, and polysomnographic sleep variables. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21.4%. The adjusted odds of insomnia were 2.2 times as high in persons with any medical disorders as in those without medical disorders. Specifically, odds of insomnia were higher in people with heart disease (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2-23], P = 0.004), hypertension (1.5 [12-18], P insomnia increased with increasing number of medical disorders. However, polysomnographic sleep was not significantly different in persons with or without medical disorders for most disorders assessed. Conclusion: This large population-based study suggests that insomnia is highly prevalent in diverse chronic medical disorders. However, polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep is present in only a subset of comorbid insomnia populations. Citation: Budhiraja R; Roth T; Hudgel DW; Budhiraja P; Drake CL. Prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia comorbid with medical disorders. SLEEP 2011;34(7):859-867. PMID:21731135

  4. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of skin cancer risk behaviors in Madrid (Spain Prevalencia y factores relacionados con las conductas de riesgo de cáncer de piel en Madrid (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Galán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors in a representative sample of the population of the region of Madrid (Spain. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study based on a telephone survey. A total of 2,007 participants aged 18-64 years completed a questionnaire that included items on knowledge about the risk of skin cancer, sun exposure, the use of ultraviolet (UV lamps and sunburn during the previous year. Logistic regression models were constructed, adjusted for gender, age, educational level and employment status. Results: Sun exposure as a risk factor for skin cancer was identified by 92.3% of participants and artificial tanning by 73.6%. Knowledge of risk factors was greater among university graduates and women (PObjetivo: Estimar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a las conductas relacionadas con el cáncer de piel en una muestra representativa de la Comunidad de Madrid (España. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en encuesta telefónica. Un total de 2.007 personas de 18-64 años completaron un cuestionario sobre conocimiento de riesgos del cáncer de piel, la exposición al sol, el uso de aparatos de bronceado artificial y quemaduras solares durante el último año. Se elaboraron modelos de regresión logística, ajustando por sexo, edad, nivel educativo y situación laboral. Resultados: Un 92,3% identificaron la exposición al sol como un factor de riesgo para el cáncer de piel, disminuyendo al 73,6% para el bronceado artificial. Este conocimiento es mayor entre las personas con educación superior y en las mujeres (p<0,001. El 14,6% estuvieron expuestos al sol en verano durante las horas de máxima radiación ultravioleta (UV, y el 4,3% utilizaron lámparas UV en el último año, siendo más frecuente en las mujeres (p <0,001 y jóvenes (p <0,05. La prevalencia de quemaduras solares fue del 13,2%, siendo menor en las mujeres (odds ratio [OR] de 0,68; IC95%: 0,51-0,90, disminuyendo

  6. Prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among beggars in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among street beggars in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In a survey conducted in Tehran during 2007 to 2008, 4230 men and women beggars were collected by municipality. As a routine approach, we got serologic test for HIV. A questionnaire regarding socio-demographic and injection drug use (IDU behaviors was designed. Results: HIV prevalence was 1% (0.7 -1.3 in the study population. HIV infection was associated with older age (adjusted OR: 0.38 for >50 years, birthplace (adjusted OR: 2.06 and being IDU (adjusted OR: 8.26. Conclusions: Regarding the HIV prevalence and the correlated, we recommend harm reduction programs such as needle exchange, expanding methadone maintenance therapy and renewing education among this population.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Wen Wang; Cecilia L. W. Chan; Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; Paul W. C. Wong; Rainbow T. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  8. Electronic behavior of highly correlated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, A.

    1988-10-01

    This thesis addresses the question of the strongly interacting many-body problem: that is, systems where the interparticle correlations are so strong as to defy perturbative approaches. These subtle correlations occur in narrow band materials, such as the lanthanides and actinides, wherein the f-electrons are so localized that a variety of new phenomena, including intermediate-valence and heavy-fermionic behavior, may occur. As well, one has the alloying problem, where local interactions are paramount in determining the overall behavior. The technique employed in dealing with these systems is the Small Cluster method, wherein the full many-body Hamiltonian for a small grouping of atoms, coupled with periodic boundary conditions, is solved exactly. This is tantamount to solving a bulk crystal at the high points of symmetry in the Brillouin Zone. The mathematical overhead is further reduced by employing the full space group and spin symmetries. By its very nature, the Small Cluster method is well able to handle short-range interactions, as well as the combinatorial complexity of the many-body problem, on an equal footing. The nature of long-range order and phase transition behavior cannot be incorporated, but sometimes clues as to their origin can be discerned. The calculations presented include: a two-band Anderson model for an intermediate-valence system, wherein photoemission and fluctuation behavior is examined; a single-band Hubbard model for a ternary alloy system, such as copper-silver-gold; and a Hubbard model for a heavy- fermion system, wherein Fermi surface, transport, magnetic and superconducting properties are discussed. 148 refs., 31 figs., 24 tabs

  9. Prevalence and correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Zejdush; Kellici, Suela; Mone, Iris; Shabani, Driton; Qazimi, Musa; Burazeri, Genc

    2017-08-01

    In post-war Kosovo, the magnitude of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines is unknown to date. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of continuation of intake of benzodiazepines beyond prescription (referred to as "inappropriate use") in the adult population of Gjilan region in Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gjilan region in 2015 including a representative sample of 780 individuals attending different pharmacies and reporting use of benzodiazepines (385 men and 395 women; age range 18-87 years; response rate: 90%). A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants inquiring about the use of benzodiazepines and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, the prevalence of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was 58%. In multivariable-adjusted models, inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with older age (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7), middle education (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), daily use (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and addiction awareness (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.8). Furthermore, there was evidence of a borderline relationship with rural residence (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7). Our study provides novel evidence about the prevalence and selected correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Gjilan region of Kosovo. Health professionals and policymakers in Kosovo should be aware of the magnitude and determinants of drug misuse in this transitional society.

  10. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623

  11. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J M; Ennett, S T; Ringwalt, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youths. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of shelter youths and a multicity sample of street youths were interviewed. RESULTS: Approximately 28% of street youths and 10% of shelter youths reported having participated in survival sex, which was associated with age, days away from home, victimization, criminal behaviors, substance use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted disease, and pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive and ongoing services are needed to provide resources and residential assistance to enable runaway and homeless youths to avoid survival sex, which is associated with many problem behaviors. PMID:10474560

  13. Population sexual behavior and HIV prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa: missing links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Ryosuke; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-03-01

    Patterns of sexual partnering should shape HIV transmission in human populations. The objective of this study was to assess empirical associations between population casual sex behavior and HIV prevalence, and between different measures of casual sex behavior. An ecological study design was applied to nationally representative data, those of the Demographic and Health Surveys, in 25 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Spearman rank correlation was used to assess different correlations for males and females and their statistical significance. Correlations between HIV prevalence and means and variances of the number of casual sex partners were positive, but small and statistically insignificant. The majority of correlations across means and variances of the number of casual sex partners were positive, large, and statistically significant. However, all correlations between the means, as well as variances, and the variance of unmarried females were weak and statistically insignificant. Population sexual behavior was not predictive of HIV prevalence across these countries. Nevertheless, the strong correlations across means and variances of sexual behavior suggest that self-reported sexual data are self-consistent and convey valid information content. Unmarried female behavior seemed puzzling, but could be playing an influential role in HIV transmission patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, hence the need for early identification of risk factors. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks among secondary school staff in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

  15. Prevalence of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Gracie A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined articles in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" in which results of functional analyses indicated that problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement. Data for 88 (16.9%) of 521 subjects reported in 168 studies met the criteria for multiple control. Data for 11 subjects (2.1%) involved a single response…

  16. Prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia comorbid with medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Roth, Thomas; Hudgel, David W; Budhiraja, Pooja; Drake, Christopher L

    2011-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia in subjects with self-reported medical disorders. Prospective cross-sectional study. Community-based sample of 3282 men and women aged 18 to 65 years old, with a subset who underwent polysomnography. Self-reported measures of sleep habits and current health, and polysomnographic sleep variables. The prevalence of insomnia was 21.4%. The adjusted odds of insomnia were 2.2 times as high in persons with any medical disorders as in those without medical disorders. Specifically, odds of insomnia were higher in people with heart disease (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2-23], P = 0.004), hypertension (1.5 [12-18], P insomnia increased with increasing number of medical disorders. However, polysomnographic sleep was not significantly different in persons with or without medical disorders for most disorders assessed. This large population-based study suggests that insomnia is highly prevalent in diverse chronic medical disorders. However, polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep is present in only a subset of comorbid insomnia populations.

  17. Overweight and obesity in Portuguese children: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R

    2014-11-03

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  18. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-02-14

    Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV) among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%), then physical assault (22.7%) and sexual harassment (1.1%). The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6%) and their relatives (17.5%), followed by colleagues (7.7%) and supervisors (6.3%). Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. Methods The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. Results A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%, then physical assault (22.7% and sexual harassment (1.1%. The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6% and their relatives (17.5%, followed by colleagues (7.7% and supervisors (6.3%. Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong’s local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  1. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of disturbed dreaming in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchat, A; Séguin, J R; Zadra, A

    2014-10-01

    Relatively little is known about nightmares and other forms of disturbed dreaming in children. This article reviews the literature on the prevalence and correlates of nightmares in children and highlights key methodological issues in the field. Results show that regardless of how they are defined and measured, nightmares affect a significant proportion of children of all ages and there is some evidence to suggest that nightmare frequency may peak around the age of 10. Gender differences in nightmare frequency, with girls reporting more nightmares than do boys, tend to appear between the ages of 10 and 15. Although nightmares are associated with a range of psychosocial difficulties (e.g., stress, behavioural problems), elevated anxiety and concomitant sleep-related disorders (e.g., sleepwalking) are among the most robust correlates of nightmares. Very few studies have examined nightmare treatment in children, but promising results have been obtained with imagery rehearsal therapy. Overall, research in the field has been hampered by inconsistent definitions for nightmares, by extensive variability in questionnaire items used to measure nightmare frequency, and by a lack of awareness of how using parents versus children as respondents may impact results. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand how nightmares and their correlates evolve during childhood and adolescence, to delineate their clinical significance, and to develop effective and age-appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Emergency Contraceptive Use in Transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, Dajana; Italia, Salvatore; Burazeri, Genc; Brand, Helmut

    2017-11-06

    Objectives The two emergency contraceptive drugs ("morning-after pill") ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel are available without prescription in many European countries. In Albania, ulipristal acetate is not marketed yet and levonorgestrel has still prescription-only status. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of emergency contraceptive (EMC) use, collect sales figures, and gain information on the women's way of purchasing EMCs in post-communist Albania. Methods For this cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were made accessible to women in Albania in March 2015 by hard copy or online via social networks. Women were asked about lifetime use and last year's use of EMCs, and if they purchased EMCs with or without a prescription. Additionally, pharmacies were contacted and asked about EMC sales figures. Results Of the 205 participating women, 80.5% knew about the availability and use of EMCs, and 15.1% reported EMC use during the previous 12 months. The lifetime prevalence of use was 46.8%. Although having prescription-only status in Albania, 96% of the women bought EMCs without a physician's prescription. Knowledge was significantly lower among the lower educated women and among women residing in small cities. Use of EMCs was significantly higher in women with a weaker financial background and, compared with small cities, in those from large or mid-sized cities. The 54 participating pharmacies (3% of all Albanian pharmacies) reported selling 11 EMCs on average per month. The use of EMCs may be estimated at 0.22 defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Compared to January 2015, EMC sales increased by 17% in February 2016. Conclusions Compared to other European countries, the prevalence of EMC use seems to be higher in Albania. Use and knowledge of EMCs depend on socioeconomic characteristics. It is recommended to switch EMCs to non-prescription status in transitional Albania. © Georg

  4. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  5. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of habitual snoring in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Joo, SoonJae; Kim, JinKwan; Kim, Tak

    2003-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of habitual snoring in senior high school students in Korea. A cross-sectional survey. Ten high schools in the southern part of Seoul, Korea. A total of 3,871 high school students (2,703 male students and 1,168 female students; age range, 15 to 18 years; mean age: male students, 16.8 years; female students, 16.9 years) who were attending the 11th grade. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, school performance, and patterns of sleep and sleep-related disturbances. The overall prevalence of habitual snoring was 11.2% (boys, 12.4%; girls, 8.5%). The mean total sleep time was similar in habitual snorers vs nonsnorers (6.4 and 6.3 h per day, respectively). Frequency of snoring increased significantly with body mass index (BMI) [p performance (p performance was low, there was a 35% excess in the odds of habitual snoring vs those whose school performance was high (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.78). These findings suggest that chronic habitual snoring is associated with multiple factors in adolescents. Whether interventions to modify BMI and smoking can alter snoring habits and related clinical problems warrants further study, particularly as it also may improve academic performance in high school students.

  7. Atlantooccipital Fusion: Prevalence and its Developmental and Clinical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D K; Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Vandana

    2017-06-01

    Atlantooccipital fusion or occipitalization of atlas or assimilation of atlas is a rare or uncommon abnormality recorded in anatomical, morphological and radiological studies. It is usually associated with reduction in dimensions of foramen magnum leading to acute or chronic neurovascular compression and clinical manifestations of varying severity. Though, atlantooccipital fusion is rare but it is important and significant for the physicians and surgeons for their diagnostic and therapeutic approach. To know the prevalence of atlantooccipital fusion in South Asian population predominantly in Central India and its embryological and clinical correlation by reviewing literature and earlier studies. This study included careful examination for the atlantooccipital fusion on total 192 human skulls of both genders, available in the Department of Anatomy AIIMS Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, Department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine of Gandhi Medical Colledge, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India and Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur. Morphometric measurements of the abnormal skulls were done, analysed and recorded. Observations and findings of this study were correlated embryologically and clinically with the results and claims of previous studies and literature, and accordingly the conclusions were drawn. We found only two skulls with atlantooccipital fusion, in overall study of 192 skulls. The first skull showed incomplete atlantooccipital fusion on the left side with little right lateral inclination and missing posterior tubercle/spinous process and adjoining part of posterior arch of atlas, whereas the second skull showed complete atlantooccipital fusion. We conclude that the prevalence of atlantooccipital fusion including complete and incomplete fusion was 1.04%, which is higher than the proclaimed prevalence rate of 0.12% to 0.72%, by the previous studies. In accordance with the fact that the atlantooccipital fusion represents a synostosis between the

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  9. Depression among university students in Kenya: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othieno, Caleb J; Okoth, Roselyne O; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Malla, Lucas O

    2014-08-01

    Depression is a common cause of morbidity but prevalence levels among Kenyan university students are poorly understood. A better understanding of depression and its correlates is essential in planning for appropriate interventions in this population group. A random sample of 923 University of Nairobi students (525 male and 365 female) were interviewed using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables. Depressive symptoms were measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression Scale (CES - D 10). The mean age was 23 (s.d. 4.0). Using a cut-off point of 10, the overall prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms was 35.7% (33.5% males and 39.0% females) and severe depression was 5.6% (5.3% males and 5.1% female). Depressive illness was significantly more common among the first year students, those who were married; those who were economically disadvantaged and those living off campus. Other variables significantly related to higher depression levels included year of study, academic performance, religion and college attended. Logistic regression showed that those students who used tobacco, engaged in binge drinking and those who had an older age were more likely to be depressed. No difference was noted with respect to gender. This was a cross sectional study relying on self report of symptoms and could therefore be inaccurate. Although the study was conducted in the largest university in the country that admits students from diverse backgrounds in the country there could still be regional differences in other local universities. Depression occurs in a significant number of students. Appropriate interventions should be set up in higher institutions of learning to detect and treat these disorders paying particular attention to those at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of apathy in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Benjamin; Montreuil, Michèle; Gargiulo, Marcela; Eymard, Bruno; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc

    2015-08-22

    Apathy in DM1 has long been acknowledged in clinical practice. However, a major drawback is that the concept has been only sparsely explored in previous specific studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of apathy in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), to compare it with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients and normal healthy controls, and explore its relationship to psychopathological features and cognitive function. Levels of apathy in 38 DM1 patients with adult phenotypes were compared with 19 patients with FSHD and 20 matched controls. Patient participants were consecutively recruited, regarding their interdisciplinary annual evaluation at the neuromuscular pathology reference center (Institute of Myology, Paris, France), within an 18-month period. Additional measurements included motor disability, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cognitive abilities. Inter-group comparisons were performed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U Tests. Intra-group comparisons were carried out with the Wilcoxon Signed rank and Friedman tests. Also, Spearman's correlations were used to assess the strength of linear relationships between pairs of variables. The significance level was set at 0.05. Global score of apathy was significantly higher in DM1 patients than in FSHD patients (p fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Apathy is a frequent symptom in DM1 (almost 40 %). It is more prevalent than in a similarly disabled group of patients with FSHD and in controls. Results also show that apathy in DM1 is independent of the psychopathological domain, fatigue, age, and motor disability, but associated to general cognitive status. These results altogether could suggest a central cause for apathy in DM1 rather than an adjustment process to cope with the progressive and debilitating nature of the disease. Data emphasize the importance to evaluate this symptom in routine clinical management of DM1 patients.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of internalizing mental health symptoms among CSHCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Perry, Deborah F

    2010-02-01

    This study provides nationally representative prevalence estimates of internalizing mental health symptoms among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and identifies significant covariates of these symptoms by using multivariate regression. Internalizing symptoms include feeling anxious and depressed. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a nationally representative, parent-reported, cross-sectional survey of 40 465 CSHCN. The presence of internalizing mental health symptoms was assessed by using 2 binary items capturing whether a child had or experienced difficulty with depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other emotional problems. The odds of experiencing internalizing symptoms were assessed by using multivariate regression, controlling for sociodemographic, health-related, and burden-related covariates. A total of 31.9% of CSHCN 3 to 17 years of age experienced internalizing mental health symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression showed internalizing symptoms to be strongly associated with female gender, older age, and frequent activity limitations, as well as externalizing mental health symptoms and conditions with behavioral components. Children with behavior problems had 6 times the odds of internalizing symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.30-6.69]), whereas children with autism spectrum disorder had 3 times the odds (aOR: 3.00 [95% CI: 2.39-3.77]). Increased odds of symptoms also were associated with frequent headaches (aOR: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.45-2.13]) and chronic pain (aOR: 1.46 [95% CI: 1.22-1.75]). Odds of symptoms were greater for children living in households that experienced employment changes or financial burdens resulting from the children's needs. Internalizing mental health symptoms are common among CSHCN. Findings may help caregivers focus screening and prevention efforts for high-risk groups in this heterogeneous population.

  12. Correlates of Prevalent Disability Among HIV-Infected Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo Francisco; Tamez-Rivera, Oscar; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Cuellar-Rodríguez, Jennifer; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Amieva, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    The growing elderly population of HIV-infected patients is leading to a significant epidemiological transition and HIV infection has been proposed as a premature and accelerated aging model rending the individual more susceptible to premature disability. However, the determinants of disability among this emergent population are still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the correlates of prevalent disability in adults ≥50 years with HIV infection. A cross-sectional study of 184 HIV-infected adults receiving ambulatory care in an HIV clinic of a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital in Mexico City was conducted. Disability for instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL) was established. Sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, current CD4(+) cell count, and HIV viral load (VL) were tested as potential determinants of disability. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of both types of disability. The mean age was 59.3 years. All participants were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Of participants 17.9% had disability for IADL and 26.1% for ADL. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that being older; having a lower CD4(+) cell count, and having a detectable HIV VL were independently associated with both types of disability. In addition, educational level was also independently associated with ADL disability. Age, educational level, low CD4(+) cell count, and detectable HIV VL were independently associated with disability. Whether effective and timely antiretroviral therapy will reduce the risk of disability in HIV-infected elderly patients needs to be evaluated.

  13. Depression amongst Nigerian university students. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O; Ola, Bola A; Aloba, Olutayo O; Mapayi, Boladale M; Oginni, Olaleye O

    2006-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of depressive disorder among university students in Western Nigeria. A representative sample of students living in the halls of residence of a federal university (n = 1,206) completed sets of questionnaires on socio-demographic details, problems encountered in the university, alcohol use and smoking. Depressive disorder was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A total of 101 (8.3%) students met the criteria for depressive disorder with 68 (5.6%) having minor depressive disorder and 33 (2.7%) having major depressive disorder. The factors that were significantly associated with depressive disorders in the students include problems with accommodation (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.79-4.16), very large family size (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.42-5.73), female gender (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.46-3.35), heavy cigarette smoking (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.23-6.05) and high level of alcohol consumption (OR 9.44, 95% CI 3.32-26.89). Depression is common among Nigerian university students and significantly associated with sociodemographic factors. An effective model for the prediction of the development of depression in university students need to be developed and evaluated and interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of depression among this population need further research.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. © 2014 APJPH.

  15. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Thrul, Johannes; Gmel, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and psychosocial correlates of, and interventions for, binge drinking. Narrative review. Mostly occurring among young people at weekends, binge drinking increases the risk of both acute (e.g. injuries) and long-term negative consequences (e.g. alcohol disorders). Binge drinkers tend to be extrovert, impulsive and sensation-seeking. Stress, anxiety, traumatic events and depression are also related to binge drinking. Both alcohol-related behaviour of parents and general parenting (e.g. parenting styles, monitoring) are also important. Other major risk factors for binge drinking are frequently spending time with friends who drink, and the drinking norms observed in the wider social environment (e.g. school, community, culture). Emergency departments, birthday parties, fraternities and the workplace serve as settings for interventions; these are increasingly delivered via digital and mobile technology. There is evidence of small-sized effects across approaches (brief interventions, personalised normative feedback, protective behavioural strategies etc.) and populations. A more consistent terminology, investigating multi-level influences and identifying the most effective intervention components are challenges for future research.

  16. Apathy among institutionalized stroke patients: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Almenkerk, Suzanne; Smalbrugge, Martin; Depla, Marja F I A; Eefsting, Jan A; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2015-02-01

    Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke. In the under-researched population of institutionalized stroke patients, we aimed to explore the prevalence of apathy, its clinical correlates, and the relation to the amount of stimulating activities in the nursing home (NH). A cross-sectional, observational study. Dutch NHs. 274 chronic stroke patients. Data were collected through observation lists that were filled out in structured interviews with qualified nurse assistants who knew the residents well. The lists comprised the NH-version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES10), the Barthel Index, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, and sections of the Resident Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities. Attending physicians and therapists provided additional information. Apathy (AES10 score ≥30) was present in 28% of residents. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that this apathy was independently related to (moderate, severe) cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] 11.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.96-25.74], OR 5.54 [95% CI: 2.48-12.40]), very severe ADL-dependency (OR 12.10 [95% CI: 1.35-108.66]), and being >12 hours per day in bed (OR 2.10 [95% CI: 1.07-4.13]). It was not related to depressive mood symptoms (OR 1.75 [95% CI: 0.91-3.37]). Only in residents aged less than 80 years were a higher amount of activities independently related to a lower AES10 score (-0.70 [95% CI: -1.18 to -0.20] points per four extra activities in a 4-week period). Apathy is prevalent in largely one-quarter of institutionalized stroke patients, and that is most strongly related to cognitive impairment in this explorative study. We discuss the need for research on the relation with distinct dimensions of depression and fatigue as partly overlapping constructs, and on (individualized) stimulating activities as a possible intervention method. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Internet Addiction Among College Students in China: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Lin, Li; Zhang, Peichao

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in China and explored the correlations between Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. A total of 1,173 Chinese college students (62.1 percent males, Mage = 19.65 years) were invited to complete a questionnaire containing measures of demographic characteristics, psychosocial correlates, including the quality of the parent-child relationship, propensity for depression, and psychosocial competence, and Internet addictive behaviors. Among the participating students, 15.2 percent were classified as having Internet addiction. Furthermore, students who reported poorer parent-child relationships, higher levels of depression, and lower levels of psychosocial competence were more likely to report behaviors indicative of Internet addiction. Internet addiction was prevalent among college students in China. The significant predictors of Internet addiction were found to include the quality of the family environment (i.e., the quality of the parent-child relationship), personal mental health status (i.e., the existence of depression), and the level of developmental assets (i.e., psychosocial competence). These findings suggest that improving the quality of family life and promoting psychosocial competence among youth can be promising approaches for preventing or/and reducing Internet addiction among college students in China.

  18. Ecological correlates of feather mite prevalence in passerines

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between host ecology and feather mite prevalence was analysed in birds. Feather mites are small arthropods (fam. Pterolichoidea and Analgoidea) commonly found on birds, although the nature of their interactions with the host (commensalism, mutualism or parasitism), still remains unclear. Host body mass and migratory behaviour were unrelated to feather mite prevalence. Contrary to expecta- tion, there was no differences in mite prevalence between colonial and so...

  19. Prevalence and correlates of chronic kidney disease among civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health problem with rising incidence and prevalence ... Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD among Nigerian civil servants was fairly high and was associated with advancing ... including Nigeria, hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus.

  20. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that assessed the prevalence and socio-economic pattern of childhood autism ...

  1. Prevalence, correlates and treatment of nightmares in secondary mental healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nightmares are associated with psychopathology. The prevalence of nightmares in the general population is 2-5%. However, the impact of nightmares when comorbid mental disorders are present is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of nightmares in a population with diverse mental disorders. Over

  2. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease: prevalence, depression, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callesen, M B; Weintraub, D; Damholdt, M F; Møller, A

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic medication administered to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is associated with impulse control disorders, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, and binge eating. Studies indicate a prevalence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease of 6-16%. To estimate the prevalence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and to explore the relation of such behavioral disorders to depression and personality. 490 patients with Parkinson's disease (303 males), identified through the National Danish Patient Registry, were evaluated with: 1) the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; 2) the Geriatric Depression Scale; and 3) the NEO-Personality Inventory. 176 (35.9%) patients reported impulsive and compulsive behaviors sometime during Parkinson's disease (current symptoms in 73, 14.9%). Hereof, 114 (23.3%) reported multiple behavioral symptoms. Patients with behavioral symptoms were significantly younger, were younger at PD onset, had longer disease duration, displayed more motor symptoms, and received higher doses of dopaminergic medication than patients without behavioral symptoms. Furthermore, they reported significantly more depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on neuroticism and lower on both agreeableness and conscientiousness than patients without behavioral symptoms. A history of impulsive and compulsive behaviors are common in Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and have clinical correlates that may allow identification of patients at risk for developing these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physician Behaviors that Correlate with Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Loretto M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of 15 internal medicine residents was observed through a one-way mirror and ratings by the patients of satisfaction with their physicians were obtained. The teaching of caring skills and which physician caring skills affect the patients' satisfaction are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  4. Programmatic correlates of maternal healthcare seeking behaviors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    be biased due to variations in some other factors between the exposure groups that influence maternal health seeking behaviors (for example, education, access to services, urbanization, among others). Accordingly, logistics regression models were implemented afterwards to get the unbiased (adjusted) program effects.

  5. Lumbar spondylolisthesis among elderly men: prevalence, correlates and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denard, Patrick J.; Holton, Kathleen F.; Miller, Jessica; Fink, Howard A.; Kado, Deborah M.; Yoo, Jung U.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective Estimate the prevalence of spondylolisthesis and determine the factors associated with higher or lower prevalence among men aged 65 years or older. Summary of Background Data Spondylolisthesis prevalence is reported to increase with age and to be higher among women than men. Among women aged ≥65 years, prevalence was estimated to be 29%, but no estimates among men of this age have been reported. Methods Lateral lumbar spine radiographs were obtained at baseline and a follow-up visit in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, a cohort of community dwelling men ages ≥ 65 years. Average time between radiographs was 4.6 (±0.4) years. For the present study, 300 men were sampled at random at baseline. Of these, 295 had a usable baseline radiograph; 190 surviving participants had a follow-up radiograph. Spondylolisthesis was defined as a forward slip ≥ 5%. Progression was defined as a 5% increase in slip severity on the follow-up radiograph. Associations of spondylolisthesis prevalence with baseline characteristics were estimated with age-adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals from log binomial regression models. Results The mean (sd) age of the men studied was 74 (±6) years. Prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was 31%. Spondylolisthesis was observed at the L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 levels. In 96% with spondylolisthesis, only one vertebral level was involved. The degree of slip ranged from 5%–28%, and nearly all listhesis was classified as Meyerding grade I. During follow-up, 12% of men with prevalent spondylolisthesis had progression; 12% without baseline spondylolisthesis had new onset. Prevalence did not vary by height, BMI, smoking history, diabetes, or heart disease. However, men with spondylolisthesis more often reported higher levels of physical activity or walking daily for exercise than men without spondylolisthesis. Conclusions Spondylolisthesis may be more common among older men

  6. Prevalence and correlates of treatment utilization among adults with cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Mannelli, Paolo; Swartz, Marvin S

    2017-08-01

    The increase in cannabis potency may have treatment implications for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Given the reported increase in prevalence of cannabis use among adults, there is a need to understand substance use treatment needs for CUD. We examined demographics and behavioral health indicators of adults aged ≥18 years that met criteria for past-year CUD (n=10,943) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We determined prevalence and correlates of past-year treatment use for alcohol/drug, any drug, and cannabis use related problems, to inform treatment efforts for CUD. The majority of adults with past-year CUD were young adults aged 18-25 or men, had low income, and did not attend college. Two-thirds of adults with CUD met criteria for cannabis dependence, which was comparatively common among younger adults, women, low-income or publicly insured adults, and college-educated adults. Nicotine dependence (40.92%) and alcohol (44.07%) or other drug use disorder (19.70%) were prevalent among adults with CUD. Overall, less than 13% of adults with CUD had received alcohol/drug use treatment the past year; only 7.8% received cannabis-specific treatment. There was no significant yearly variation in treatment use prevalence over 9 years. In particular, Asian-Americans, women, and college-educated adults underutilized cannabis-specific treatment. This large sample of adults with CUD reveals pervasive underutilization of cannabis-related treatment, especially in women, married adults, and those with college education, despite a high proportion of comorbid behavioral health problems. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcifications associated with basal cell carcinoma: prevalence, characteristics, and correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodkowska, Elzbieta A; Cribier, Bernard; Peltre, Bernard; Jones, David M; Carlson, J Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Carcinoma-associated calcifications (Ca(2+)) are a common phenomenon. In the skin, basal cell carcinomas (BCC) can be associated with Ca(2+). To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and clinicopathologic correlations of BCC associated with Ca(2+). Eighty-three BCC with Ca(2+) were retrieved, 27 (11.1%) of which were identified from a review of 243 consecutive BCC. Ca(2+) were classified into 4 types: type 1, Ca(2+) within BCC epithelium; type 2, Ca(2+) in BCC keratocysts; type 3, BCC tumor necrosis with Ca(2+); and type 4, free Ca(2+) adjacent to BCC. Clinical and pathologic features were assessed and compared with BCC without Ca(2+). Expression of hair-associated proteins (hair keratins (K31, K32, and K35) and matrical transcription factors (LEF1, HOXC13, and β-catenin) were examined in a subset of BCC with Ca(2+) and compared with matched controls without Ca(2+). Compared with BCC without Ca(2+), BCC with Ca(2+) were significantly more likely to show a nodular keratinizing phenotype with keratocyst formation, background solar elastosis, active regression, and areas of tumor necrosis (all P ≤ 0.03). Comparing all BCC, high-risk BCC (mostly infiltrative) had significantly higher frequency of Ca(2+) than low-risk (mostly nodular) BCC (44% vs. 25%; P = 0.009). The median and mean number of Ca(2+) deposits per specimen were 2 and 3 ± 4, range 1-30. In decreasing frequency, type 2 Ca(2+) (58%), type 4 (53%), type 3 (14%), and type 1 (10%) were found. In 9 cases (11%), type 2 and type 4 Ca(2+) were linearly arranged, ostensibly after a follicular or eccrine duct tract. In 5 cases (6%), initial histologic sections showed type 4 dermal Ca(2+) without evidence of BCC; level sections revealed BCC in the adjacent tissue. Neither BCC with nor BCC without Ca(2+) showed evidence of matrical differentiation by immunophenotypic analysis. A minority of BCC exhibits Ca(2+) that are associated with BCC-related keratin and/or necrosis. Like other follicular-derived tumors

  8. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peds.2013-0763. 5. Bakare MO, Ebigbo PO, Ubochi VN. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: a stopgap assessment. J Health. Care Poor Underserved. 2012; 23:513-8; DOI: 10.1111/ dmcn.

  9. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Matthew H; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Curry, Susanna R; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F

    2018-01-01

    Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13-17 and young adults aged 18-25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18-25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation, ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty ...

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Gender-based Violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Nigeria; 4Chiles Center for Healthy Mothers and Babies, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA. *For correspondence: Email: ... valued human resources. Graduates have added value if they are not only ..... Prevalence and risk factors of gender-based violence among female college students in Awassa,. Ethiopia.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of violence among South African high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Young people grow up in homes and communities where many are exposed daily to crime and antisocial behaviours. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of violence and the demographic factors associated with such violence among South African (SA) high school learners in the uMgungundlovu District, ...

  14. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South Africa. Such data are even sparser for Malawi.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of violence against female sex workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:. Few studies in Africa provide detailed descriptions of the vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) to violence. Objective: To document the prevalence and types of violence experienced by FSWs, identify the risk factors of experiencing violence to women (VAW) and the perpetrators of these acts. Methods: ...

  16. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for statistical analysis. Results: Prevalence of PTSD among the students was 23.5%. Previous childhood trauma and personal experiences during the crisis were significantly associated with having PTSD.

  17. Healthy diet : Health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and

  18. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use disorders. The estimated prevalence of alcohol related problems was 39.4% with 28.8% harmful drinking and 10.6% hazardous drinking (alcohol ...

  19. Prevalence and correlates of aggression among psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of aggression and clinical factors associated with aggression among psychiatric in-patients at Jos University Teaching Hospital. This will help create a good knowledge base about management of these patients. Materials and Methods: All admitted psychiatric ...

  20. Prevalence and social correlates of sexual intercourse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent sexuality is an important public health issue, as it affects risk to contract HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The assessment of prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents is of public health significance, as it may guide policies and programmes aimed at reducing the transmission of sexually ...

  1. The prevalence and correlates of hypertension in a theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 28.3%. Only 8 subjects admitted being known hypertensives, out of whom 6 were on treatment. Fifty three percent (45) of them checked their blood pressure irregularly, while 28 (33%) never did. Twenty six respondents (31%) admitted taking extra table salt, while 39 (46%) ...

  2. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study examined anxiety in people with substance use disorder (SUD) and a psychotic disorder. It is hypothesised that: anxiety disorders (AD) would be highly prevalent (greater than 20%) in people identified as having SUD and psychotic disorders; those with comorbid AD would fair worse than those ...

  3. Choice of place for childbirth: prevalence and correlates of utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and correlatesfor utilization of health facilities for childbirth in a rural Chongwe district, Zambia. Design: A cross sectional study was carried among 250 mothers who had delivered babies within one year prior to the survey. A Backward multiple logistic regression method was used to determine ...

  4. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be the most common psychiatric complication of traumatic experiences.[1] High prevalence rates were reported among students with 12% in the United States,. 11% in Yugoslavia, and 11.6% in Haiti.[2,3]. History of trauma, severity of trauma, female ...

  5. Prevalence and the correlates of postnatal depression in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Postnatal depression is a common cause of morbidity but is rarely diagnosed or managed in busy primary care settings in most resource limited countries like Zimbabwe. Objectives: This study sought to determine the prevalence of postnatal depression and establish factors associated with postnatal depression ...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi- squared test and logistic regression.

  7. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Health and The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Abstract. Objective: The ... use disorder and psychosis is highly prevalent, is associated with poorer outcomes, and is under detected by case managers. ..... 28 days was: alcohol 80% (66/82), cannabis 57% (47/83),.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in- school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-14

    Mar 14, 2013 ... but growing problem globally. Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South ...

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of “High Dose” Antipsychotic Prescribing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High dose antipsychotic prescribing is common in psychiatric care, despite a lack of its benefit from research evidence. While several studies have explored the prevalence and factors associated with high dose antipsychotic prescribing, no such report has emanated from a developing country like Nigeria.

  10. Ten Years Trend Analysis of Malaria Prevalence and its Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were analyzed using SPSS software package 16.0. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to see the correlation between plasmodium species and climatic variables. Within the last decade (2004–2013) a total of 30,070 blood films were examined for malaria in Sire health center and of this 6036 (20.07%) ...

  11. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors from the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, David D; Mayer, Kenneth H; Pequegnat, Willo; Abdala, Nadia; Green, Annette M; Handsfield, H Hunter; Hartwell, Tyler D

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the baseline prevalence and correlates of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and risk behaviors among individuals at high risk for HIV recruited in five low- and middle-income countries. Correlations of risk behaviors and demographic factors with prevalent STDs and the association of STDs with HIV prevalence are examined. Between 2,212 and 5,543 participants were recruited in each of five countries (China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe). Standard protocols were used to collect behavioral risk information and biological samples for STD testing. Risk factors for HIV/STD prevalence were evaluated using logistic regression models. STD prevalence was significantly higher for women than men in all countries, and the most prevalent STD was Herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2). HIV prevalence was generally low (below 5%) except in Zimbabwe (30% among women, 11.7% among men). Prevalence of bacterial STDs was generally low (below 5% for gonorrhea and under 7% for syphilis in all sites), with the exception of syphilis among female sex workers in India. Behavioral and demographic risks for STDs varied widely across the five study sites. Common risks for STDs included female gender, increasing number of recent sex partners, and in some sites, older age, particularly for chronic STDs (i.e., HSV-2 and HIV). Prevalence of HIV was not associated with STDs except in Zimbabwe, which showed a modest correlation between HIV and HSV-2 prevalence (Pearson coefficient = .55). These findings underscore the heterogeneity of global STD and HIV epidemics and suggest that local, focused interventions are needed to achieve significant declines in these infections.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of ADHD among adolescents in a Beirut community sample: results from the BEI-PSY Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghossoub, Elias; Ghandour, Lilian A.; Halabi, Fadi; Zeinoun, Pia; Shehab, Al Amira Safa; Maalouf, Fadi T.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking behavior related to ADHD among adolescents from Lebanon. Methods Five hundred and ten adolescents were recruited through multistage stratified cluster sampling of households in Beirut, and separately interviewed along with one parent/legal guardian, using the DAWBA. All adolescents completed the PRQ and the SDQ; the parent/legal guardian also completed the SDQ and provided basic demographic information,...

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  14. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  16. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of drink driving within patrons of Australian night-time entertainment precincts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashlee; Coomber, Kerri; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nic; Pennay, Amy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    Drink driving is a significant public health concern, and contributes to many road fatalities worldwide. The current study is the first to examine the prevalence and correlates of drink driving behavior in a sample of night-time entertainment precinct attendees in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 4214 night-time entertainment precinct attendees in two metropolitan and three regional cities in Australia. Seven correlates of self-reported drink driving were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), alcohol consumed prior to attending a licensed venue, energy drink consumption, and other drug consumption. Fourteen percent of night-time entertainment precinct attendees reported drink driving in the past three months. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated that males were significantly more likely than females to report drink driving in the past three months. Blue-collar workers and sales/clerical/administrative workers were significantly more likely to report drink driving behavior in the past three months than white-collar workers. The likelihood of reporting drink driving during the three months prior to interview significantly increased as BAC on the current night out increased, and when patrons reported engaging in pre-drinking or other drug use. The multivariate model presented a similar pattern of results, however BAC and pre-drinking on the night of the interview were no longer independent significant predictors. Males, blue collar/sales/clerical/administrative workers, and illicit drug consumers were more likely to report engaging in drink driving behavior than their counterparts. Interventions should focus on addressing the considerable proportion night-time entertainment precinct attendees who report engaging in drink driving behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, distribution, and correlates of hepatitis C virus infection among homeless adults in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Robertson, Marjorie J; Arangua, Lisa; Leake, Barbara D; Sumner, Gerald; Moe, Ardis; Andersen, Ronald M; Morgenstern, Hal; Nyamathi, Adeline

    2012-01-01

    We documented the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among urban homeless adults. We sampled a community-based probability sample of 534 homeless adults from 41 shelters and meal programs in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed and tested for HCV, hepatitis B, and HIV. Outcomes included prevalence, distribution, and correlates of HCV infection; awareness of HCV positivity; and HCV counseling and treatment history. Overall, 26.7% of the sample tested HCV-positive and 4.0% tested HIV-positive. In logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of HCV infection for the total sample included older age, less education, prison history, and single- and multiple-drug injection. Among lifetime drug injectors, independent predictors of HCV infection included older age, prison history, and no history of intranasal cocaine use. Among reported non-injectors, predictors of HCV infection included older age, less education, use of non-injection drugs, and three or more tattoos. Sexual behaviors and snorting or smoking drugs had no independent relationship with HCV infection. Among HCV-infected adults, nearly half (46.1%) were unaware of their infection. Despite the high prevalence of HCV infection, nearly half of the cases were hidden and few had ever received any HCV-related treatment. While injection drug use was the strongest independent predictor, patterns of injection drug use, non-injection drug use, prison stays, and multiple tattoos were also independent predictors of HCV. Findings suggest that urgent interventions are needed to screen, counsel, and treat urban homeless adults for HCV infection.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of apathy in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gallais, Benjamin; Montreuil, Mich?le; Gargiulo, Marcela; Eymard, Bruno; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Apathy in DM1 has long been acknowledged in clinical practice. However, a major drawback is that the concept has been only sparsely explored in previous specific studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of apathy in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), to compare it with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients and normal healthy controls, and explore its relationship to psychopathological features and cognitive function. Methods Levels of apathy in 38 DM1 patients with adul...

  20. PTSD, cyberbullying and peer violence: prevalence and correlates among adolescent emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Patena, John V; Nugent, Nicole; Spirito, Anthony; Boyer, Edward; Zatzick, Douglas; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often underdiagnosed and undertreated among adolescents. The objective of this analysis was to describe the prevalence and correlates of symptoms consistent with PTSD among adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department (ED). A cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 13-17 years presenting to the ED for any reason was conducted between August 2013 and March 2014. Validated self-report measures were used to measure mental health symptoms, violence exposure and risky behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine adjusted differences in associations between symptoms consistent with PTSD and predicted correlates. Of 353 adolescents, 23.2% reported current symptoms consistent with PTSD, 13.9% had moderate or higher depressive symptoms and 11.3% reported past-year suicidal ideation. Adolescents commonly reported physical peer violence (46.5%), cyberbullying (46.7%) and exposure to community violence (58.9%). On multivariate logistic regression, physical peer violence, cyberbullying victimization, exposure to community violence, female gender and alcohol or other drug use positively correlated with symptoms consistent with PTSD. Among adolescents presenting to the ED for any reason, symptoms consistent with PTSD, depressive symptoms, physical peer violence, cyberbullying and community violence exposure are common and interrelated. Greater attention to PTSD, both disorder and symptom levels, and its cooccurring risk factors is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Distruptive Behaviour Disorders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The mean age was 17.3 ± 2.1 years, 52.8% were between 11-14 years of age and 15.1%, 64.2% and 60.4% had ADHD, CD and oppositional defiant behaviour disorder respectively. Age and parents' marital status were significant correlates. Conclusion: This study showed that juvenile detainees were likely to ...

  3. Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Background In most western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence in most is cannabis dependence. Historically, cannabis has been associated with several music genres, and the drug is widely used at music festivals. Methods Based on a survey of 380 music festival......), and of these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to non-dependent cannabis users, the cannabis dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, they reported having attended fewer music festivals during their lifetime, and they scored higher on self-reported sensation...... at a music festival, one in seven of those respondents showed indication of cannabis dependence. This suggests a need for both available treatment options and primary prevention of dependence....

  4. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college...... students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based...... with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware...

  5. Social phobia in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Melissa Chagas; Costa, Daniel Lucas da Conceição; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2012-12-20

    Social Phobia (SP) is an anxiety disorder that frequently co-occurs with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, studies that evaluate clinical factors associated with this specific comorbidity are rare. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of SP in a large multicenter sample of OCD patients and compare the characteristics of individuals with and without SP. A cross-sectional study with 1001 patients of the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders using several assessment instruments, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Univariate analyses were followed by logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence of SP was 34.6% (N=346). The following variables remained associated with SP comorbidity after logistic regression: male sex, lower socioeconomic status, body dysmorphic disorder, specific phobia, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, Tourette syndrome and binge eating disorder. The cross-sectional design does not permit the inference of causal relationships; some retrospective information may have been subject to recall bias; all patients were being treated in tertiary services, therefore generalization of the results to other samples of OCD sufferers should be cautious. Despite the large sample size, some hypotheses may not have been confirmed due to the small number of cases with these characteristics (type 2 error). SP is frequent among OCD patients and co-occurs with other disorders that have common phenomenological features. These findings have important implications for clinical practice, indicating the need for broader treatment approaches for individuals with this profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Lorrin M; Faber, Ronald J; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T

    2006-10-01

    Compulsive buying (uncontrolled urges to buy, with resulting significant adverse consequences) has been estimated to affect from 1.8% to 16% of the adult U.S. population. To the authors' knowledge, no study has used a large general population sample to estimate its prevalence. The authors conducted a random sample, national household telephone survey in the spring and summer of 2004 and interviewed 2,513 adults. The interviews addressed buying attitudes and behaviors, their consequences, and the respondents' financial and demographic data. The authors used a clinically validated screening instrument, the Compulsive Buying Scale, to classify respondents as either compulsive buyers or not. The rate of response was 56.3%, which compares favorably with rates in federal national health surveys. The cooperation rate was 97.6%. Respondents included a higher percentage of women and people ages 55 and older than the U.S. adult population. The estimated point prevalence of compulsive buying among respondents was 5.8% (by gender: 6.0% for women, 5.5% for men). The gender-adjusted prevalence rate was 5.8%. Compared with other respondents, compulsive buyers were younger, and a greater proportion reported incomes under 50,000 US dollars. They exhibited more maladaptive responses on most consumer behavior measures and were more than four times less likely to pay off credit card balances in full. A study using clinically valid interviews is needed to evaluate these results. The emotional and functional toll of compulsive buying and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders suggests that studies of treatments and social interventions are warranted.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska; Figueira, Ivan; Maia, Deborah; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Quintana, Ines M; Mello, Marcelo F; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Andreoli, Sergio B

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Individuals aged 60 to 75. Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rumble: Prevalence and Correlates of Group Fighting among Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt DeLisi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Group fighting is portrayed as a piece of Americana among delinquent youth, but the behavior produces significant multifaceted negative consequences. The current study examines the heterogeneity and correlates of group fighting using national-level data. Method. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2013 (n = 216,852, we examine links between group fighting and temperamental, parental, and academic factors as well as other externalizing behaviors (i.e., violence, crime, substance use. Results. The prevalence of group fighting in the United States is 14.8% with 11.33% reporting 1–2 group fights and 3.46% reporting 3+ group fights. A clear severity gradient in school functioning and academic performance, sensation seeking, parental disengagement, violence and delinquency, and substance use disorders is seen in the normative, episodic, and repeat offender groups. Conclusions. Youths who participate in 3+ group fights display the exceptionality and severity of other serious/chronic/habitual antisocial youth which suggests that group fighting should be considered a significant indicator of developing criminality.

  10. Prevalence and Health Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer Gillette, Meredith L; Borner, Kelsey B; Nadler, Cy B; Poppert, Katrina M; Odar Stough, Cathleen; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Davis, Ann M

    2015-09-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for overweight and obesity, but little information is known about correlates of overweight and obesity in this population. This study compared prevalence rates of parent-reported overweight and obesity and specific health behaviors (i.e., parent report of child sleep, family meal patterns, child screen time, and child physical activity) among children with ASD (N = more than 900 [weighted to represent 690,000; age 10-17]) compared with children without ASD using data from a nationally representative sample. Additionally, the relationship between specific health behaviors (i.e., child sleep, family meals, screen time, and physical activity) and weight status was examined in the ASD population. Data were from the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012. Results indicate that children with ASD were more likely to be obese but not more likely to be overweight than non-ASD youth. Children with ASD engaged in physical activity less than children without ASD, but no differences were found on sleep, most measures of screen time, and mealtimes. However, parent perceived poorer sleep was associated with increased weight status, and fewer family meals were associated with normal weight status among children with ASD.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of screen time in youth: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Andrew J; Sharp, Stephen J; Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2014-12-01

    Screen time (including TV viewing/computer use) may be adversely associated with metabolic and mental health in children. To describe the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of screen time in an international sample of children aged 4-17 years. Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database were collected between 1997-2009 and analyzed in 2013. Participants were 11,434 children (48.9% boys; mean [SD] age at first assessment, 11.7 [3.2] years). Exposures were sex, age, weight status, maternal education, and ethnicity. The outcome was self- or proxy-reported screen time 2 hours/day. Analyses were conducted initially at study level and then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Within each contributing study, at least two thirds of participants exceeded 2 hours/day of screen time. In meta-analytic models, overweight or obese children were more likely to exceed 2 hours/day of screen time than those who were non-overweight (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.33,1.88). Girls (vs boys: 0.65; 0.54, 0.78) and participants with more highly educated mothers (vs educational attainment. The population-attributable risk associated with this exposure is potentially high; further efforts to understand the determinants of within- and between-country variation in these behaviors and inform the development of effective behavior change intervention programs is warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Dupuis, Lorette C; Ray, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is a potentially preventable public health issue. It is therefore important to examine its immediate precursors, including suicidal ideation and attempts, to help in the development of future public health interventions. The present study reports the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in the past 12 months in children and adolescents and identifies correlates of such behaviors in a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students. Data were drawn from a representative sample of Ottawa students (n=1922) aged 11-20 years (14.4±1.9 years) from three cycles (2009, 2011 and 2013) of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a cross-sectional school-based appraisal of students in grades 7-12 across Ontario, Canada. Overall, 10.8% of students exhibited suicidal ideation and 3.0% reported suicide attempts in the past 12 months. The conditional probability of making an attempt was 25.5% among suicide ideators. Multivariable analyses indicated that being a girl and using alcohol and cannabis were positively associated with suicidal ideation, while tobacco was positively associated with suicide attempts. Being a victim of school bullying was significantly associated with reports of suicidal ideation and attempts, whereas school connectedness had protective effects against both suicidal ideation and attempts. These results indicate that suicidal ideation and attempts are related to other risky behaviors. Suicide-prevention efforts should be integrated within broader health-promoting initiatives.

  13. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Persons in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Socías, María Eugenia; Kerr, Thomas; Zalazar, Virginia; Sued, Omar; Arístegui, Inés

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the lifetime prevalence and correlates of attempted suicide among transgender persons in Argentina. Data were derived from a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. We assessed individual, social, and structural correlates of reporting a history of attempting suicide using logistic regression. Among 482 participants, the median age was 30, 91% identified as transwomen, and 32% resided in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 159 (33%), among whom the median age at first attempt was 17. In a multivariate model, internalized stigma was positively associated with a history of suicidal behavior, while participants with stable housing had reduced odds of prior suicide attempt(s). These findings suggest that reducing stigma and mitigating structural vulnerabilities (through, for example, the enactment and enforcement of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender identity to ensure equitable access to housing) could be effective targets for intervention to reduce suicide attempts among transgender individuals in Argentina.

  15. Sexual infidelity in China: prevalence and gender-specific correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Parish, William L; Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

    2012-08-01

    The nature of extra-relational sex in societies with rapidly changing sexual mores and widespread commercial sex remains under-explored. The 2006 Sexuality Survey of China provides a national probability survey with data on 3,567 people 18-49 years old who were in a marital (89%) or dating/cohabiting (11%) relationship. In attitudes, extramarital sex was completely unacceptable to 74% of women and 60% of men and either somewhat or completely unacceptable to 95% of women and men. Most (77%) women wanted severe punishment of men's short-term commercial sex and women's jealousy was equally elevated by their primary partner's episodes of commercial and non-commercial sex. Nevertheless, the prevalence of infidelity during the last 12 months was 4.5% (women's non-commercial sex), 11.0% (men's non-commercial), and 5.5% (men's commercial), with each percent matching or exceeding the median for other countries. In multivariate equations for non-commercial infidelity, men's infidelity was significantly more responsive to sexual dissatisfaction with his primary partner while women's was more responsive to deficits in love. In commercial sex, men were uninfluenced by primary partner deficits in love, sexual satisfaction or oral sex-pursuing, it would seem, simply a greater variety of sexual partners. In a "trading up" pattern, women partnered with low income men had elevated infidelity. The minority of women reporting early masturbation and premarital sex were just as likely as men with these backgrounds to have elevated infidelity. The Chinese patterns provide ample material for deliberations on gender similarities and differences in extra-relational sex.

  16. Prevalence, predictors and correlates of insomnia in US army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Brownlow, Janeese A; Boland, Elaine M; Mosti, Caterina; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. The results highlight significant functional difficulties associated with insomnia among US soldiers, as well as insights into predictors of insomnia specific to this population. Insomnia was present in 22.76% of the sample. Predictors of insomnia status in logistic regression included greater number of current mental health disorders, less perceived open lines of communication with leadership, less unit member support and less education. Insomnia had global, negative associations with health, social functioning, support, morale, work performance and Army career intentions. The results provide the strongest evidence to-date that insomnia is common in a military population, and is associated with a wide array of negative factors in the domains of health, military readiness and intentions to remain in military careers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Mendoza, Doroteo V.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery) against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico. Methods FSWs (N = 1,089) who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura) were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs) were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence. Results The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%), physical (11.8%), economic (16.9%), and any violence (22.6%). Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs’ alcohol use score (AUDIT-C) was associated with economic violence only. Conclusions Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients), enhancement of FSWs’ community-based supports, development of interventions

  18. Prevalence of behaviors related to cigarette-caused fires: a survey of Ontario smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, R J; Bauer, J E; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Hyland, A; Fong, G T; Cummings, K M

    2007-08-01

    To identify the prevalence and correlates of behaviors related to the risk of cigarette-caused fires. Random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Ontario, Canada, July-September, 2005. 596 current cigarette smokers. Prevalence of fire-risk events and behaviors such as burning clothing or objects in the home, leaving lit cigarettes unattended, dozing while smoking, and smoking in bed and correlates of these behaviors. Respondents were also asked if they ever worry about cigarette-caused fires. One in four smokers admitted to leaving lit cigarettes unattended in the last 30 days, while 15% admitted to smoking while in bed. Leaving lit cigarettes unattended was independent of demographic, socioeconomic or nicotine dependence indicators, but was related to worry about burning other persons with a cigarette (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.85) and smoking inside the home (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.66 to 5.35). Persons who were not white (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.80 to 8.80), aged 18-24 years (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.41 to 9.96), who had high nicotine dependence (OR 9.13, 95% CI 2.22 to 37.52) and worried about burning objects in their home (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.52) were more likely to smoke in bed. 10 (1.7%) smokers reported having ever had a fire in their home started by a cigarette. Smokers engage in behaviors such as smoking in bed and leaving lit cigarettes unattended that may place them at an increased risk of cigarette-caused fires. As governments move to regulate cigarette ignition propensity, it is important to establish surveillance for behaviors related to fire risk.

  19. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.

  20. Violent behavior during sleep: prevalence, comorbidity and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Schenck, Carlos H

    2010-10-01

    Violent behaviors during sleep (VBS) are consequences of several sleep disorders but have received little attention in epidemiologic studies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of VBS in the general population and their comorbidity, familial links, course and treatment. Random stratified sample of 19,961 participants, 15 years and older, from the general population of Finland, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL Expert System. They answered a questionnaire on VBS, their consequences and treatment. Parasomnias and sleep and mental disorders were also evaluated. VBS was reported by 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 1.4-1.7%) of the sample. VBS was higher in subjects younger than 35 years. During VBS episodes, 78.7% of VBS subjects reported vivid dreams and 31.4% hurt themselves or someone else. Only 12.3% of them consulted a physician for these behaviors. In 72.8% of cases, VBS were associated with other parasomnias (highest odds of VBS for sleepwalking and sleep terrors). Family history of VBS, sleepwalking and sleep terrors was reported more frequently in VBS than in non-VBS subjects with odds of 9.3, 2.0 and 4.2, respectively. VBS are frequent in the general population and often associated with dream-enactment, sleepwalking and sleep terrors. High frequency of VBS, sleepwalking and sleep terrors in family of VBS subjects indicated that some families have a greater vulnerability to sleep disorders involving motor dyscontrol. Subjects who consulted a physician for these behaviors mostly received inappropriate or no support, indicating a lack of knowledge about VBS.

  1. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2010-07-12

    Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446) filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk) were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to) an accident. Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  2. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  3. Neuronal long-range temporal correlations and avalanche dynamics are correlated with behavioral scaling laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palva, M.J.; Zhigalov, A.; Hirvonen, J.; Korhonen, O.; Palva, S.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Scale-free fluctuations are ubiquitous in behavioral performance and neuronal activity. In time scales from seconds to hundreds of seconds, psychophysical dynamics and the amplitude fluctuations of neuronal oscillations are governed by power-law-form longrange temporal correlations (LRTCs). In

  4. Video Game Addiction among High School Students in Hordaland; Prevalence and Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Bjordal, Sunniva Alsvik; Skumsnes, Toril; Ørland, Anette

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of video game addiction among high school students (N = 531) in Hordaland county, Norway. Video game addiction measured by the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents was estimated both by a monothetic and a polythetic format. The prevalence was found to be 2.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Regression analyses were conducted where video game addiction comprised the dependent variable. Demographic variables, depression, anxiety, lone...

  5. School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-09-25

    School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention.

  6. School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention. PMID:28946682

  7. Prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among students attending a midsize rural university in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton-López, Megan M; López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Cancel-Tirado, Doris I; Vazquez, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and identify correlates of food insecurity among students attending a rural university in Oregon. Cross-sectional nonprobability survey of 354 students attending a midsize rural university in Oregon during May, 2011. The main outcome was food insecurity measured using the US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module: 6-Item Short Form. Socioeconomic and demographic variables were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Over half of students (59%) were food insecure at some point during the previous year. Having fair/poor health (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-4.63), being employed (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.04-2.88), and having an income grade point average of ≥ 3.1) was inversely associated with food insecurity. Food insecurity seems to be a significant issue for college students. It is necessary to expand research on different campus settings and further strengthen support systems to increase access to nutritious foods for this population. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive, Emotional, Temperament, and Personality Trait Correlates of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.

  9. Sexual behavior and its correlates after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Schöttle, Daniel; Krueger, Richard; Briken, Peer

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of permanent disability in young adults and is frequently accompanied by changes in sexual behaviors. Satisfying sexuality is an important factor for overall quality of life in people with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to review the studies evaluating the assessment, correlates and management of sexuality following TBI. The Brain Injury Questionnaire of Sexuality is the first validated questionnaire specifically developed for adults with TBI. A considerable amount of individuals with TBI show inappropriate sexual behaviors and sexual dysfunctions. Whereas inappropriate sexual behaviors are related to younger age, less social participation and more severe injuries, sexual dysfunctions show an association with higher fatigue, higher depression scores, less self-esteem and female sex. Healthcare professionals have suggested that because of discomfort at the individual or institutional level, sexual problems are often not sufficiently addressed and have suggested that a specialist should treat sexual problems. Although some important correlates of sexual problems could be identified, methodological differences across studies limit their comparability. Furthermore, there is an absence of evidence-based treatment strategies for addressing sexual problems. Therapeutic efforts should take into account the identified correlates of sexual problems following TBI.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of "Vaping" as a route of cannabis administration in medical cannabis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., "vaping") as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=1485M age=45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use. An estimated 39% (n=511) of the sample reported past-month cannabis vaping, but vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration was rare. Specifically, only 30 participants (2.3% of the full sample and 5.9% of those who reported any vaping) indicated vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration. The majority (87.3%) of those who reported vaping also reported smoking (combustion) as a route of cannabis administration. Being younger than age 44, having more than a high school education, engaging in nonmedical stimulant use, being a returning medical cannabis patient, and greater frequency of cannabis use were associated with higher odds of vaping at the bivariate level and with all variables considered simultaneously. Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration. highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Müller

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15, the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4, and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49% acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020. Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4, higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15, and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self

  13. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. B. Matovu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and

  14. Racial/ethnic differences in the rates and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Audrey J; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Meade, Christina S; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Calsyn, Donald A; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection disproportionately impacts minorities; yet research on racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors is limited. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the rates of HIV risk behaviors and whether the relationship between HIV risk factors and HIV risk behaviors varies by race/ethnicity in clients participating in NIDA Clinical Trials Network trials. The sample was 41% non-Hispanic White, 32% non-Hispanic Black, and 27% Hispanic (N = 2,063). HIV risk behaviors and measures of substance and psychosocial HIV risk factors in the past month were obtained. Non-Hispanic Blacks engaged in less HIV sexual risk behaviors overall than non-Hispanic Whites. While non-Hispanic Whites were the most likely to report any injection drug use, Hispanics engaged in the most HIV drug risk behaviors. Specific risk factors were differentially predictive of HIV risk behavior by race/ethnicity. Alcohol use severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites. Greater psychiatric severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites. Drug use severity was associated with engaging in higher risk drug behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics with the magnitude of the relationship stronger for Hispanics. These findings highlight the need for further research testing HIV risk prevention interventions within racial/ethnic groups to identify target behaviors or risk factors that are salient to inform HIV interventions. The present study provides a systematic examination of race/ethnicity differences in the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and HIV risk behaviors. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Goldblatt

    Full Text Available Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya.We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13-21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV.The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%, helping market vendors (55%, begging (17%, and working as porters (46% or domestic workers (4%. Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3-7.0 participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2-67.5 and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-19.0, were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6-29.4 and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1-13.4 were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection.Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV infection that offer opportunities for targeted

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Ariella; Kwena, Zachary; Lahiff, Maureen; Agot, Kawango; Minnis, Alexandra; Prata, Ndola; Lin, Jessica; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. Methods We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13–21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV. Results The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%), helping market vendors (55%), begging (17%), and working as porters (46%) or domestic workers (4%). Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3–7.0) participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR) = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2–67.5) and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1–19.0), were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6–29.4) and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1–13.4) were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Ariella; Kwena, Zachary; Lahiff, Maureen; Agot, Kawango; Minnis, Alexandra; Prata, Ndola; Lin, Jessica; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Auerswald, Colette L

    2015-01-01

    Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13-21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV. The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%), helping market vendors (55%), begging (17%), and working as porters (46%) or domestic workers (4%). Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3-7.0) participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR) = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2-67.5) and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-19.0), were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6-29.4) and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1-13.4) were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection. Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV infection that offer opportunities for targeted prevention

  18. Sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Delia L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of Methods We identified 1200 participants using two-stage cluster sampling. Demographic, social, sexual, and knowledge of HIV/AIDS data were obtained in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The prevalence of sexual behaviors was described in relation to gender, and the correlates of ever having had sex and nonuse of condom at last sex were analyzed using logistic regression. Results In the target population, 30.9% of males and 9.7% of females reported a history of sexual intercourse. Of the currently sexually active participants, 50.6% of men and 71.2% of women did not use condoms at their last sexual encounter. Logistic regression revealed that work experience and marijuana use were significantly associated with men's sexual experience, whereas being out of school and drinking experience were significantly associated with women's sexual experience. For both men and women, being Christian and visiting nightclubs were associated with having ever had sexual intercourse (P Conclusion Young people in Mauritius are at risk of a future HIV epidemic because behaviors predisposing to HIV infection are prevalent among sexually experienced youth. A focused prevention program targeting young people should be reinforced as part of the National AIDS Control Program, taking into account the predictors of sexual behaviors identified here.

  19. Obesity in preschoolers: behavioral correlates and directions for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Stark, Lori J

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 14% of American preschoolers (ages 2-5) are obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and gender), yet this group has received little attention in the obesity intervention literature. This review examines what is known about behavioral correlates of obesity in preschoolers and the developmental context for lifestyle modification in this age group. Information was used to critically evaluate existing weight management prevention and intervention programs for preschoolers and formulate suggestions for future intervention research development. A systematic search of the medical and psychological/behavioral literatures was conducted with no date restrictions, using PubMed, PsycInfo, and MEDLINE electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant manuscripts. Evidence suggests several modifiable behaviors, such as sugar sweetened beverage intake, television use, and inadequate sleep, may differentiate obese and healthy weight preschoolers. Developmental barriers, such as food neophobia, food preferences, and tantrums challenge caregiver efforts to modify preschoolers' diet and activity and parental feeding approaches, and family routines appear related to the negative eating and activity patterns observed in obese preschoolers. Prevention programs yield modest success in slowing weight gain, but their effect on already obese preschoolers is unclear. Multi-component, family-based, behavioral interventions show initial promise in positive weight management for already obese preschoolers. Given that obesity intervention research for preschoolers is in its infancy, and the multitude of modifiable behavioral correlates for obesity in this age group, we discuss the use of an innovative and efficient research paradigm (Multiphase Optimization Strategy; MOST) to develop an optimized intervention that includes only treatment components that are found to empirically reduce obesity in preschoolers.

  20. The prevalence and correlates of consanguineous marriages in Yemen: similarities and contrasts with other Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdi, Rozzet; Saxena, Prem C

    2003-01-01

    Using data on 9762 women from the 1997 Yemen Demographic and Maternal and Child Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of consanguineous marriages in Yemen. The results indicate that 40% of marriages are consanguineous, over 85% of which are between first cousins. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages appears to have increased over time, particularly for the last marriage cohort. As for socioeconomic correlates, the study confirms the inverse association between consanguineous marriages and women's education and occupation, age at marriage and economic status. However, no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of consanguinity has been found by place of residence and geographical region. Somewhat unexpected results have been obtained by husband's background characteristics, with higher educated men and those working in the modern sector of the economy being more likely to be married to cousins.

  1. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld Hoeve

    Full Text Available Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23, correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16, and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8. Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents, lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult debt or financial problems.

  2. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijk, Renate M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients are common and are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: Psychotropic drug use of 1322

  4. prevalence and correlates of job stress among junior doctors in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan. 2. Department ... some find it stimulating while others find it stressful. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in ... on job stress were adapted from an article by Cary. Cooper et al ...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of job stress among junior doctors in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional survey of all junior doctors employed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. Information was collected with a structured ...

  6. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijk, R.M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients are common and are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: Psychotropic drug use of 1322

  7. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with

  8. Correlation of Electronic Health Records Use and Reduced Prevalence of Diabetes Co-Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The general problem is Native American tribes have high prevalence rates of diabetes. The specific problem is the failure of IHS sites to adopt EHR may cause health care providers to miss critical opportunities to improve screening and triage processes that result in quality improvement. The purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to…

  9. Prevalence of Insomnia and Its Psychosocial Correlates among College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C. Y.; Wong, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of insomnia and its psychosocial correlates among college students in Hong Kong. Participants: A total of 529 Hong Kong college students participated in the study. Methods: Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Revised Life…

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutte, A.; van Splunter, M.M.I.; van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; Welschen, L.M.C.; Elders, P.J.M.; Dekker, J.M.; Snoek, F.J.; Enzlin, P.; Nijpels, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction in a sample of Dutch men and women with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years from 4 Dutch diabetes centers were asked to complete self-report questionnaires covering

  11. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  12. Innocent Cardiac Murmur in Puppies : Prevalence, Correlation with Hematocrit, and Auscultation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, V; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of innocent cardiac murmurs in clinically healthy puppies, to investigate a possible correlation between the presence of an innocent murmur and hematocrit, and to describe the auscultation characteristics of innocent murmurs.

  13. A Study On Correlation Between Fertility And Contraceptive Prevalence In Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Verma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:(1    To find the contraceptive prevalence in different reproductive age group females.(2    What is the correlation between fertility pattern and contraceptive prevalence.Study Design : Cross sectional descriptive study.Setting : Community Development block Sarojini Nagar, Lucknow district.Study universe : Married females in reproductive age group (15-49 Years.Study variables : Age, fertility, contraceptive prevalence, education and social class.Statistical analysis : Chi Square test.Result : Contraceptive prevalence was 29.7%. It was 6.5% for women aged 15-19 year to 45.2% for women aged 35­39 years. The acceptors were analyzed based on the number of living children. 74% of the acceptors had 3 or more children as against 26% with 0 to 2 living children.

  14. The neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Michelle; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; van der Meulen, Mara; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-04-01

    Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7-10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant's profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N=19, N=28 and N=27) and combined the results meta-analytically. Negative social feedback resulted in the most behavioral aggression, with large combined effect-sizes. Whole brain condition effects for each separate sample failed to show robust effects, possibly due to the small samples. Exploratory analyses over the combined test and replication samples confirmed heightened activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after negative social feedback. Moreover, meta-analyses of activity in predefined regions of interest showed that negative social feedback resulted in more neural activation in the amygdala, anterior insula and the mPFC/anterior cingulate cortex. Together, the results show that social motivation is already highly salient in middle childhood, and indicate that the SNAT is a valid paradigm for assessing the neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Apathy in Frontotemporal Dementia: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Eslinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of goal-directed motivational change in the form of apathy in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD, particularly those with behavioral variant social and executive deficits (bvFTD. Standardized behavioral inventory was employed to survey and compare apathy ratings from patients and caregivers. In cases of bvFTD, apathy ratings were further related to measures of social cognition, executive function, and atrophy on brain MRI. Results indicated that caregivers rated bvFTD patients as having significantly elevated apathy scores though patient self-ratings were normal. Caregiver and self-ratings of FTD samples with progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic dementia did not differ from healthy controls and their informants. In the bvFTD sample, caregiver apathy scores were not correlated with general cognitive screening or depression scores, but were significantly correlated with social cognition and executive function measures. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that apathy ratings in bvFTD were related to prominent atrophy in the right caudate (including the ventral striatum, the right temporo-parietal junction, right posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri, and left frontal operculum- anterior insula region. Findings suggest that bvFTD is associated with a significant breakdown in goal-directed motivated behavior involving disruption of cortical-basal ganglia circuits that is also related to social and executive function deficits.

  16. The neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Achterberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7–10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT. Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant’s profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N = 19, N = 28 and N = 27 and combined the results meta-analytically. Negative social feedback resulted in the most behavioral aggression, with large combined effect-sizes. Whole brain condition effects for each separate sample failed to show robust effects, possibly due to the small samples. Exploratory analyses over the combined test and replication samples confirmed heightened activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC after negative social feedback. Moreover, meta-analyses of activity in predefined regions of interest showed that negative social feedback resulted in more neural activation in the amygdala, anterior insula and the mPFC/anterior cingulate cortex. Together, the results show that social motivation is already highly salient in middle childhood, and indicate that the SNAT is a valid paradigm for assessing the neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in children.

  17. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  18. Prevalence, correlates of major depression: A mental health survey among undergraduates at a mainland Chinese university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Meng, Xiangfei; Xu, Ziqi; Yu, Qiong; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Yaqin; D'Arcy, Carl; Huang, Yueqin; Kou, Changgui

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional survey among Chinese university students aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) among undergraduates, in order to provide basic information for the prevention and treatment of depression among the college-aged population. A total of 2,046 undergraduates were interviewed face to face using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI, version 3.0). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria were used to diagnose MDD. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between MDD and selected correlates. The survey response rate was 90.1% (N = 1,843). The prevalence rates of MDD were 3.9% (lifetime), 2.4% (12 months) and 0.4% (30 days). No significant gender or age differences were found in prevalence rates. No sociodemographic characteristics were related to the lifetime prevalence of MDD. In contrast, family structure and environment factors specifically being from a single-parent family (odds ratio [OR] = 2.513, confidence interval [CI] = 1.404-2.500), parents having mental problems (OR = 1.809, CI = 1.104-2.964), and physical punishment (OR = 1.789, CI = 1.077-3.001) were associated with higher lifetime prevalence of MDD. These findings showed a relatively lower prevalence of DSM-IV/CIDI MDD in this sample of Chinese undergraduates than that reported for students in other countries. However, the prevalence rate for university students was higher than that reported for general Chinese population. Family structure and socio-environmental factors in the student's family of origin significantly correlated with the lifetime prevalence of MDD. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Dynamical behavior of price forecasting in structures of group correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the prediction of the future prices from the structures and the networks of the companies in special financial groups. After the financial group network has been constructed from the value of the high cross-correlation, each company in a group is simulated and analyzed how it buys or sells stock is anaylzed and how it makes rational investments is forecasted. In the shortmemory behavior rather than the long-memory behavior, each company among a group can make a rational investment decision by using a stochastic evolution rule in the financial network. In particular, we simulate and analyze the investment situation in connection with the empirical data and the simulated result.

  20. The Correlation of Electrical Fields and Detonator Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Zakary; Francois, Elizabeth; Gibson, John; Lodes, Rylie; Nakamoto, Teagan; Parrack, Kristina; Smith, Dalton; Tasker, Douglas; Trujillo, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that behavior of the shock is affected by the microstructure of the explosive. Diagnostics are being developed to utilize Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) gauges for shock wave detection and observing transient electric fields generated by shocked Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), which is a piezoelectric explosive. This study has the goal of determining whether PVDF gauges can detect the electrical signature generated by the shock compression of PETN crystals and correlate it with the explosive material microstructure and shock to detonation transition (SDT) process in slapper detonators. Slapper detonators function by inputting current to an exploding foil initiator. The metal foil converts to a plasma causing a thin polymer layer to separate at high velocity and impact the explosive resulting in the SDT. Experiments will observe correlations between changes in the electrical signals and explosive microstructure. LA-UR-17-20883.

  1. Self-reported dysphagia and its correlates within a prevalent population of people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard W; Dunn, Janet R; Gray, William K

    2011-03-01

    Many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience dysphagia; however, the prevalence of dysphagia in people with PD is unknown. We studied a prevalent population of PD cases. All of those who consented to participate were assessed for anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and quality of life using standard rating scales. Anyone who answered "yes" to either one of the two questions: Do you have difficulty swallowing food/liquid or tablets? and Do you cough after eating/drinking? was considered to have dysphagia. Question 7 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was also used to identify dysphagia. Of 106 prevalent PD cases, 75 (38 males) patients consented to examination and assessment. The prevalence of dysphagia was 32.0% (n=24; 11 males). Using the response to UPDRS Question 7 as an indicator of the impact of swallowing problems on the patient, there were significant correlations with cognitive function, anxiety, depression, quality of life, and UPDRS-reported gait disturbance, postural instability and problems with falling. There was no correlation with disease duration, age, or gender. Almost one third of the participants reported dysphagia. There was a strong correlation between dysphagia and gross motor skills; patients reporting such problems should be screened for swallowing problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  2. Prevalence and Clinical Correlation of Superficial Fungal Foot Infection in Thai Naval Rating Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsri, Punyawee; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Ongmahutmongkol, Pattachee; Komoltri, Chulaluk; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2018-02-13

    Superficial fungal foot infection is one of the most important dermatological diseases currently affecting military personnel. Many Thai naval rating cadets are found to suffer from superficial fungal foot infections and their sequels. To investigate prevalence, potent risk factors, responding pathogens and clinical correlation of superficial fungal foot infection in Thai naval rating cadets training in Naval rating school, Sattahip, Thailand. This cross-sectional study was performed in August 2015. Validated structured questionnaire was used regarding information about behaviors and clinical symptoms. Quality of life was assessed by Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) questionnaire and clinical presentation demonstrated by Athlete's foot severity score (AFSS). Laboratory investigations including direct microscopic examination and fungal culture were performed and recorded. All of the participants were informed and asked for their consent. A total of 788 Thai naval rating cadets with a mean age of 19 yr were enrolled. There were 406 (51.5%) participants suspected of fungal skin infection from questionnaire screening. After clinical examination, 303 participants (38.5%) were found to have foot lesions (AFSS ≥1). Superficial fungal foot infection was diagnosed with microscopic examination and fungal culture in 57 participants, giving a point prevalence of 7.2%. Tinea pedis was diagnosed in 54 participants with the leading causative organism being Trichophyton mentagrophytes (52.8%). Other 3 participants were diagnosed as cutaneous candidiasis. Wearing combat shoes more than 8 h was found to be a predisposing factor (p = 0.029), taking a shower less than two times a day (p = 0.008), and wearing sandals during shower (p = 0.055) was found to be protective against infection. Most fungal feet infection cases noticed their feet abnormalities (p < 0.001) including scales (p < 0.001), vesicles (p = 0.003) and maceration at interdigital web spaces (p < 0.001). Mean

  3. The prevalence and correlates of abuse among children with autism served in comprehensive community-based mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S; Walrath, Christine M; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Sgro, Gina; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2005-12-01

    To determine the demographic and psychosocial correlates of physical and sexual abuse among children with autism. Data collected from 1997 to 2000 through the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program on 156 children with autism were used. Data included a baseline assessment of child and family psychosocial experiences and presenting problems associated with referral into system-of-care service, demographic information, and a clinical record review to obtain psychiatric diagnosis. Binary and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association of different characteristics of children who were abused compared with those who were not abused. Caregivers reported that 18.5% of children with autism had been physically abused and 16.6% had been sexually abused. Physically abused children more likely had engaged in sexual acting out or abusive behavior, had made a suicide attempt, or had conduct-related or academic problems. Sexually abused children more likely had engaged in sexual acting out or abusive behavior, suicidal or other self-injurious behavior, had run away from home, or had a psychiatric hospitalization. In adjusted multivariate models, the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual acting out, running away from home and suicidal attempts persisted. Based on the prevalence of abuse and its association with various behaviors, clinicians should be as attuned to the psychosocial histories of children with autism as they are for other children, and consider the potential of abuse when these behaviors are observed.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The prevalence and correlates of neurotic disorders among undergraduates at a mainland Chinese university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Changgui; Meng, Xiangfei; Xie, Bing; Chen, Yanfen; Yu, Qiong; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Yaqin; D'Arcy, Carl; Huang, Yueqin

    2012-12-01

    To study the prevalence and risk factors of neurotic disorders (NDs) among Chinese university students. Stratified random sampling was used to select students who were interviewed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 to diagnose psychiatric disorder and collected socio-demographic, and family structure and environment data. The response rate was 90 % (N = 1,843). The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) criteria were used to diagnose NDs. We used logistical regression to evaluate the links between NDs and selected correlates. The prevalence of NDs was 25.6 % (lifetime), 15.7 % (12-month), and 6.8 % (30-day) among the university students with no significant gender differences in these rates. No family structure characteristics were related to 12-month prevalence of NDs (P > 0.05). In contrast, family environment factors including a history of family disputes (OR 1.562, CI 1.108-2.203), parental mental health problems (OR 1.800, CI 1.379-2.349), and absence of care in childhood (OR 1.916, 95 % CI 1.331-2.759) were associated with higher prevalence rates of NDs. Our findings show a high prevalence of NDs in this sample of Chinese undergraduates. Social environment factors, in the student's family of orientation, were significantly associated with the prevalence of NDs. These findings support the importance of negative family experiences during childhood and adolescence and increasing vulnerability to NDs.

  6. Correlating cell behavior with tissue topology in embryonic epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian A Sandersius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements on embryonic epithelial tissues in a diverse range of organisms have shown that the statistics of cell neighbor numbers are universal in tissues where cell proliferation is the primary cell activity. Highly simplified non-spatial models of proliferation are claimed to accurately reproduce these statistics. Using a systematic critical analysis, we show that non-spatial models are not capable of robustly describing the universal statistics observed in proliferating epithelia, indicating strong spatial correlations between cells. Furthermore we show that spatial simulations using the Subcellular Element Model are able to robustly reproduce the universal histogram. In addition these simulations are able to unify ostensibly divergent experimental data in the literature. We also analyze cell neighbor statistics in early stages of chick embryo development in which cell behaviors other than proliferation are important. We find from experimental observation that cell neighbor statistics in the primitive streak region, where cell motility and ingression are also important, show a much broader distribution. A non-spatial Markov process model provides excellent agreement with this broader histogram indicating that cells in the primitive streak may have significantly weaker spatial correlations. These findings show that cell neighbor statistics provide a potentially useful signature of collective cell behavior.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of syphilis and condom use among male injection drug users in four Afghan cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine S; Nasir, Abdul; Raza Stanekzai, Mohammad; Abed, Abdullah M S; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Bautista, Christian T; Scott, Paul T; Botros, Boulos A; Tjaden, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    : Injecting drug use is increasing in Afghanistan but little is known about sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among injection drug users (IDU). The purpose of this study is to assess prevalence and correlates of syphilis and condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among male IDUs in Hirat, Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan. : Participants in this cross-sectional study completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serologic testing for syphilis between June 2005 and January 2008. Factors associated with syphilis condom use with FSWs were assessed with site-controlled logistic regression analysis. : Of 1078 male IDUs, most (90.3%) reported prior sexual experience, of whom 27.6% reported any condom use. Sexual experiences with FSWs (58.1%) and men or boys (25.7%) were common, although prior condom use with FSWs (32.6%) or male partners (10.8%) was relatively rare. Few reported having a lifetime STI diagnosis (6.3%, n = 68) or symptoms (10.4%, n = 110) in the last 6 months. Prevalence of syphilis was 3.72% (95% CI: 2.66%-5.06%) and varied significantly between sites ranging from 0% (Jalalabad) to 13.9% (Mazar-i-Sharif) (P Afghanistan in the last decade (AOR = 5.52, 95% CI: 1.83-16.71), higher income (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.17-3.51), greater number of lifetime partners (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.32-2.45), and younger age (AOR = 0.985, 95% CI: 0.973-0.998). : Although prevalence of syphilis and condom use varied significantly by site, high levels of risky sexual behavior were common, and consistent condom use was rare among IDUs in Afghanistan. Harm reduction programming should incorporate sexual risk reduction and condom promotion and distribution in Afghan cities.

  8. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  9. A Study on Prevalence of Behavioral Disorders in Primary School Students in Abhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shams-Esfandabadi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorder among of primary school students in Abhar. Materials & Methods: 600 primary school students (300 boys and 300 girls of public primary schools in Abhar, Iran were used as the sample for this study. Their behavioral disorder scores were obtained by means of Rutter's teachers' questionnaire. Results: Using a cutpoint of 9, the prevalence rate of behavioral disorder was 43.3% among subjects, with boys showing higher rates of behavioral disorder (44.7% than girls (42% but no significant differences were found by gender on rates of behavioral disorders. 6.3 percent of the subjects had severe behavioral disorder. Conclusion: Academic achievement was negatively related to behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by mothers' education on children’s rates of behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by fathers' occupation on children’s rates of behavioral disorder.

  10. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Sedentary Behaviors in Spanish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aznar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate children’s psychosocial and environmental factors associated with sedentary behavior (SB. Method. The study involved a total of 420 children (mean 9.2 years; 52.9% girls from the community of Madrid, Spain. SB and physical activity (PA were objectively measured using accelerometers. TV viewing and potential correlates were assessed by questionnaire. Mixed-model regression analysis, adjusted for clustering within school locations, evaluated the relation of each independent variable with SBs. Results. Girls showed higher levels of SB than boys, whereas boys reported more TV viewing (p<.001 in all cases. Regression analysis showed that MVPA levels were negatively related to objective SB measurement in both boys and girls (p<.001. Parent and friend support to PA were negatively associated with SB on weekdays in boys and girls, respectively (p<.05. In the boys’ group, parental professional level was a positive predictor of SB on weekend days (p=.011. Boys with more positive neighborhood perceptions spent less time watching TV (p<.001, whereas mother’s leisure-time PA level was a negative correlate of TV viewing in girls’ group (p<.01. Conclusion. Different psychosocial and environmental correlates of SB were identified. Present findings are promising targets for interventions to improve children’s health.

  11. The prevalence and correlates of alcohol use disorder amongst bipolar patients in a hospital setting, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Hway Ann; Loh, Huai Seng; Ng, Chong Guan

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of alcohol-use disorder and associated correlates amongst bipolar patients in a university hospital in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 121 bipolar disorder patients were included. Their alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (plus version) and the Addiction Severity Index-Lite-Clinical Factors version. The number of lifetime hospitalizations and the survival days (the number of days between the last discharge and the most current readmission) were calculated. The prevalence of alcohol-use disorder amongst bipolar patients was 18.2%. Indian ethnicity was the only demographic factor that was statistically associated with alcohol-use disorder (p suicidal attempt (p Malaysia. Since alcohol-use disorder, as well as the potential interactions with the course of the disorder, is highly prevalent amongst bipolar patients, alcohol use should be addressed in these patients.

  12. Prevalence of obesity and its metabolic correlates among the circumpolar inuit in 3 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, T Kue; Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of obesity and the metabolic correlates of different levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among the Inuit in 3 countries. METHODS: Data from 4 surveys of Inuit in Canada, Greenland, and Alaska conducted during 1990-2001 were pooled......, with a total sample size of 2545 participants. These data were compared with data from a Canadian population of predominantly European origin. RESULTS: Using the World Health Organization criteria for overweight and obesity, we found that the crude prevalence of overweight among Inuit men and women was 36.......6% and 32.5%, respectively, and obesity was 15.8% and 25.5%, respectively. Inuit prevalences were similar to those of the highly developed countries of Europe and North America. As levels of obesity increased, as measured by BMI or waist circumference, the mean values of various metabolic indicators...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among court-referred male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the 2 weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  14. The prevalence and correlated determinants of hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a large community-based study in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracy, M.R.; Feizi, A.; Bagherynejad, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite progress in prevention, detection, treatment and control of hypertension and diabetes, their increasing trend of prevalence remains an important public health problem. In general, only a small proportion of hypertension and diabetes is associated with an underlying disease, i.e. most cases are related to modifiable risk factors. Accordingly, as a large scale community-based study in Iran, the purpose of the present research was to evaluate the prevalence and correlated determinants of hypertension and diabetes among the general population in Isfahan. Methodology: In a cross-sectional study during 2007-2009, 3000 people aged 15-65 years were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling from the general population in Isfahan. Total and age-sex specific prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were estimated. Multivariate logistic regression was used for studying risk factors and determining their level of association with the risk of hypertension and diabetes simultaneously. Results: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was 22.23% and 6.5% respectively among the studied population. Sex specific prevalence of hypertension was 22.4% and 22.06% for women and men, respectively. The corresponding values were 8.27% and 4.86% for diabetes (P < 0.05). Hypertension and diabetes were most prevalent among the age groups of 55-65 years and 45-54 years, respectively. The most important determinants of having hypertension were body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), physical activity (P < 0.1) and sex (P < 0.05). Age (P < 0.01), sex (P < 0.05), BMI (P < 0.1), and family history (P < 0.01) were the major determinants of diabetes. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was high among the studied population. Furthermore, similar to previous studies, the modifiable risk factors played an important role in their incidence. Therefore, primary prevention is of high importance as a natural extension of hypertension and diabetes

  15. Prevalence and correlates of screen time among Brazilian adolescents: findings from a country-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; Cureau, Felipe Vogt; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2018-02-06

    To evaluate the distribution, prevalence and correlates of excessive screen time (>2 hours/day) among Brazilian adolescents. The Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) is a national, school-based, cross-sectional multicenter study. Information about time spent in front of screens was assessed by questionnaire. Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between following correlates (region, sex, age, skin color, income, internet access and number of TVs at home) and excessive screen time. A total of 66,706 Brazilian adolescents (12-17 years) were included. The overall mean time in front of screens was 3.25 h/day (95% CI: 3.20-3.31) and the prevalence of excessive screen time was 57.3% (95%CI: 55.9-58.6). Moreover, excessive screen time also differ across Brazilian regions, being higher in Southeast and South, respectively. In adjusted models stratified by region, the socioeconomic status was associated with excessive screen time in North, Northeast and Midwest. In all regions, having a computer with internet access was associated with higher prevalence of excessive screen time. The prevalence of excessive screen time in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and facility for access the internet.

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of the Perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-02-01

    Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

  17. School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying ...

  18. A Study on the Prevalence and Correlates of Academic Dishonesty in Four Undergraduate Degree Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Anthony Mujer Quintos

    2017-01-01

    With college students from four different disciplines representing the humanities as well as the natural, mathematical, and social sciences as respondents, this study determined the degree of prevalence and correlates of academic dishonesty among students. A survey questionnaire about the respondents’ personal characteristics and their frequency of engagement in academic dishonesty during one whole academic year (two semesters) was used as the research instrument. A Wilcoxon Signe...

  19. Prevalence of Coxitis and its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Krasniqi, Blerim; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bexheti, Sadi; Bahtiri, Elton; Bajraktari, Halit; Luri, Besim

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterised by intra-articular and extra-articular manifestations but very rarely with coxitis.AIM: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of coxitis, clinical changes, and its correlation with the parameters of inflammatory activity.METHODS: A cohort of 951 patients diagnosed with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria was enrolled in this prospective, ...

  20. Prevalence and correlates of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Turner, Cynthia M; Mond, Jonathan; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the disorder in this age group. The current study aimed to explore the presenting features of adolescents meeting probable criteria for body dysmorphic disorder in a large community sample, and compare levels of comorbid psychopathology, quality of life and mental health service use between adolescents with probable body dysmorphic disorder and those without. Questionnaires were completed at school by 3149 adolescents: 63% male, aged 12-18 years ( M = 14.58). These assessed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) body dysmorphic disorder criteria, past mental health service use and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. In male participants, additional measures assessed quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity. The prevalence of probable body dysmorphic disorder was 1.7%; there was no sex difference in prevalence, but older adolescents reported higher prevalence than younger adolescents. Probable body dysmorphic disorder participants reported substantially elevated levels of psychopathology, quality of life impairment and mental health service use compared to non-body dysmorphic disorder participants. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents is similar to adult samples, and probable body dysmorphic disorder is associated with comorbidity, distress and functional impairment in a community sample. Further research is required to better understand the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents, and to improve diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  2. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  3. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  4. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates of Cognitive, Behavioral, and Affective Apathy Sub-Domains in Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomboro, Progress; Deb, Shoumitro

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it is also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is despite the evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study investigates the neuropsychological correlates of apathy in 49 patients with acquired brain damage. It further fractionates apathy symptoms into affective, cognitive, and behavioral sub-domains and investigates their individual relations with standard measures of affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. Global apathy scores were not related to any of these measures. Affective apathy was associated with emotion perception deficits, and cognitive apathy was associated with executive deficits on the Brixton test. These results demonstrate that treating apathy as a single entity may hide important correlates to apathy symptoms that become visible when the disorder is fractionated into its sub-domains. The study highlights the research and clinical importance of treating apathy as a multidimensional syndrome. PMID:24904518

  5. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioral, and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomboro, Progress; Deb, Shoumitro

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder's neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it is also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is despite the evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study investigates the neuropsychological correlates of apathy in 49 patients with acquired brain damage. It further fractionates apathy symptoms into affective, cognitive, and behavioral sub-domains and investigates their individual relations with standard measures of affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. Global apathy scores were not related to any of these measures. Affective apathy was associated with emotion perception deficits, and cognitive apathy was associated with executive deficits on the Brixton test. These results demonstrate that treating apathy as a single entity may hide important correlates to apathy symptoms that become visible when the disorder is fractionated into its sub-domains. The study highlights the research and clinical importance of treating apathy as a multidimensional syndrome.

  6. Prevalence of repetitive and reward-seeking behaviors in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Hassan, K; Zurowski, M; de Souza, M; Thomsen, T; Fox, S; Lang, A E; Miyasaki, J

    2006-10-10

    We surveyed 297 patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with systematic screens and rigorous definitional criteria. Pathologic hypersexuality lifetime prevalence was 2.4%. Compulsive shopping was 0.7%. Combined with our pathologic gambling data, the lifetime prevalence of these behaviors was 6.1% and increases to 13.7% in patients on dopamine agonists.

  7. HIV prevalence and behavioral studies in female sex workers in Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: We determined the sero-prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Togo identified their sexual risk behaviors. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from 17 to 27 December, 2011 on 1106 FSWs in Togo. Venous sample were collected to estimate HIV prevalence as per national ...

  8. Prevalence, Awareness and Correlates of Hypertension Among Urban Public Workers in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Aladeniyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the asymptomatic nature of hypertension, its diagnosis is often delayed, thus, leading to increasing morbidity and mortality. This study examines the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension among apparently healthy adults working in an urban area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 4844 public service workers drawn across the 47 ministries, departments and agencies in Akure, the state capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The WHO STEPwise questionnaire was used for data collection. Blood pressure (BP, blood sugar, weight and height measurements followed standard procedures. Hypertension was defined as BP of ≥140/90 mmHg or a history of hypertension while self-reported prior diagnosis was defined as hypertension awareness. Bivariate and logistic analysis were performed to determine the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 35% while an additional 36.4% had pre-hypertension. Males had a slightly higher prevalence of hypertension (39.1% compared to females (21.3%. Of all the hypertensive participants (n=1692, only 28% were aware of their hypertension status with a higher awareness rate among females (10.8% compared to males (8.7%. After adjusting for confounders in a logistic regression model analysis, only male sex, age above 40 years, primary or no education, marriage, obesity and diabetes were independent and significant predictors of hypertension among the study participants. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of hypertension among the study participants with a high hypertension unawareness. There is a need to implement effective workplace health policy and regularly organise health screening for public civil servants in the setting to reduce the burden of undiagnosed hypertension and its accompanying complications.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become a serious public health problem worldwide; however, the availability of information on the prevalence of NAFLD in the general pediatric population is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence and correlates of suspected NAFLD in Chinese children at the national level. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS was used. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure (BP were measured for children aged 7–18 years. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. Children were classified as having suspected NAFLD if common causes of liver disease were excluded, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were above the established thresholds (>22.1 IU/L for girls and >25.8 IU/L for boys. A percentage of 9.03% (75 out of 831 of Chinese children was found to have suspected NAFLD. Overweight and obesity according to BMI percentiles, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia (uric acid (UA > 327 μmol/L, and elevated total cholesterol (TC were all detected as the correlates of childhood suspected NAFLD when adjusting for other factors. Our study revealed the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in general Chinese children at the national level for the first time. Our findings indicate that suspected NAFLD in children is associated with increasing childhood morbidities, further studies are needed to better understand the prevalence of childhood NAFLD and its correlates, and large-scale programs should be launched to screen NAFLD in the pediatric population in China.

  10. [The prevalence of eating behavior disorders in patients with overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, T N; Madianov, I V; Semakina, S M; Semenova, T N; Kichigin, V A; L'vova, O S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of food behavior abnormalities among people with overweight and obesity. The To estimate characteristics of food behaviour among people with overweight and obesity. We examined 188 human of Chuvashia. Anthropometric data was estimated, bodyweight index and waist-hip index were calculated. Infringements of food behaviour were evaluated according to T.G. Voznesenskoj's recommendations. Food behavior abnormalities appeared more often among people with overweight and obesity than among people with normal weight. The prevalence of food behavior abnormalities depended on the presence of abdominal obesity. The frequency of all types of food behavior abnormalities rose among individuals with overweight and obesity. The groups with overweight and obesity turned out comparable in prevalence and structure of food behavior abnormalities.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome based on a harmonious definition among adults in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Zhao, Guixiang

    2010-09-01

    Recently, a Joint Scientific Statement bridged differences between previous definitions of metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a representative sample of US adults and to examine its correlates. We analyzed data for up to 3461 participants aged ≥ 20 years of the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using waist circumference thresholds of ≥ 102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.3% among all adults, 36.1% among men, and 32.4% among women. Using racial- or ethnic-specific International Diabetes Federation criteria for waist circumference, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.5% for all participants, 41.9% for men, and 35.0% for women. Prevalence increased with age, peaking among those aged 60-69 years. Prevalence was lower among African American men than White or Mexican American men, and lower among White women than among African American or Mexican American women. In a multivariate regression model, significant independent associations were noted for age (positive), gender (men higher than women), race or ethnicity (African Americans and participants of another race lower than Whites), educational status (inverse), hypercholesterolemia (positive), concentrations of C-reactive protein (positive), leisure time physical activity (inverse), microalbuminuria (positive), and hyperinsulinemia (positive). Additional adjustment for body mass index weakened many of the associations, with educational status and microalbuminuria no longer significant contributors to the model. Metabolic syndrome continues to be highly prevalent among adults in the US. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Distress in Adolescent Students from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Geetha, D; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarasu, K

    2017-06-01

    There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among adolescents in India. This study assessed psychological distress among adolescents who attended school in Kerala, India. A total of 7560 students from 73 schools, aged 12 to 19 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and other standardised instruments to assess various domains. Mild psychological distress was reported by 10.5%, moderate distress by 5.4%, and severe distress by 4.9% of students. Older age, not living with both parents, and urban residence were significantly associated with psychological distress (p psychological distress had a higher risk of reporting academic failure, alcohol and tobacco use, suicidality, and sexual abuse. Increasing severity of psychological distress was associated with higher odds of these correlates. Psychological distress is common among adolescents and its correlates with negative outcomes suggest the need for early recognition and treatment.

  13. Prevalence of dyspepsia and its correlation with demographic factors and lifestyle in shiraz, southern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademolhosseini, F; Mehrabani, D; Zare, N; Salehi, M; Heydari, St; Beheshti, M; Saberi-Firoozi, M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dyspepsia is a common disorder that can present many clinical dilemmas in patient management. Although not life-threatening, the symptoms are long-lasting, interfere with daily activities and have a significant impact upon quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of dyspepsia and its relationship with demographic and socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle in an apparently healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran. METHODS In a population-based study, 1978 subjects aged 35 years or older were interviewed from April to September 2004. A questionnaire consisting of demographic factors, lifestyle data and gastrointestinal symptoms was completed for each participant. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined. RESULTS The prevalence of dyspepsia was 29.9%. The dyspeptic patients were classified as having ulcer-like (27.9%), dysmotility-like (26.2%) or unspecified dyspepsia (45.9%). The prevalence was higher in females, water-pipe smokers, NSAIDs users, and in those with psychological distress, recurrent headache, anxiety, nightmares and past history of gastrointestinal disease. Dyspepsia had an inverse relationship with consumption of pickles, fruits and vegetables, and with duration of meal ingestion. Subjects with dyspepsia symptoms were more likely to restrict their diet, take herbal medicine, use over-the-counter drugs, consult with physicians and consume medication advised by their friends. CONCLUSION This study reveals that dyspepsia has a high prevalence in Shiraz, southern Iran and is associated with several demographic factors, lifestyle and health-seeking behavior.

  14. The apple of their eye: Attitudinal and behavioral correlates of parents' perceptions of child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study addressed gaps in the existing literature about correlates of parental perception of child weight using a community sample. This study evaluated how weight-status and its perception related to parents' personal and parenting attitudes/behaviors. Participants were parents (N = 1,007; 65.3% mothers, 34.4% fathers) of children 5 to 15 years old. Parents completed online measures of personal eating attitudes/behaviors, attitudes/behaviors about their children's eating and weight, and parental practices related to weight-related attitudes. Parents frequently underestimated children's overweight/obesity, even more frequently than their own overweight/obesity (P child weight-status (P child weight-status. Parents' child-focused eating attitudes/behaviors were related to actual (P child weight-status (P obesity and to guide parent responses to perceived overweight/obesity. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity, and the serious consequences during childhood and into adulthood, further research is needed to enhance understanding of parents' specific needs to engage in prevention and treatment programs. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. Prevalence and clinical correlates of sleep disordered breathing in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Laura Ester; Losurdo, Anna; Di Blasi, Chiara; Santoro, Massimo; Masciullo, Marcella; Conte, Giulia; Valenza, Venanzio; Damiani, Antonello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Silvestri, Gabriella

    2014-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2) are the most common muscular dystrophies in adulthood. A high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep disordered breathing was documented in DM1; however, there are limited data available regarding DM2. Goals of the study were: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of sleep apnea in a large cohort of patients (71 DM1 and 14 DM2) and (2) to analyze correlations among such disorders and clinical features of myotonic dystrophies. All patients underwent clinical examination, subjective sleep evaluation, and home based cardiorespiratory monitoring, and most of them performed pulmonary function tests and oropharyngeal-oesophageal scintigraphy (OPES). Almost 45% of patients reported poor sleep quality; only 20% of them referred EDS. Sleep studies documented sleep apnea, mostly obstructive, in 69% DM1 patients and 43% DM2 patients; overall, 28% of cases needed non-invasive ventilation. Neither age, gender, illness duration, body mass index, muscle involvement, OPES respiratory function indexes, nor n(CTG) in leukocytes were predictive of sleep apnea in DM1 patients. Conversely, in DM1 the central apnea-hypopnea index is correlated with the oral transit time estimated by OPES, whereas in DM2 apnea indexes are correlated with pulmonary function parameters. Sleep apnea is highly prevalent in both forms of myotonic dystrophies. In DM1, no clinical parameters appear to be predictive, while age appears to influence the severity of the obstructive variant; in DM2, the severity of sleep apnea is correlated with the degree of respiratory muscle involvement. Considering the harmful consequences of sleep apnea on cardiorespiratory function, our findings suggest including PSG in the follow-up of myotonic dystrophies.

  16. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors

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    Rakić Dušica B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. Methods. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female, aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher in males. Cigarettes were smoked daily by 21.45% males and 15.67% females (p < 0.01, alcohol was consumed by 81.6% males and 69.11% females (p < 0.001 and illicit drugs were used by 13.65% males and 8.30% females (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and alcohol consumption, but negative between smoking cigarettes and the use of illicit drugs (p < 0.01. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher among adolescents with poor achievement in school (p < 0.01, who lived in a broken home (illicit drugs p < 0.01 and who had more pocket money (cigarette smoking p < 0.01, and alcohol consumption p < 0.5. Conclusion. Stable family, lower amount of pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  17. Prevalence and clinical correlation of dysphagia in Parkinson disease: a study on Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Gao, J; Xie, C; Xiong, B; Wu, S; Cen, Z; Lou, Y; Lou, D; Xie, F; Luo, W

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is relatively common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and can have a negative impact on their quality of life; therefore, it is imperative that its prevalence in PD patients is studied. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical correlation of dysphagia in Chinese PD patients. We recruited 116 Chinese PD patients. A videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) was used to identify dysphagia. Assessments, including water drinking test, relative motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms (NMS) and quality of life, were performed to analyze the risks of dysphagia. The prevalence of dysphagia was 87.1%. The comparison of demographic and clinical features between patients with and without dysphagia included sex, education level, disease course, Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Question 6, 7 of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Part II), Hoehn-Yahr stage (H&Y), water drinking test, 39-item Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) and Non-Motor Symptoms Quest (NMSQ). We found significant correlations between dysphagia and age. Using age, disease course, and H&Y stage as the independent variable in our regression analysis for assessing the risk factors of dysphagia in PD patients, age and H&Y stage displayed a strong correlation as the risk factors. The risk of dysphagia in elderly PD patients is 1.078 times greater than that of younger PD patients. Also, the risk of dysphagia in PD patients of a greater H&Y staging is 3.260 times greater than that of lower staging PD patients. Our results suggest that dysphagia is common in Chinese PD patients. Older patients or those in higher H&Y stages are more likely to experience dysphagia. There is no correlation between dysphagia and PD duration.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Francesco Bartoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90 meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its clinical correlates among patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Venkatasubramanian, G; Raguram, R; Grover, Sandeep; Aswath, Manju

    2017-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and examine the clinical correlates of MetS. Sixty-seven patients with BD were evaluated for presence for MetS. The consensus definition was used to define MetS. The clinical variables were recorded on the basis of information provided by the patients, accompanying caregivers and review of treatment records. The symptoms severity of present depressive and manic episode was assessed by using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 53.7%. Patients with MetS were older than the patients with BD alone (P=0.001). Increased waist circumference was the most common abnormal parameter (74.6%) followed by low high density lipoprotein (HDL) (71.6%) and raised triglycerides (64.2%). High blood pressures were recorded in 35.8% with high fasting blood glucose levels were seen in 33.3%. MetS was associated with greater number of life time episodes (p=0.010), longer duration of illness (p=0.010), greater numbers of lifetime depressive episodes (pdepressive episodes and use of Olanzapine were found to predictive of the development of MetS. Patients with BD have high prevalence of MetS and its presence correlates with clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlations between technical skills and behavioral skills in simulated neonatal resuscitations.

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    Sawyer, T; Leonard, D; Sierocka-Castaneda, A; Chan, D; Thompson, M

    2014-10-01

    Neonatal resuscitation requires both technical and behavioral skills. Key behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation have been identified by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program. Correlations and interactions between technical skills and behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation were investigated. Behavioral skills were evaluated via blinded video review of 45 simulated neonatal resuscitations using a validated assessment tool. These were statistically correlated with previously obtained technical skill performance data. Technical skills and behavioral skills were strongly correlated (ρ=0.48; P=0.001). The strongest correlations were seen in distribution of workload (ρ=0.60; P=0.01), utilization of information (ρ=0.55; P=0.03) and utilization of resources (ρ=0.61; P=0.01). Teams with superior behavioral skills also demonstrated superior technical skills, and vice versa. Technical and behavioral skills were highly correlated during simulated neonatal resuscitations. Individual behavioral skill correlations are likely dependent on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among medical students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoga, C N; Audu, M D; Obembe, A

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common consequence of traumatic experiences. The North Central Nigeria to which Plateau State belongs has witnessed many ethno-religious crises. While previous studies suggested a high prevalence of PTSD among students, to the best of our knowledge, no such study has been reported in Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of PTSD among medical students in a university. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 200 medical students. A two staged interview with questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, Impact of Event Scale, and Composite International Diagnostic Interview was carried out. SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for statistical analysis. Prevalence of PTSD among the students was 23.5%. Previous childhood trauma and personal experiences during the crisis were significantly associated with having PTSD. High prevalence rate of PTSD among medical students in Jos is an indicator of psychological consequences of the recurring crises on the inhabitants. There is a need for follow-up and counseling/trauma healing for those identified.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Ppopulation in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754) with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  3. Prevalence & correlates of primary infertility among young women in Mysore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Paul C.; Krupp, Karl; Freeman, Alexandra H.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Reingold, Arthur L.; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There are sparse data on the prevalence of primary infertility in India and almost none from Southern India. This study describes the correlates and prevalence of primary infertility among young women in Mysore, India. Methods: The baseline data were collected between November 2005 through March 2006, among 897 sexually active women, aged 15-30 yr, for a study investigating the relationship of bacterial vaginosis and acquisition of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. A secondary data analysis of the baseline data was undertaken. Primary infertility was defined as having been married for longer than two years, not using contraception and without a child. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with primary infertility. Results: The mean age of the women was 25.9 yr (range: 16-30 yr) and the prevalence of primary infertility was 12.6 per cent [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 10.5-15.0%]. The main factor associated with primary infertility was HSV-2 seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio: 3.41; CI: 1.86, 6.26). Interpretation & conclusions: The estimated prevalence of primary infertility among women in the study was within the range reported by the WHO and similar to other estimates from India. Further research is needed to examine the role of HSV-2 in primary infertility. PMID:22089604

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pcaries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  5. Measuring prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young sexually active men in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nelli; Mattson, Christine L; Bailey, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Our objectives were to: (1) compare multiple measures of partnership concurrency, including the UNAIDS-recommended definition and (2) describe the prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young Kenyan men. We analyzed 10,907 lifetime partnerships of 1,368 men ages 18-24 years enrolled in a randomized trial of male circumcision to reduce HIV-1 incidence in Kisumu. Partnership concurrency was determined by overlapping dates and examined over varying recall periods and assumptions. The lifetime prevalence of concurrency was 77 %. Sixty-one percent of all partnerships were concurrent and factors associated with concurrency differed by partner type. Point prevalence of concurrency at the time of the interview was consistently the highest and UNAIDS-recommended definition was the most conservative (25 vs. 18 % at baseline, respectively). Estimates of concurrency were influenced by methods for definition and measurement. Regardless of definition, concurrent partnerships are frequent in this population of young, sexually active men in high HIV prevalence Kisumu, Kenya.

  6. Prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in a community-residing elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Shinsho, F; Takatorige, T; Murakami, S; Fukuda, H

    1998-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in community-residing elderly people, a randomly selected sample of 1,405 people aged 65 and over living in Settsu, Osaka, were investigated in October 1992. Data for assessing intellectual dysfunctioning were obtained from 1,364 people (97.1%), excluding 21 clinically demented people (1.5%); 17.6/100, 5.6/100, and 3.3/100 of the population showed minor, moderate, and appreciable intellectual dysfunctioning, respectively, and the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning increased with age. By multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age over 75, poor general health, including current medical treatment, and psychosocial conditions such as no participation in social activities, no life worth living (no Ikigai), and anxiety about the future were independent risk factors for intellectual dysfunctioning. We conclude that intellectual dysfunctioning is closely associated with health and psychosocial conditions.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of lifetime disordered gambling in Cambodian refugees residing in Long Beach, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Grant N; Elliott, Marc N; Schell, Terry L

    2009-02-01

    Research has suggested that disordered gambling is endemic to Cambodian refugees. Whereas earlier study of the prevalence and correlates of disordered gambling has relied on convenience sampling, this investigation used a subset of a sample representative of the largest Cambodian refugee community in the US. Face-to-face interviews assessing gambling disorder were conducted with a subsample of persons (N = 127) participating in a broader study of the mental health of this community. 13.9% of participants met screening criteria for lifetime disordered gambling, in contrast to previous research suggesting that prevalence rates may exceed 70%. After adjusting for a range of covariates, breadth of trauma exposure and marital status emerged as significant predictors of disordered gambling. Given the myriad mental health challenges facing the Cambodian refugee community, these data indicate that scarce prevention and treatment resources may be more productively channeled toward addressing other mental health and social service needs.

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among patients with dyspepsia and correlation between endoscopic and histological diagnosis

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    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyspepsia is a prevalent complaint in general practice and gastrointestinal clinics. Helicobacter pylori have major causal relationship with gastro duodenal disease. The following study seeks to identify the prevalence of H. pylori based on histology and to correlate endoscopic findings with histopathology.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in GRP Polyclinic and Om Hospital and research centre from April 2015-September 2015. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings were recorded and were correlated with histopathological findings. All the relevant data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 16 for windows.  Results: Endoscopy finding was divided into reflux esophagitis, antral gastritis, duodenitis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer was noted more frequently in males than in females (55.0% vs. 45.0% and 58.2% vs. 41.8%, respectively, P < 0.001.Chronic follicular gastritis was the most common in gastric ulcer (41.7%, whereas chronic persistent gastritis was common in non-ulcerative disease. Chronic active gastritis and chronic follicular gastritis were more common in ulcerative diseases, whereas chronic persistent gastritis was more common in gastritis and duodenitis (P < 0.001. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 68.1% with male preponderance. Chronic active gastritis had highest prevalence of H. pylori (84.8%, followed by chronic follicular gastritis (84.1% and chronic persistent gastritis (p value < 0.001.Conclusion: Rate of H. pylori infected patients with dyspepsia was high. Ulcerative lesions were more common in males than in females with higher rate of infection with H. Pylori.  Histological diagnosis of chronic active gastritis and chronic follicular gastritis was the most common pathologies in ulcerative lesions. 

  9. DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Severity in Puerto Rico: Prevalence, Criteria Profile, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Gruenewald, Paul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine lifetime criteria profiles and correlates of severity (mild, moderate, severe) of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The survey response rate was 83%. DSM-5 AUD was identified with the Spanish version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analyses also identify correlates of each severity level using an ordered logistic regression model. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-5 AUD among men and women was 38 and 16%, respectively. Mild lifetime DSM-5 AUD was the most prevalent severity level among both men (18%) and women (9%). The most common criteria, independent of gender and severity level, were drinking larger quantities and for longer than planned (men range: 80 to 97%; women range: 78 to 91%) and hazardous use (men range: 56 to 91%; women range: 42 to 74%). Results from ordered logistic regression showed that the adjusted odds ratio for weekly drinking frequency, greater volume of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion, positive attitudes about drinking, drinking norms, and male gender invariantly increased risks across all DSM-5 AUD severity levels (mild, moderate, severe). Greater negative attitudes about drinking, low family cohesion, and Protestant religion were related to greater risks at higher AUD severity levels. AUD prevalence is high in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prevalence rates for some criteria are equally high across severity levels and poorly differentiate between mild, moderate, or severe DSM-5 AUD. The sociodemographic and alcohol-related risks vary across DSM-5 severity levels. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Behavioral and neural correlates of communication via pointing.

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    Laurent Cleret de Langavant

    Full Text Available Communicative pointing is a human specific gesture which allows sharing information about a visual item with another person. It sets up a three-way relationship between a subject who points, an addressee and an object. Yet psychophysical and neuroimaging studies have focused on non-communicative pointing, which implies a two-way relationship between a subject and an object without the involvement of an addressee, and makes such gesture comparable to touching or grasping. Thus, experimental data on the communicating function of pointing remain scarce. Here, we examine whether the communicative value of pointing modifies both its behavioral and neural correlates by comparing pointing with or without communication. We found that when healthy participants pointed repeatedly at the same object, the communicative interaction with an addressee induced a spatial reshaping of both the pointing trajectories and the endpoint variability. Our finding supports the hypothesis that a change in reference frame occurs when pointing conveys a communicative intention. In addition, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using H(2O(15 PET-scan showed that pointing when communicating with an addressee activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the right medial prefrontal cortex, in contrast to pointing without communication. Such a right hemisphere network suggests that the communicative value of pointing is related to processes involved in taking another person's perspective. This study brings to light the need for future studies on communicative pointing and its neural correlates by unraveling the three-way relationship between subject, object and an addressee.

  11. A Study on the Prevalence and Correlates of Academic Dishonesty in Four Undergraduate Degree Programs

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    Mark Anthony Mujer Quintos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With college students from four different disciplines representing the humanities as well as the natural, mathematical, and social sciences as respondents, this study determined the degree of prevalence and correlates of academic dishonesty among students. A survey questionnaire about the respondents’ personal characteristics and their frequency of engagement in academic dishonesty during one whole academic year (two semesters was used as the research instrument. A Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used to determine which between cheating on examinations, quizzes and/or exercises and cheating on papers and/or projects was committed more often. Spearman’s Rank Correlation tests were conducted to determine significant correlations between the students’ characteristics and academic dishonesty. The study found that within an academic year, nine out of ten students have engaged in at least one act of academic dishonesty. Furthermore, students engaged in more types of academic cheating on papers/projects than on exams/quizzes/exercises. The most prevalent form of academic dishonesty was connivance through the sharing between students of answers and questions to an exam/quiz/exercise that a student has taken before and the others are just about to take. Cheating on papers/projects was committed more often than on exams/quizzes/exercises for all degree programs except for mathematical science students. Only two variables, (1 perception of one’s classmates’ and peers’ frequency of academic cheating and (2 frequency of academic cheating during high school, have moderately strong positive correlations with academic dishonesty. The attitude that academic cheating is never justified, on the other hand, was found to have a moderately strong negative correlation with academic dishonesty

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug-drug Interactions in the Regional Hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo.

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    Shabani, Driton; Tahiri, Zejdush; Bara, Petrit; Hudhra, Klejda; Malaj, Ledian; Jucja, Besnik; Bozalia, Adnan; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged ≥18 years (mean age: 57.8±11.2 years; 50.3% women; overall response: 96%) from the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo, during 2011-2013. Potential drug-drug-interactions were assessed and clinical data as well as demographic and socioeconomic information were collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of drug-drug interactions. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as the clinical characteristics, drug-drug interactions were positively and significantly related to older age (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.3-2.8), a lower educational attainment (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9), a longer hospitalization period (OR=2.7, 95%CI=2.1-3.6), presence of three groups of diseases [infectious diseases (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.3-2.4), cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.4-2.6), respiratory diseases (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.2-2.5)], presence of comorbid conditions (OR=3.2, 95%CI=2.3-4.4) and an intake of at least four drugs (OR=5.9, 95%CI=4.6-7.1). Our study provides important evidence on the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the hospitalized patients in the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo. Findings from our study should raise the awareness of decision-makers and policy makers about the prevalence and determinants of drug-drug interactions in the adult population of post-war Kosovo.

  13. Prevalence of Coxitis and its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajraktari, Ismet H; Krasniqi, Blerim; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bexheti, Sadi; Bahtiri, Elton; Bajraktari, Halit; Luri, Besim

    2018-02-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterised by intra-articular and extra-articular manifestations but very rarely with coxitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of coxitis, clinical changes, and its correlation with the parameters of inflammatory activity. A cohort of 951 patients diagnosed with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria was enrolled in this prospective, observational and analytic research study. The CBC (Complete Blood Count), ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), CRP(C - reactive protein), Anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides), X-ray examination of palms and pelvis, and the activity of the disease as measured by DAS - 28 (28 - joint disease activity score) were carried out in all subjects. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the group's characteristics, whereas Pearson correlation test was used to analyse the correlation between study variables. Of the total number of the subjects, 730 (76.8 %) were females, whereas 221 (23.2%) were males. The average age was 51.3, y/o while the most of them were between 40 - 49 y/o (32.6%). The prevalence of coxitis was 14.2%, mostly found in males (19.46%). The echosonografic prevalence of changes was 21.45%, while the radiological changes were 16.3%; in both cases, the changes were more expressed in males. The analysis showed that inflammatory parameters were significantly higher in patients with coxitis. Coxitis has high economic cost because it ends up with a mandatory need for a total hip joint prosthesis. Thus the results of this study can serve to plan and initiate early preventive measures.

  14. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children

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    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is becoming an equally challenging, yet under-recognized, problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Children and adolescents are worst affected with an estimated 10% of the world's school-going children being overweight and one quarter of these being obese. The study aimed to assess prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, and trend in prevalence statistics, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD and obesity (> + 2SD were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P Results Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8 children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7 were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028, however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P Conclusion Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Screen-Time in Youth: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, Andrew James; Sharp, Stephen John; Corder, Kirsten Liane; van, Esther Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Screen-time (including TV viewing/computer use) may be adversely associated with metabolic and mental health in children. Purpose To describe the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of screen-time in an international sample of children aged 4-17 years. Methods Data are from the International Children’s Accelerometry Database (collected between 1997-2009; analysed in 2013). Participants were 11,434 children (48.9% male; mean (SD) age at first assessment 11.7 (3.2) ye...

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Fire-Setting in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M.; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-setting is a serious and costly form of antisocial behavior. Our objective in this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of intentional fire-setting behavior in the U. S. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents 18 years and older. Structured psychiatric interviews (N = 43,093) were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001-2002. Fire-setting and DSM-IV mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders were assessed with the A...

  18. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical and socio-behavioral correlates of tooth loss: a study of older adults in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focusing 50 year olds and above, this study assessed the frequency, extent and correlates of tooth loss due to various reasons. Frequency and correlates of posterior occluding support was also investigated. Method A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Pwani region and in Dar es Salaam in 2004/2005. One thousand and thirty-one subjects, mean age 62.9 years participated in a clinical examination and completed interviews. Results The prevalence of tooth loss due to any reason was 83.5 %, due to caries 63.4% and due to other reasons than caries, 32.5%. A total of 74.9% had reduced number of posterior occluding units. Compared to subjects having less than 5 teeth lost due to caries, those with 5 or more lost teeth were more likely to be females, having decayed teeth, confirming dental attendance and to be among the least poor residents. Compared to subjects who had lost less than 5 teeth due to reasons other than caries, those who had lost 5 or more teeth were more likely to be of higher age, having mobile teeth, being males, being very poor and to disconfirm dental attendance when having problems. Predictors of prevalence of tooth loss (1 or more lost tooth due to various reasons and reduced number of occluding units followed similar patterns of relationships. Conclusion The results are consistent with prevalence and extent of tooth loss due to caries and due to reasons other than caries being differently related to disease- and socio- behavioral risk indicators. Caries was the principle cause of tooth loss and molar teeth were the teeth most commonly lost.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: A latent class analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deleuze, Jory; Lucien Rochat, Lucien Rochat; Lucia Romo, Lucia Romo; Linden, Martial Van; Sophia Achab, Sophia Achab; Gabriel Thorens, Gabriel Thorens; Yasser Khazaal, Yasser Khazaal; Daniele Zullino, Daniele Zullino; Pierre Maurage, Pierre Maurage; Stéphane Rothen, Stéphane Rothen; Joël Billieux, Joël Billieux

    2017-01-01

    While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred se...

  1. The prevalence and correlates of severe social withdrawal (hikikomori) in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional telephone-based survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Li, Tim M H; Chan, Melissa; Law, Y W; Chau, Michael; Cheng, Cecilia; Fu, K W; Bacon-Shone, John; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-06-01

    Severe social withdrawal behaviors among young people have been a subject of public and clinical concerns. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of social withdrawal behaviors among young people aged 12-29 years in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional telephone-based survey was conducted with 1,010 young individuals. Social withdrawal behaviors were measured with the proposed research diagnostic criteria for hikikomori and were categorized according to the (a) international proposed duration criterion (more than 6 months), (b) local proposed criterion (less than 6 months) and (c) with withdrawal behaviors but self-perceived as non-problematic. The correlates of social withdrawal among the three groups were examined using multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses. The prevalence rates of more than 6 months, less than 6 months and self-perceived non-problematic social withdrawal were 1.9%, 2.5% and 2.6%, respectively. In terms of the correlates, the internationally and locally defined socially withdrawn youths are similar, while the self-perceived non-problematic group is comparable to the comparison group. The study finds that the prevalence of severe social withdrawal in Hong Kong is comparable to that in Japan. Both groups with withdrawal behaviors for more or less than 6 months share similar characteristics and are related to other contemporary youth issues, for example, compensated dating and self-injury behavior. The self-perceived non-problematic group appears to be a distinct group and the withdrawal behaviors of its members may be discretionary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Disruptive behavior in the operating room: prevalence, consequences, prevention, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Fast, Ian; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2018-04-13

    Disruptive workplace behavior can have serious consequences to clinicians, institutions, and patients. There is a range of disruptive behaviors, and the consequences are often underappreciated. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the definition, prevalence, consequences, prevention, and management of disruptive behavior in the operating room. Although a small minority of operating room clinicians act disruptively, 98% of clinicians report having recently been exposed to disruptive behavior, with the average being 64 events per clinician per year. The causes include intrapersonal factors, workplace relationships, workplace logistics, and broader contextual factors. Disruptive behavior undermines patient care by decreasing individual and team clinical performance. It decreases clinician well being, sets a poor example for medical students who are susceptible to negative role models, and decreases hospital efficiency. The way that clinicians respond to disruptive behavior may either exacerbate or reduce the consequences of the behavior. In order to prevent disruptive behavior, the causes must be addressed. Institutions must have robust policies to deal with disruptive behavior and have preventive measures that include regular staff education. Whenever disruptive behavior does occur, it must be expeditiously addressed, which may include graded discipline. Disruptive intraoperative behavior is prevalent and harms multiple parties in the operating room. Institutions require comprehensive measures to prevent the behavior and to mitigate consequences.

  3. Prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among homeless in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Abbas Ostad Taghi; SeyedAlinaghi, Seyedahmad; Hassanzad, Farshad Fakhimi; Hajizadeh, Mehdi; Mohamadi, SeyedNajmeddin; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among homeless men and women and the related risk behaviors in Tehran, Iran. In 2007-2008, Tehran municipality stacked up 10672 homeless men and women for assessment of HIV and began collaboration with Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA) departments to conduct HIV infection prevalence surveys in homeless populations. The results were analyzed for associations with demographic information, family support, status of drug abuse and relation with family and friends. Overall HIV prevalence was 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.4-1.9). Factors independently associated with HIV infection included history of using drugs [AOR 8.15 (4.86-13.67)], older age [AOR 1.80 (1.08-2.99) for 40-55 yr], occupation [AOR 1.64 (1.19-2.24) for unemployed], and no relation with family [AOR 1.82 (1.30-2.54)]. This study supports the idea that injection drug use is contributing to the increased spread of HIV among Iranian homeless. Harm reduction programs should be expanded, particularly among homeless injection drug users. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in adult renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Katharina; Steiger, Jürg; Denhaerynck, Kris; Dobbels, Fabienne; Bock, Andreas; De Geest, Sabina

    2006-01-01

    Severe alcohol use is recognized as a major public health concern, even though light to moderate alcohol use might have beneficial effects on health. Alcohol use has been studied to some extent in solid organ transplant populations, yet evidence is lacking on alcohol use and its correlates in the renal transplant population. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in renal transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of the Supporting Medication Adherence in Renal Transplantation (SMART) study. Alcohol use was assessed by patient's self-report. At risk and binge drinkers were classified using World Health Organization criteria. The following correlates of alcohol use were explored: adherence with immunosuppression (Siegal questionnaire; electronic monitoring), smoking, coping style (UCL), depressive symptomatology (BDI) and busyness/routine in life style (ACQ Busyness Scale). Two hundred and eighty-four patients were included in this analysis, 58.1% male, with a mean age of 54 yr (range 20-84) and a median of seven (interquartile ranges [IQR] 8) yr post-transplantation. A total of 52.8% of study participants reported to drink alcohol at least once a week. Two hundred and eighty of 284 subjects (98.5%) were drinking at low risk, four at moderate risk (1.5%). None of the participants were drinking severely. Correlates of alcohol use were male gender and being professionally active. Alcohol use is less prevalent in renal transplant recipients than in the general population. Severe alcohol use does not seem to represent a serious problem in renal transplant patients.

  5. Prevalence of cardiac dyssynchrony and correlation with atrio-ventricular block and QRS width in dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Ncho-Mottoh, M P; Konin, C

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony causes disorganised cardiac contraction, delayed wall contraction and reduced pumping efficiency. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different types of dyssynchrony in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and to establish the correlation between atrio-ventricular block...

  6. Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: prevalence and health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane; Mahan, Clare M; Hendricks, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.

  7. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and its Correlation with Breastfeeding: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad Saad Al-Muhaish

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression is bidirectional. Breastfeeding improves the maternal and neonatal health. There is now growing evidence that it might play a role in the prevention of postpartum depression. Objective: This study explores the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal postpartum depression. It also estimates the prevalence rate of postpartum depression among Saudi women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Three-hundred postpartum women were recruited for this study from various hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Likelihood of depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic data were collected as well as data regarding breastfeeding duration and intention to breastfeed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, using parametric tests; independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Postpartum mothers who intended to breast-feed their babies had a lower EPDS scores compared with those who did not intend to breast-feed. No correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and EPDS scores. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in our sample was 14%. Greater age, having previous babies, intention to breastfeed and vaginal delivery were significantly associated with actual breastfeeding. Conclusion: Screening for mothers in the early postpartum period is essential to detect those who are at risk for postpartum depression. Breastfeeding may help to reduce and prevent the appearance of symptoms of depression. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in Saudi Arabia, 14%, is similar to the worldwide rate.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Children: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is generally defined as a cluster of metabolically related cardiovascular risk factors which are often associated with the condition of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. During the past decades, MetS has become a major public health issue worldwide in both adults and children. In this study, data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS was used to assess the prevalence of MetS based on both the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria, and to evaluate its possible correlates. A total of 831 children aged 7–18 years were included in this study, and 28 children were classified as having MetS as defined by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition, which yielded an overall prevalence of 3.37%. Elevated blood pressure was the most frequent MetS component. The results of logistic regression models revealed that increased body mass index (BMI, hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance (IR were all associated with the presence of MetS. To conclude, our study revealed the prevalence of MetS in Chinese children at the national level. Further large-scale studies are still needed to identify better MetS criteria in the general paediatric population in China.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Children: The China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Yu, Jinyue; Chang, Xinlei; Wang, Manli; An, Lin

    2017-01-18

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is generally defined as a cluster of metabolically related cardiovascular risk factors which are often associated with the condition of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. During the past decades, MetS has become a major public health issue worldwide in both adults and children. In this study, data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) was used to assess the prevalence of MetS based on both the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and to evaluate its possible correlates. A total of 831 children aged 7-18 years were included in this study, and 28 children were classified as having MetS as defined by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition, which yielded an overall prevalence of 3.37%. Elevated blood pressure was the most frequent MetS component. The results of logistic regression models revealed that increased body mass index (BMI), hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance (IR) were all associated with the presence of MetS. To conclude, our study revealed the prevalence of MetS in Chinese children at the national level. Further large-scale studies are still needed to identify better MetS criteria in the general paediatric population in China.

  10. Prevalence of Painful Temporomandibular Disorders and Correlation to Lifestyle Factors among Adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Østensjø

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD-P among adolescents and to investigate correlations with health, environment, and lifestyle factors. Methods. For this cross-sectional case-control study, 562 patients were consecutively recruited at their yearly revision control from four dental clinics in Rogaland County, Norway. Patients completed a questionnaire on general health, socioeconomics, demographics, and lifestyle factors. Responses to two screening questions identified patients with TMD-P, who then underwent clinical examination to verify the TMD diagnosis. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. Patients without TMD-P constituted the control group and were not clinically examined. Results. 7% experienced TMD-P. The female-to-male ratio is 3:1; median age is 17 years. Patients at urban clinics had higher prevalence compared with those at rural clinics. TMD-P patients had headache and severe menstrual pain compared to controls. They were more likely to live with divorced/single parents and less likely to have regular physical activity. Myalgia was present in 21 patients with TMD-P, arthralgia in nine, and myalgia and arthralgia in nine. Females had higher pain intensity than males. Conclusions. A low prevalence of TMD-P was shown but was comparable to other studies. Sex, health, lifestyle, and environment factors were associated with TMD-P.

  11. Prevalence of triceps tendon tears on MRI of the elbow and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplas, Monica C. [University of Mississippi Medical Center, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Jackson, MS (United States); Schneider, Erika [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Triceps tendon injuries are reported to be very rare. To our knowledge, there have been no studies describing its prevalence or injury patterns on MR imaging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of triceps injuries based on a large series of consecutive MR examinations. Clinical correlation was obtained. From 801 consecutive elbow MR examinations over a 15-year period, 28 patients with 30 triceps tendon injuries were identified and graded as partial tendon tear and complete tendon tear. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, cause of tears, and management. The prevalence of triceps tendon injuries was 3.8%. There were 5 women and 23 men with partial or complete tears (mean age: 46.6 years; range: 2.7 to 75.1 years). The most common injury was partial tear, found in 18 patients. There were 10 patients with 12 complete tears (2 had re-torn following surgical repair). A tear was suspected in 12 out 28 (43%) patients prior to the MRI. The most common presenting symptom was pain. The most common cause was athletic injury (8 patients [29%], including weightlifting [2 patients]). Tendon tear was found to be a complication of infection in 6 patients, and in 3 patients the tears were a complication of steroid use. Thirteen tendon tears were surgically repaired (8 of these were complete tears). Triceps tendon injury is not as rare as commonly reported and may often be clinically underdiagnosed. (orig.)

  12. Workplace Violence toward Physicians and Nurses: Prevalence and Correlates in Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Lee, Paul H; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-08-04

    This paper sets out to estimate the prevalence of workplace violence in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of physicians and nurses working in healthcare settings in Macau. Background : Concerted efforts worldwide to reduce workplace violence (WPV) have not yet removed medical-related professionals from the threat of patients', family members', and colleagues' physical and other assaults in Southeast Asia. Methods : The study employs a cross-sectional design to estimate the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of WPV among medical doctors and nurses in Macau. The data collection period spanned from August to December 2014. Multiple logistic regression examines the prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors in doctors and nurses. Results : A total of 107 doctors (14.9%) and 613 nurses (85.1%) participated in the study; 57.2% had suffered WPV in the preceding year. The most common forms of workplace violence were verbal abuse (53.4%), physical assault (16.1%), bullying/harassment (14.2%), sexual harassment (4.6%), and racial harassment (2.6%). Most violence was perpetrated by patients and their relatives, colleagues, and supervisors. Conclusions: WPV remains a significant concern in healthcare settings in Macau. Macau's local health authority should consider putting in place a raft of zero-tolerance policies designed to prevent it.

  13. Prevalence of spondylosis deformans in the feline spine and correlation with owner-perceived behavioural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, H C; Meij, B P; van Hofwegen, E M L; Voorhout, G; Slingerland, L I; Picavet, P; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine the prevalence, spinal distribution, and association with the signalment of cats suffering from different grades of feline spondylosis deformans (spondylosis). The secondary objective was to document behavioural changes associated with spondylosis by owner observation. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of feline spondylosis (group 1). A prospective study was performed to determine the association between radiographic abnormalities of the lumbosacral region (L3-S1) and owner perceived behavioural changes based on a completed questionnaire (group 2). The radiographs were reviewed using a grading system (0-3) for spondylosis. The prevalence of spondylosis in group 1 was 39.4% (158/402). Cats with spondylosis were significantly older than cats without spondylosis (p spondylosis, but spondylosis was most severe in the T10-S1 vertebrae. In group 2, spondylosis of the lumbosacral region was significantly correlated with owner-reported behavioural changes, such as a decreased willingness to greet people and to being petted, increased aggressiveness, and a poor perceived quality of life (p = 0.037). This study found that feline spondylosis is common and that spondylosis of the lumbosacral region may be accompanied by behavioural changes.

  14. The prevalence and correlates of secondary traumatic stress among alcohol and other drug workers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewer, Philippa L; Teesson, Maree; Sannibale, Claudia; Roche, Ann; Mills, Katherine L

    2015-05-01

    The high prevalence of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among clients of alcohol and other drug (AOD) services is well documented. Less is known, however, about the impact this has on workers who assess and treat such clients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among AOD workers in Australia. An anonymous web-based survey was undertaken and completed by 412 Australian AOD workers. The questionnaire assessed current levels of trauma training, extent of exposure to clients with a history of trauma history, AOD workers' own history of trauma exposure and PTSD, and current STS. Analyses compared individuals who currently met criteria for experiencing STS with those who did not. Despite the high volume of traumatised clients accessing AOD services, less than two-thirds of AOD workers reported having ever received trauma training. The prevalence rate of STS was 19.9% and was independently predicted by a higher traumatised client workload, fewer hours of clinical supervision, and stress and anxiety levels of the worker. The findings highlight the importance of providing adequate trauma training and clinical supervision to AOD workers in order to maintain their health and welfare and ensure optimal treatment to clients with PTSD. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Prevalence and clinical correlates of police contact prior to a first diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Cornelia; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the reasons why people with schizophrenia have contact with police, especially prior to the first episode of illness. To investigate the prevalence and correlates of police contact in first-episode schizophrenia. The prevalence and type of police contact was established among all 110 patients presenting to psychiatric services in one catchment area during a first episode of schizophrenia and among 65 non-mentally ill controls, by participant and collateral interview and from records. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were also recorded and the two groups compared. The first episode of schizophrenia patients had more contact with police than controls, despite the higher prevalence of conduct disorder symptoms among the controls. The patients were not, however, more likely to be incarcerated or arrested. Among the patients, over half of the police call-outs occurred during the period of untreated psychosis. Positive psychotic symptoms were independently associated with police contact, after allowing for socio-demographics. As over a third of people in a first episode of schizophrenia had been in contact with the police - more than twice the proportion among non-psychotic controls - and contact was associated with untreated positive psychotic symptoms, better early detection and treatment of psychosis seems indicated. In the meantime, police services may be playing an important role in reducing the duration of untreated psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cervical facet oedema: prevalence, correlation to symptoms, and follow-up imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, M.T.; Foran, P.J.; Roedl, J.B.; Zoga, A.C.; Morrison, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of cervical facet oedema in patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neck pain and/or radiculopathy, and to investigate whether there is a correlation between the presence of oedema and patients' symptoms. Materials and methods: A retrospective report review of 1885 patients undergoing cervical spine MRI between July 2008 and June 2015 was performed. Exclusion criteria included acute trauma, surgery, neoplastic disease, or infection in the cervical spine. One hundred and seventy-three MRI studies with cervical facet oedema were evaluated by each of the two radiologists. In these patients, the grade of bone marrow oedema (BMO) and corresponding neuroforaminal narrowing at the cervical facets was assessed. Correlation with symptoms was performed based on pre-MRI questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of cervical facet oedema was 9%; the most commonly affected levels were C3–4, C4–5, and C2–3. A total of 202 cervical facets were evaluated: mild BMO was seen in 35%, moderate in 41%, and severe in 24% of cases. Surrounding soft-tissue oedema was observed in 36%, 69%, and 92% of the BMO grades, respectively. The correlations between unilateral radiculopathy and ipsilateral facet BMO grades were 79%, 83%, and 73% (chi-square, p<0.001), respectively. Furthermore, neuroforaminal narrowing on the corresponding level was found in 35%, 38%, and 11% of cases, respectively. At follow-up imaging, facet oedema was most likely to remain unchanged or to decrease. Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical facet oedema is 9%. Cervical facet oedema is associated with ipsilateral radiculopathy. Neuroforaminal narrowing, however, is not associated with facet oedema. - Highlights: • Association between the cervical facet oedema and cervical radiculopathy was studied. • Prevalence of the cervical facet oedema was 9%. • Facet oedema was associated with radiculopathy regardless of the degree of oedema.

  17. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongzhen; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Zhang, Guangya; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Xia, Haishen; Li, Xiaosi; Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in schizophrenia. Few studies have addressed obesity in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The aims of this current study were to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 206 patients were recruited from a hospital in Beijing. Their clinical and anthropometric data together with plasma glucose and lipid parameters were collected. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Overall, 43 (20.9%) patients were obese and 67 (32.5%) were overweight. The obese patients had significantly higher glucose levels, triglyceride levels than non-obese patients. Females and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased risk for obesity. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was associated with sex, education levels, negative symptoms, total PANSS score, triglyceride levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that sex, type 2 diabetes, education level, triglyceride and amount of smoking/day were significant predictors for obesity. Our study showed that the prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population. Some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for obesity in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The prevalence, characteristics and correlates of falls in Korean community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K-R; Kang, Y; Hwang, E-H; Jung, D

    2009-09-01

    The risk factors for falls that have been reported in Caucasian older adults may not be the same for Korean older adults. To examine the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of falls among community-dwelling older adults in Korea. A stratified random sampling method was conducted to recruit participants, and 335 were eligible to participate from September 2006 to March 2007. Socio-demographic data, history of disease and medications, activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive status, health behaviour and fall incidents were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample. The prevalence of falls was obtained. Univariate analyses for risk factors of falls using chi-square and t-test statistics, and multivariate logistic regression analyses for correlates of falls were performed. Of the 335 older adults, 48 (15%) elderly had experienced falls. There was a significant difference between older adults who fell and those who did not fall with regard to ADL and exercise behaviour. Non-fallers had higher ADL scores and showed higher levels of adherence to exercise than fallers. The independent risk factor for falls was ADL. In this study, an individual's functional status and exercise engagement were significant factors that differentiated fallers and non-fallers. Therefore, an effective fall prevention programme should be focused on encouraging older adults to participate in regular exercise.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Connor B; Hill, Melanie L; Pardini, Dustin A; Meier, Madeline H

    2016-12-01

    Vaping nicotine (i.e., the use of e-cigarettes and similar devices to inhale nicotine) is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Though some vaporizers are capable of vaporizing cannabis, sparse research has investigated this method of cannabis administration. The present study examines the prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of 482 college students. Participants reported high lifetime rates of vaping nicotine (37%) and cannabis (29%). Men (r s = 0.09, p = .047) and individuals from higher socioeconomic status families (r s = 0.14, p = .003) vaped cannabis more frequently than women and individuals from lower SES families. In addition, those who vaped cannabis more frequently were more open to new experiences (r s = 0.17, p vaped cannabis, was convenience and discreetness for use in public places. Several correlates distinguished cannabis users who vaped from cannabis users who did not vape, most notably more frequent cannabis use (odds ratios [OR] = 3.68, p < .001), alcohol use (OR = 2.07, p < .001), nicotine vaping (OR = 1.73, p < .001), and greater approval of smoking cannabis regularly (OR = 2.15, p < .001). Findings suggest that cannabis vaping is prevalent among young adults, particularly among those who use other substances frequently and have more favorable attitudes toward smoking cannabis. Research is needed on the antecedents and potential harms and benefits of cannabis vaping in young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Prevalence and correlates of depersonalization in students aged 12-18 years in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Duven, Eva; Giralt, Sebastian; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W; Adler, Julia; Beutel, Manfred E; Wölfling, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Depersonalization (DP) involves unpleasant experiences of detachment from one's sense of self or unreality in the environment. DP may occur in a broad range of conditions, among healthy persons due to sleep loss, drug induced, secondary to anxiety disorders or primary in depersonalization disorder. Although DP has an early age of onset, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of DP among adolescents. Between January and June 2011, we conducted a questionnaire-based representative survey of pupils aged 12-18 years in the federal state Rhineland-Palatinate of Germany. The final sample comprised 3,809 pupils. We analyzed the prevalence of depersonalization and its correlates regarding sociodemographic characteristics, substance abuse, global mental distress and resilience factors. One-third of the sample showed severe global mental distress, and 11.9 % were in the range of clinically significant depersonalization. Depersonalized students were less often living with both parents (67.3 vs. 75.7 %), came more often from an disadvantaged socioeconomic background, had a very severe level of global mental distress (comparable to psychiatric inpatients), were more often smoking and abusing cannabis and they suffered from specific impairments regarding social insecurity, global self-efficacy and active coping abilities. Experiences of depersonalization were very common among adolescents and may indicate an increased risk for poor academic achievement and mental health in the long term. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the course and clinical relevance of depersonalization for the development of the adolescents.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of forced sex perpetration and victimization in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Leiter, Karen; Heisler, Michele; Iacopino, Vincent; Wolfe, William; Shannon, Kate; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Hlanze, Zakhe; Weiser, Sheri D

    2011-06-01

    We sought to identify correlates of forced sex perpetration among men and victimization among women in Botswana and Swaziland. We surveyed a 2-stage probability sample of 2074 adults from the 5 districts of Botswana with the highest HIV prevalence rates and all 4 regions of Swaziland. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of forced sex victimization and perpetration. Lifetime prevalence rates of forced sex victimization of women were 10.3% in Botswana and 11.4% in Swaziland; among men, rates of perpetration were 3.9% in Botswana and 5.0% in Swaziland. Lifetime history of forced sex victimization was the strongest predictor of forced sex perpetration by men in Botswana (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 13.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.55, 41.50) and Swaziland (adjusted OR = 5.98; 95% CI = 1.08, 33.10). Problem or heavy drinking was the strongest predictor of forced sex victimization among women in Botswana (adjusted OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.19, 5.49) and Swaziland (OR = 14.70; 95% CI = 4.53, 47.60). Sexual violence in Botswana and Swaziland is a major public health and human rights problem. Ending codified gender discrimination can contribute to fundamentally changing gender norms and may be an important lever for gender-based violence prevention in these countries.

  2. Prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress among in-school adolescents in Zambia

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    Seter eSiziya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates’ corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p<0.001. Significantly more females than males were bullied (p=0.036, involved in a fight (p=0.019 and consumed alcohol (p=0.012. Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females. Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were: being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support. . Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males, having close friends, being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support were significantly associated with psychosocial distress. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance among older women in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-09-19

    To explore prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance among women aged 60 and over in Vietnam. Sleep disturbance can negatively influence human's health. Sleep disturbance is likely to increase with age, and women appear to be more likely to experience sleep disturbance than men. Knowledge about sleep disturbance in women aged 60 and over in Vietnam is under-researched. The study presents results from a cross-sectional survey of 440 women aged 60 and over from 16 rural and urban suburbs in Vietnam from August 2014-January 2015 METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to gather data about residence, age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, income, body mass index, physical activity, exercise, perceived stress, general health status, number of chronic diseases and sleep disturbance. Descriptive analysis, bivariate correlation and binary logistic generalised linear model were used for data analysis. Among older women in Vietnam, (i) the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 38.9%; (ii) the most commonly problem was difficulty maintaining sleep, followed by sleep latency, reduced sleep quality, early waking and daytime sleepiness, (iii) body mass index and physical health were significantly associated with sleep disturbance status. Sleep disturbance was relatively common among older women in Vietnam. Overweight increased their sleep disturbance while physical health was negatively associated with their sleep disturbance. This article provided evidence about sleep problems among older women in Vietnam and suggested that interventions targeting weight control and physical health promotion would be useful to improve their sleep problems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Burnout prevalence and correlates amongst Colombian dental students: the STRESSCODE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, A C; Villa-Torres, L; Polychronopoulou, A; Polanco, H; Moreno-Juvinao, V; Parra-Galvis, D; Durán, C; Villalobos, M J; Divaris, K

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating evidence amongst dental students indicates an alarming prevalence of stress, which can precipitate the development of burnout--a state of mental or physical exhaustion and disengagement. Understanding individual and educational correlates of burnout is necessary for its prevention. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of burnout amongst a large sample of Colombian dental undergraduates and investigate its psychosocial and educational correlates. Survey data collected from 5647 students participating in the Stress in Colombian Dental Education study were used for this analysis. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Covariates included participants' socio-demographic characteristics and perceived stress, as well as educational environment factors. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate methods based on multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression modelling were used for data analysis. Seven per cent of the students surveyed met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of burnout was higher amongst upper classes, older and married students, those who reported not having passed all required courses and not having dentistry as their first career choice, as well as students in public institutions and those with large class sizes. Moreover, students' perceived stress in the domains of workload and self-efficacy was significantly and positively associated with burnout. Both personal and educational environment characteristics were found to be associated with burnout. Irrespective of these factors, students' perceived stress with regard to workload and self-efficacy was a strong influence on burnout and its alleviation may be a promising avenue to prevent psychological morbidity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

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    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors. 

  6. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension among adults in the urban area of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

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    Haresh Chandwani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reliable information on the prevalence of hypertension is crucial in the development of health policies for the prevention, early diagnosis, and control of this condition. This study describes the prevalence of hypertension among the adult population in the urban area of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India, and identifies correlates associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Patel colony area of Jamnagar Municipal Corporation. The study included 271 adults who reside in this area and who were 20 years old or older. The subjects were evaluated through one-hour interviews at their homes. After each subject was interviewed, three consecutive blood pressure measurements were conducted. The data were analyzed by proportions, F-ratios, chi-square tests, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals.Results: Sixty-five of the 271 people (24% were found to have hypertension. Among the 65 people with hypertension, 54 (83.1% were aware of their hypertension and were undergoing treatment for the condition. However, among the 54 people being treated, only 31 people (57.4% had satisfactory control of their hypertension. A higher prevalence of hypertension was found among people who had a BMI greater than 25, were 40 years old or older, had a family history of hypertension, had a history of previous cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events, had diabetes, smoked, drank alcoholic beverages, and consumed excess salt. A comparatively higher prevalence was found among males, people whose diets were non-vegetarian, people with high saturated fat intake, and people who did not engage in physical exercise.Conclusions: Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood pressure. Health education programs are needed to teach the public how to control the various risk factors associated with hypertension.

  7. Self-mutilation and suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents: prevalence and psychosocial correlates: results of the BELLA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Franz; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicidal behaviour in a representative sample of children and adolescents in Germany. Suicidal behaviour was assessed in the BELLA study in a sample of 2,863 families with children aged 7-17 using the corresponding questions from the child behavior check list and the youth self report. Self-reported as well as parent-reported measures of overall mental health problems, anxiety, depression, aggressive and delinquent behaviour, attention deficit-/hyperactivity as well as health-related quality of life were also administered. Self-mutilation and/or suicidal attempts within the last six months were reported by 2.9% of the adolescents 11-17 years of age. Suicidal thoughts were reported by 3.8% of the same group of adolescents. The prevalence rates reported by the parents were 1.4% for self-mutilation and/or suicidal attempts and 2.2% for suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of parent-reported self-mutilation/suicidal attempts in children below 11 years of age was very low. Youth reporting suicidal behaviour were older than youth not reporting suicidal behaviour. Children and adolescents exhibiting suicidal behaviour reported significantly more general mental health problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and hyperactivity as well as lower health-related quality of life. There is a strong connection between suicidal behaviour and emotional and behavioural problems, especially with symptoms of depression, anxiety and hyperactivity. The association observed between attention deficit-/hyperactivity and suicidal behaviour requires further investigation. The differences in the extent of reported suicidal behaviour in adolescents between the self- and parent-ratings and the degree of confidentiality in the collection of the data are subjects for future research.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of E-Cigarette Perceptions and Trial Among Early Adolescents in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle-school students (n = 10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: (1) conventional cigarettes only; (2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); and (3) neither cigarette type (never triers). Fifty-one percent of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%) but not compared to dual triers (6%), although dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among Mexican adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle school students (n=10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: 1) conventional cigarettes only; 2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); 3) neither cigarette type (never triers). RESULTS 51% of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%), but not compared to dual triers (6%), even though dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. PMID:26903433

  10. Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-11-01

    In recent decades, a large number of epidemiological studies investigating the change of prevalence of hay fever showed an increase in the occurrence of this disease. However, other studies carried out in the 1990s yielded contradictory results. Many environmental factors have been hypothesized to contribute to the increasing hay fever rate, including both indoor and ambient air pollution, reduced exposure to microbial stimulation and changes in diets. However, the observed increase has not convincingly been explained by any of these factors and there is limited evidence of changes in exposure to these risk factors over time. Additionally, recent studies show that no further increase in asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitisation in adolescents and adults has been observed during the 1990s and the beginning of the new century. As the pattern of pollen counts has changed over the years, partly due to the global warming but also as a consequence of a change in the use of land, the changing prevalence of hay fever might partly be driven by this different pollen exposure. Epidemiological data for hay fever in Switzerland are available from 1926 until 2000 (with large gaps between 1926 and 1958 and 1958 to 1986) whereas pollen data are available from 1969 until the present. This allows an investigation as to whether these data are correlated provided the same time spans are compared. It would also be feasible to correlate the pollen data with meteorological data which, however, is not the subject of our investigation. Our study focuses on analyzing time series of pollen counts and of pollen season lengths in order to identify their trends, and to ascertain whether there is a relationship between these trends and the changes in the hay fever prevalence. It is shown in this paper that the pollen exposure has been decreasing in Basel since the beginning of the 1990s whereas the rate of the hay fever prevalence in Switzerland remained approximately unchanged in this period

  11. Correlations between instructor’s caring behavior and nursing students’ caring behavior: an international study

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    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Theoretically, caring relationship between faculty – student generates a caring moment. However, there is a scarcity of empirical evidence about how caring interactions with faculty can enhance students’ caring outcomes. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the levels of students’ and instructors’ caring behavior and to explore the correlations between instructors’ and students’ caring behavior. Methods: A descriptive, non – experimental design has been used in this study. Data collection was based on interviews using two standardized questionnaires; the Nursing Students’ Perception of Instructor Caring (NSPIC and the Caring Behavior Inventory (CBI. Respondents were consisting of nursing students from identified schools and colleges of nursing in different countries. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0. Results: The sample was consisted of 368 nursing students (91% female, 9% male from seven countries (26% Philippines, 31.5% Greece, 1% Kenya, 0.5 Oman, 35.5% India, 5% Nigeria, 0.5% Saudi Arabia. Forty two percent of students are in the second year of studies, 13% in the third year and 45% in the fourth year. The mean score of NSPIC was 4.02±0.30 and the mean of CBI was4.56±0.13. The mean for each factor of NSPIC was 4.39±0.13 for the factor “instills confidence through caring”, 3.92±0.212 for “supportive learning climate”, 4.06±0.06 for “appreciation of life’s meaning”, 3.66±0.11 for “control versus flexibility” and 4.01±0.48 for “respectful sharing”. The mean for each factor of CBI was 4.63±0.11 for the factor “assurance”, 4.58±0.06 for “knowledge and skills”, 4.55±0.18 for “respectful” and 4.47±0.14 for “connectedness”. Correlation analysis showed statistically significance between relevant variables. Conclusions: Instructors’ caring behavior affects nursing students’ caring behavior. Through positive faculty modeling and role modeling, nursing

  12. Prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risio, Luisa; Lewis, Tom; Freeman, Julia; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara; Blott, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD) and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie. Entire litters of Border Collies that presented to the Animal Health Trust (1994-2008) for assessment of hearing status by brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) at 4-10 weeks of age were included. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using residual maximum likelihood (REML). Of 4143 puppies that met the inclusion criteria, 97.6% had normal hearing status, 2.0% were unilaterally deaf and 0.4% were bilaterally deaf. Heritability of deafness as a trichotomous trait (normal/unilaterally deaf/bilaterally deaf) was estimated at 0.42 using multivariate analysis. Genetic correlations of deafness with iris colour and merle coat colour were 0.58 and 0.26, respectively. These results indicate that there is a significant genetic effect on CSD in Border Collies and that some of the genes determining deafness also influence pigmentation phenotypes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic resonance images of patients with temporomandibular disorders: Prevalence and correlation between disk morphology and displacement

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    Amaral, Ruana de Oliveira, E-mail: ruana.amaral@hotmail.com [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Damasceno, Naiana Nolasco de Lima, E-mail: naiananolasketi@yahoo.com.br [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Azevedo de Souza, Lílian, E-mail: lilianazevedo@msn.com [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Devito, Karina Lopes, E-mail: karina.devito@ufjf.edu.br [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study aimed to evaluate the morphology of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). There were 218 TMJ of 109 assessed patients; 88 were females and 21 males, and all were diagnosed as symptomatic for temporomandibular disorder. The articular disc positions were classified in the normal position and with anterior disc displacement with and without reduction. Regarding the morphology, the discs were classified as follows: biconcave (normal), biplanar, rounded, biconvex, folded, thickening in the posterior band, thickening in the anterior band and hemiconvex. The results indicated that females were the most affected by morphological changes of the articular disc (p = 0.008/Cramer's V = 0.295). There was no statistical significance when correlating the disc morphology with the sides (right and left). There was a significant correlation between the position and morphology of the articular disc (p < 0.001/Cramer's V = 0.609), and in the normal position of the discs presenting biplanar and biconcave morphologies. In TMJ with anterior displacement of the disc with reduction (ADDR), there was a greater correlation with rounded, hemiconvex and biconvex morphologies. Already in the TMJ with displacement without reduction (ADDWR), there was a higher prevalence of folded discs. It can be concluded that morphological changes in the disc are influenced by the type of displacement, and more serious deformations are associated with ADDWR cases.

  14. Magnetic resonance images of patients with temporomandibular disorders: Prevalence and correlation between disk morphology and displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Ruana de Oliveira; Damasceno, Naiana Nolasco de Lima; Azevedo de Souza, Lílian; Devito, Karina Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study aimed to evaluate the morphology of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). There were 218 TMJ of 109 assessed patients; 88 were females and 21 males, and all were diagnosed as symptomatic for temporomandibular disorder. The articular disc positions were classified in the normal position and with anterior disc displacement with and without reduction. Regarding the morphology, the discs were classified as follows: biconcave (normal), biplanar, rounded, biconvex, folded, thickening in the posterior band, thickening in the anterior band and hemiconvex. The results indicated that females were the most affected by morphological changes of the articular disc (p = 0.008/Cramer's V = 0.295). There was no statistical significance when correlating the disc morphology with the sides (right and left). There was a significant correlation between the position and morphology of the articular disc (p < 0.001/Cramer's V = 0.609), and in the normal position of the discs presenting biplanar and biconcave morphologies. In TMJ with anterior displacement of the disc with reduction (ADDR), there was a greater correlation with rounded, hemiconvex and biconvex morphologies. Already in the TMJ with displacement without reduction (ADDWR), there was a higher prevalence of folded discs. It can be concluded that morphological changes in the disc are influenced by the type of displacement, and more serious deformations are associated with ADDWR cases

  15. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

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    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting ( Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4 children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5 children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P 10 years (P = 0.003, more siblings (P = 0.016 and crowded housing (P = 0.006. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted simultaneously for all factors, older age (aOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.89-6.88, urban area with low SES (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.15-5.81 and low-income neighborhoods (aOR 4.62, 95% CI 1.63-13.10 were associated with stunting while urban area with low SES (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21-4.30 was associated with thinness. In linear regression analyses adjusted for all factors, low-income neighborhoods and older age were associated with lower height-for-age z-score while rural area with low/disadvantaged SES was associated with lower BMI-for-age z-score. Conclusions Relatively low prevalence of stunting and thinness depicted an improvement in the nutritional status of school-aged children in Pakistan. However, the inequities between the poorest and the

  16. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan RK

    2016-03-01

    mediated by biological RFs. Conclusion: This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies. Keywords: coronary heart disease, correlates, epidemiology, prevalence, risk factors

  17. A national study of the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lindqvist, Kent

    2012-03-01

    This article estimates the national prevalence rate of domestic violence in India and examines the demographic and socioeconomic status of the victims of domestic violence. The study used the Indian National Family Health Survey 3, a cross-sectional national survey of 124 385 ever-married women of reproductive age from all the 29 member states. χ(2) Analysis and logistic regression were used. Lifetime experiences of violence among respondents were as follows: emotional violence, 14%; less severe physical violence, 31%; severe physical violence, 10%; and sexual violence, 8%. Women of scheduled castes and Muslim religion were most often exposed to domestic violence. Women's poorer economic background, working status, and husband's controlling behavior emerged as strong predictors for domestic violence in India. Elimination of structural inequalities inherent in the indigenous oppressive institutions of religion, caste, and the traditional male hierarchy in society could prevent domestic violence.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; John, Rijo M; Ouma, Ahmed E O

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 90% of adults start smoking during adolescence, with limited studies conducted in low-and-middle-income countries where over 80% of global tobacco users reside. The study aims to estimate prevalence and identify predictors associated with adolescents' tobacco use in Madagascar. We utilized tobacco-related information of 1184 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years, representing a total of 296,111 youth from the 2008 Madagascar Global Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of tobacco use. Gender-wise multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify key predictors. Approximately 19% (30.7% males; 10.2% females) of adolescents currently smoke cigarettes, and 7% (8.5% males and 5.8% females) currently use non-cigarette tobacco products. Regardless of sex, peer smoking behavior was significantly associated with increased tobacco use among adolescents. In addition, exposures to tobacco industry promotions, secondhand smoke (SHS) and anti-smoking media messages were associated with tobacco use. The strong gender gap in the use of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the role of peer smoking and industry promotions in adolescent females' tobacco use should be of major advocacy and policy concern. A comprehensive tobacco control program integrating parental and peer education, creating social norms, and ban on promotions is necessary to reduce adolescents' tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlated behavioral traits in rats of the Roman selection lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Steimer, Thierry; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    The current theories of animal personality are based on the observation that individual variation in behavior and physiology appears to be consistent across contexts. Rats of the Roman selection lines have been originally selected for differences in shuttle-box behavior. Besides differences in

  1. "Correlates of Affectionate and Angry Behavior." Practitioner Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Notes that the most comforting finding in Mill and Romano- White's study was the high level of affectionate caregiver behaviors in early childhood settings. Suggests that a broader definition of anger might yield different results. Argues that the lack of a relationship between caregivers' self-esteem and angry or affectionate behavior contradicts…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married women in rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married rural women with a history of at least one pregnancy in Madaripur, Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an interviewer administered, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. All women living in the study area, aged 18 years and above with at least one pregnancy in their lifetime, who were on the electoral roll and agreed to participate were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and smokeless tobacco consumption was collected. Smokeless tobacco consumption was categorized as 'Current', 'Ever but not current' and 'Never'. Associations between smokeless tobacco consumption and the explanatory variables were estimated using simple and multiple binary logistic regression. RESULTS: 8074 women participated (response rate 99.9%. The prevalence of 'Current consumption', 'Ever consumption but not current', and 'Never consumption' was 25%, 44% and 31%, respectively. The mean age at first use was 31.5 years. 87% of current consumers reported using either Shadapata or Hakimpuree Jarda. Current consumption was associated with age, level of education, religion, occupation, being an income earner, marital status, and age at first use of smokeless tobacco. After adjustment for demographic variables, current consumption was associated with being over 25 years of age, a lower level of education, being an income earner, being Muslim, and being divorced, separated or widowed. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption is high among rural women in Bangladesh and the age of onset is considerably older than that for smoking. Smokeless tobacco consumption is likely to be producing a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco control strategies should be implemented.

  3. Smokeless tobacco consumption in the South Asian population of Sydney, Australia: prevalence, correlates and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Kypri, Kypros; Rahman, Bayzidur; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    AIM.: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among the South Asian residents of Sydney, Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, self-administered mailed questionnaire among members of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi community associations in Sydney. Of 1600 individuals invited to participate, 419 responded (26%). Prevalence rates of ever consumption, more than 100 times consumption and current consumption were 72.1%, 65.9% and 17.1%, respectively. Men (74.3%) were more likely to ever consume than women (67.6%). Over 96% of consumers reported buying smokeless tobacco products from ethnic shops in Sydney. Current consumption of smokeless tobacco products was associated with country of birth: Indians (odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 2.3-14.5) and Pakistanis (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-6.5) were more likely to be current consumers than Bangladeshis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. For ever consumption, there was a positive association with age (P for trend=0.013) and male gender (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.1). Given the availability of smokeless tobacco and the high prevalence and potential adverse health consequences of consumption, smokeless tobacco consumption may produce a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Australia. Effective control measures are needed, in particular enforcement of existing laws prohibiting the sale of these products. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection among employees of a high security prison in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Tan, Cynthia; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-06-01

    Although prison employees share the same tuberculosis (TB) risk environment with prisoners, the magnitude of TB problems among prison employees is unknown in most resource-limited prisons. This survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and correlates of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among employees in Malaysia's largest prison. Consented, full-time prison employees were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, history of working in the correctional system and TB-related risk. TST was placed intradermally and read after 48-72 h. Induration size of ≥10 mm was considered positive. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations with TST positivity. Of the 445 recruited prison employees, 420 (94.4%) had complete data. Most were young (median=30.0 years) men (88.8%) who had only worked at this prison (76.4%) for a median total employment period of 60 months (IQR 34.5-132.0). The majority were correctional officers, while civilian employees represented only 7.6% of the sample. Only 26 (6.2%) reported having ever been screened for TB since employment. Prevalence of TST positivity was 81% and was independently associated with longer (≥12 months) prison employment (AOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 15.9) and current tobacco smoking (AOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Latent TB prevalence was high in this sample, approximating that of prisoners in this setting, perhaps suggesting within prison TB transmission in this facility. Formal TB control programmes for personnel and prisoners alike are urgently needed within the Malaysian correctional system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF JOB STRESS AMONG JUNIOR DOCTORS IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeolu, J O; Yussuf, O B; Popoola, O A

    2016-12-01

    Doctors respond differently to their complex work environment, some find it stimulating while others find it stressful. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional survey of all junior doctors employed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. Information was collected with a structured pretested questionnaire from 253 doctors. Descriptive statistics were generated. T-test, chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 16. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Mean age of respondents was 29.9 (±4.1) years, 61.3% were males, 59% had spent less than 5 years in medical practice, and 34.8% were married. Majority (79.4%) were resident doctors. Prevalence of stress, job dissatisfaction and poor mental health were 31.6%, 15.4% and 9.9% respectively. Age, gender, years of medical practice, religion, ethnicity and marital status were not significantly associated with job stress (p>0.05). Doctors who were stressed were more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs (OR=2.33; CI=1.08-4.04) and to have poor mental health (OR=3.82; CI=1.47-9.95) than those who were not stressed. The prevalence of stress in this study is high, and job dissatisfaction and poor mental health have been implicated as determinants of stress. As such, there should be an improvement in doctors' welfare, health care facilities and delivery.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malespin, Miguel; Sleesman, Brett; Lau, Alan; Wong, Shirley S; Cotler, Scott J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children of Chinese immigrants. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence and is frequently identified in children. High rates of NAFLD were found in adult Chinese immigrants. However, there are limited data regarding NAFLD in Chinese American children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from 407 children, aged 6 to 18 years, who had routine office visits at a Chinatown medical practice. Children were classified as having suspected NAFLD if common causes of liver disease were excluded, alanine aminotransferase levels exceeded established thresholds (>22.1 IU/L for girls and >25.8 IU/L for boys), and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were confirmed by repeat measurement. 6.1% of Chinese American children had suspected NAFLD, including 33% of obese children. Seventeen percent of children were overweight, 14% were obese, and 52% had 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL. In univariable analysis, children with suspected NAFLD were more frequently male, had higher body mass index percentile and lipid levels, and lower vitamin D levels compared with children without evidence of NAFLD. In multivariable analysis, suspected NAFLD was associated with higher BMI percentile and lower vitamin D levels when adjusting for other factors. Chinese American children with obesity are at high risk for NAFLD. They should be screened accordingly, including testing for metabolic disorders and low vitamin D levels. Early identification of NAFLD in childhood will allow for intervention with lifestyle modification, providing a means to reduce the prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults.

  7. Prevalence and correlates for self-reported sleep problems among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, A M; Mattei, A; Sbarbati, M; Di Orio, F

    2011-12-01

    University students report significantly worse sleep quality than the general population. Sleep problems are related to increased health concerns, irritability, depression, fatigue, attention and concentration difficulties, along with poor academic performance. The aim of this paper is to conduct a survey based on a questionnaire that would characterize night time and daytime habits in nursing students to estimate the prevalence of chronic insomnia, sleep disturbance and their correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 364 nursing students of the University of L'Aquila, in Italy. Self-reported sleep data were derived from Sleep and Daytime Habits Questionnaire" (S&DHQ) that covered sleep and daytime habits and academic progress. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5) questionnaire. A supplement includes information about lifestyle, health status and physical activity. The overall prevalence of insomnia was 26.7%. It increased significantly from 10.3% for students aged 40 years. The prevalence of sleep problems were 9.4% for disorders of initiating sleep, 8.3% for disrupted sleep, 7.7% for early morning awakening and subjectively poor quality of sleep 22.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that greater age was significantly associated with an increased risk of insomnia. Other risk predictors of insomnia were headache, severe depression and self perception of poor quality of life. Daytime sleepiness and morning tiredness were significantly associated with current smoking habit and painful physical condition. The risk of unsatisfactory academic progress increased significantly in students reported poor sleep quality. Our study demonstrates that sleep problems are very common among students, and supports the need to assess sleep problems and identify students at risk regarding school achievement.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Southern Iran: Pars Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodamoradi, Zohre; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Poustchi, Hossein; Salehi, Alireza; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Etemadi, Arash; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of GERD in Pars Cohort Study (PCS) and to find its correlates. METHODS We used the baseline data from PCS. PCS was conducted in the district of Valashahr in Fars province in southern Iran from 2012 to 2014. 9264 inhabitants who were 40-75 years old, and agreed to participate were enrolled. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire and simple physical examination of all participants. RESULTS Generally, 58.50% (95% CI 57.49 - 59.51) of the participants had GERD and 25.10% (95% CI 24.22 - 25.99) experienced it at least weekly. Approximately, 32.0%, 52.0%, and 24.4% of the participants reported heart burn sensation, regurgitation, and both symptoms, respectively. Being female (OR: 1.45, 95% CI 1.27 - 1.65), being older (OR: 1.20, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.36), being divorced/ widowed/separated (OR: 1.38, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.91), and lower education (OR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.02 - 2.03) were associated with frequent GERD. CONCLUSION GERD is common in PCS and its prevalence is close to that in western countries. Being female, higher age, being divorced/widowed/separated, lower education, history of hypertension, anxiety, insomnia, and non-cigarette tobacco smoking were associated with frequent GERD. We are going to investigate the causal relationship between these risk factors and GERD in the next stages of PCS. PMID:28894514

  9. Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Carla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9% dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6% and hunting dogs (1.7%. The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4% and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6% was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Cortes, Helder; Brancal, Hugo; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Pimenta, Paulo; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6%) and hunting dogs (1.7%). The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs. PMID:24972327

  11. Prevalence of depression and its correlates among undergraduates in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasuriya, Santushi Devini; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Reavley, Nicola Jane

    2015-06-01

    There is a dearth of mental health research on undergraduates in Sri Lanka. This study examines the prevalence of depression in a sample of Sri Lankan undergraduates, their exposure to threatening life events and the predictors of their depression. Responses of 4304 undergraduates were obtained on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and a measure of exposure to threatening life events, with binary logistic regression models used to identify the demographic and life event correlates of screening positive for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). PHQ-9 diagnoses of 'Major' and 'Other' depression were obtained by 9.3% and 13.5% of undergraduates, respectively. A higher likelihood of MDD was seen among those who were older and those living in hostels (compared to home), although no differences were seen between genders or those studying in different faculties. Likelihood of MDD was higher in undergraduates exposed to multiple threatening life events as well as those exposed to physical threat; family deaths; romantic break-ups; a problem with a close associate; educational difficulties; unemployment and domestic violence, and among male undergraduates harassed by another student. MDD is prevalent in these undergraduates and universities need to develop services to assist them. Such services may also need to focus on supporting those who have experienced threatening life events, particularly those that arise as a result of being an undergraduate, as these may increase the risk of MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

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    Carmen K M Wong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. RESULTS: A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10 was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  13. Prevalence, structure and correlates of anxiety-depression in boys with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and depression predicts impaired treatment outcomes, poor quality of life and increased suicide risk. No study has reported on a combined measure of anxiety-depression in boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. To explore the prevalence, underlying factor structure and relationships between anxiety-depression, physiological stress and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). 150 boys (aged 6-18 years; IQ M=94.9, range=73-132) with an ASD plus their parents (135 mothers, 15 fathers) completed scales about the boys' anxiety and depression, and the boys provided samples of their saliva in the morning and afternoon. Parents also completed the ASD Behaviour Checklist about the boys' ASD symptoms. The two sources of ratings were not significantly different for prevalence of anxiety-depression but the factor structures varied between the parents' and boys' responses, with a four-factor solution for the boys' ratings and a three-factor solution for the parents' ratings. There were also differences in the correlations between cortisol and anxiety-depression and between ASD symptoms and anxiety depression across the boys' and parents' data. Assessment of anxiety and depression comorbidity from parents and from children with an ASD themselves could provide a valuable adjunct datum when diagnosing ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among adolescents in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Carmen Km; Ng, Cherry Fn; Yu, Chak Man; Young, Betty Wy

    2007-12-01

    To study the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among adolescents in Hong Kong and to examine the socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. Three secondary schools with different academic performance were selected from the Eastern District of Hong Kong. A total of 2382 students enrolled in Forms 1-7 at the three schools completed a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions on socio-demographic information, body weight satisfaction, exposure to mass media, health behaviours as well as the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26). Data were analysed using Student's t-test, chi2 analysis and multivariate logistic regression models. Disordered eating (EAT score > or =20) was present in 52 (3.9%) adolescent boys and 68 (6.5%) adolescent girls. The youngest case was only 11 years old. A high degree of body weight dissatisfaction was shared by our adolescents. Teenage girls, overweight youths and those with poor academic performance were at increased risk of having disordered eating. Strong associations were found between disordered eating and other health-compromising behaviours including smoking, alcohol and soft drug use, delinquent behaviours, suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviours. Exposure to entertainment, beauty and youth magazines was positively related to disordered eating. Disordered eating is prevalent among adolescents in Hong Kong. It remains a significant public health challenge to our community. Prevention programmes targeting youths at the greatest risk should be considered.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among drug users in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Mburu, Gitau

    2016-10-01

    Compared to the general population, drug users are at increased risk of both poor mental health and HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of high psychological distress among drug users in Cambodia. In April 2014, a two-stage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select 169 drug users from hotspots in Phnom Penh. Psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with levels of psychological distress among this population. Our study found high prevalence of attempted suicide (15.3%), drug related arrests (46.2%), and incarceration (31.4%). Of the 169 participants, 42.0% were found to have high levels of psychological distress, indicating poor mental health. After adjustment, high levels of psychological distress were independently associated with suicidal ideation (pCambodia. Health system interventions, such as screening, referral, and training of health providers, need to be strengthened. In addition, interventions addressing social determinants of mental health and mitigation of frequent arrests and improving conditions in rehabilitation centres are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Anne; van Splunter, Maaike M I; van der Heijden, Amber A W A; Welschen, Laura M C; Elders, Petra J M; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Snoek, Frank J; Enzlin, Paul; Nijpels, Giel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction in a sample of Dutch men and women with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years from 4 Dutch diabetes centers were asked to complete self-report questionnaires covering sociodemographic characteristics, medical characteristics, clinical depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies), and sexual dysfunction (in men: International Index of Erectile Function; in women: Female Sexual Function Index). In total, 158 type 2 diabetes patients (68% men) completed the cross-sectional survey. On the basis of predefined criteria, 69% of men and 70% of women were classified with some degree of sexual dysfunction. Univariable logistic regression analyses revealed that sexual dysfunctions were associated with higher age, clinical depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies score ≥16), and one or more diabetes-related complications in both men and women. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that clinical depression was most strongly associated with both male (OR = 6.87, 95% CI [1.77, 26.63]) and female (OR = 9.33, 95% CI [1.03, 84.87]) sexual dysfunction. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in men and women with type 2 diabetes and is associated with higher age, clinical depression, and diabetes-related complications. These results suggest that addressing sexual dysfunction in diabetes care is important.

  17. High daily doses of benzodiazepines among Quebec seniors: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moride Yola

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines is generally contraindicated for seniors. While both patient and physician factors may influence the use of high daily doses, previous research on the effect of patient factors has been extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the one year prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines, and examine physician and patient correlates of such use among Quebec community-dwelling seniors. Methods Patient information for 1423 community-dwelling Quebec seniors who participated in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was linked to provincial health insurance administrative data bases containing detailed information on prescriptions received and prescribers. Results The standardized one year period prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines was 7.9%. Use of high daily doses was more frequent among younger seniors and those who had reported anxiety during the previous year. Patients without cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from general practitioners, while those with cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from specialists. Conclusion High dose prescribing appears to be related to both patient and physician factors.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Pallesen, Ståle; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Molde, Helge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2012-02-01

    To investigate prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase, characterized by problems falling asleep in the evening and rising at adequate times in the morning, in a large sample of Norwegian high school students. A randomized sample of 1285 high school students (aged 16-19 years) participated in an internet based study answering questions about sleep habits, height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, school grades, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Delayed sleep phase was operationalized as difficulties falling asleep before 2 a.m. at least three nights per week together with much or very much difficulty waking up in the morning. The results show a prevalence of delayed sleep phase of 8.4%. In all, 68% of these students (5.7% of the total sample) also reported problems advancing their sleep period as well as one daytime consequence (oversleeping at least two days a week or experiencing much/very much sleepiness at school). Delayed sleep phase was associated with lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Delayed sleep phase appears to be common amongst Norwegian adolescents and is associated with negative outcomes such as lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of occupational stress and its correlates among firefighters, Tehran, Iran, 2013

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    Mahdi Sepidarkish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the various occupations, firefighters are exposed to stress due to the nature of their occupational. Hence, our aim in this study was to assess occupational stress and its correlates among Tehran’s firefighters, Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among firefighters of Tehran in 2013. A total of 312 staff of firefighting organization selected from five operating region through a multistage sampling. Demographic and occupational stress questionnaires were filled by subjects. Finally, data were analyzed with the help of SPSS for Windows. Results: Prevalence of overall stress was 2.2%. Stress levels were 5.8% in demand area, 41.0% in control area, 12.5% in communication area, 1.5% in role area, 17.0% in change area, 14.1% in manager support area, and 5.4% in peer support. The significant association was found between married status (P = 0.006, lower education (P = 0.011, number of medical visit (P = 0.044, career history (P = 0.047 with occupational stress. Conclusion: Prevalence of occupational stress in firefighters of Tehran is relatively low. It is suggested that stress-prone individuals should be identified and advised.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of cannabis use in an outpatient VA posttraumatic stress disorder clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentes, Emily L; Schry, Amie R; Hicks, Terrell A; Clancy, Carolina P; Collie, Claire F; Kirby, Angela C; Dennis, Michelle F; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has documented high rates of comorbidity between cannabis use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans. However, despite possible links between PTSD and cannabis use, relatively little is known about cannabis use in veterans who present for PTSD treatment, particularly among samples not diagnosed with a substance use disorder. This study examined the prevalence of cannabis use and the psychological and functional correlates of cannabis use among a large sample of veterans seeking treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD specialty clinic. Male veterans (N = 719) who presented at a VA specialty outpatient PTSD clinic completed measures of demographic variables, combat exposure, alcohol, cannabis and other drug use, and PTSD and depressive symptoms. The associations among demographic, psychological, and functional variables were estimated using logistic regressions. Overall, 14.6% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months. After controlling for age, race, service era, and combat exposure, past 6-month cannabis use was associated with unmarried status, use of tobacco products, other drug use, hazardous alcohol use, PTSD severity, depressive symptom severity, and suicidality. The present findings show that cannabis use is quite prevalent among veterans seeking PTSD specialty treatment and is associated with poorer mental health and use of other substances. It may be possible to identify and treat individuals who use cannabis in specialty clinics (e.g., PTSD clinics) where they are likely to present for treatment of associated mental health issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in high school students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soonjae; Shin, Chol; Kim, Jinkwan; Yi, Hyeryeon; Ahn, Yongkyu; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Jehyeong; Lee, SangDuck

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and its associations with sleep habits, sleep problems, and school performance in high school students in South Korea. A total of 3871 students (2703 boys and 1168 girls with a mean age of 16.8 years and 16.9 years, respectively) aged 15-18 years in the 11th grade of high school completed a questionnaire that contained items about individual sociodemographic characteristics, sleep habits, and sleep-related problems. The overall prevalence of EDS was 15.9% (14.9% for boys and 18.2% for girls). Mean reported total sleep time was similar in EDS and non-EDS (6.4 +/- 1.6 and 6.4 +/- 1.3 h/day, respectively). The increased risk of EDS was related to perceived sleep insufficiency (P or = 4 days/week (P or = 1-3 days/week (P or = 4 days/week (P performance (P performance had a 60% excess in the odds of EDS compared to those whose school performance was high. These findings suggest that EDS is associated with multiple sleep-related factors in adolescents. Whether interventions to modify associated correlates can alter EDS warrants consideration, especially because it may also improve academic performance in high school students.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of probable adolescent mental health problems reported by parents in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Richardson, Lisa; Meyer, Alicia; Sawyer, Genelle; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Gaboury, Mario; Acierno, Ron

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of probable mental health problems in an epidemiologic study of Vietnamese adolescents. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of probable mental health caseness. Interviewers visited 1,914 households that were randomly selected to participate in a multi-agency study of mental health in select provinces of Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews assessed adolescent mental health problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent informant version, and additionally the interviewers collected information on demographic variables (age, gender, ethnic group, religious affiliation, social capital). The final sample included data on 1,368 adolescents (aged 11-18 years). The average score on the total problem composite of the SDQ scale was 6.66 (SD=4.89), and 9.1% of the sample was considered a case (n=124). Bivariate analyses were conducted to determine which demographic variables were related to the SDQ case/non-case score. All variables except gender were significant in bivariate analyses, and therefore were entered into a logistic regression. Results indicated that age, religion, and wealth remained significant predictors of probable caseness. Overall, prevalence estimates of mental health problems generated by the SDQ were consistent with those reported in the US and other Western and non-Western samples. Results of the current study suggest some concordance of risk and protective factors between Western and Vietnamese youth (i.e., age and SES).

  3. Cannabis use disorders in the USA: prevalence, correlates and co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Frederick S; Ruan, W June; Pickering, Roger; Grant, Bridget F

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to present 12-month and lifetime estimates of the prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and psychiatric co-morbidity of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence. Data were derived from a large nationally representative survey (n=43093) of US adults. The prevalence of 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV cannabis abuse (1.1% and 7.2%) exceeded the corresponding rates of cannabis dependence (0.3% and 1.3%). Being male, Native American, widowed/separated/divorced, and residing in the West increased the odds whereas being Black, Asian or Hispanic decreased the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence. Cannabis dependence was significantly associated with low income. Ages of onset for both cannabis use disorders occurred in adolescence and the majority of individuals with these disorders remained untreated. Co-morbidity was high between cannabis use disorders and other Axis I and II disorders. Cannabis use disorders continue to present a widespread and serious personal and public health problem. Native Americans were found to have high rates of cannabis use disorders, warranting closer attention to the mental health needs of this subgroup. Associations between cannabis abuse and dependence and Axis I and II disorders were strong, signaling the need for more comprehensive assessment of individuals with cannabis use disorders. Further controlled treatment studies are needed, especially among co-morbid individuals, in view of growing evidence of the adverse personal, medical and societal impacts of cannabis use disorders in the USA.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Disordered Sleep in Southeast Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarabalan Rajendran

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSleep disturbances are common in individuals with diabetes. Patients with diabetes have higher rates of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness and increased incidence of restless leg syndrome. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and determine the predictors of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in a southeast Asian Indian population.MethodsWe enrolled 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who attended an endocrinology clinic in a tertiary-care hospital. After we collected their demographic data, we recorded their anthropometric measurements. Fasting, postprandial blood glucose values and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values were then obtained. Quality of sleep was evaluated in all the patients through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, which is a questionnaire that assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a monthlong period. A Global Sleep Quality score ≥5 discriminates between good and poor sleepers.ResultsThe mean global PSQI score was 7.08 (standard deviation, 3.89, which suggested poor sleep quality in this population. Sixty-nine percent of patients had a global PSQI score ≥5, indicating that they were "poor sleepers." The global PSQI score positively correlated with the duration of diabetes and was also independent of other variables such as age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, or medications.ConclusionWe found a high prevalence of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also found a significant correlation between duration of diabetes and quality of sleep, independent of other variables. It is important for physicians to address the quality and duration of sleep in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of switching to another tobacco product to quit smoking cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Malarcher, Ann M; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Using nationally representative data, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smokers who tried switching to smokeless tobacco (SLT) or to other combusted tobacco (OCT) products to quit. Data came from 12,400 current or former adult smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year and responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Demographics and smoking characteristics were computed among those switching to SLT, switching to OCT, or trying to quit without using either strategy. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models identified correlates of using each strategy. Overall, 3.1% of smokers tried switching to SLT to quit, 2.2% tried switching to OCT, and 0.6% tried both strategies. Compared to those not using either switching strategy to try to quit, males were more likely than females to try switching to SLT or OCT; Blacks were less likely than Whites to try switching to SLT, but more likely to try switching to OCT; younger age groups were more likely to try switching to SLT or OCT; current someday smokers were more likely to have try switching to SLT (vs. everyday smokers), while recent former smokers were more likely to have tried switching to OCT. Both switching groups were more likely to have used cessation medication versus those not using switching strategies. Data suggest that switching to other tobacco products is a prevalent cessation approach; messages are needed to help clinicians encourage smokers who try to quit by switching to use evidence-based cessation approaches. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prevalence and Symptom Correlation of Lactose Intolerance in the North East Part of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Shil, B C; Saha, S K; Chowdhury, M; Perveen, I; Banik, R; Rahman, M H

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to see the prevalence of lactose intolerance and symptom correlation following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers in the north east part of Bangladesh. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, diarrhea and others were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 50 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM) i.e., lactose intolerance. Sensitivity and specificity of different symptoms were then found out. A total of 171 volunteers (male 123, female 48) with a mean age 34.08 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 82.5% (n=141, M=100, F=41) subjects. Symptoms mostly experience by the lactose malabsorbers were diarrhea 93(66.0%), borborygmi 80(56.7%), abdominal pain 31(22.0%) and flatulence 32(22.7%). LM prevalence was found to increase with increasing number of symptoms up to 3 symptoms. A week positive correlation (r=0.205, P=0.007) was found between the number of symptoms and proportion of subjects having positive lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance among healthy adults of North East part of our country is as common as in other Asian countries including China and Malaysia. But LM is higher than that of Europeans and south Indians. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated with LM.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of sleep-related problems in adults receiving medical cannabis for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Blow, Frederic C; Ilgen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=801,M age=45.8) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) for chronic pain at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed baseline measures of cannabis use, sleep, pain, and other related constructs. Over half of the sample (59%) met criteria for past 1-month sleep disturbance, defined as at least one sleep problem occurring on 15 or more nights in the past month. Most participants (86%) reported that sleep problems were due to their current pain. Approximately 80% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months to improve sleep and, among these participants, cannabis was rated as helpful for improving sleep. Sleep-related cannabis side effects were rare (35%), but sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms were relatively common (65%). Statistically significant correlates of past 1-month sleep disturbance included a) being female, b) being white, c) being on disability, d) not having a medical cannabis card, and e) frequency of using cannabis to help sleep. Sleep problems are highly prevalent and frequent in medical cannabis patients and are closely tied to pain. Sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms are relatively common but their clinical relevance is unknown. The association between frequency of cannabis use to help sleep with higher odds of sleep problems will need to be clarified by longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among people living with HIV in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Crow, Scott; Blom, Thomas J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Winham, Stacey J; Geske, Jennifer; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Bobo, William V; Prieto, Miguel L; Veldic, Marin; Mori, Nicole; Seymour, Lisa R; Bond, David J; Frye, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    To determine prevalence rates and clinical correlates of current DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder (BP). Prevalence rates of current DSM-5- and DSM-IV-defined binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN), and anorexia nervosa (AN) were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in 1092 patients with BP. Psychiatric illness burden was evaluated with five proxy measures of BP illness severity. Medical illness burden was evaluated with the Cumulative Index Rating Scale (CIRS). Twenty-seven percent of patients had a current DSM-5 eating disorder: 12% had BED, 15% had BN, and 0.2% had AN. Rates of DSM-5-defined BED and BN were higher than clinical diagnosis rates and rates of DSM-IV-defined BED and BN. Compared with BP patients without an eating disorder, BP patients with a DSM-5 eating disorder were younger and more likely to be women; had an earlier age of onset of BP; had higher EDDS composite scores and higher degrees of suicidality, mood instability, and anxiety disorder comorbidity; and had a higher mean BMI, higher rate of obesity, and higher CIRS total scores. In a logistic regression model controlling for previously identified correlates of an eating disorder, younger age, female gender, and higher BMI remained significantly associated with an eating disorder. The EDDS has not been validated in BP patients. DSM-5-defined BED and BN are common in BP patients, possibly more common than DSM-IV-defined BED and BN, and associated with greater psychiatric and general medical illness burden. Further studies assessing DSM-5 eating disorders in people with BP are greatly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of insomnia and its clinical correlates in a general population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbir, Gulcin; Demir, Ahmet Ugur; Aksu, Murat; Ardic, Sadik; Firat, Hikmet; Itil, Oya; Ozgen, Fuat; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Karadeniz, Derya

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of insomnia is influenced by environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of insomnia and its sociodemographic and clinical correlates in a general population-based survey in Turkey. This population-based study included 4758 subjects among 5021 who participated in the Turkish Adult Population Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders study. Questionnaire items evaluating insomnia were adapted from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders II and the DSM-IV-TR. Subjects with restless legs syndrome were excluded. Insomnia was found to be associated with older age (18-24 years, 9.8%; 25-44 years, 11.7%; 45-64 years, 13.8%; 65 years or older, 13.9%), lower income level (<500 USD, 16.5%), time spent watching TV (6-8 h or more, 18.4%), tea consumption in the evening (≥6 glasses, 14.5%) and smoking status (current and ex-smoker, both 14.2%) in multiple logistic regression analysis. In respect to other medical disorders, insomnia was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases after the adjustment for relevant risk factors for each disease, across all age and sex groups. Insomnia is a major health problem in our population, affecting subjects in the working age group and those of lower socioeconomic status. It should especially be screened in patients with chronic diseases. A relatively low proportion of insomnia diagnosed as a sleep disorder suggests that this condition and its clinical correlates are possibly under-recognized. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HCV and their high risk behaviors among migrant workers in eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Pan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. RESULTS: 17,377 (92.8% of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73% of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4% had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single; male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job; having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%-0.06% and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%-0.51%, respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%-0.70%. Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant

  12. Prevalence of HIV, Syphilis, HCV and Their High Risk Behaviors among Migrant Workers in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zheng, Hui; Chen, Xin; Su, Jing; Peng, Zhihang; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. Methods A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. Results 17,377 (92.8%) of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73%) of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid) partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4%) had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently) was associated with being divorced or widowed (Pmarket or domestic service (Pjob); having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%–0.06%) and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%–0.51%), respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%–0.70%). Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. Conclusions Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant workers in China. PMID:23451193

  13. Prevalence of Multiple Forms of Sexting Behavior Among Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Ly, Anh; Rash, Christina L; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R

    2018-04-01

    The existing literature on sexting among youth shows that sexting is a predictor of sexual behavior and may be associated with other health outcomes and risky behaviors. However, there remains a lack of consensus on the prevalence of sexting, which is needed to inform future research, intervention, and policy development. To provide a meta-analytic synthesis of studies examining the prevalence of multiple forms of sexting behavior, analyzed by age, sex, geography, and method of sexting. In an academic setting, electronic searches in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science were conducted for the period January 1990 to June 2016, yielding 1147 nonduplicate records. Studies were included if participants were younger than 18 years and the prevalence of sexting explicit images, videos, or messages was reported. Literature review and data extraction followed established PRISMA guidelines. Two independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to derive the mean prevalence rates. Thirty-nine studies met final inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses of the prevalence of sending, receiving, and forwarding without consent, as well as having one's sext forwarded without consent. Among 39 included studies, there were 110 380 participants; the mean age was 15.16 years (age range, 11.9-17.0 years), and on average 47.2% were male. Studies were available for sending (n = 34), receiving (n = 20), forwarding without consent (n = 5), and having a sext forwarded without consent (n = 4). The mean prevalences for sending and receiving sexts were 14.8% (95% CI, 12.8%-16.8%) and 27.4% (95% CI, 23.1%-31.7%), respectively. Moderator analyses revealed that effect sizes varied as a function of child age (prevalence increased with age), year of data collection (prevalence increased over time), and sexting method (higher prevalence on mobile devices compared with computers). The prevalence of forwarding a sext without consent was 12

  14. Prevalence of sexual victimization and correlates of forced sex in Japanese men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Hidaka

    Full Text Available Studies of men who have sex with men (MSM in diverse geographic and cultural contexts have identified health challenges affecting this population. MSM might be particularly vulnerable to sexual victimization and forced sex. The aim of this research study was to examine prevalence of sexual victimization and correlates of forced sex among Japanese MSM. We recruited a sample of 5,731 Japanese MSM who completed an internet-administered survey. Participants reported on history of different types of sexual victimization, unprotected anal sex, other health risk behaviors, exposure to gay-related teasing and bullying, depression, and suicidality. Over one-fifth of the sample (21.4% reported experiencing at least one form of sexual victimization, and 8.7% reported a history of forced sex. MSM who had ever experienced forced sex were significantly more likely to report experiencing psychological risks (depression OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.28-1.89; attempted suicide OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.81-2.81; other forms of bullying OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.13-1.68 and other behavioral risks (unprotected anal sex OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.29-1.90; sex venue attendance OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.04-1.54; methamphetamine use OR = 1.57, 95% CI  = 1.05-1.36, compared to MSM who had not experienced forced sex. Efforts to develop holistic and integrated health services for Japanese MSM are warranted, particularly related to psychosocial determinants of HIV prevention. However, due to cultural factors that emphasize familial and social relations and that stigmatize same-sex behavior, Japanese MSM might experience challenges to seeking social support and health services. Interventions must be provided in safe and non-judgmental settings where Japanese MSM feel comfortable disclosing their health and social support needs.

  15. Quantifying the behavior of stock correlations under market stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Kenett, Dror Y; Stanley, H Eugene; Helbing, Dirk; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-01-01

    Understanding correlations in complex systems is crucial in the face of turbulence, such as the ongoing financial crisis. However, in complex systems, such as financial systems, correlations are not constant but instead vary in time. Here we address the question of quantifying state-dependent correlations in stock markets. Reliable estimates of correlations are absolutely necessary to protect a portfolio. We analyze 72 years of daily closing prices of the 30 stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). We find the striking result that the average correlation among these stocks scales linearly with market stress reflected by normalized DJIA index returns on various time scales. Consequently, the diversification effect which should protect a portfolio melts away in times of market losses, just when it would most urgently be needed. Our empirical analysis is consistent with the interesting possibility that one could anticipate diversification breakdowns, guiding the design of protected portfolios.

  16. [Trends in HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors in female sex workers in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Casabona, Jordi; Sanclemente, Cristina; Esteve, Anna; González, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    To describe trends in HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviors and other sexual health indicators in female sex workers (SW) from 2005 to 2011. Cross-sectional studies were conducted biennially among SW recruited in Catalonia (Spain) in the street, flats and clubs (n = 400). In addition to an anonymous questionnaire, oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the Mantel test. The percentage of SW who used condoms inconsistently with clients (past 6 months) increased from 5.1% in 2005 to 9.9% in 2011 (p = 0.005); this percentage also increased with steady partners (86.2% in 2005 to 94.4% in 2011, p = 0.002). The prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) increased from 14% in 2005 to 20.6% in 2011 (p = 0.001). The prevalence of HIV held constant over the years (about 2%), being higher in Spanish women (14.7% in 2011). The prevalence of HIV in SW remained stable over the years, being higher in Spanish SW. The increase in unprotected sex and in the prevalence of self-reported STI among SW from 2005 to 2011 highlights a possible relaxation in preventive behaviors in this group. Interventions to reduce the transmission of these infections, as well as unwanted pregnancies, should continue in Catalonia in SW. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  18. Behavioral and EEG Correlates of Reduced Executive Functioning in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Espano, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to orphanage care or other deprived conditions represent a contributing risk factor in the development of ADHD behaviors. Upon leaving these contexts, the resting EEG patterns found in post-institutionalized (PI) children resemble the EEG profile of children with behavior problems, such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Specifically, this atypical pattern consists of increased theta power relative to other power spectra and decreased alpha power. This study examined if ...

  19. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  20. Correlating parenting styles with child behavior and caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child's behavior during the first dental visit. Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children's Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (Pauthoritarian and permissive parents. Children attending daycare exhibited more positive behavior compared to children who did not (P.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit.

  1. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis Among High-Level Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulic Damir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success, doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc., sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency. The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping, and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  2. The Prevalence of HIV by Ethnic Group Is Correlated with HSV-2 and Syphilis Prevalence in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper investigates two issues: do ethnic/racial groups with high HIV prevalences also have higher prevalences of other STIs? and is HIV prevalence by ethnic group correlated with the prevalence of circumcision, concurrency, or having more than one partner in the preceding year? Methods. We used Spearman’s correlation to estimate the association between the prevalence of HIV per ethnic/racial group and HSV-2, syphilis, symptoms of an STI, having more than one partner in the past year, concurrency, and circumcision in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results. We found that in each country HSV-2, syphilis, and symptomatic STIs were positively correlated with HIV prevalence (HSV-2: Kenya rho = 0.50, P = 0.207; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, Syphilis: Kenya rho = 0.33, P = 0.420; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, and STI symptoms: Kenya rho = 0.92, P = 0.001; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. The prevalence of circumcision was only negatively associated with HIV prevalence in Kenya. Both having more than one partner in the previous year and concurrency were positively associated with HIV prevalence in all countries (concurrency: Kenya rho = 0.79, P = 0.036; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000 and multiple partners: Kenya rho = 0.82, P = 0.023; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. Not all associations were statistically significant. Conclusion. Further attention needs to be directed to what determines higher rates of partner change and concurrency in communities with high STI prevalence.

  3. HIV prevalence and behavioral risk factors in the Sudan People's Liberation Army: Data from South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Lauren P; Goco, Norman; Woja, John; Farris, Tonya; Cummiskey, Chris; Smith, Emily; Makuach, Lia; Chun, Helen M

    2017-01-01

    After two decades of civil war, South Sudan has limited published data on HIV prevalence and behavioral determinants of HIV infection risk. A surge in HIV/AIDS prevalence is a real concern for this new country with limited access to medical or HIV preventive services, and low education and literacy levels. We present findings from the first bio-behavioral surveillance survey conducted within the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). A cross-sectional survey of 1,149 randomly selected soldiers from thirteen SPLA bases was conducted in two phases: July to August 2010 and April to May 2012. Consenting participants received HIV rapid tests, pre- and post-test counseling, and a personal interview. Demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, including sexual behavior, alcohol use, and mental health were assessed using computer-assisted interviews. The final sample included 1,063 survey participants (96.7% male). Education levels within the SPLA are low; only 16.4% attended school beyond the primary level. The overall HIV prevalence in the sample was 5.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6-6.9). High-risk behaviors (e.g., multiple or concurrent sexual partners, heavy alcohol use, low condom use) were noted among SPLA members. High levels of HIV stigma were identified: 90.6% (n = 916) responded with one or more negative beliefs towards PLHIV, and 60.3% thought a healthy-looking person with HIV should not be allowed to remain in the SPLA. Results from this first evaluation of risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among the SPLA highlight high-risk behaviors that may contribute to the spread of HIV. Understanding potential comorbid conditions will be critical to designing strategies to reduce HIV risk. This survey represents the first steps in understanding the HIV epidemic within the SPLA context.

  4. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash; Agarwal, Abhishek; Vyas, Sony; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the prevalence of hypothyroidism in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to elucidate its correlation with disease activity. A total of 52 RA patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were assessed fully clinically and underwent routine laboratory investigation including thyroid function testing. Hypothyroidism (defined as having a TSH level >4.20 μIU/mL) was observed in 20/52 (38.4%). Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) were found significantly elevated in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those without (36.3 ± 24.2 vs. 24.6 ± 9.0 mm/h). Disease activity parameters such as DAS-28-ESR, tender joint count; VAS scores were also significantly higher in the former. A significant correlation with serum TSH levels was observed with ESR and DAS-28-ESR. Thyroid function test should be included in clinical evaluation of RA patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among new admissions to outpatient mental health services in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, Annette S; Frueh, B Christopher; Archambeau, Olga; Steffen, John J; Wolff, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) experience criminal victimization at rates higher than the general population whether they reside in the community or correctional settings. This study examines the past-six month prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among a large community sample (N = 2,209) of consumers with SMI newly admitted to outpatient mental health services during 2005 through 2008. A cross-sectional design was used with self-report and clinical data collected from administrative records. Victimization was determined by responses to direct questions about experiences in the previous 6 months with respect to victimization of a non-violent and/or violent crime. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminal correlates of victimization were abstracted from a quality of life survey and clinical assessment interview conducted at admission. Overall, 25.4 % of consumers reported being a victim of any crime (violent or non-violent) in the past 6 months, with 20.3 % reporting non-violent and 12.3 % violent victimization. The risk of victimization was elevated for those who were female, White, not taking atypical psychotropic medication, not feeling safe in their living arrangement, and were arrested or homeless in the six-months prior to engaging in mental health outpatient treatment. Policy and practice implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Finding Correlation and Predicting System Behavior in Large IT Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Modern IT development infrastructure has a large number of components that must be monitored, for instance servers and network components. Various system-metrics (build time, CPU utilization, queries time etc.) are gathered to monitor system performance. In practice, it is extremely difficult for a system administrator to observe a correlation between several systemmetrics and predict a target system-metric based on highly correlated system-metrics without machine learning support. The experi...

  7. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet—What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H.; Toriola, Abel L.; Starościak, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Marek; Paul, Yvonne; Oyeyemi, Adewale L.

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10–15 years) recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants’ anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]). The strongest negative correlation was found between VO2max and %BF (r = −0.39, p children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO2max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO2max) through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland. PMID:28632175

  8. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet-What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H; Toriola, Abel L; Starościak, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Marek; Paul, Yvonne; Oyeyemi, Adewale L

    2017-06-20

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10-15 years) recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants' anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]). The strongest negative correlation was found between VO₂max and %BF ( r = -0.39, p children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO₂max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO₂max) through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland.

  9. Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-06-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.

  10. Sexual behavior among unmarried business process outsourcing employees in Chennai: gender differences and correlates associated with it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bimal; Rastogi, Saumya; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin; Williams, Joseph D; Kandasamy, Aarthi

    2013-01-01

    Premarital sex is often associated with high risk sexual behavior such as early age of initiation, multiple partners and inconsistent condom use. Evidence shows that such sexual behavior pre-disposes to sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. This paper tried to investigate the correlates of premarital sexual behavior among male and female business process outsourcing (BPO) employees to highlight the gender differences that exist in relation to it. Data were collected from 526 unmarried BPO employees during behavioral surveillance survey in Chennai, in the year 2009. The results showed that about one-third of respondents (males - 39.6%, females - 26.1%) had experienced premarital sex. Men reported having had their first sexual intercourse at 12 years and women at 16 years of age. While the prevalence of premarital sex was found to be high, the percentage using a condom during last sex was also high, especially, among the female employees (82.4%). Logistic regression showed that monthly individual income, work in shifts, migration, peer influence and friends with previous sexual experience were significant predictors of premarital sex among the male BPO employees. Visit to night clubs was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of premarital sex among the female employees. The study concludes that there is a significant gender dimension in the premarital sexual behavior among the BPO employees and that even as the sexual behavior of the young people is transitioning; their ability to negotiate safe sex behavior is also increasing. It is recommended to enhance efforts to advocate safe sex behavior among young adults employed in the BPO industry.

  11. Exploring the Prevalence and Correlates Associated With Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Jahirul; Mazerolle, Paul; Broidy, Lisa; Baird, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is known to have multiple detrimental consequences for the woman and potentially for her unborn child. However, little is known about the nature and extent of IPV during pregnancy, particularly in developing countries, which compromises efforts to address the problem. Relying on population-based data, this article examines the extent, patterns, and correlates associated with physical, sexual, and psychological IPV during pregnancy in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey data were collected between October 2015 and January 2016 from 426 new mothers, aged 15 to 49 years, who were in the first 6 months postpartum. IPV was assessed with a validated set of survey items. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate correlates associated with different types of IPV. Overall, 66.4% of women experienced any IPV during pregnancy. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV was 35.2%, 18.5%, and 65%, respectively. These forms of IPV often overlap, particularly physical and psychological IPV. Pregnant women who report limited social support and have controlling husbands are at significantly increased risk for all three types of IPV during pregnancy. Women who cling to traditional gender roles and those with low self-esteem exhibit increased risk for physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy. Psychological IPV during pregnancy is also correlated with low decision-making autonomy and childhood exposure to violence. Women whose husband's demand a dowry at marriage are at increased risk of sexual IPV during pregnancy. Results reinforce the need to conduct routine screening during pregnancy to identify women with a history of IPV and to be able to offer help and support. The findings also reinforce calls for gender equity and women's equal access to family and social resources thereby increasing women's social support networks, their self-esteem, and autonomy, and reducing their risk of IPV

  12. The Prevalence and Correlates of Falling Down in the Older Adults Over 55 Years in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghanbary

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falling down is one of the most common problems that involve old people. It may affect the physical, emotional and social aspects of individual’s health and may cause economical and social problems for individuals and society. Methods & Materials: In a cross sectional study, 750 old people with ages of 55 or more, living in the city of Shiraz (409 female, 341 male, mean ages 67.32 year with a convenience sampling method took part in this study. A questionnaire was designed to gather the information about the history of falling down on past year, its complications and the possible associated factors. Chi square and Mann_ Witeny test and logistic regression method was used to analyze the study data. Results: the prevalence of falling down was 33.6%. 20.4% of people had single falling down and 13.2% of them had recurrent falling down. There were significant correlations between falling down and age (P=0.016, sex (P<0.001, diabetes (P=0.008, vertigo (P<0.0001. However no significant correlation was found between falling down with arthritis, heart disease, nervous system disease, rheumatologic disease, hypertension and use of cane and glass. There were significant correlation between recurrent falling down and sex (P=0.021, vertigo (P<0.0001 and osteoporosis (P=0.024. Also, use of cane (P=0.023 and arthritis (P=0.048 were associated with falling down with injury. Conclusion: According to results of this study, one third of old people over 55 year living in the community experienced falling down within one year. Diabetes and vertigo increased the risk of falling down in elderly population. Planning for controlling these risk factors can reduce the rate of falling down and its associated problems and complications.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of 'agua celeste' use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-09-01

    Agua celeste, or "heavenly water", is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of agua celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs≥18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14-23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8h per day, and younger age. We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence, genotyping, and correlates of anogenital HPV infection in a population-based sample of women in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ortiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncogenic HPV infection is associated to anogenital cancer. We estimate the prevalence and correlates of anogenital HPV infection among a population-based sample of women aged 16–64 years living in the metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. Methods: 564 women completed face-to-face and computer assisted interviews and self-collected anal and cervical specimens. HPV DNA testing used MY09/MY11 consensus HPV L1 primers and beta-globin as an internal control for sample amplification. Positive specimens were typed by dot-blot hybridization. Results: Weighted prevalence of cervical, anal, and cervical/anal co-infection was 29.4%, 38.6%, and 17.1%, respectively. The commonest oncogenic HPV types detected in the cervix and anus were: 68 (8% vs. 7% and 16 (5.5% vs. 5.1%, correspondingly. Having ≥3 lifetime sexual partners (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.5 and last year anal intercourse (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.5 increased the odds of anogenital HPV infection. Cervical infection was independently associated to anal infection (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 2.0–4.6. Conclusions: Similar to others, our results confirm the burden of anogenital HPV infection in women and its relationship with sexual behavior. As vaccination increases, future studies should monitor changing trends in HPV infection in this population, and the relationship between anal and cervical HPV-related disease. Keywords: Anogenital HPV infection, Women, Hispanics, Puerto Rico

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of ‘Agua Celeste’ Use among Female Sex Workers who Inject Drugs in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D.; Case, Patricia; Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Clapp, John D.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Agua celeste, or “heavenly water,” is the street name for a sky-blue colored solvent reportedly inhaled or ingested to produce an intoxicating effect. Study aims were to (1) describe prevalence of Agua Celestse (AC) use, and (2) identify correlates of lifetime and recent use of AC use among female sex workers who also inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in northern Mexico. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, baseline data from FSW-IDUs ≥ 18 years old living in Tijuana or Ciudad Juarez participating in a longitudinal behavioral intervention were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Among 623 FSW-IDUs (307 from Tijuana and 316 from Ciudad Juarez (CJ)), 166 (26%) reported ever using AC, all of whom lived in CJ. Among the CJ sample, lifetime prevalence of AC use was 53%, median age of first use was 16 years (IQR: 14–23), and 10% reported it as their first abused substance. Ever using AC was independently associated with ever being physically abused and younger age, and was marginally associated with initiating injection drug use and regular sex work at age eighteen or younger. Among those ever using AC, 70/166 (42.2%) reported using it within the last 6 months, which was independently associated with using drugs with clients before or during sex, being on the street more than 8 hours per day, and younger age. Discussion We observed considerable geographic variation in the use of AC in northern Mexico. Future studies exploring factors influencing use, its precise formulation(s), and its potential health effects are needed to guide prevention and treatment. PMID:21441001

  16. Correlating Parenting Styles with Child Behavior and Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S.; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child’s behavior during the first dental visit. Methods Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children’s Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. Results 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (P.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Conclusions Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit. PMID:25685975

  17. Neural Correlates of Dynamically Evolving Interpersonal Ties Predict Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; van Winden, Frans; Pelloux, Benjamin; Stallen, Mirre; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behavior even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behavior to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behavior may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction – rather than trait empathy – motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum), empathy (anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) as well as altruism, and social significance [posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behavior during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance. PMID:22403524

  18. Behavioral Correlates of Coping Strategies in Close Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Bélanger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific coping strategies and problem-solving/communication behaviors in close relationships. The sample consisted of 72 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Marital Coping Questionnaire and who also participated in a filmed 30-minute discussion where they had to solve a relational problem. Observed behaviors were coded using a macroscopic coding system for dyadic interactions. For both men and women, results show significant relationships between coping strategies, marital interaction, and marital adjustment. For women, coping strategies and behavioral dimensions independently accounted for observed fluctuations in marital satisfaction scores. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Prevalence of Depression in Medical Students at the Lebanese University and Exploring its Correlation With Facebook Relevance: A Questionnaire Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, Wadih J; Kansoun, Alaa H; Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of major depression is particularly high in medical students, affecting around one-third of this population. Moreover, online social media, in particular Facebook, is becoming an intrinsic part in the life of a growing proportion of individuals worldwide. Objective Our primary objective is to identify the prevalence of depression in medical students at the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine, a unique state university in Lebanon, its correlation with the utilizat...

  20. Body dysmorphic disorder in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição Costa, Daniel Lucas; Chagas Assunção, Melissa; Arzeno Ferrão, Ygor; Archetti Conrado, Luciana; Hajaj Gonzalez, Christina; Franklin Fontenelle, Leonardo; Fossaluza, Victor; Constantino Miguel, Eurípedes; Rodrigues Torres, Albina; Gedanke Shavitt, Roseli

    2012-11-01

    The prevalence, sociodemographic aspects, and clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been previously addressed in primarily relatively small samples. We performed a cross-sectional demographic and clinical assessment of 901 OCD patients participating in the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale; Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS); Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale; Clinical Global Impression Scale; and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The lifetime prevalence of BDD was 12.1%. The individuals with comorbid BDD (OCD-BDD; n = 109) were younger than were those without it. In addition, the proportions of single and unemployed patients were greater in the OCD-BDD group. This group of patients also showed higher rates of suicidal behaviors; mood, anxiety, and eating disorders; hypochondriasis; skin picking; Tourette syndrome; and symptoms of the sexual/religious, aggressive, and miscellaneous dimensions. Furthermore, OCD-BDD patients had an earlier onset of OC symptoms; greater severity of OCD, depression, and anxiety symptoms; and poorer insight. After logistic regression, the following features were associated with OCD-BDD: current age; age at OCD onset; severity of the miscellaneous DY-BOCS dimension; severity of depressive symptoms; and comorbid social phobia, dysthymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and skin picking. Because OCD patients might not inform clinicians about concerns regarding their appearance, it is essential to investigate symptoms of BDD, especially in young patients with early onset and comorbid social anxiety, chronic depression, skin picking, or eating disorders. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder related features in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension in a semi-rural population of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kotwal, Atul; Mittal, Chetan; Babu, S Ram; Bharti, Sahul; Ram, C Venkata S

    2017-12-01

    While elevated blood pressure is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of hypertension still remains unclear for most populations. A door-to-door survey was conducted using modified WHO STEPS questionnaire in a group of villages under the Thavanampalle Mandal of Chittoor District in the state of Andhra Pradesh of South India. Data were collated and analyzed for 16,636 individuals (62.3% females and 37.7% males) above 15 years of age. Overall, prevalence of hypertension (as per JNC-7 classification) was found to be 27.0% (95% CI, 26.3, 27.7) in the surveyed community with 56.7% of the total hypertensives being diagnosed for the first time during the survey. An additional 39.1% had their blood pressure readings in the prehypertensive range. Among the known Hypertensives on treatment only 46.2% had a blood pressure recording within acceptable limits, with 31.2% in the prehypertensive range and only 15.0% in the normal range. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the surveyed population showed a continuous linear increase with age, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) peaked and started reducing in early fifth decade in males. Male gender, increasing age, higher body mass index (BMI), increased waist-hip ratio, increased body weight, family history of hypertension, death of spouse, and diabetes were found to be positively correlated with hypertension. Risk factors of alcohol intake, use of ground nut/palm oil, and family history of diabetes lost their independent predictive ability for hypertension on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The level of physical activity was also not found to be a significant predictor of hypertension in the study population.

  3. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of spiritual healer use: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates sociodemographic and health-related correlates of use of a spiritual healer for medical help. A large national, multiracial-multiethnic data source permits a more comprehensive investigation than was possible in previous studies. It also enables a closer focus on socioeconomic disadvantage and health need as determinants of utilization. Respondents are from the National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL), a nationally representative multi-stage area-probability survey of U.S. adult African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites conducted from 2001 to 2003. The sample contains 6082 adults aged 18 and over. NSAL respondents were surveyed about lifetime use of alternative providers for medical care or advice. Response categories included two types of spiritual healers: faith healers and psychics. These outcomes were logistically regressed, separately, onto 10 sociodemographic or health-related indicators: race/ethnicity, age, gender, marital status, education, household income, region, medical care use, insurance coverage, and self-rated health. Lifetime utilization of a faith healer is more prevalent among respondents in good health and less prevalent among Caribbean Blacks and never married persons. Users of a psychic healer are more likely to be educated, residents of the Northeast or West, and previously married, and less likely to report excellent health. Use a spiritual healer is not due, on average, to poor education, marginal racial/ethnic or socioeconomic status, dire health straits, or lack of other healthcare options. To some extent, the opposite appears to be true. Use of a spiritual healer is not associated with fewer social and personal resources or limitations in health or healthcare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of stability and change in maternal depression: evidence from the Fragile Families And Child Wellbeing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Turney

    Full Text Available Children of depressed mothers have impaired cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes from infancy through adulthood, and are especially at risk when maternal depression persists over multiple years. But there are several important limitations to our current descriptive knowledge about maternal depression, especially depression among unmarried mothers. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent cohort of children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents (N = 4,366, was used to examine the prevalence and correlates of maternal depression when children were about 1, 3, 5, and 9 years old. Results show that, at any given survey wave, between 16% and 21% of mothers reported depression. Nearly two-fifths (38% of mothers reported depression at least once during the eight-year period, and 7% reported persistent depression (depression at three or four of the four survey waves. Employment status, relationship status, and fathers' depression were among the sociodemographic characteristics most robustly associated with both stability and change in maternal depression. Given the important social consequences of maternal depression, not least of which is impaired wellbeing among children of depressed mothers, prevention and treatment of maternal depression should be an imperative for researchers, clinicians, and policymakers alike.

  5. Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Instructional Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Myra D.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…

  6. Academic Procrastination: Frequency and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Rothblum, Esther D.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the frequency of and reasons for college students' (N=342) procrastination on academic tasks. A high percentage of students reported problems with procrastination. Results indicated that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective…

  7. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Fahrenfort (Johannes J.); F.A.A.M. Winden, van (Frans); B. Pelloux (Benjamin); M. Stallen (Mirre); K.R. Ridderinkhof (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to

  8. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahrenfort, J.J.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.; Pelloux, B.; Stallen, M.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit

  9. Behavior Correlates of Rorschach Response in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frances G.

    Teachers in a private special education school for students with learning and/or adjustment difficulties completed Bristol Social Adjustment Guides (BSAGs), an observation scale for identifying maladaptive classroom behaviors, for 157 students (7-21 years old). Rorschachs were administered to the same group of students. Data from each test were…

  10. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    research and clinical care. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder, structural connectivity , functional connectivity , resting-state, restrictive... Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...pipeline. This will enable us to better understand the nature of disrupted connectivity in autism and its relation to core symptoms. The state-of-the

  11. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  12. Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The definition of what sleep is depends on the method that is applied to record sleep. Behavioral and (electro)-physiological measures of sleep clearly overlap in mammals and birds , but it is often unclear how these two relate in other vertebrates and invertebrates. Homeostatic regulation of sleep, where the amount of sleep depends on the amount of previous waking, can be observed in physiology and behavior in all animals this was tested in. In mammals and birds, sleep is generally subdivided into two states, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. In mammals the combination of behavioral sleep and the changes in the slow-wave range of the NREM sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) can explain and predict the occurrence and depth of sleep in great detail. For REM sleep this is far less clear. Finally, the discovery that slow-waves in the NREM sleep EEG are influenced locally on the cortex depending on prior waking behavior is an interesting new development that asks for an adaptation of the concept of homeostatic regulation of sleep. Incorporating local sleep into models of sleep regulation is needed to obtain a comprehensive picture.

  13. Behavioral Problems in Children with Motor and Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Associations with Maladaptive Personality and Marital Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoeth, Cis; Monbaliu, Elegast; Lagast, Emmy; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence rates of behavioral problems in children with motor disabilities are commonly based on questionnaires developed for a general population (e.g., Child Behavior CheckList). These questionnaires do not take into account lower levels of intellectual functioning. The first aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of parent-reported…

  14. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  15. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  16. Correlations between Student Discussion Behavior, Attitudes, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    An important result of physics education research is that students' learning and success in a course is correlated with their beliefs, attitudes, and expectations regarding physics. However, it is hard to assess these beliefs for individual students, and traditional survey instruments such as the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX) are…

  17. The Prevalence and Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Blair O; Grosso, Ashley; Adams, Darrin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sithole, Bhekie; Mabuza, Xolile S; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo J; Baral, Stefan

    2016-02-12

    Female sex workers (FSW) have a heightened vulnerability to violence and negative sexual/reproductive health outcomes. Limited research has examined how experiencing physical and sexual violence (PSV) mediates risk for poor health outcomes among FSW in Swaziland. The present analyses aim to contribute to literature linking violence with poor health outcomes, high-risk behaviors, and reduced health service-seeking among FSW. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study conducted in Swaziland between July and September 2011 with 325 adult women who reported exchanging sex for money, goods, or favors in the last 12 months, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between PSV and ancillary violence/abuse exposures, risk behaviors, and sexual/reproductive and mental health outcomes. PSV was conceptualized as either ever having been beaten up as a result of selling sex or ever being forced to have sex since the age of 18, or both. Prevalence of PSV in this sample was 59.0% in crude estimation, and 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]:[39.2,57.6]) with RDS weighting. Separate RDS-weighted estimates of being beaten up as a result of sex work and ever being forced to have sex were 32.4% (95%CI=[24.4,40.4]) and 33.1% (95%CI =[25.0,41.2%]), respectively. Experiencing PSV was associated with being blackmailed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 1.93, 95%CI= [1.07,3.52]), non-injection drug use in the last 12 months (aOR= 1.84, 95%CI= [1.02,3.33]), and feeling afraid to seek health services as a result of selling sex (aOR = 1.74, 95%CI= [1.01,2.99]). Given these findings, violence prevention strategies should be prioritized in programs that address Swazi FSW health, empowerment, and safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Correlation of cognitive decline and behavioral changes in patients with presenile and senile onset Alzheimer’s disease

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most prevalent dementia, is characterized not only by cognitive but also behavioral changes that pose the heaviest burden to caregivers. Differences in the clinical picture depending on the time of disease onset have been observed. We correlated cognitive and behavioral deficits in patients with presenile- and senile-onset AD to explore the differences. We tested 60 AD patients, 19 male and 41 female, mean age 65.2 years with the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale (DBD and a standard neuropsychological battery. The patients were divided according to their DBD score into two groups: group I - score 0-2 (n=24; 40%, group II - score 3≥ (n=36; 60%, comparable in disease duration and neurological findings. The cognitive scores were significantly higher in the group with less behavioral changes than in the group with more behavioral changes: Mini Mental State Examination score (p=0.0015, serial subtraction (p=0.0009, block design (p=0.0049, copy of complex figure (p=0.0125, complex visual organization (p=0.0099, divided attention, visual memory and speech comprehension. A significantly higher frequency of behavioral disturbances was registered in patients with senile onset than in the presenile-onset group (p<0.005. There were no sex differences. Our data show a correlation between cognitive decline and behavioral changes in late onset AD patients, indicating that more behavioral disturbances were associated with a more severe degree of cognitive decline, especially in non-verbal functions and attention deficits, compared to early onset patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of “Vaping” as a Route of Cannabis Administration in Medical Cannabis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A.; Bohnert, Kipling M.; Perron, Brian E.; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., “vaping”) as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Procedures Adults ages 21 and older (N = 1,485 M age = 45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use. Findings An estimated 39% (n=511) of the sample reported past-month cannabis vaping, but vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration was rare. Specifically, only 30 participants (2.3% of the full sample and 5.9% of those who reported any vaping) indicated vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration. The majority (87.3%) of those who reported vaping also reported smoking (combustion) as a route of cannabis administration. Being younger than age 44, having more than a high school education, engaging in nonmedical stimulant use, being a returning medical cannabis patient, and greater frequency of cannabis use were associated with higher odds of vaping at the bivariate level and with all variables considered simultaneously. Conclusions Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration. Results highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. PMID:27770657

  20. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Ken, E-mail: k-ueda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Honda, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan); Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  1. Prevalence and correlates of probable common mental disorders in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibanda, Dixon; Cowan, Frances; Gibson, Lorna; Weiss, Helen A; Lund, Crick

    2016-02-29

    In 2014 close to 10 million people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa were on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The incidence of non-communicable diseases has increased markedly in PLWH as mortality is reduced due to use of HAART. Common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent in PLWH. We aimed to determine factors associated with probable CMD and depression, assessed by 2 locally validated screening tools in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Harare, Zimbabwe. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of a systematic random sample of patients utilizing the largest primary health care facility in Harare. Adults aged ≥18 years attending over a 2-week period were eligible, excluding those who were critically ill or unable to give written informed consent. Two locally validated screening tools the Shona symptom questionnaire (SSQ-14) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered by trained research assistants to identify probable CMD and depression. Of the 264 participants, 165 (62.5 %) were PLWH, and 92 % of these were on HAART. The prevalence of probable CMD (SSQ14 > = 9) and depression (PHQ9 > = 11) were higher among people living with HIV than among those without HIV (67.9 and 68.5 % vs 51.4 and 47.2 % respectively). Multivariable analysis showed female gender and recent negative life events to be associated with probable CMD and depression among PLWH (gender: OR = 2.32 95 % CI:1.07-5.05; negative life events: OR = 4.14; 95 % CI 1.17-14.49) and with depression (gender: OR = 1.84 95 % CI:0.85-4.02; negative life events: OR = 4.93.; 95 % CI 1.31-18.50) CONCLUSION: Elevated scores on self-report measures for CMD and depression are highly prevalent in this high HIV prevalence population. There is need to integrate packages of care for CMD and depression in existing primary health care programs for HIV/AIDS.

  2. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  3. Prevalence of externalizing behavior problems in Sri Lankan preschool children: birth, childhood, and sociodemographic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakkody, Diana; Fernando, Dulitha; McClure, Roderick; Perera, Hemamali; De Silva, Hiranthi

    2012-05-01

    There is dearth of epidemiological data on externalizing behavior problems among preschool children in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and associated birth, childhood, and sociodemographic factors of externalizing behavior problems among a community sample of preschool children in Sri Lanka. Maternal ratings of child behavior were obtained from a community-based sample of 1,117 in the age group of 4-6 years using the Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument, which was developed and validated to assess externalizing behavior problems of preschool children. In addition, mothers responded to a questionnaire on birth and childhood related factors of the index child and sociodemographic status of the family. The prevalence of externalizing behavior problems was estimated as 19.2% (95% CI 17.5-20.9%) with the proportion being significantly higher among boys (p children. The study suggests the need for implementation of strategies and policies focusing at population and family level to reduce the burden associated with externalizing behavior problems in preschool children in Sri Lanka and similar developing countries.

  4. Prevalence of sedentary behavior in children under 2years: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Hnatiuk, Jill; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-09-01

    Sedentary behavior has negative health outcomes, evident even in young children. Identifying the prevalence of sedentary behavior in children review was to determine the prevalence of sedentary behavior in children reviewed English language journal; mean age of children behavior. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used parent-reported screen time as the sedentary behavior measure; only one study reported time spent restrained (i.e., kept inactive) and no studies reported objectively assessed sedentary time. Estimates of young children's screen time ranged from 36.6 to 330.9min/day. The proportion of children meeting the zero screen time recommendation ranged from 2.3% to 83.0%. In conclusion, very little is known about sedentary behaviors other than screen time in this age group. Although highly variable, findings suggest that children are already engaging in high levels of screen time by age 2 and the majority exceed current recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The rising prevalence of comorbid obesity and eating disorder behaviors from 1995 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Anita; Hay, Phillipa; Mond, Jonathan; Quirk, Frances; Buttner, Petra; Kennedy, Lee

    2009-03-01

    To measure the cooccurrence of obesity and eating disorder (ED) behaviors in the South Australian population and assess the change in level from 1995 to 2005. Two independent cross-sectional single stage interview based population surveys were conducted a decade apart. Self-reported height, weight, ED behaviors, and sociodemographics were assessed. Changes between the two time points were analyzed. From 1995 to 2005 the population prevalence of comorbid obesity and ED behaviors increased from 1 to 3.5%. Comorbid obesity and ED behaviors increased more (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 95% CI = [2.8, 7.4]; p < .001) than either obesity (POR = 1.6; 95% CI = [1.3, 2.0]; p < .001) or ED behaviors (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = [2.3, 4.1]; p < .001) alone. Comorbid obesity and ED behaviors are an increasing problem in our society. Prevention and treatments efforts for obesity and EDs must consider and address this increasing comorbidity.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, Jory; Rochat, Lucien; Romo, Lucia; Van der Linden, Martial; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Maurage, Pierre; Rothen, Stéphane; Billieux, Joël

    2015-06-01

    While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred seventy participants completed an online survey. The survey screened for the presence and characteristics of the main recognized substance and behavioral addictions (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other drugs, gambling, compulsive shopping, intensive exercise, Internet and mobile phone overuse, intensive work involvement, and overeating) in a three-month period. Key aspects of addiction were measured for each reported behavior, including negative outcomes, emotional triggers (positive and negative emotional contexts), search for stimulation or pleasure, loss of control, and cognitive salience. Latent class analysis allowed us to identify three theoretically and clinically relevant subgroups of individuals. The first class groups problematic users, i.e., addiction-prone individuals. The second class groups at-risk users who frequently engage in potentially addictive behaviors to regulate emotional states (especially overinvolvement in common behaviors such as eating, working, or buying). The third class groups individuals who are not prone to addictive behaviors. The existence of different groups in the population sheds new light on the distinction between problematic and non-problematic addiction-like behaviors.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease: a polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Alatriste-Booth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease are very common. Polysomnography (PSG is considered the gold standard for diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of nocturnal sleep disorders diagnosed by polysomnography and to determine the associated clinical factors. Method A total of 120 patients with Parkinson’s disease were included. All patients underwent a standardized overnight, single night polysomnography. Results Ninety-four (78.3% patients had an abnormal PSG. Half of the patients fulfilled criteria for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS; rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD was present in 37.5%. Characteristics associated with SAHS were age (p = 0.049 and body mass index (p = 0.016. Regarding RBD, age (p < 0.001, left motor onset (p = 0.047 and levodopa equivalent dose (p = 0.002 were the main predictors. Conclusion SAHS and RBD were the most frequent sleep disorders. Higher levodopa equivalent dose and body mass index appear to be risk factors for RBD and SAHS, respectively.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of successful ageing: a comparative study between China and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiush; Son, Joonmo; Zeng, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Successful ageing is often defined as a later life with less disease and disease-related disability, high level of cognitive and physical functions, and an active life style. Few studies have compared successful ageing across different societies in a non-Western social context. This study aims to compare prevalence and correlates of successful ageing between China and South Korea. The data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA). A total of 19,346 community-dwelling elders over 65 years were included, 15,191 from China and 4,155 from Korea. A multidimensional construct of successful ageing was used, with the criteria of no major comorbidity, being free of disability, good mental health, engaging in social or productive activity, and satisfaction on life. Correlates of successful ageing included demographics (gender, age, and rural/urban residence), socioeconomic features (financial status, education, and spouse accompany), and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol-drinking, and exercising). The results showed that 18.6 % of the older adults in China was successful agers, which was less than 25.2 % in Korea. When gender and age were adjusted, older adults were 51 % less likely to be successful agers in China than Korea ( p  China and Korea. However, before the socioeconomic variables are under control, rural residence was negatively related to successful ageing in China, whereas this is not the case in Korea. And the gender gap of successful ageing was mostly explained by socioeconomic features and health behaviours in Korea, but not in China. In both countries, good financial condition was highly associated with successful ageing. The study suggests that advancement of public health system could better control progression of non-communicable diseases among old people and thus promote successful ageing.

  10. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prevalence, Perceptions, and Healthcare-Seeking Behavior amongst Nigerian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus Wale Ojewola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and the factors influencing the healthcare-seeking behavior of men with LUTS. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed of 658 men selected using multi-staged sampling techniques. They were interviewed about LUTS and their healthcare-seeking behavior. The data were analysed using PASW Statistics ver. 18. Associations between specific factors and healthcare-seeking behavior were examined using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: The overall prevalence of LUTS was 59.1%. Storage symptoms (48.2% were more prevalent than voiding (36.8% or post-micturition (29.9% symptoms. Approximately a quarter (25.5% had a poor quality of life (QoL score. The average duration of symptoms before seeking help was 3.4 years. Almost half (46.8% of the men with LUTS had never sought help. Perceptions of LUTS as an inevitable part of ageing, subjective feelings of wellness, financial constraints, and fear of surgery were the most common reasons for not seeking help. The most common reasons for seeking help were to moderate-severe symptoms, impaired QoL, and fear of cancer. Severe LUTS, impaired QoL, and the concomitant presence of erectile dysfunction, dysuria, or haematuria were clinical factors that positively influenced healthcare-seeking behavior. Conclusions: In this population-based study, we found that the prevalence of LUTS was very high amongst adult males. However, only about half of these men sought medical attention. Their healthcare-seeking behavior was influenced by severity of symptoms, QoL scores, and socio-demographic factors such as educational status.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Elopement in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Kiely

    Full Text Available Despite increased awareness and concern about children with developmental disabilities wandering away from adult supervision, there is a paucity of research about elopement. This is the first study to examine and report the prevalence and correlates of elopement in a nationally representative sample of school-age children in the United States with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD and/or cognitive impairment. Data were obtained from the CDC's "Pathways" Survey, a follow-up telephone survey of the parents of 4,032 children with a developmental condition. 3,518 children that had ASD, intellectual disability (ID, and/or developmental delay (DD at the time of survey administration were included for analysis. Children were divided into three condition groups: ASD-only; ID/DD-only; ASD+ID/DD. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the prevalence of elopement and rates of preventive measure use (barriers and/or electronic devices across condition groups, and to examine the clinical and demographic correlates of elopement. T-tests were also performed to compare scores on the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ between wanderers and non-wanderers. Overall, 26.7% of children had reportedly eloped within the previous year, most commonly from public places. Children with ASD-only and ASD+ID/DD were more likely to have eloped than those with ID/DD-only. Across all groups, wanderers scored higher than non-wanderers on five out of six CSBQ subscales; they were more likely not to realize when there is danger, to have difficulty distinguishing between strangers and familiar people, to show sudden mood changes, to over-react to everything/everyone, to get angry quickly, to get lost easily, and to panic in new situations or if change occurs. Even after controlling for elopement history, parents of children in the ASD+ID/DD group were more likely than those in the other condition groups to report using physical or electronic measures to prevent

  12. Phases of scaling and cross-correlation behavior in traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.;Fullerton, Matthew;Kämpf, Mirko;Beltran-Ruiz, Cristina;Busch, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    While many microscopic models of traffic flow describe transitions between different traffic phases, such transitions are difficult to quantify in measured traffic data. Here we study long-term traffic recordings consisting of ≈2900 days of flow, density, and velocity time series with minute resolution from a Spanish motorway. We calculate fluctuations, cross-correlations, and long-term persistence properties of these quantities in the flow–density diagram. This leads to a data-driven definit...

  13. UNMASKING MASKED HYPERTENSION: PREVALENCE, CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS, DIAGNOSIS, CORRELATES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, James; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    ‘Masked hypertension’ is defined as having non-elevated clinic blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-clinic average BP, typically determined by ambulatory BP monitoring. Approximately 15–30% of adults with non-elevated clinic BP have masked hypertension. Masked hypertension is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to sustained normotension (non-elevated clinic and ambulatory BP), which is similar to or approaching the risk associated with sustained hypertension (elevated clinic and ambulatory BP). The confluence of increased cardiovascular risk and a failure to be diagnosed by the conventional approach of clinic BP measurement makes masked hypertension a significant public health concern. However, many important questions remain. First, the definition of masked hypertension varies across studies. Further, the best approach in the clinical setting to exclude masked hypertension also remains unknown. It is unclear whether home BP monitoring is an adequate substitute for ambulatory BP monitoring in identifying masked hypertension. Few studies have examined the mechanistic pathways that may explain masked hypertension. Finally, scarce data are available on the best approach to treating individuals with masked hypertension. Herein, we review the current literature on masked hypertension including definition, prevalence, clinical implications, special patient populations, correlates, issues related to diagnosis, treatment, and areas for future research. PMID:24573133

  14. Prevalence and social-environmental correlates of sports team participation among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Kubik, Martha Y; McMorris, Barbara J

    2011-07-01

    Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students. In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA. Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014). Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.

  15. Cancer as a Criterion A Traumatic Stressor for Veterans: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Naik, Aanand D.; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is an uncontrollable stressor posing the threat of death and disfigurement, often followed by repeated exposure to aversive reminders in the form of noxious treatments, persisting side effects, reengagement at times of surveillance, and the threat of recurrence. The phenomenon of cancer as a traumatic stressor is explored in this study, with a focus on the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A in a sample of 170 mostly male adults who received health care at VA Medical Centers in Boston or Houston. Participants were interviewed 6 months after diagnosis with head and neck, gastro-esophageal, or colorectal cancers. Approximately half–42.9% to 65.9% depending on cut-score used—perceived cancer to be a traumatic stressor involving actual/threatened death or injury or threat to physical integrity as well as fear, helplessness, or horror. Younger veterans and those with current combat PTSD symptoms were more likely to perceive cancer as a traumatic stressor, as were those who perceived their prognosis as uncertain; 12% had PTSD symptoms above a PCLC cut score of 50, which is similar to incidence rates of PTSD associated with other traumatic stressors. Cancer, therefore, appears to be a serious and for some, traumatic stressor, suggesting the importance of screening for cancer related PTSD in cancer survivors, particularly those most at risk. PMID:25741406

  16. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported sleep problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Kurita, H

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in Chinese adolescents. An epidemiological questionnaire survey was carried out in five high schools in Shandong Province of Mainland China. A total of 1365 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years comprising 823 boys and 542 girls. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding sleep duration, sleep problems, stressful life events, lifestyles, and personal and family characteristics. Mean sleep duration at night was 7.64 hours (SD = 0.86) and decreased with increasing age. Of the sample, 16.9% (95% CI = 13.2-20.5%) reported insomnia symptoms including difficulty initiating sleep (10.8%), difficulty maintaining sleep (6.3%), and early morning awakening (2.1%). Nightmares were reported more frequently by girls (chi2=20.09, pdiet, longer distance from home to school, and life stress experienced during the past 12 months were significantly associated with an increased risk of insomnia. Self-reported sleep problems in Chinese adolescents are common and associated with multiple factors. These findings suggest the need for comprehensive programs to prevent sleep problems in adolescents.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of problem gambling in people with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Maria; Cowlishaw, Sean; Harvey, Carol; Castle, David

    2015-04-01

    There are few published studies on the comorbidity of psychosis and problem gambling. This paper provides estimates of the prevalence and clinical correlates of problem gambling in a representative sample of people with psychotic disorders. The second Australian national survey of psychosis was undertaken in 2010 and included adults (18-64 years) attending mental health services. Problem gambling was measured using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) at two sites of this study, with 442 participants providing data suitable for analysis. There were 151 participants who screened positive to past-year gambling. 4.1% of the total sample was classified as low risk gamblers, 6.4% were moderate risk gamblers and 5.8% were problem gamblers. Moderate risk/problem gamblers were more likely to be male, have left school with no qualifications and have sought financial assistance in the last year. There was a significant association with substance use, including alcohol use disorders and use of cannabis and 'other' drugs (excluding cannabis). People with psychosis are four times more likely to have a gambling problem than the general population. The association of gambling with substance use disorders is consistent with community studies, while the increased need for financial assistance suggests that problem gambling increases the likelihood of financial harm for this population. Clinicians should screen for comorbid gambling problems in people with psychosis, while there is also a need for additional research into this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, Correlates, and Impact of Uncorrected Presbyopia in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd Man, Ryan Eyn; Fenwick, Eva Katie; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Li, Ling-Jun; Gupta, Preeti; Tham, Yih-Chung; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence, correlates, and impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-specific functioning (VF) in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based cross-sectional study. We included 7890 presbyopic subjects (3909 female; age range, 40-86 years) of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease study. Presbyopia was classified as corrected and uncorrected based on self-reported near correction use. VF was assessed with the VF-11 questionnaire validated using Rasch analysis. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of sociodemographic and clinical parameters with uncorrected presbyopia, and its impact on VF, respectively. As myopia may mitigate the impact of noncorrection, we performed a subgroup analysis on myopic subjects only (n = 2742). In total, 2678 of 7890 subjects (33.9%) had uncorrected presbyopia. In multivariable models, younger age, male sex, Malay and Indian ethnicities, presenting distance visual impairment (any eye), and lower education and income levels were associated with higher odds of uncorrected presbyopia (all P Malay and Indian ethnicities are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: Prevalence, correlates and associations with crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Zouwen, M.; Vergeer, M.; Jurrius, K.; Asscher, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36

  20. Olfactory LOVER: Behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eLarsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories (AMs are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym - Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare.

  1. Prevalence of behavioral inhibition among preschool aged children in Tehran, Iran.

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    Alipasha Meysamie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the identified risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood is inhibited behaviors in childhood. The present study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition with some of the internal (personal and external (family environment factors in a sample of preschool children in kindergartens. In a cross sectional study in 2009, data was collected trough a structured questionnaire completed by parents and teachers in day-care centers. A total of 1403 children were assessed. Analysis was performed through complex sample analysis. The results showed that 7.4% (CI95%= 6.1%-9.1% of children according to parents' and 8.1% (CI95%= 6%- 10.7% according to teachers' evaluation classified as behaviorally inhibited. The higher levels of behavioral inhibition were shown by girls, first children, single parent families and older children. Birth year before 2004, birth rank, living in a single parent family and maternal level of education were independent predictors for behavioral inhibition in logistic regression modeling. There is relatively high prevalence of inhibited behaviors among Iranian children. Further examination of diagnosed children with behavioral inhibition by experienced psychiatrists is needed. Also establishing consultation centers for behaviorally inhibited children and instructing their parents and teachers are recommended.

  2. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Carvalho Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84. The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821, and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875. The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05. The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  3. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Heloisa Carvalho; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology) and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84). The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821), and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875). The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  4. HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors in Male to Female (MTF) Transgender Persons in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Espinoza, Kristian Jesús; Menchaca-Diaz, Rufino; Patterson, Thomas L; Urada, Lianne A; Smith, Davey; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V

    2017-12-01

    Compared to HIV research on men who have sex with men, less is known about the risks and vulnerabilities for HIV among Male to Female (MTF) transgender persons, particularly in different geographic regions like Mexico. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, no precedent data exists on the MTF transgender population. Our aims were to estimate HIV prevalence and examine the behaviors and characteristics of the population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 MTF transgender persons recruited through time location sampling in 2012. Participants underwent interviewer-administered (paper and pen) surveys and rapid tests for HIV. Descriptive univariate analyses were conducted on various factors, including sociodemographics, substance use, accessing social services (requested vs. received), stigma, and sex behaviors. A total of 22% tested positive for HIV, a prevalence higher than other key populations at risk for HIV in Tijuana.

  5. Associations between owner personality and psychological status and the prevalence of canine behavior problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Dodman

    Full Text Available Behavioral problems are a major source of poor welfare and premature mortality in companion dogs. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between owners' personality and psychological status and the prevalence and/or severity of their dogs' behavior problems. However, the mechanisms responsible for these associations are currently unknown. Other studies have detected links between the tendency of dogs to display behavior problems and their owners' use of aversive or confrontational training methods. This raises the possibility that the effects of owner personality and psychological status on dog behavior are mediated via their influence on the owner's choice of training methods. We investigated this hypothesis in a self-selected, convenience sample of 1564 current dog owners using an online battery of questionnaires designed to measure, respectively, owner personality, depression, emotion regulation, use of aversive/confrontational training methods, and owner-reported dog behavior. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses identified modest, positive associations between owners' use of aversive/confrontational training methods and the prevalence/severity of the following dog behavior problems: owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed aggression, separation problems, chasing, persistent barking, and house-soiling (urination and defecation when left alone. The regression models also detected modest associations between owners' low scores on four of the 'Big Five' personality dimensions (Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion & Conscientiousness and their dogs' tendency to display higher rates of owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed fear, and/or urination when left alone. The study found only weak evidence to support the hypothesis that these relationships between owner personality and dog behavior were mediated via the owners' use of punitive training methods, but it did detect a more than five

  6. Associations between owner personality and psychological status and the prevalence of canine behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodman, Nicholas H; Brown, Dorothy C; Serpell, James A

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral problems are a major source of poor welfare and premature mortality in companion dogs. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between owners' personality and psychological status and the prevalence and/or severity of their dogs' behavior problems. However, the mechanisms responsible for these associations are currently unknown. Other studies have detected links between the tendency of dogs to display behavior problems and their owners' use of aversive or confrontational training methods. This raises the possibility that the effects of owner personality and psychological status on dog behavior are mediated via their influence on the owner's choice of training methods. We investigated this hypothesis in a self-selected, convenience sample of 1564 current dog owners using an online battery of questionnaires designed to measure, respectively, owner personality, depression, emotion regulation, use of aversive/confrontational training methods, and owner-reported dog behavior. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses identified modest, positive associations between owners' use of aversive/confrontational training methods and the prevalence/severity of the following dog behavior problems: owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed aggression, separation problems, chasing, persistent barking, and house-soiling (urination and defecation when left alone). The regression models also detected modest associations between owners' low scores on four of the 'Big Five' personality dimensions (Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion & Conscientiousness) and their dogs' tendency to display higher rates of owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed fear, and/or urination when left alone. The study found only weak evidence to support the hypothesis that these relationships between owner personality and dog behavior were mediated via the owners' use of punitive training methods, but it did detect a more than five-fold increase in the use of

  7. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  8. Associations between owner personality and psychological status and the prevalence of canine behavior problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodman, Nicholas H.; Brown, Dorothy C.

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral problems are a major source of poor welfare and premature mortality in companion dogs. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between owners’ personality and psychological status and the prevalence and/or severity of their dogs’ behavior problems. However, the mechanisms responsible for these associations are currently unknown. Other studies have detected links between the tendency of dogs to display behavior problems and their owners’ use of aversive or confrontational training methods. This raises the possibility that the effects of owner personality and psychological status on dog behavior are mediated via their influence on the owner’s choice of training methods. We investigated this hypothesis in a self-selected, convenience sample of 1564 current dog owners using an online battery of questionnaires designed to measure, respectively, owner personality, depression, emotion regulation, use of aversive/confrontational training methods, and owner-reported dog behavior. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses identified modest, positive associations between owners’ use of aversive/confrontational training methods and the prevalence/severity of the following dog behavior problems: owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed aggression, separation problems, chasing, persistent barking, and house-soiling (urination and defecation when left alone). The regression models also detected modest associations between owners’ low scores on four of the ‘Big Five’ personality dimensions (Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion & Conscientiousness) and their dogs’ tendency to display higher rates of owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed fear, and/or urination when left alone. The study found only weak evidence to support the hypothesis that these relationships between owner personality and dog behavior were mediated via the owners’ use of punitive training methods, but it did detect a more than five

  9. Degree-strength correlation reveals anomalous trading behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock markets. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying the anomalous traders using the transaction data of eight manipulated stocks and forty-four non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. By analyzing the trading networks of stocks, we find that the trading networks of manipulated stocks exhibit significantly higher degree-strength correlation than the trading networks of non-manipulated stocks and the randomized trading networks. We further propose a method to detect anomalous traders of manipulated stocks based on statistical significance analysis of degree-strength correlation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at distinguishing the manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones. Our method outperforms the traditional weight-threshold method at identifying the anomalous traders in manipulated stocks. More importantly, our method is difficult to be fooled by colluded traders.

  10. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hill, Alison P.; Guion, Kimberly; Voltolina, Lisa; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and childhood obesity (OBY) are rising public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight (OWT) and OBY in a sample of 376 Oregon children with ASD, and to assess correlates of OWT and OBY in this sample. We used descriptive statistics, bivariate, and focused multivariate analyses to…

  11. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Bauman, A.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States.

  12. The prevalence and correlates of self-harm in pregnant women with psychotic disorder and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Taylor (Clare L.); L.M. van Ravesteyn (Leontien); M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke); R.J. Stewart (Robert J.); L.M. Howard (Louise M.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWomen with severe mental illness are at increased risk of suicide in the perinatal period, and these suicides are often preceded by self-harm, but little is known about self-harm and its correlates in this population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome in an Appalachian Primary Care Population: Prevalence, Demographic and Lifestyle Correlates, and Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E.; Flack, Kathryn L.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Kandati, Sahiti; Agarwal, Parul

    2013-01-01

    % confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.6) and anxiety (OR = 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.2), to report sleep impairment both 4 (OR = 2.4, CI 1.6, 3.7) and 7 days/week (OR = 1.8, CI 1.3, 2.4), and a mean sleep duration Restless legs syndrome in an Appalachian primary care population: prevalence, demographic and lifestyle correlates, and burden. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1065-1075. PMID:24127151

  14. Reducing Anemia Prevalence in Afghanistan: Socioeconomic Correlates and the Particular Role of Agricultural Assets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemisa Flores-Martinez

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the socio-economic correlates of anemia in women, and potential sources of iron in household diets in Afghanistan. It also examines whether ownership of agricultural (particularly livestock assets and their use in food production has a role in alleviating anaemia, especially where local markets may be inadequate. We analyse data from the 2010/11 Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, estimating a logistic regression to examine how anemia status of women is associated with socio-economic covariates. A key result found is that sheep ownership has a protective effect in reducing anemia (prevalence odds ratio of sheep ownership on anemia of 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.73-0.94 after controlling for wealth and other covariates. This association is found to be robust to alternative model specifications. Given the central role of red meat in heme iron provision and absorption of non-heme iron, we hypothesise that sheep ownership promotes mutton consumption from own-production in a setting where market-sourced provision of nutritious food is a challenge. We then use the 2011/12 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment household data to understand the Afghan diet from the perspective of dietary iron provision, and to understand interactions between own-production, market sourcing and mutton consumption. Sheep ownership is found to increase the likelihood that a household consumed mutton (odds ratio of 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15-1.42, the number of days in the week that mutton was consumed (prevalence rate ratio of 1.24. 95% CI: 1.12-1.37 and the quantity of mutton consumed (7 grams/person/week. In the subsample of mutton consumers, households sourcing mutton mostly from own production consumed mutton 1.5 days more frequently on average than households relying on market purchase, resulting in 100 grams per person per week higher mutton intake. Thus this analysis lends support to the notion that the linkage between

  15. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  16. Reducing Anemia Prevalence in Afghanistan: Socioeconomic Correlates and the Particular Role of Agricultural Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Martinez, Artemisa; Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani; Poole, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to examine the socio-economic correlates of anemia in women, and potential sources of iron in household diets in Afghanistan. It also examines whether ownership of agricultural (particularly livestock) assets and their use in food production has a role in alleviating anaemia, especially where local markets may be inadequate. We analyse data from the 2010/11 Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, estimating a logistic regression to examine how anemia status of women is associated with socio-economic covariates. A key result found is that sheep ownership has a protective effect in reducing anemia (prevalence odds ratio of sheep ownership on anemia of 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.94) after controlling for wealth and other covariates. This association is found to be robust to alternative model specifications. Given the central role of red meat in heme iron provision and absorption of non-heme iron, we hypothesise that sheep ownership promotes mutton consumption from own-production in a setting where market-sourced provision of nutritious food is a challenge. We then use the 2011/12 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment household data to understand the Afghan diet from the perspective of dietary iron provision, and to understand interactions between own-production, market sourcing and mutton consumption. Sheep ownership is found to increase the likelihood that a household consumed mutton (odds ratio of 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15-1.42), the number of days in the week that mutton was consumed (prevalence rate ratio of 1.24. 95% CI: 1.12-1.37) and the quantity of mutton consumed (7 grams/person/week). In the subsample of mutton consumers, households sourcing mutton mostly from own production consumed mutton 1.5 days more frequently on average than households relying on market purchase, resulting in 100 grams per person per week higher mutton intake. Thus this analysis lends support to the notion that the linkage between sheep ownership

  17. Reducing Anemia Prevalence in Afghanistan: Socioeconomic Correlates and the Particular Role of Agricultural Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Martinez, Artemisa; Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani; Poole, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to examine the socio-economic correlates of anemia in women, and potential sources of iron in household diets in Afghanistan. It also examines whether ownership of agricultural (particularly livestock) assets and their use in food production has a role in alleviating anaemia, especially where local markets may be inadequate. We analyse data from the 2010/11 Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, estimating a logistic regression to examine how anemia status of women is associated with socio-economic covariates. A key result found is that sheep ownership has a protective effect in reducing anemia (prevalence odds ratio of sheep ownership on anemia of 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73–0.94) after controlling for wealth and other covariates. This association is found to be robust to alternative model specifications. Given the central role of red meat in heme iron provision and absorption of non-heme iron, we hypothesise that sheep ownership promotes mutton consumption from own-production in a setting where market-sourced provision of nutritious food is a challenge. We then use the 2011/12 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment household data to understand the Afghan diet from the perspective of dietary iron provision, and to understand interactions between own-production, market sourcing and mutton consumption. Sheep ownership is found to increase the likelihood that a household consumed mutton (odds ratio of 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15–1.42), the number of days in the week that mutton was consumed (prevalence rate ratio of 1.24. 95% CI: 1.12–1.37) and the quantity of mutton consumed (7 grams/person/week). In the subsample of mutton consumers, households sourcing mutton mostly from own production consumed mutton 1.5 days more frequently on average than households relying on market purchase, resulting in 100 grams per person per week higher mutton intake. Thus this analysis lends support to the notion that the linkage between sheep

  18. Brain morphometric correlates of MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism in violent behavior

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    C. Romero-Rebollar

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: This findings suggests that grey matter integrity in superior temporal pole could be a neurobiological correlate of the allelic association between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and violent behavior due to its implication in socio-emotional processing.

  19. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  20. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet—What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

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    Stanisław H. Czyż

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10–15 years recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants’ anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]. The strongest negative correlation was found between VO2max and %BF (r = −0.39, p <0.05. Significant negative correlation was also found between VO2max and weight categories (r = −0.15. Results of the multinomial logit analysis showed that VO2max increased in groups of overweight, normal weight and underweight children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO2max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO2max through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland.

  1. Prevalence

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    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  2. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Deitz, Anne C.; Hudson, James I.; Shahly, Victoria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; O’Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sasu, Carmen; Scott, Kate; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Little population-based data exist outside the United States on the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Cross-national data on BED are presented and compared to bulimia nervosa (BN) based on the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Methods Community surveys with 24,124 respondents (ages 18+) across 14 mostly upper-middle and high income countries assessed lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical disorders were assessed with a chronic conditions checklist. Results Country-specific lifetime prevalence estimates are consistently (median; inter-quartile range) higher for BED (1.4%;0.8–1.9%) than BN (0.8%;0.4–1.0%). Median age-of-onset is in the late teens to early 20s for both disorders but slightly younger for BN. Persistence is slightly higher for BN (6.5 years; 2.2–15.4) than BED (4.3 years; 1.0–11.7). Lifetime risk of both disorders is elevated for women and recent cohorts. Retrospective reports suggest that comorbid anxiety, mood, and disruptive behavior disorders predict subsequent onset of BN somewhat more strongly than BED and that BN predicts subsequent comorbid psychiatric disorders somewhat more strongly than does BED. Significant comorbidities with physical conditions are due almost entirely to BN and BED predicting subsequent onset of these conditions, again with BN somewhat stronger than BED. Role impairments are similar for BN and BED. Fewer than half of lifetime BN or BED cases receive treatment. Conclusions BED represents a public health problem at least equal to BN. Low treatment rates highlight the clinical importance of questioning patients about eating problems even when not included among presenting complaints. PMID:23290497

  3. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder comorbid with ADHD features in nonclinical young adults.

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    Wang, Hee Ryung; Jung, Young-Eun; Chung, Sang-Keun; Hong, Jeongwan; Ri Kang, Na; Kim, Moon-Doo; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the rate of bipolar spectrum disorder comorbid with ADHD features using two screening instruments, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), in a nonclinical young adult population. College and graduate students aged 18 years or older from four universities in Korea were selected. Comorbidity was defined as both MDQ positivity and WURS positivity. To look for a trend in clinical characteristics according to the severity of the comorbid condition, we used the Jonckheere-Terpstra test and the linear-by-linear association test. We performed ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify predictors associated with the studied comorbid condition. A total of 1948 subjects were included in the study, and 15 (0.8%) of them were found to have the comorbid condition defined as both MDQ positivity and WURS positivity. As the severity of the comorbid condition increased, we saw trends of lower socioeconomic status, higher history of suicidality, higher history of self-mutilating behavior, higher history of parental abuse or abuse by other people, more severe depression, and more severe problematic alcohol use. The ordinal regression analysis showed that history of parental abuse, depression, and problematic alcohol use predicted the comorbid condition. We did not use standardized diagnostic tools for case findings. The condition of comorbid bipolar spectrum disorder with ADHD features had a notable prevalence of 0.8% in a nonclinical young adult sample. This comorbid condition was found to be related with serious clinical phenomenology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Other Combustible Products: Prevalence and Correlates of Little Cigar/Cigarillo Use Among Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Cobb, Caroline O; Niaura, Raymond S; Richardson, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing consumption of little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), few studies have examined unique predictors and correlates of LCC use among adult cigarette smokers. This study explored differences between cigarette smokers with and without a history of LCC use on harm perceptions, use of other tobacco products (chewing tobacco, snus, e-cigarettes, and dissolvables), cigarette smoking/cessation-related behaviors/cognitions, and mental health and substance use disorder symptoms. A geographically diverse sample of current cigarette smokers were included in analyses (n = 1270). Frequencies of LCC use, awareness, purchase, and harm perceptions were examined and logistic regression models investigated differences between LCC ever and never users on a variety of factors, controlling for demographics. Bivariate analyses showed that LCC users were more likely to be male, younger, have lower income, have tried other tobacco products, perceive LCCs as less harmful than cigarettes, and endorse lifetime substance disorder symptoms. Menthol and other tobacco product use were the only significant correlates of LCC use in logistic regression models. Post-hoc analyses showed that other tobacco product use partially mediated an association between substance use disorder symptoms and LCC use. A third of the sample had tried LCCs, and LCC users were more likely to have experimented with other tobacco products and used menthol. The high degree of co-use of cigarette smoking and LCCs with other tobacco products and the association of LCC use to substance use suggests that these users have unique risk factors and deserve specific targeting in public health campaigns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Prevalence of Behavior Changing Strategies in Fitness Video Games: Theory-Based Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkevich, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Methods Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. Results The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a

  6. Prevalence of behavior changing strategies in fitness video games: theory-based content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth Jane; Hatkevich, Claire

    2013-05-07

    Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a greater number of strategies than those

  7. Prevalence and correlates of psychopathology in children and adolescents evaluated with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire dysregulation profile in a clinical setting.

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    Carballo, Juan José; Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Elena; García Nieto, Rebeca; Díaz de Neira-Hernando, Mónica; Pérez-Fominaya, Margarita; Molina-Pizarro, Cristian Antonio; De León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of children and adolescents referred to mental health services is frequently complicated by comorbid and severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. This dysregulation phenotype seems to be an indicator of overall psychopathology, symptom severity and functional impairment. Currently, this phenotype is assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist. However, the widely used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been recently validated to screen the Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and demographic, psychosocial and clinical correlates of the SDQ-DP phenotype in a Spanish clinical sample. In a clinical sample of 623 consecutively referred children and adolescents (4-17 years old), we compared clinical and sociodemographic correlates between subjects who met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP) and those who did not (NO_DP). Sociodemographic data, parent-rated SDQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression, family Apgar scale and clinical diagnoses were collected by experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists. Overall in our sample, 175 subjects (28.1%) met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP group). Compared with the NO_DP group, the DP subjects had significantly higher scores on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, problems with peers and overall problems as well as significantly lower scores on prosocial behavior. Clinical diagnoses assigned revealed that DP subjects showed significantly greater psychiatric comorbidity. DP subjects also showed significantly worse family functioning and increased symptom severity and significantly lower scores on psychosocial functioning. A high prevalence of children and adolescents with the dysregulated profile, assessed by the SDQ-DP, was found in our clinical setting. The SDQ-DP may serve as an index of overall psychological severity and functional impairment. In addition, it may indicate family

  8. Prevalence and correlates of childhood obesity in suburban area of Odisha: A cross sectional study

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    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India obesity and overweight is increasing among urban adolescents. Both under and over nutrition is grappling the country at faster rate. Present study was an attempt to explore obesity and overweight prevalence among school going children in suburban areas of Cuttack city, Odisha, India and their correlates.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among school children in suburban area of Cuttack city, Odisha. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants to elicit information about their age, number of siblings, birth order of the child, working status of parents, television screen viewing time, mode of transport to school and dietary habit of the students. A total of 550 children studying in class five to ten participated in our study.Result: Out of 550 children screened, nearly (14 2.5% students were thin or severely thin, whereas (6712.1% students were overweight or obese. Univariate analysis revealed that girls were almost five times at higher risk of being overweight/obesity compared to boys (OR: 4.78 95%CI: 1.35-16.93. Children who used motorized vehicles for going to school had an unadjusted Odds ratio of 10.08 [95%CI: 2.08-48.77] of being overweight or obese compared to those who walked to school. Having more than one child at home (OR= 0.15, 95%CI: 0.039-0.6 and doing physical activity for more than 30min per day (0.105, 95%CI: 0.015-0.72 were found to be protective against overweight and obesity.Conclusion: Bearing in mind the burden of overweight and obesity among school children there is a need for periodic screening, awareness at school and parent counselling.

  9. Dental enamel defects in adult coeliac disease: prevalence and correlation with symptoms and age at diagnosis.

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    Trotta, Lucia; Biagi, Federico; Bianchi, Paola I; Marchese, Alessandra; Vattiato, Claudia; Balduzzi, Davide; Collesano, Vittorio; Corazza, Gino R

    2013-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a condition characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Any organ can be affected and, among others, dental enamel defects have been described. Our aims were to study the prevalence of dental enamel defects in adults with coeliac disease and to investigate a correlation between the grade of teeth lesion and clinical parameters present at the time of diagnosis of coeliac disease. A dental examination was performed in 54 coeliac disease patients (41 F, mean age 37 ± 13 years, mean age at diagnosis 31 ± 14 years). Symptoms leading to diagnosis were diarrhoea/weight loss (32 pts.), anaemia (19 pts.), familiarity (3 pts.); none of the patients was diagnosed because of enamel defects. At the time of evaluation, they were all on a gluten-free diet. Enamel defects were classified from grade 0 to 4 according to its severity. Enamel defects were observed in 46/54 patients (85.2%): grade 1 defects were seen in 18 patients (33.3%) grade 2 in 16 (29.6%), grade 3 in 8 (14.8%), and grade 4 in 4 (7.4%). We also observed that grades 3 and 4 were more frequent in patients diagnosed with classical rather than non-classical coeliac disease (10/32 vs. 2/20). However, this was not statistically significant. This study confirms that enamel defects are common in adult coeliac disease. Observation of enamel defects is an opportunity to diagnose coeliac disease. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Function in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: Prevalence and Correlates.

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    Williams, Amy M; Lindholm, Jamie; Siddiqui, Farzan; Ghanem, Tamer A; Chang, Steven S

    2017-11-01

    Objective Identify the prevalence and clinical correlates of cognitive impairment in patients presenting for treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) using brief screening within a multidisciplinary care team. Study Design A case series with planned data collection of cognitive function, quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial variables. Setting Urban Midwest academic medical center. Subjects and Methods In total, 209 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of HNC between August 2015 and September 2016 who had a pretreatment assessment with a clinical health psychologist. At pretreatment assessment, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a brief screening tool for cognitive function, was administered along with a semistructured interview to gather information on psychiatric symptoms, social support, and substance use. Patient information, including demographics, clinical variables, and psychosocial variables, was extracted via chart review. A subset of patients with HNC completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Cancer at pretreatment assessment and was included in the QoL analyses. Results Cognitive impairment was associated with current alcohol use, past tobacco use and number of pack years, time in radiotherapy, and adherence to treatment recommendations. Social, emotional, and functional QoL scales were associated with cognitive impairment, including executive function, language, and memory. Conclusion Cognitive impairment is common in patients with HNC, and there are important associations between cognitive impairment and psychosocial, QoL, and treatment adherence variables. The results argue for the incorporation of cognitive screening as part of pretreatment assessment for patients, as well as further research into more direct, causal relationships via longitudinal, prospective studies.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Having a Regular Physician among Women Presenting for Induced Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Julie; Hebert, Luciana E; Hasselbacher, Lee A; Whitaker, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of having a regular physician among women presenting for induced abortion. We conducted a retrospective review of women presenting to an urban, university-based family planning clinic for abortion between January 2008 and September 2011. We conducted bivariate analyses, comparing women with and without a regular physician, and multivariable regression modeling, to identify factors associated with not having a regular physician. Of 834 women, 521 (62.5%) had a regular physician and 313 (37.5%) did not. Women with a prior pregnancy, live birth, or spontaneous abortion were more likely than women without these experiences to have a regular physician. Women with a prior induced abortion were not more likely than women who had never had a prior induced abortion to have a regular physician. Compared with women younger than 18 years, women aged 18 to 26 years were less likely to have a physician (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.62). Women with a prior live birth had increased odds of having a regular physician compared with women without a prior pregnancy (aOR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.16). Women without medical/fetal indications and who had not been victims of sexual assault (self-indicated) were less likely to report having a regular physician compared with women with medical/fetal indications (aOR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.17-0.82). The abortion visit is a point of contact with a large number of women without a regular physician and therefore provides an opportunity to integrate women into health care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence and clinical correlates of elevated ALT levels in an urban Chinatown community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, S J; Dhamija, M K; Luc, B J; Siqueira, F; Bartram, A H; Layden, T J; Wong, S S

    2010-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are a primary consideration in treatment decisions regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Levels can be elevated as a result of HBV-related liver injury or to other causes. The aim of this study was to assess the background prevalence and clinical correlates of elevated ALT levels in Chinese immigrants who were HBsAg negative. Subjects consisted of adults seen in an urban Chinatown Internal Medicine practice between 1, 2006 and 12, 2007. Clinical information was collected retrospectively. An elevated ALT level was defined as >19 U/L for women and >30 U/L for men. The primary analysis focused on 2457 persons who were HBsAg negative. Their mean age was 55 +/- 18 years, 64% were female and 36% were obese. All subjects were ethnically Chinese and 96% were born in Asia. Thirty percent had an elevated ALT level. In univariate analysis, factors associated with elevated ALT included older age (P < 0.001), female gender (P = 0.001), obesity (P < 0.001), diabetes (P < 0.001), hypercholesterolemia (P < 0.001) and hypertension (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis BMI, diabetes, female gender and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with elevated ALT level. An additional analysis focused on a group of patients who were HBsAg positive, HBeAg negative and had HBV-DNA levels <1000 copies/mL. Fifty percent had elevated ALT levels. In conclusion, elevated ALT levels are common among Chinese immigrants without HBV (30%) and are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Liver biopsy should be performed in selected patients with HBV to distinguish the cause of ALT elevation before initiating antiviral therapy.

  13. Prevalence, Severity, and Correlates of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Symptoms Among Women in the Arabian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ossama T; Sabri, Sufyan; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Alharbi, Amal I; Rizk, Diaa; Narchi, Hassib; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2017-07-06

    To study the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) symptom patterns among women in the United Arab Emirates and to measure the debilitating nature of PMDD symptoms and sociodemographic correlates. This cross-sectional sample study used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) and Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) to screen for presence and severity of PMDD symptoms in Arab women attending ambulatory health services in Alain city, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, for routine health care between May 2005 and September 2005. The study participants include 508 women (76% Emiratis, 15% Omanis, and 8% other Arabs) of childbearing age. In total, 94 women (18.6%) met MINI-Plus criteria for PMDD; of these, 21 (4.1%) met PSST criteria for severe symptoms, 29 (5.7%) for moderate symptoms, and 44 (8.7%) for mild or less symptoms. One woman (0.2%) with severe symptoms and 12 women (2.4%) with moderate symptoms had negative MINI-Plus scores. Presence of PMDD symptoms was significantly associated with higher education (P = .000), single marital status (P = .001), major life stressors (P = .001), and personal/family use of psychotropic medications (P = .000/P = .006), personal/family psychological problems (P = .000/P = .001), irregular/painful menses (P = .043/P = .001), and functional impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (P = .000). Multilogistic regression analysis showed higher education, major life stressor, personal use of psychotropic medications, personal/family psychological problem, and painful menses were independent predictors of PMDD symptoms. PMDD symptoms were common among the Arab women in our study. The cyclically triggered mood disturbances were clustered in women with personal/familial psychological problems, perhaps linking biologic constitution to genetic predisposition for the development of PMDD symptomatology. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of 838 12-year-old schoolchildren. Data was collected using clinical examination and questionnaire. The clinical oral health status was recorded using Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT and Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographics, self reports of behaviour, knowledge and oral problems and a single-item measuring self-reported state and satisfaction with appearance of teeth. The Kappa values for test-retest of the questionnaire ranged from 0.55 to 0.97. Results Twenty-three per cent of the schoolchildren reported the state of teeth as bad. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations between schoolchildren who reported to have bad teeth and poor school performance (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.5, having bad breath (OR = 2.4, food impaction (OR = 1.7 dental visits (OR = 1.6, being dissatisfied with appearance of teeth (OR = 4.2 and caries experience (OR = 1.7. The explained variance was highest when the variables dental visits, bleeding gums, bad breath, food impaction and satisfaction with appearance were introduced into the model (19%. Conclusion A quarter of 12-year-olds reported having bad teeth. The self-reported bad state of teeth was associated with poor school performance, having bad breath and food impaction, having visited a dentist, being dissatisfied with teeth appearance and having caries experience. Information from self-reports of children might help in planning effective strategies to promote oral health.

  15. Prevalence of hypersexual behavior in Parkinson's disease patients: Not restricted to males and dopamine agonist use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christine A; Jadidian, Armon; Paggi, Michelle; Romrell, Janet; Okun, Michael S; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2009-07-30

    This study investigates the prevalence and demographic characteristics of hypersexuality in Parkinson's disease (PD). Impulse control disorders in PD patients have been associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Moreover, hypersexuality and pathological gambling have been associated with males, while females may be inherently thought to be more likely to participate in compulsive shopping and binge-eating behaviors. In this study, a screening mail-in survey was sent to all PD patients at a single Movement Disorders Center. One hundred forty one of 400 (35.3%) research packets were returned completed. Fifteen of 141 patients met initial screening criteria for hypersexual behavior. After detailed interview, only 6/141 (4.3%) of PD patients met criteria for pathologic hypersexual behavior. These behaviors included: compulsive masturbation, prostitution, and paraphilias. Patients with a younger age of PD onset were more likely to exhibit hypersexual behavior. Unlike previous report, no significant association was found between hypersexuality and gender or dopamine agonist use. Rather, this study suggests that physicians should be vigilant for hypersexual behavior in all PD patients, regardless of gender and PD medication regimen. Ultimately, given the innate sensitivity of the topic and survey limitations, it is very likely that hypersexual behavior in our cohort, as it is in the general PD population, has been under-reported.

  16. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  17. Prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Elementary-School Students of Khorramabad

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    parisa Namdari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high

  18. Cognitive-behavioral screening reveals prevalent impairment in a large multicenter ALS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Goetz, Raymond; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Nagy, Peter L; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jessica; Woolley, Susan; Andrews, Howard; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Katz, Jonathan S; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Björn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    To characterize the prevalence of cognitive and behavioral symptoms using a cognitive/behavioral screening battery in a large prospective multicenter study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two hundred seventy-four patients with ALS completed 2 validated cognitive screening tests and 2 validated behavioral interviews with accompanying caregivers. We examined the associations between cognitive and behavioral performance, demographic and clinical data, and C9orf72 mutation data. Based on the ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen cognitive score, 6.5% of the sample scored below the cutoff score for frontotemporal lobar dementia, 54.2% scored in a range consistent with ALS with mild cognitive impairment, and 39.2% scored in the normal range. The ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen behavioral subscale identified 16.5% of the sample scoring below the dementia cutoff score, with an additional 14.1% scoring in the ALS behavioral impairment range, and 69.4% scoring in the normal range. This investigation revealed high levels of cognitive and behavioral impairment in patients with ALS within 18 months of symptom onset, comparable to prior investigations. This investigation illustrates the successful use and scientific value of adding a cognitive-behavioral screening tool in studies of motor neuron diseases, to provide neurologists with an efficient method to measure these common deficits and to understand how they relate to key clinical variables, when extensive neuropsychological examinations are unavailable. These tools, developed specifically for patients with motor impairment, may be particularly useful in patient populations with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease, who are known to have comorbid cognitive decline. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN ADULTS WITH THE METABOLIC SYNDROME IN BENIN CITY: PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES.

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    Oghenekaro Egbi

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, CKD is prevalent in patients with the metabolic syndrome and may be due to a synergistic effect of the various components of the syndrome. Diastolic blood pressure and obesity may predict CKD in MetS patients. Albuminuria may also be prevalent in MetS patients; increasing with increasing number of MetS traits.

  20. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  1. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children’s Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

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    Larissa da Silva Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children’s behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204 that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children’s behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P<0.05. Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P<0.001. OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children’s behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children’s behavior during procedures.

  2. Distribution and prevalence of the Australian non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus is correlated with rainfall and temperature.

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    June Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV-A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. METHODS: We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. IMPLICATIONS: Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe.

  3. Distribution and prevalence of the Australian non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus is correlated with rainfall and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, June; Fordham, Damien A; Cooke, Brian D; Cox, Tarnya; Mutze, Greg; Strive, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV-A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe.

  4. Prevalence of Insomnia and Clinical and Quality of Life Correlates in Chinese Patients With Schizophrenia Treated in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cai-Lan; Li, Yan; Cai, Mei-Ying; Ma, Xin-Rong; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Ng, Chee H; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Tam, Man-Ian; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in schizophrenia patients treated in primary care. Six hundred and twenty-three schizophrenia patients from 22 primary care services were recruited. The prevalence of at least one type of insomnia was 28.9% (180/623), while those of difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning wakening were 20.5%, 19.6%, and 17.7%, respectively. Only 53.3% of patients suffering from insomnia received treatment. Insomnia is common in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care and the rate of treatment appears low. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachelle K; Ardoin, Nicole M; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  6. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachelle K.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E.; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  7. The prevalence, correlates and impact of anaemia among older people in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Renata M; Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre-Rodriguez, Juan J; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Teruel, Beatriz Marcheco; Valhuerdi, Adolfo; Ferri, Cleusa P; McKeigue, Paul; Prince, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Anaemia among older people is increasingly recognized as a matter of public health concern. Data from low- and middle-income countries are sparse. We surveyed 10915 people aged 65 years and over (8423 with blood tests) in catchment areas in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Mexico, to assess prevalence and correlates of anaemia and impact on disability. Prevalence varied widely between sites, from 6·4% in rural Mexico to 9·2% in urban Mexico, 9·8% in Venezuela, 19·2% in Cuba, 32·1% in Puerto Rico and 37·3% in Dominican Republic. Prevalence was higher in men and increased with age, but sociodemographic composition did not account for prevalence differences between sites. Standardized morbidity ratios indicated a much higher prevalence in Cuba (173), Puerto Rico (280) and Dominican Republic (332) compared with USA National Health and National Examination Surveys. Anaemia was associated with undernutrition, physical impairments, and serum creatinine. There was an association with greater African admixture in Dominican Republic but not in Cuba. African admixture is therefore unlikely to fully explain the high prevalence in the Caribbean islands, which may also arise from environmental, possibly dietary factors. Given an important independent contribution of anaemia to disability, more research is needed to identify preventable and treatable causes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of health risk behaviors and their associated factors among university students in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M

    2014-01-01

    With the advancements in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals have been seeking determinants of personal health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of health risk behaviors and its associated factors in a sample of Kyrgyz university students. In a cross-sectional survey, health risk behaviors among a sample of randomly selected university students were assessed. The sample included 837 university students from health sciences undergraduate courses of the State Medical Academy in Kyrgyzstan. The students were 358 (42.8%) males and 479 (57.2%) females in the age range of 18-29 years (Median age=21.3 years, SD=1.5). On average, students engaged in 9.4 (SD=2.3) out of 23 health risk behavior practices (range, 3-18). Generally, there was a high rate of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (86.4%), eating red meat at least once a day (62%), usually adding salt to meals (78.3%), skipping breakfast (50.5%), current tobacco use (49.7%) and two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (46.1%) among men, and never using a condom with a primary partner in the past 3 months (90.9%) among women. Furthermore, 60.8% of the women were physically inactive. In bivariate analysis among men, the lack of perceived benefits was associated with health risk behavior. In multivariate analysis among women, poorer family background, being Russian, high personal constraints or stress, and better subjective health were associated with the health risk behavior index. Students had a high proportion of health risk behavior practices. Several high health risk practices were identified, including poor dietary behavior, physical inactivity, sexual risk behavior, and tobacco use. Gender specific predictors identified included sociodemographic characteristics and social and health variables, which can be utilized in health promotion programs.

  9. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviors in men who have sex with men, Yemen 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzazadeh, Ali; Emmanuel, Faran; Gharamah, Fouzia; Al-Suhaibi, Abdul Hamed; Setayesh, Hamidreza; McFarland, Willi; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at growing risk of HIV infection in many parts of the world; however, the epidemic has not been well explored among this population in most Arab countries. To estimate the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviors among MSM in Yemen, we recruited 261 adult MSM from the port cities of Aden and Al-Hudaydah through venue- and facility-based sampling. Behavioral data were collected with a face-to-face questionnaire, and HIV status was determined by serological testing. HIV prevalence was 5.9 % (95 % CI 4.8-7.3). One-fourth (25.8 %, 95 % CI 20.7-31.5) had tested for HIV in the last year and received results; 27.8 % (95 % CI 22.5-33.7) had comprehensive knowledge about HIV; 20.0 % (95 % CI 15.8-25.0) reported condom use at last anal sex; and 31.4 % (95 % CI 25.9-37.3) reported that they or their sexual partner had a sexually transmitted disease symptom. Injecting drugs in the last year was reported by 0.8 % (95 % CI 0.1-9.2). Multiple risk behaviors, low HIV knowledge, few preventive behaviors, and HIV prevalence greater than 5 % denote a concentrated and potentially expanding HIV epidemic among MSM in Yemen. No time should be lost in intervening to prevent further expansion of the epidemic to levels already seen among MSM outside the Middle East.

  10. Prevalence of risky health behaviors among the students of Khorramabad universities

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    maziye Momen-nasab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Certain behaviors put people at high risk of premature death, disability or chronic diseases. The most common of such behaviors are smoking, bad eating habits, low physical activity, drug abusing and alcohol consumption, violent and injury and finally sexual high risk behavior. These behaviors are established during youth and extend to the adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of these behaviors among young people in Khorramabad. Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study, 700 students were participated. The assessment tool was a two – part self administrated questionnaire, consisted of demographic data and questions in 10 parts. Data was analyzed with SPSS V9.6 by X2 and Fisher exact test. Results: 67.1% of the students were female and 87.6% were single. The mean of their age was 21.26 years. 44.1% of them never used the seat belt of their cars. 13.9% had carried a weapon. 5.7% had an attempt for suicide. 25.1% of the university students had smoked cigarettes, 6% had drank alcohol an 8.3% had drug abuse. 32% of whom that experienced sexual intercourse had more than two partners and 39.8% of them had not used a condom. More than 90% had not eaten 5 servings /day of fruits and vegetables. More than 70 % had insufficient amount of physical activity. Conclusion: Health education at national and local levels can reduce these behaviors among youth.

  11. Revisiting Kurt Lewin: how to gain insight into environmental correlates of obesogenic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; van Lenthe, Frank J; Kremers, Stef P J

    2006-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are important determinants of population health. Prevention of weight gain is dependent on the successful balancing of eating and physical activity behaviors. Planned promotion of healthful behavior requires insights into important and changeable determinants and correlates of behavior change. The modest effects of health education have induced a shift in focus from personal to environmental correlates of eating and physical activity behaviors. Six systematic reviews were conducted in 2005 of observational studies of environmental correlates and environmental interventions for weight-related eating behaviors and physical activity for children, adolescents, and adults. The reviews of 297 observational studies showed that few investigations of environmental associations have been replicated, and that most studies used weak research designs and nonvalidated self-report measures, were restricted to micro-environmental factors, and failed to apply multilevel analyses. There is, therefore, very little evidence for an association between environmental factors and weight-related behaviors. However, the reviews of 112 intervention studies indicated much stronger evidence for positive effects of micro-physical and sociocultural environmental changes on eating and physical activity behaviors. Inspired by quotes from Kurt Lewin, we argue that before large-scale environmental change interventions are launched, better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of environmental factors, including macrolevel factors, for obesogenic behavioral change is needed. Such research should (1) develop better measures of environmental exposure, (2) attempt to integrate personal and environmental correlates of obesogenic behaviors, (3) take a solution-oriented, rather then a problem-oriented approach, and (4) identify access points for inducing behavior change instead of finding explanations for existing behavioral patterns.

  12. Correlation of adolescents' self-concept and self-esteem with some unwholesome behavior

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    Renata Marčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlations between self-image, self-esteem and some unwholesome behavior (alcohol consumption, cigarette and marihuana smoking, overeating at a meal, television watching and computer use in spare time in Slovenian adolescents. We used Offer Self-image Questionnaire for adolescents, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Unwholesome behaviour Questionnaire that was made for the purpose of this research. In the research 392 high school students participated, aged around 15 and 18 years, approximately evenly represented by gender and age. Data was attained in class groups. The results showed low, but statistically significant correlations between some self-concept areas and unwholesome behavior. The highest correlations emerged between the sexual attitudes and all unwholesome behavior. Students with more positive sexual self-concept behave unhealthier. Family self, morals and vocational-educational goals were significantly negatively correlated with most of unwholesome behavior, which suggests that individuals with better family, moral and academic self-concept behave healthier. Significant negative correlations emerged also with coping self: individuals with better self-concept in mastery of the external world and superior adjustment behaved healthier. None of the unwholesome behavior correlated with self-esteem. Results are mainly consistent with previous studies, but also contribute to new comprehensions in psychological theory and practice.

  13. Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds. A slight decrease in all-ages smoking over time was not reflected in the youngest age group. LBQ women who smoke have fewer economic, social and psychological resources than both women who never smoke and ex-smokers. High levels of alcohol and illicit drug use are also correlated with current smoking. Population-wide interventions have failed to address the persistently high prevalence of smoking among this sample of LBQ women. Tailored interventions may find utility focusing on personal resilience to deal with general and sexuality-specific stressors, as well as attending to poly-substance use. Acknowledgment of LBQ women as a priority group for tobacco reduction is urgently needed. We call on tobacco control agencies to consider sexuality and gender orientation in policy and partner with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community organisations to develop culturally appropriate interventions. [Deacon RM, Mooney-Somers J Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:546-554]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of adolescent dating violence: baseline study of a cohort of 7,960 male and female Mexican public school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Rodríguez-Ortega, Graciela; Chávez-Ayala, Rubén; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-06-01

    Factors correlated with adolescent dating violence have yet to be documented in most developing countries; this study assesses the prevalence and correlates of victimization with and perpetration of dating violence among Mexican youth. This was the baseline measurement (1998-1999) of a cohort of 7960 public school students (11-24 years) developed to explore various health behaviors in Mexican youth. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed with adolescent dating violence as the dependent variable. Prevalence of dating violence victimization was 9.37% (female) and 8.57% (male) for psychological violence; 9.88% (female) and 22.71% (male) for physical violence, and 8.63% (female) and 15.15% (male) for both psychological and physical violence. Prevalence of perpetration was 4.21% (female) and 4.33% (male) for psychological violence; 20.99% (female) and 19.54% (male) for physical violence; and 7.48% (female) and 5.51% (male) for both types of violence. Factors associated with dating violence victimization for both genders included: two or more lifetime sexual partners and intra-familial violence. Higher age, alcohol use and illegal drug use were significantly associated with victimization only among girls. The following were significantly associated with perpetration of dating violence in both genders: gang membership, illegal drug use, two or more lifetime sexual partners and intra-familial violence. Higher age and alcohol use were significantly associated with perpetration only among girls. High or middle socio-economic status was associated with perpetration only in boys. Future research on adolescent dating violence in Mexico should further explore severity and frequency of violent behaviors, include a focus on severe dating violence and take into account the context and meaning of dating violence. A longitudinal design that allows determination of causality will also be needed in order to develop prevention strategies.

  15. Intentional injury in young people in Vietnam: prevalence and social correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Linh Cu; Blum, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Violent acts in young people constitute one of the most serious forms of violence in any society. Violence by young people in schools, on the streets, and in their families has been documented in many studies worldwide. Homicide and non-fatal assaults involving young people have been reported as a great global burden of premature death, injury and disability. Adolescents and young people are both the main victims and perpetrators of such violence. In Vietnam, an emerging pattern of health problems in adolescents related to intentional injury and violence is drawing increasingly more attention from government and the public. Describe the situation of intentional injury among Vietnamese youth, including risk and protective factors, in order to suggest policy implications. The 2003 Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth was used as a data source, providing a nationally representative sample of 7584 youth aged 14-25 years, resident in 42 of the country's 61 provinces. This sample was drawn from the 45,000 households in the 2002 Vietnam Living Standards Survey, with a multi-staged and stratified design, using the probability-proportional-to-size method to maintain representativity. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Of the sample of young people, 2.2% reported injury resulting from violent behavior by a family member and 8.0% by non-family members, the latter demonstrating a significantly higher rate among males than females (13.6% vs. 2.4%). Characteristics of youth most likely to hurt others included: male sex, inebriation at some point, victims of intentional injury, group riot participants and carriers of weapons. Youth who had been members of mass social organizations or clubs in the community were half as likely to hurt other people as those who were unaffiliated with such groups. Females were almost four times more likely than males to attempt suicide. Other risk factors for suicide attempts were past inebriation (OR 2

  16. Neural correlates of improvements in personality and behavior following a neurological event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marcie L; Manzel, Kenneth; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-11-21

    Research on changes in personality and behavior following brain damage has focused largely on negative outcomes, such as increased irritability, moodiness, and social inappropriateness. However, clinical observations suggest that some patients may actually show positive personality and behavioral changes following a neurological event. In the current work, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of positive personality and behavioral changes following a discrete neurological event (e.g., stroke, benign tumor resection). Patients (N = 97) were rated by a well-known family member or friend on five domains of personality and behavior: social behavior, irascibility, hypo-emotionality, distress, and executive functioning. Ratings were acquired during the chronic epoch of recovery, when psychological status was stabilized. We identified patients who showed positive changes in personality and behavior in one or more domains of functioning. Lesion analyses indicated that positive changes in personality and behavior were most consistently related to damage to the bilateral frontal polar regions and the right anterior dorsolateral prefrontal region. These findings support the conclusion that improvements in personality and behavior can occur after a neurological event, and that such changes have systematic neuroanatomical correlates. Patients who showed positive changes in personality and behavior following a neurological event were rated as having more disturbed functioning prior to the event. Our study may be taken as preliminary evidence that improvements in personality and behavior following a neurological event may involve dampening of (premorbidly) more extreme expressions of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems as correlates for suicide-related behaviors in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kimberly B; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Ouéda, Christiane; Wilcox, Holly C

    2011-05-01

    Suicide rates in Mexico have been rising steadily for several decades. This study examined the relationship of depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems with thoughts of death, suicide plans and attempts. Data from 22,966 individuals who participated in a population-based nationally-representative survey in Mexico were analyzed. After adjusting for covariates, all odds ratios for thoughts of death and suicidal behaviors were statistically significant in relation to antisocial behavior problems and depressed mood, both moderate and severe. Multiplicative effects of depressed mood and antisocial problems were found, with comorbid individuals showing increased risk of thoughts of death and suicidal plans and attempts, compared to individuals displaying none. Possible explanations, particularly for the multiplicative effect of both mood and problem behaviors on suicide-related behaviors, are discussed in the context of prior findings and directions for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral Correlations Associated with Fear of Humans Differ between Rural and Urban Burrowing Owls

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    Martina Carrete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies are fundamental to understanding how animal populations face global change. Although much research has centered upon the idea that individuals can adaptively modify their behaviors to cope with environmental changes, recent evidence supports the existence of individual differences in suites of correlated behaviors. However, little is known about how selection can change these behavioral structures in populations subject to different environmental constraints. The colonization of urban environments by birds has been related to their inter-individual variability in their fear of humans, measured as their flight initiation distance to an approaching human, such that urban life would select for fearless individuals. This behavior has been demonstrated to be heritable and highly consistent throughout the adult lifespan of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia. Here, we experimentally assessed, in field conditions, whether urban life involves changes in other behaviors such as exploration and antipredatory response through their correlation with fear of humans. Breeding urban birds were more fearless toward humans and were quicker to explore a new food resource and defend their nests from predators than their rural counterparts. However, while fear of humans positively correlated with exploration and antipredatory response in the rural population, it only correlated with exploration in the urban one. Predator release in urban environments could relax—and even counterselect—antipredator behaviors, thus dismantling the behavioral correlation existent in natural populations. Altogether, our results suggest that rural and urban animals may differ in some behavioral aspects, may be as a consequence of the selection processes acting during the colonization of urban areas as well as the different ecological environments encountered by individuals.

  19. [Correlations among disease perceptions, attitudes and self-care behaviors in patients with interstitial cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Ling; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lin, Zu-Chun; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an enigmatic disease that currently remains incurable. Failure to adopt positive self-care behaviors can exacerbate recurrent clinical symptoms and significantly affect a patient's capacity to function normally in work, family and social setting. Proper disease perception can improve patient attitudes toward disease management and positively influence behavior. This study investigated correlations between disease perceptions, attitudes and self-care behaviors in patients with interstitial cystitis. This study used a cross-sectional method and enrolled 82 outpatients currently receiving treatment for interstitial cystitis at a medical center in East Taiwan. A structured questionnaires filled out individually and submitted by mail was used for date collection. (1) The mean perception scale score was 7.6, with 63.3% providing correct responses. (2) The mean attitude score of 3.5 indicated respondents held positive attitudes. (3) The mean self-care behavior score of 3.4 indicated a leaning toward "occasional" self-care behavior. (4) Correlations among disease perception, attitude and self-care behavior in participants exhibited a significant, mild and positive correlation. (5) Higher education level correlated positively with insight and attitude toward interstitial cystitis. Participants with lower "current voiding problems" had a more positive attitude toward their disease. Participants with higher "numbers of painful sites" had better disease perception and better self care behaviors. Patients reporting "symptoms aggravated by other conditions" also had better interstitial cystitis perception. We found positive correlations among disease perceptions, attitudes and self-care behaviors in patients with interstitial cystitis. We strongly recommend that all healthcare providers evaluate patient disease perception extent. Nurses should provide patients with correct disease concepts, and encourage positive attitudes and self-caring behaviors

  20. Compulsive sexual behavior among male military veterans: prevalence and associated clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H; Potenza, Marc N; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A; Park, Crystal L; Hoff, Rani A

    2014-12-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is highly prevalent among men, often co-occurring with psychiatric disorders and traumatic experiences. Psychiatric disorders and trauma are highly prevalent among military veterans, yet there is a paucity of research on CSB among military samples. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with CSB among male military veterans. Surveys were administered to veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, or New Dawn at baseline (n = 258), 3 months(n = 194), and 6 months (n = 136). Bivariate analyses and Generalized Estimating Equations were utilized to estimate associations between CSB and the following variables: psychiatric co-morbidity, childhood physical or sexual trauma, pre- and post-deployment experiences, TV/ Internet usage, and sociodemographics. Associations between CSB and specific PTSD symptom clusters were also examined. CSB was reported by 16.7% of the sample at baseline. Several variables were associated with CSB in bivariate analyses; however, only PTSD severity, childhood sexual trauma, and age remained significant in multivariable GEE models. The PTSD symptom cluster re-experiencing was most strongly associated with CSB. This exploratory study suggests that CSB is prevalent amongst veterans returning from combat and is associated with childhood trauma and PTSD, particularly re-experiencing. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms linking PTSD and CSB, define the context and severity of CSB in veterans, and examine the best ways to assess and treat CSB in VA clinical settings.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Among Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel H B; Timmins, Vanessa; Collins, Jordan; Scavone, Antonette; Iskric, Adam; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder phenotype (DMDDP) in a clinical population of adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). DMDD criteria were modified and applied to a sample of 116 adolescents with BD-I (n = 30), BD-II (n = 46) or BD-not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 40) from a tertiary teaching hospital. Diagnoses were determined via the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) DMDD Criteria A-G were derived from the KSADS oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) screening interview and supplement, as well as narrative summaries. Chi-square analyses or t tests (p associated with BD subtype or with family history of BD. In univariate analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and race, DMDDP was associated with lower functioning, increased family conflict, assault history, and attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (FDR adjusted p values: disorder and medication use approached significance (adjusted p = 0.05). In logistic regression, DMDDP was independently associated with greater parent-reported family conflict (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; confidence interval [CI- 1.06-1.30; p = 0.001) and greater functional impairment (OR 0.89; CI 0.82-0.97; p = 0.006). DMDDP was also associated with a threefold increase in ADHD, although ADHD was only marginally significant (OR 3.3; CI 0.98-10.94; p = 0.05). Despite the positioning of DMDD as phenotypically and biologically distinct from BD, these phenotypes commonly overlap in clinical settings. This overlap is not explained by BD-NOS or by nonfamilial BD. The association of ADHD with DMDDP in this sample draws into question whether arousal symptoms should have been retained as originally elaborated in the severe mood dysregulation phenotype. Strategies to mitigate the

  2. Prevalence of spondylosis deformans in the feline spine and correlation with owner-perceived behavioural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341769509; Meij, B.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164045805; van Hofwegen, E.M.; Voorhout, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073903329; Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917; Picavet, P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975760

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the prevalence, spinal distribution, and association with the signalment of cats suffering from different grades of feline spondylosis deformans (spondylosis). The secondary objective was to document behavioural changes associated with spondylosis

  3. Prevalence of risky behaviors and related factors among students of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe sohrabivafa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of evolution that there is the incidence probability of risky behaviors such as drug abuse, risky sexual behavior and compatibility problems. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of risky behaviors among students of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2014.Method: This is a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, which cluster random sampling were used to selecting subjects. Young's Risk Behaviors Scale (YRBS was used to evaluate risky behaviors and factors affecting it. The mean, standard deviation, Chi-square tests, t-tests and ANOVA were used to analysis of data.Results: The study was included 150 (50% female and 150 (50% male. The most frequency was the age group of 20-24 years old. There was a statistically significant difference between average scores of risky behaviors among female and male students (p˂0.05. The results of study showed that the prevalence of risky behaviors, high speed in driving and drug consumption is different in various fields of study (p˂0.05.Conclusion: The prevalence of risky behaviors among students of Dezful University is relatively low, and the prevalence of these behaviors in girls was far less than male students. Risky behaviors were associated with background variables exception of mother's job. 

  4. Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Letícia M. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.

  5. Prevalence of hypertension and correlates among adults of 45-60 years in a rural area of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subburam, R; Sankarapandian, M; Gopinath, D R; Selvarajan, S K; Selvaranjan, S K; Kabilan, L

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Community based studies in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu on the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors are scarce. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among a sample of 406 individuals (45-60 years) selected by the standard 30 cluster systematic random sampling technique to find out prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a rural area of Tamil Nadu. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were employed using SPSS package. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 33% and higher among sedentary type (41%). In bivariate analysis many of the independent variables correlated with hypertension, but in multivariate analysis, only body-mass index, family history and age remained significant.

  6. Prevalence and Health Care–Seeking Behavior for Childhood Diarrheal Disease in Bangladesh

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    Abdur Razzaque Sarker MHE, MSS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, the burden of diarrheal diseases is significant among children <5 years old. The objective of this study is to capture the prevalence of and health care–seeking behavior for childhood diarrheal diseases (CDDs and to identify the factors associated with CDDs at a population level in Bangladesh. We use a logistic regression approach to model careseeking based on individual characteristics. The overall diarrhea prevalence among children <5 years old was found to be 5.71%. Some factors found to significantly influence the health care–seeking pattern were age and sex of the children, nutritional score, age and education of mothers, wealth index, and access to electronic media. The health care service could be improved through working in partnership with public facilities, private health care practitioners, and community-based organizations, so that all strata of the population get equitable access in cases of childhood diarrhoea.

  7. Increase in sexual risk behavior and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among adolescents in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sara J; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Papp, John; Kilmarx, Peter H; Markowitz, Lauri E; Tappero, Jordan W; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Uthaivoravit, Wat; van Griensven, Frits

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring changes in adolescent sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and other prevention programs, but population-based data on adolescents in Thailand are limited. We report findings from 2 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999 and 2002 among 15-to 21-year-old vocational students. In 1999 and 2002, 1725 and 966 students, respectively, were interviewed using computer-assisted self-interview methods. Urine samples were collected and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction. From 1999 to 2002 C. trachomatis prevalence increased from 3.2% to 7.5% (P partners among both men (3.4-4.7, P = 0.01) and women (2.5-3.3, P partners among men (1.1-2.1, P use decreased significantly among women with casual partners (43%-19%, P = 0.03) but not among men (25%-31%, P = 0.31). Our study identified important increases in the prevalence of chlamydial infection and in sexual risk behaviors among Thai adolescents over a 3-year period. These findings are consistent with other studies suggesting profound social changes are changing norms of adolescent sexual behavior in Thailand, and highlight the need for adolescent sexual health services and prevention programming.

  8. [High prevalence of drug consumption and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-08-07

    To describe the pattern of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Spain and its association with sexual risk practices. The European MSM Internet Survey was implemented in 2010 in 38 European countries on websites for MSM and collected data on sociodemographics, sexual behavior, and other sexual health variables. The association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners and drug consumption was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 13,111 participants, most consumed drugs were cannabis (30.1%), popper (28.4%) and cocaine (18.7%). The risk of UAI with casual partners was 1.5 among those who had used drugs in relation to the other participants. The proportion of MSM who had injected drugs at least once in life was 2.5%, and 1.4% in the last 12 months. The prevalence of UAI with casual partners (53.4%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (23%), hepatitis C (8.2%) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) (15.8%) was higher in MSM injectors related to those who had not used injected drugs (P<.05). The results of this study confirm a high prevalence of drug use in MSM and their relationship to sexual risk behavior. Although the use of injected drugs in MSM is a minority, this group reported a higher level of sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV, hepatitis C and other STI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Hajipour, Reza; Sadeghian, Mahdi

    2014-08-15

    "The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among the nurses", aimed to correlate different aspects of personal feelings and organizational identity in a population of nurses. The population included all nurses working at hospitals affiliated to administry of health, treatment and medical education in Shahre-Kord (Iran) 2009. A sample consisting of 168 nurses was randomly selected out of the population. The study adopted a descriptive-correlative method. The Organizational Justice Questionnaire (1998), the Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire, and Organizational Identity Questionnaire (1982) were used for gathering data. Data was analyzed through multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that 4 dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (altruism, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and self-development) are correlated with organizational identity (R² = 0.612); and loyalty and obedience are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.71). Also, loyalty, altruism, and obedience are correlated with procedural justice (R² = 0.69) and loyalty and self-development are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.89). A correlation was also detected between interactional justice and organizational identity (R² = 0.89). The findings of the study could serve to identify the factors contributing to the creation and recreation of organizational identity, citizenship behavior and justice among nurses, to promote the performance of the organization, and to achieve organizational goals.

  10. Prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Eboneé N; Evenson, Kelly R

    2014-01-01

    The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

  11. Prevalence, correlates and trends in seroadaptive behaviours among men who have sex with men from serial cross-sectional surveillance in San Francisco, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2014-09-01

    We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of seroadaptive behaviours (i.e., sexual history incorporating some unprotected anal intercourse (UAI)) and conventional risk reduction behaviours (i.e., consistent condom use or no anal intercourse) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco in 2011. We compared the prevalence of seroadaptive behaviours between serial cross-sectional surveys from 2004, 2008 and 2011. We analysed data from the 2011 wave of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system in San Francisco. We categorised men's self-reported sexual behaviour history in the past 6 months into a schema of seroadaptive behaviours and conventional risk reduction behaviours. We compared the prevalence of behaviour categories by self-reported HIV serostatus, HIV testing history, awareness of pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis (PrEP) and diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Seroadaptive behaviours remained common in San Francisco MSM, with a 2011 prevalence of 46.6%, up from 35.9% in 2004. Consistent condom use or no anal intercourse was more common than seroadaptive behaviours in HIV-negative MSM, men who had not heard of PrEP and men without an STI diagnosis. Seroadaptive behaviours increased from 2004 to 2011. HIV seroadaptive behaviours remain common in San Francisco MSM, have increased in the last decade and are practiced differently by MSM with different sexual health knowledge and outcomes. Public health researchers and officials should continue to document the prevalence, intentionality, efficacy and safety of seroadaptive behaviours among diverse communities of MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlations among behavior, performance and environment in broiler breeders using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare issues have received much attention not only to supply farmed animal requirements, but also to ethical and cultural public concerns. Daily collected information, as well as the systematic follow-up of production stages, produces important statistical data for production assessment and control, as well as for improvement possibilities. In this scenario, this research study analyzed behavioral, production, and environmental data using Main Component Multivariable Analysis, which correlated observed behaviors, recorded using video cameras and electronic identification, with performance parameters of female broiler breeders. The aim was to start building a system to support decision-making in broiler breeder housing, based on bird behavioral parameters. Birds were housed in an environmental chamber, with three pens with different controlled environments. Bird sensitivity to environmental conditions were indicated by their behaviors, stressing the importance of behavioral observations for modern poultry management. A strong association between performance parameters and the behavior "at the nest", suggesting that this behavior may be used to predict productivity. The behaviors of "ruffling feathers", "opening wings", "preening", and "at the drinker" were negatively correlated with environmental temperature, suggesting that the increase of in the frequency of these behaviors indicate improvement of thermal welfare.

  14. In-situation safety behaviors among patients with panic disorder: descriptive and correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Tadashi; Furukawa, Toshi A; Nakano, Yumi; Noda, Yumiko; Ogawa, Sei; Watanabe, Norio; Chen, Junwen; Noguchi, Yuka

    2013-07-01

    In-situation safety behaviors play an important role in the maintenance of anxiety because they prevent patients from experiencing unambiguous disconfirmation of their unrealistic beliefs about feared catastrophes. Strategies for identifying particular safety behaviors, however, have not been sufficiently investigated. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a comprehensive list of safety behaviors seen in panic disorder and to examine their frequency; and (ii) correlate the safety behaviors with panic attack symptoms, agoraphobic situations and treatment response. The subjects consisted of 46 consecutive patients who participated in group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder. All the patients completed a Safety Behavior List that was developed based on experiences with panic disorder patients. Carrying medications, distracting attention, carrying a plastic bottle, and drinking water were reported by more than half of the patients. The strongest correlations between panic symptoms and safety behaviors were found between symptoms of derealization and listening to music with headphones, paresthesia and pushing a cart while shopping, and nausea and squatting down. The strongest association between agoraphobic situations and safety behaviors was found between the fear of taking a bus or a train alone and moving around. Staying still predicted response to the CBT program, while concentrating on something predicted lack of response. An approximate guideline has been developed for identifying safety behaviors among patients with panic disorder and should help clinicians use CBT more effectively for these patients. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  16. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Jyoti; Diwanji, Amish; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Sharma, Dipal

    2017-01-01

    To develop a simple method to assess the level of anxiety by using children's drawings and correlating them with Frankl's behavior rating scale. A total of 178 patients aged of 3 to 14 years were handed out two-page forms which contained three sections on coloring and drawing, along with general information, and Frankl's behavior rating scale for the visit. The three types of drawing exercises given to the patients were geometric copy drawings, coloring a nonthreatening figure, and an empty sheet for freehand drawing. Out of 178 patients, 60 showed definitely positive behavior, 73 exhibited positive behavior, 37 showed negative behavior, and 8 were definitely negative on Frankl's behavior rating scale; 133 children had none or, 1 stress marker and 45 exhibited 2 or 3 stress markers in their drawings. Chi-square (χ 2 ) analysis was done with a 2 × 2 contingency table. Observed χ 2 value was 46.166, which at 1 degree of freedom was much greater than that at 0.995 percentile. Therefore, the result was highly significant. Children requiring specialized behavioral techniques can be identified by the presence of stress markers in their drawings. This nonverbal activity by itself can have an overall positive effect on the behavior displayed in the dental clinic. Mathur J, Diwanji A, Sarvaiya B, Sharma D. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):24-28.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of truancy among adolescents in Swaziland: findings from the Global School-Based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational attainment is an important determinant of diverse health outcomes. Truancy among adolescents jeopardizes chances of achieving their educational goals. Truant behaviors are also associated with various psychosocial problems. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Africa. Methods We used data from the Swaziland Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported truancy within the last 30 days among adolescents. We also assessed the association between self-reported truancy and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 7341 students participated in the study. In analysis of available data, 2526 (36.2% and 4470 (63.8% were males and females respectively. The overall prevalence of truancy within the last 30 days preceding the study was 21.6%. Prevalence of truancy was 27.4% (605 and 17.9% (723 in males and females respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, having been bullied, lower school grades, and alcohol use were positively associated with truancy. Adolescents who perceived themselves as having parental support were less likely to have reported being truant. Conclusion Truancy among adolescents in Swaziland should be regarded as an important social problem as it is relatively prevalent. The design and implementation of intervention programs aimed to reduce truant behaviours should incorporate our knowledge of the factors identified as associated with bullying.

  18. The prevalence, correlates, and help-seeking of eating disorders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler-Kuo, M; Schnyder, U; Dermota, P; Wei, W; Milos, G

    2016-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) have long-term physical and mental impacts on those affected. However, few population-based studies have estimated the prevalence of EDs. We aimed to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of EDs using DSM-IV criteria, and to examine differences against the DSM-5 criteria for anorexia. A nationally representative sample of 10 038 residents in Switzerland was interviewed, and prevalence rates for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) were assessed using WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interviews (WHO-CIDI). The lifetime prevalence rate for any ED was found to be 3.5%. Lifetime prevalence estimates for AN, BN, and/or BED were 1.2%, 2.4%, and 2.4%, respectively, among women and 0.2%, 0.9%, and 0.7%, respectively, among men. Utilizing the DSM-5 criteria, the prevalence of AN in women increased by more than 50%, from 1.2% to 1.9%. Among those meeting the criteria for any ED, only 49.4% of men and 67.9% of women had ever sought professional help about their problems with eating or weight. The higher prevalence of BN we detected relative to other studies should prompt further monitoring for a possible increasing trend. The female v. male ratios, especially for bulimia and BED, are decreasing. Given that more than half of those affected have never consulted any professional about their problems with eating or weight, routine inquiries about eating and weight by clinicians, school teachers/psychologists, and family members may help those who are at risk, especially among men.

  19. Neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among Latino adults in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Silfee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. Methods Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA. Survey assessments of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and neighborhood environment were verbally administered. The neighborhood environment scale assessed violence, safety, aesthetic quality, walkability, availability of healthy foods, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors. Results After controlling forage, gender, education, body mass index (BMI, and smoking status, two variables were associated with the outcomes of interest. Living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in adequate levels of physical activity (>150 min per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM (OR = 1.403, p = .018; and greater frequency of activities with neighbors was associated with greater sedentary behavior (β = .072, p = .05. Conclusions There were different neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in this Latino community. Focusing on a greater understanding of the distinct social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior may provide important insights for reducing CVD risk and health disparities among Latinos.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism spectrum disorder in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Erica; Charman, Tony; McConachie, Helen; Warreyn, Petra

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Europe reported significantly higher rates of CAM use. In the total sample, children with lower verbal ability and children using prescribed medications were more likely to be receiving diets or supplements. Concurrent use of high levels of conventional psychosocial intervention was significantly associated with use of mind-body practices. Higher parental educational level also increased the likelihood of both use of diets and supplements and use of mind-body practices. The high prevalence of CAM use among a sample of young children with ASD is an indication that parents need to be supported in the choice of treatments early on in the assessment process, particularly in some parts of Europe. • Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in children with autism spectrum disorder is common. • In non-EU samples, parents with higher educational level and parents of low functioning children are more likely to use CAM with their children. What is New: • This study provides the first data on prevalence and correlates of use of CAM approaches in a large sample of young children with autism in Europe (N = 1,680). • Rates of CAM use were particularly high in Eastern Europe and correlates of use varied by type of CAM across Europe.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADD/ADHD in a Large National Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline; Fowler, Ken

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported attention deficit disorder (ADD)/ADHD in Canadian adults. Prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was examined in a large national sample of Canadians ( n = 16,957). Demographic variables, lifetime, and current psychiatric comorbidities were then compared in a group of adults with self-reported ADD/ADHD ( n = 488) and an age- and gender-matched control group ( n = 488). The prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was 2.9%. Significantly higher lifetime and current prevalence rates of major depressive disorder, bipolar I and II disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders were observed in the ADD/ADHD group compared with the control group. Within the ADD/ADHD group, lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were significantly higher in women, whereas lifetime and current rates of some substance use disorders were significantly higher in men. In a national sample of Canadian adults, self-reported ADD/ADHD was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Gender differences were also noted.

  2. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in elderly inpatients and in institutionalized old people: correlation with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, M C; Lai, L; Bonetti, P; Baldassarri, A R; Monti, M; De Luca, P; Cunietti, E; Quatrini, M

    1996-01-01

    Helicobater pylori plays an important role in the aetiology and development of peptic ulcer disease. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age, and is influenced by low socioeconomic status and poor hygiene owing to person-to-person transmission of the organism by the oral-faecal route. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection, detected serologically, in elderly patients admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation ward and in a sample of institutionalized old subjects. Nutritional status was also evaluated in order to examine its relation to H. pylori infection. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 70.8%, the prevalence in hospitalized patients being 72.9% and in institutionalized subjects 68.7%. No significant correlation was observed between anti-H. pylori IgG levels and either age or length of stay in the institution. We found no difference between H. pylori positive and negative patients as regards their self-sufficiency and cognitive functions. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori antibodies in the serum was not related to blood variables (including nutritional indices), history of drug consumption (in particular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), dyspeptic symptoms, or alcohol and smoking habits.

  3. Correlates of prevalent HIV infection among adults and adolescents in the Kisumu incidence cohort study, Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbe, Anne; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Gust, Deborah A; Pals, Sherri L; Gray, Kristen Mahle; Ndivo, Richard; Chen, Robert T; Mills, Lisa A; Thomas, Timothy K

    2015-11-01

    We estimated HIV prevalence and identified correlates of HIV infection among 1106 men and women aged 16-34 years residing in Kisumu, Kenya. Demographic, sexual, and other behavioural data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview in conjunction with a medical examination, real-time parallel rapid HIV testing, and laboratory testing for pregnancy, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with prevalent HIV infection by gender. Overall HIV prevalence was 12.1%. HIV prevalence among women (17.1%) was approximately two-and-one-half times the prevalence among men (6.6%). Odds of HIV infection in men increased with age (aOR associated with one-year increase in age = 1.21, CI = 1.07-1.35) and were greater among those who were uncircumcised (aOR = 4.42, CI = 1.41-13.89) and those who had an herpes simplex virus type 2-positive (aOR = 3.13, CI = 1.12-8.73) test result. Odds of prevalent HIV infection among women also increased with age (aOR associated with one-year increase in age = 1.16, CI = 1.04-1.29). Women who tested herpes simplex virus type 2 positive had more than three times the odds (aOR = 3.85, CI = 1.38-10.46) of prevalent HIV infection compared with those who tested herpes simplex virus type 2 negative. Tailored sexual health interventions and programs may help mitigate HIV age and gender disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Prevalence of Perceived Dysphonia and Its Correlation With the Prevalence of Clinically Diagnosed Laryngeal Disorders: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of perceived dysphonia and its correlation with the prevalence of clinically diagnosed laryngeal disorders. Subjects were 8713 non-institutionalized civilian adults over the age of 19 (3810 men and 4912 women) who completed the laryngeal examination of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A Poisson regression was used to examine the association between perceived dysphonia and laryngeal disorders. Adjusting for covariates (age, sex, education level, income, occupation, alcohol drinking, and self-reported health status), those with perceived voice problems were 4.8 times (OR=4.75, 95% CI, 3.77-5.99) more likely to have laryngeal disorders than those without voice problems. In particular, the vocal fold pathology correlated with perceived dysphonia was: vocal fold nodules (OR=5.32, 95% CI, 3.43-8.26), vocal polyps (OR=3.73, 95% CI, 1.57-8.86), vocal cysts (OR=11.97, 95% CI, 1.97-72.72), Reinke's edema (OR=9.27, 95% CI, 4.77-18.00), laryngeal paralysis (OR=3.58, 95% CI, 1.56-8.26), laryngeal granulomas (OR=4.31, 95% CI, 1.01-18.80), epiglot