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Sample records for behaviors findings support

  1. Epartners supporting behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Keulen, H. van; Janssen, J.B.; Nunen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on developing a comprehensive framework that guides the design of ePartners that support behavior change to promote health. An ePartner is an interactive, virtual or embodied computer assistant to which one can communicate and that assists persons through tailored advice,

  2. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  3. Finding harmony so the music plays on: pragmatic trial design considerations to promote organizational sustainment of an empirically-supported behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Peavy, K Michelle; Jackson, T Ron; Carney, Molly

    2016-01-22

    Pragmatic trials of empirically-supported behavior therapies may inform clinical and policy decisions concerning therapy sustainment. This retrospective trial design paper describes and discusses pragmatic features of a hybrid type III implementation/effectiveness trial of a contingency management (CM) intervention at an opioid treatment program. Prior reporting (Hartzler et al., J Subst Abuse Treat 46:429-438, 2014; Hartzler, Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 10:30, 2015) notes success in recruiting program staff for voluntary participation, durable impacts of CM training on staff-level outcomes, provisional setting implementation of the intervention, documentation of clinical effectiveness, and post-trial sustainment of CM. Six pragmatic design features, and both scientific and practical bases for their inclusion in the trial, are presented: (1) a collaborative intervention design process, (2) voluntary recruitment of program staff for therapy training and implementation, (3) serial training outcome assessments, with quasi-experimental staff randomization to either single or multiple baseline assessment conditions, (4) designation of a 90-day period immediately after training in which the setting implemented the intervention on a provisional basis, (5) inclusive patient eligibility for receipt of the CM intervention, and (6) designation of two staff as local implementation leaders to oversee clinical/administrative issues in provisional implementation. Each pragmatic trial design feature is argued to have contributed to sustainment of CM. Contributions implicate the building of setting proprietorship for the CM intervention, culling of internal staff expertise in its delivery, iterative use of assessment methods that limited setting burden, documentation of setting-specific clinical effectiveness, expanded penetration of CM among staff during provisional implementation, and promotion of setting self-reliance in the oversight of sustainable implementation procedures

  4. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  5. Behavior and Attitudes under Crisis Conditions: Selected Issues and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Behavior, and the Intervening Variables." The American Sociologist, 4, 29-34 (1969). Farace , Richard V., Kenneth L. Villard. and L. Edna Rogers, "Family...crisis couldn’t happen here. Farace , Villard and Rogers (1972:12-13) illustrate the point: Another situation which helps support the idea that "those...Effect! the Accident at Three Mile Island; ’Findings to Date,"’ U.S. Nuc Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC. (1980). Farace , Richard V., Edna L

  6. Positive Behavior Support: Sustainability and Continuous Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Turri, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its widespread adoption and implementation (in over 13,000 schools in the US; Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2010), there has been increasing attention to how School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems can be sustained. Sustained implementation can be defined as "continued use of an…

  7. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  8. Finding Support Online: Parents are Finding Comfort and Support in Virtual Hugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janice

    2006-01-01

    When Tamara learned that she and her husband were expecting a baby girl, Tamara remembers the doctor telling her "the odds were high" her daughter would inherit her bipolar disorder. As it turned out, her daughter, Lindsay was also formally diagnosed with bipolar disorder after her 11th birthday. Tamara turned to Internet to find someone who…

  9. Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-08

    Mar 8, 2018 ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work ... An important aspect of women's economic empowerment is their participation in the labour ... Maternal health research concerns men too.

  10. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Scott W.; Horner, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying behaviors are a growing concern in U.S. schools. We present here a behavioral approach to bully prevention utilizing a schoolwide intervention. Bully prevention in positive behavior support (BP-PBS) teaches students to withhold the social rewards hypothesized to maintain bullying. A single-subject multiple baseline design across 6 students and three elementary schools was implemented in an empirical evaluation of the intervention's effectiveness. Results indicated that implementation...

  11. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  12. Loss-of-Fluid Test findings in pressurized water reactor core's thermal-hydraulic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core's thermal-hydraulic behavior findings from experiments performed at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The potential impact of these findings on the safety and economics of PWR's generation of electricity is also discussed. Reviews of eight important findings in the core's physical behavior and in experimental methods are presented with supporting evidence

  13. Lack of supportive leadership behavior predicts suboptimal self-rated health independent of job strain after 10 years of follow-up: findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Herr, Raphael M; Jarczok, Marc N; Baumert, Jens; Lukaschek, Karoline; Emeny, Rebecca T; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-04-23

    Emerging cross-sectional research has identified lack of supportive leadership behavior (SLB) as a risk factor for workforce health. However, prospective evidence is hitherto lacking. SLB denotes support in difficult situations, recognition and feedback on work tasks. This study aims to determine the effect of SLB on suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) after 10 years considering potential moderators such as ages, sex, occupation and job strain. The sample included 884 employed participants drawn from the population-based prospective MONICA/KORA Study. SLB, SRH, as well as job strain were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of SLB at baseline on suboptimal SRH at follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, lifestyle (alcohol, smoking, physical activity), socioeconomic status as well as for SRH and job strain at baseline. Lack of SLB was associated with suboptimal SRH at baseline [OR 2.00, (95% CI 1.19-3.46)] and at follow-up [OR 2.33, (95% CI 1.40-3.89)]. Additional adjustment for job strain did not substantially alter this association [OR 2.06, (95% CI 1.20-3.52)]. However, interactions between SLB and job strain as well as gender became evident, indicating moderating influences on the association between SLB and SRH. Lack of supportive leadership was associated with suboptimal SRH at 10 years' follow-up in men, even if SRH at baseline and other risk factors were taken into account. This effect is likely to be moderated by job strain.

  14. An Investigation of the Academic Information Finding and Re-finding Behavior on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic researchers often need and re-use relevant information found after a period of time. This preliminary study used various methods, including experiments, interviews, search log analysis, sequential analysis, and observation to investigate characteristics of academic information finding and re-finding behavior. Overall, the participants in this study entered short queries either in finding or re-finding phases. Comparatively speaking, the participants entered greater number of queries, modified more queries, browsed more web pages, and stayed longer on web pages in the finding phase. On the other hand, in the re-finding phase, they utilized personal information management tools to re-find instead of finding again using search engine, such as checking browsing history; moreover, they tend to input less number of queries and stayed shorter on web pages. In short, the participants interacted more with the retrieval system during the finding phase, while they increased the use of personal information management tools in the re-finding phase. As to the contextual clues used in re-finding phase, the participants used less clues from the target itself, instead, they used indirect clues more often, especially location-related information. Based on the results of sequential analysis, the transition states in the re-finding phase was found to be more complex than those in the finding phase. Web information finding and re-finding behavior is an important and novel area of research. The preliminary results would benefit research on Web information re-finding behavior, and provide useful suggestions for developing personal academic information management systems. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  16. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized display has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of ionic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such a inherent signal validation

  17. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a computerized display that has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of iconic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing data for the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such as inherent signal validation

  18. The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support. PMID:18157689

  19. An Exploratory Study on the Re-finding Behavior on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common for users to relocate information previously found on the web. However, their search behaviors in initial finding and the subsequent re-finding may differ due to the dynamic nature and contextual diversity of the web. This study used experiment, observation, interview, and questionnaires to investigate the characteristics of re-finding behavior and compare users’ performance in finding and re-finding. Though not significantly different, the study participants used more search tools, combined various strategies to obtain contextual clues of finding process, utilized more complex search tactics, and had more interactions with search engines used. Findings also show that participants spent less time in re-finding than in finding, yet the cognitive loading and difficulties increased in re-finding. Participants were satisfied with the results obtained in re-finding, but they also claimed that the search performance would be better if the system offered more functions to support recall of previous search results. Participants’ satisfaction with search performance also varied by task type. Based on the findings, this study recommends that re-finding efficiency may be improved by enhancing recall functionalities in browsers and by using personal information management tools. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English

  20. Coping with cancer - finding the support you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer centers offer free counseling Online counseling Group counseling often costs less than one-on-one services ... programs-and-services.html : The society offers online counseling and support groups as well as other emotional support programs. Some ...

  1. On the Development of a Theory of Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships : Volume 2. Theoretical and Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The second volume of this final report presents conceptual and empirical findings which support the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory will be useful in the design of transport systems and operatin...

  2. Alzheimer's Caregiver Support Online: lessons learned, initial findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueckauf, Robert L; Loomis, Jeffrey S

    2003-01-01

    Family caregivers of older adults with progressive dementia (e.g., Alzheimer's disease) are faced with a variety of emotional and behavioral difficulties, such as dealing with persistent, repetitive questions, managing agitation and depression, and monitoring hygiene and self-care activities. Although professional and governmental organizations have called for the creation of community-based education and support programs, most dementia caregivers continue to receive little or no formal instruction in responding effectively to these challenges. The current paper describes the development and implementation of Alzheimer's Caregiver Support Online, a Web- and telephone-based education and support network for caregivers of individuals with progressive dementia. Lessons learned from the first two years of this state-supported initiative are discussed, followed by the findings of a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded strategic marketing initiative and an initial program evaluation of AlzOnline's Positive Caregiving classes. Finally, clinical implications and future directions for program development and evaluation research are proposed.

  3. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  4. BEHAVIOR BASED CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dheepa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the great increase of internet and e-commerce, the use of credit card is an unavoidable one. Due to the increase of credit card usage, the frauds associated with this have also increased. There are a lot of approaches used to detect the frauds. In this paper, behavior based classification approach using Support Vector Machines are employed and efficient feature extraction method also adopted. If any discrepancies occur in the behaviors transaction pattern then it is predicted as suspicious and taken for further consideration to find the frauds. Generally credit card fraud detection problem suffers from a large amount of data, which is rectified by the proposed method. Achieving finest accuracy, high fraud catching rate and low false alarms are the main tasks of this approach.

  5. Exploration of Support Behavior in Counseling Groups with Counseling Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Yoni; Shechtman, Zipora; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the types of support expressed in counseling groups attended by trainee counselors. Support is a crucial factor in human life in general, and in groups in particular, yet little is known about the type of support presented in counseling groups. Type of support was categorized by means of the Social Support Behavior Code (SSBC;…

  6. Publication Voting Power (PVP): method of finding Evidence-Support

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Extracting the best evidence that support a procedure is a difficult, time consuming task that needs expert statistical knowledge. A way to make weighting evidence more simple and straight for busy clinicians is needed. Methods: The publications about the procedure under question are lined in an ascending ...

  7. Factors associated with Taiwanese lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions: Qualitative interview findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ching; Griffiths, Jane; Grande, Gunn

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study that explored factors influencing lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions. A total of 37 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted among women who self-identified as lesbians or women who partnered with the same gender who were aged 20 years or above in four areas of Taiwan (North, Central, South, and East Taiwan) between August 2012 and October 2012. Interviews were audio recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis with Nvivo audio-coding support. Four themes were identified to be strongly associated with the lesbians' breast health-care behavior and their intentions, namely, gender identity, gender role expression, partners' support, and concerns about health-care providers' reactions. Important barriers to the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions were masculine identity ("T-identity" in Taiwan), masculine appearance, concerns about health-care providers' lack of knowledge of multiple gender diversity, and their attitudes toward lesbians. Conversely, their partners' support was a factor facilitating the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions, particularly for the T-identity lesbians. These findings suggest the significance of and need for culturally competent care and are important for improving Taiwanese lesbians' breast health.

  8. Supporting smartphone-based behavioral activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Rohani, Darius A.; Tuxen, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral activation has shown to be a simple yet efective therapy for depressive patients. The method relies on extensive collection of patient reported activity data on an hourly basis. We are currently in the process of designing a smartphone-based behavioral activation system for depressive...... disorders. However, it is an open question to what degree patients would use this approach given the high demand for user input. In order to investigate this question, we collected paper-based behavioral activation forms from 5 patients, covering in total 18 weeks, 115 days, and 1,614 hours of self......-reported activity data. In this paper we present an analysis of this data and discuss the implications for the design of a smartphone-based system for behavioral activation....

  9. Visual Supports for Students with Behavior and Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Karen; Knowlton, Earle

    2007-01-01

    In many schools, supports for children with a dual diagnosis of mental retardation and behavioral disorders are inadequate or nonexistent. Often these students are placed with teachers who, although appropriately trained and licensed, are not familiar with support strategies for meeting the behavioral and emotional needs of these students at an…

  10. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators in Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Don; Childs, Karen; Blase, Karen A.; Wallace, Frances

    2007-01-01

    As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used…

  11. Expanding the research area of behavior change support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own

  12. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  13. Impulsivity in self-mutilative behavior: psychometric and biological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, S; Sass, H; Favazza, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines impulsivity as a central factor in moderate/superficial self-mutilation such as skin-cutting and burning. A sample of 165 subjects were divided into four groups, namely self-mutilators, patients with any modes of impulsive behavior other than self-mutilation, patients without any impulsive behavior, and normal probands. All were administered the 10th version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Inventory for the Assessment of Factors of Aggressiveness. They also were interviewed carefully in regards to both impulsive and self-mutilative behavior. A d-fenfluramine challenge test was administered to 36 females and prolactin levels were measured. On the whole results implicate impulsive personality functioning as a major factor in subjects with moderate/superficial self-mutilative behavior whose trait pathology is similar to personality disordered patients with other modes of self-harming impulsive behavior.

  14. Selecting effective persuasive strategies in behavior change support systems: Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kelders, Saskia; Kulyk, Olga; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    The Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems provides a place to discuss recent advances in BCSS research. The selected papers show that research into behavior change support systems is expanding: not only by trying to reach more and other people, but also by expanding the

  15. Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-11-01

    As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

  16. Designing, Modeling and Evaluating Influence Strategiesfor Behavior Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öörni, Anssi; Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Behavior change support systems (BCSS) research is an evolving area. While the systems have been demonstrated to work to the effect, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand the influence mechanisms of behavior change, and work out their influence on the systems architecture. The

  17. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  18. Finding behavioral and network indicators of brain vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava eLevit Binnun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience research has usually focused on identifying protective factors associated with specific stress conditions (e.g., war, trauma or psychopathologies (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder. Implicit in this research is the concept that resilience is a global construct, invariant to the unfavorable circumstances or the psychopathologies that may develop (i.e., the mechanisms underlying the resilience of an individual in all cases are expected to be similar. Here we contribute to the understanding of resilience—and its counterpart, vulnerability—by employing an approach that makes use of this invariant quality. We outline two main characteristics that we would expect from indicators of a vulnerable state: that they should appear across disorders regardless of specific circumstances, and that they should appear much before the disorder is evident. Next, we identify two sets of factors that exhibit this pattern of association with psychopathological states. The first was a set of low-level sensory, motor and regulatory irregularities that have been reported across the clinical literature; we suggest that these can serve as behavioral indicators of a vulnerable state. The second was the set of aberrations in network metrics that have been reported in the field of systems neuroscience; we suggest that these can serve as network indicators of a vulnerable state. Finally, we explore how behavioral indicators may be related to network indicators and discuss the clinical and research-related implications of our work.

  19. Neighborhood Influences on Perceived Social Support Among Parents: Findings from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dunn, Erin C.; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. Methodology/Principal Findings The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Conclusion Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time. PMID:22493683

  20. Neighborhood influences on perceived social support among parents: findings from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini A Tendulkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03, predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.

  1. Task-focused behavior mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and students' academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks.

  2. Workplace Social Support and Behavioral Health Prior to Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Charlene A; Vasterling, Jennifer J

    2017-06-01

    Preparation and training for long-duration spaceflight bring with them psychosocial stressors potentially affecting the well-being and performance of astronauts, before and during spaceflight. Social support from within the workplace may mitigate behavioral health concerns arising during the preflight period and enhance resiliency before and during extended missions. The purpose of this review was to evaluate evidence addressing the viability of workplace social support as a pre-mission countermeasure, specifically addressing: 1) the observed relationships between workplace social support and behavioral health; 2) perceived need, acceptability, and format preference for workplace social support among high-achievers; 3) potential barriers to delivery/receipt of workplace social support; 4) workplace social support interventions; and 5) delivery timeframe and anticipated duration of workplace social support countermeasure benefits. We conducted an evidence review examining workplace social support in professional contexts sharing one or more characteristics with astronauts and spaceflight. Terms included populations of interest, social support constructs, and behavioral health outcomes. Abstracts of matches were subsequently reviewed for relevance and quality. Research findings demonstrate clear associations between workplace social support and behavioral health, especially following exposure to stress. Further, studies indicate strong need for support and acceptability of support countermeasures, despite barriers. Our review revealed two general formats for providing support (i.e., direct provision of support and training to optimize skills in provision and receipt of support) with potential differentiation of expected duration of benefits, according to format. Workplace social support countermeasures hold promise for effective application during pre-mission phases of long-duration spaceflight. Specific recommendations are provided.Deming CA, Vasterling JJ

  3. Social support mediates the association between benefit finding and quality of life in caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Charles; Barry, Lorna; Gallagher, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The psychosocial pathways underlying associations between benefit finding and quality of life are poorly understood. Here, we examined associations between benefit finding, social support, optimism and quality of life in a sample of 84 caregivers. Results revealed that quality of life was predicted by benefit finding, optimism and social support. Moreover, the association between benefit finding and quality of life was explained by social support, but not optimism; caregivers who reported greater benefit finding perceived their social support be higher and this, in turn, had a positive effect on their overall quality of life. These results underscore the importance of harnessing benefit finding to enhance caregiver quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Social Support for Changing Multiple Behaviors: Factors Associated with Seeking Support and the Impact of Offered Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Mary L.; Puleo, Elaine; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Haines, Jess; Houghton, Serena C.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is important for behavior change, and it may be particularly important for the complexities of changing multiple risk behaviors (MRB). Research is needed to determine if participants in an MRB intervention can be encouraged to activate their social network to aid their change efforts. Methods: Healthy Directions 2, a…

  5. Neighborhood influences on perceived social support among parents: findings from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini A; Koenen, Karestan C; Dunn, Erin C; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.

  6. Minimizing deviant behavior in healthcare organizations: the effects of supportive leadership and job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, C Logan; Dunford, Benjamin B; Angermeier, Ingo; Boss, R Wayne; Boss, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    In an era when healthcare organizations are beset by intense competition, lawsuits, and increased administrative costs, it is essential that employees perform their jobs efficiently and without distraction. Deviant workplace behavior among healthcare employees is especially threatening to organizational effectiveness, and healthcare managers must understand the antecedents of such behavior to minimize its prevalence. Deviant employee behavior has been categorized into two major types, individual and organizational, according to the intended target of the behavior. Behavior directed at the individual includes such acts as harassment and aggression, whereas behavior directed at the organization includes such acts as theft, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism, to name a few (Robinson and Bennett 1995). Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of supportive leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS), and two important features of job design, intrinsic motivation and depersonalization, as predictors of subsequent deviant behavior in a sample of over 1,900 employees within a large US healthcare organization. Employees who reported weaker perceptions of LMX and greater perceptions of depersonalization were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the individual, whereas employees who reported weaker perceptions of POS and intrinsic motivation were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the organization. These findings give rise to specific prescriptions for healthcare managers to prevent or minimize the frequency of deviant behavior in the workplace.

  7. Behavior Change Support Systems for Privacy and Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Kelders, S.; van Gemert-Pijnen, L.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes to use Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSSs) to improve the security of IT applications and the privacy of its users. We discuss challenges specific to BCSSs applied to information security, list research questions to be answered in order to meet these challenges, and propose

  8. The Effect of Brand Identification on Alumni Supportive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Amber L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of brand identification and supportive behaviors for alumni of a medium-sized state-run public institution of higher education in the mid-Atlantic region of the US. The research examined the perceptions of donor and non-donor alumni of a state-run public institution of higher education to…

  9. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  10. Yoga as a School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    A yoga-based school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) may provide a foundation for teaching mindfulness and self-regulation in K-12 schools. Here, the use of yoga as a SWPBS was examined through a review of existing literature and interviews of yoga program facilitators. Yoga was reported to be effective as a pedagogical approach, and found…

  11. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  12. Family supportive supervisor behaviors and organizational culture:Effects on work engagement and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rofcanin, Yasin; Heras , Mireia Las; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-01-01

    Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico ...

  13. Temperamental correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in young children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V; Violette, Heather; Wrightsman, Jessica; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2002-04-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that temperamental behavioral disinhibition measured in early childhood would be associated with disruptive behavior disorders. We used variables from laboratory-based behavioral observations originally devised to assess behavioral inhibition to construct a theory-based a priori definition of "behavioral disinhibition" in 200 young children at-risk for panic disorder, depression, or both and 84 children of parents without anxiety or major depressive disorder. We then compared behaviorally disinhibited and nonbehaviorally disinhibited children on rates of DSM-III-R disorders and measures of academic and social dysfunction. Behavioral disinhibition was significantly associated with higher rates of disruptive behavior disorders and mood disorders. Children with behavioral disinhibition were significantly more likely than nondisinhibited, noninhibited children to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to have comorbid mood and disruptive behavior disorders. Moreover, disinhibited children had lower Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores and were more likely to have been in special classes and to have problems with school behavior and leisure activities. These results suggest that behavioral disinhibition may represent a temperamental precursor to disruptive behavior problems, particularly ADHD. Longitudinal studies using behavioral assessments of behavioral disinhibition are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. The effects of social support and stress perception on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2016-08-01

    Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  16. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  17. Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-04-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Ryan, R M

    1987-12-01

    In this article we suggest that events and contexts relevant to the initiation and regulation of intentional behavior can function either to support autonomy (i.e., to promote choice) or to control behavior (i.e., to pressure one toward specific outcomes). Research herein reviewed indicates that this distinction is relevant to specific external events and to general interpersonal contexts as well as to specific internal events and to general personality orientations. That is, the distinction is relevant whether one's analysis focuses on social psychological variables or on personality variables. The research review details those contextual and person factors that tend to promote autonomy and those that tend to control. Furthermore, it shows that autonomy support has generally been associated with more intrinsic motivation, greater interest, less pressure and tension, more creativity, more cognitive flexibility, better conceptual learning, a more positive emotional tone, higher self-esteem, more trust, greater persistence of behavior change, and better physical and psychological health than has control. Also, these results have converged across different assessment procedures, different research methods, and different subject populations. On the basis of these results, we present an organismic perspective in which we argue that the regulation of intentional behavior varies along a continuum from autonomous (i.e., self-determined) to controlled. The relation of this organismic perspective to historical developments in empirical psychology is discussed, with a particular emphasis on its implications for the study of social psychology and personality.

  19. Challenges of implementing routine health behavior change support in a children's hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole

    2014-07-01

    Evidence indicates that health behavior change initiatives are often not implemented successfully. This qualitative study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementation of health behavior change brief advice into routine practice in an acute children's hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals working at a UK children's hospital (n=33). Participants were purposively sampled to incorporate a range of specialties, job roles and training. An inductive thematic framework analysis identified two emergent themes. These capture the challenges of implementing routine health behavior change support in a children's hospital setting: (1) 'health professional knowledge, beliefs and behaviors' and (2) 'patient and family related challenges'. This study enhances findings from previous research by outlining the challenges pediatric health professionals face in relation to supporting health behavior change. Challenges include failure to assume responsibility, low confidence, prioritization of the health provider relationship with patients and families, health provider and patient knowledge, and low patient and family motivation. Skills-based behavior change training is needed for pediatric health professionals to effectively support health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conflict in Relationships and Perceived Support in Innovative Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, Adalgisa; Picci, Patrizia; Odoardi, Carlo

    In recent years, the idea that innovation is one of the determining factors in the efficacy and survival of organizations has been strongly consolidated. Individuals and groups within the various organizations undertake specific creative activities with the express intention of deriving direct benefits from the changes with regard to the generational phase of ideas. Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) is a complex behavioral pattern which consists of a set of three different tasks, namely, idea generation, idea promotion and idea realization. Considering the scant attention that has been paid to date to the potentially different role of antecedent factors in the various phases of innovative behavior, the aim of the present work was to examine the combined conflicting and supportive roles on innovation within the three stages of IWB. The results obtained from a sample of 110 Public Elementary School teachers confirm, as expected, that in the realization phase there are a positive influence from conflicting and supportive roles on innovation and a positive influence from support for innovation also in the phase of idea promotion; whereas, unexpectedly, a positive influence from conflicting is exercised in the phases of idea generation.

  1. Integrated logistic support studies using behavioral Monte Carlo simulation, supported by Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Robert; Chevalier, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    Studying large and complex industrial sites, requires more and more accuracy in modeling. In particular, when considering Spares, Maintenance and Repair / Replacement processes, determining optimal Integrated Logistic Support policies requires a high level modeling formalism, in order to make the model as close as possible to the real considered processes. Generally, numerical methods are used to process this kind of study. In this paper, we propose an alternate way to process optimal Integrated Logistic Support policy determination when dealing with large, complex and distributed multi-policies industrial sites. This method is based on the use of behavioral Monte Carlo simulation, supported by Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets. (author)

  2. Simulation of dynamics behaviors for shipping equipment support with system dynamics analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The exactly and precisely supply of carrying spare parts has a crucial impact on support and could improve the performance of equipment. Spare parts support is the crux work which will be limited by spare parts allocation and support cost input. Reasonable support strategy can help in making good use of available resources and support the equipment in normal operational status. The purpose of this paper is to propose a dynamics model of spare parts support process based on considering the interaction of multiple factors, and explores the regulation of dynamics behavior in the system. In order to achieve the optimization strategy to improve the effect of support so that will enhance the relevant support parameters of equipment. Design/methodology/approach: Meditate the feedback relationship among some important factors of support that involve support cost, support time and maintenance ability. System dynamics theory is adopted to propose a dynamics model of spare parts support process, on the analysis of multiple factors and casual relationship to find some major ones which have crucial impact on spare parts support. Spare parts support cost and availability was regarded as the control objective, moreover, adjust the control paramours and improve the effect of cannibalization and lateral supply scheduling strategy for spares support. Findings: The factors of spare parts supply, demand and maintenance have relationship of control feedback, and adjust the value of some crucial factors can reduce the support cost and improve the availability value. The main finding is that adopting cannibalization strategy under condition of available materials can relieve the mission and operational availability decline caused by shortage of spare parts. Combining the lateral supply and cannibalization strategy can reduce the inventory of warship carrying spare parts. Practical implications: By controlling the value of key factors regarding aspect of spare

  3. Enabling Delay of Gratification Behavior in Those Not So Predisposed: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lei; Liao, Jiangqun

    2016-01-01

    The presence of delay of gratification (DG) in childhood is correlated with success later in a person's life. Is there any way of helping adults with a low level of DG to obtain similar success? The present research examines how social support helps those low in DG nonetheless to act similarly to those high in DG. This research includes both correlational studies and experiments that manipulate social support as well as both field studies and a laboratory study. The results show that with high social support, employees (Study 1) and university students (Study 2) low in DG report vocational and academic DG behavioral intentions, respectively, similar to those high in DG. Study 3 found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed job-choice DG similar to those high in the DG. Study 4 controlled for mood and self-image and found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed more money-choice DG than those high in the DG. Study 5 showed that social support moderated the relationship between DG and actual DG behaviors. These findings provide evidence for a moderating role of social support in the expression of DG behavior. PMID:27047408

  4. Effects of elastic support on the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuaishuai WANG; Caichao ZHU; Chaosheng SONG; Huali HAN

    2017-01-01

    The reliability and service life of wind turbines are influenced by the complex loading applied on the hub,especially amidst a poor external wind environment.A three-point elastic support,which includes the main bearing and two torque arms,was considered in this study.Based on the flexibilities of the planet carrier and the housing,a coupled dynamic model was developed for a wind turbine drive train.Then,the dynamic behaviors of the drive train for different elastic support parameters were computed and analyzed.Frequency response functions were used to examine how different elastic support parameters influence the dynamic behaviors of the drive train.Results showed that the elastic support parameters considerably influenced the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train.A large support stiffness of the torque arms decreased the dynamic response of the planet carrier and the main bearing,whereas a large support stiffness of the main bearing decreased the dynamic response of planet carrier while increasing that of the main bearing.The findings of this study provide the foundation for optimizing the elastic support stiffness of the wind turbine drive train.

  5. Seismic behavior of semi-supported steel shear walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanpour, A.; Jönsson, J.; Moharrami, H.

    2012-01-01

    During the recent past decade semi-supported steel shear walls (SSSW) have been introduced as an alternative to the traditional type of steel plate shear walls. In this system the shear wall does not connect directly to the main columns of the building frame; instead it is connected to a pair...... of secondary columns that do not carry vertical gravity loads. In this paper, the interaction between the wall plate and the surrounding frame is investigated experimentally for typical SSSW systems in which the wall-frame has a bending-dominant behavior. Based on the possible storey failure mechanisms...... a simple method is proposed for design of the floor beams. A quasi static cyclic experimental study has been performed in order to investigate the collapse behavior of the wall-plate and surrounding frame. Furthermore the test setup has been developed in order to facilitate standardized cyclic tests...

  6. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.

  7. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Family supportive supervisor behaviors and organizational culture: Effects on work engagement and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofcanin, Yasin; Las Heras, Mireia; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-04-01

    Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico (654 subordinates; 134 supervisors) showed that FSSBs influenced work performance through subordinate work engagement. Moreover, the positive association between subordinates' perceptions of FSSBs and work engagement was moderated by family supportive organizational culture. Our results contribute to emerging theories on flexible work arrangements, particularly on family supportive work policies. Moreover, our findings carry practical implications for improving employee work engagement and work performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Parenting with Positive Behavior Support: A Practical Guide to Resolving Your Child's Difficult Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieneman, Meme; Childs, Karen; Sergay, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow…

  10. Classified Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline: Implications for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.; Beaudoin, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Classified staff are important stakeholders in schools and commonly interact with students across grade levels, subject matter areas, and physical locations--making their involvement in the implementation of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) essential. However, their voice, including the intentional and systematic…

  11. Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C

    2013-09-01

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.

  12. System supporting behavioral therapy for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jȩdrzejewska-Szczerska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system supporting behavioral therapy for autistic children is presented. The system consists of sensors network, base station and a brooch indicating person's emotional states. The system can be used to measure values of physiological parameters that are associated with changes in the emotional state. In the future, it can be useful to inform the autistic child and the therapist about the emotional state of the interlocutor objectively, on the basis of performed measurements. The selected physiological parameters were chosen during the experiment which was designed and conducted by authors. In this experiment, a group of volunteers under controlled conditions was exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound. For each of the volunteers, a set of physiological parameters, was recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design electronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy for children with autism.

  13. Transformation of UML Behavioral Diagrams to Support Software Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is currently accepted as the standard for modeling (object-oriented software, and its use is increasing in the aerospace industry. Verification and Validation of complex software developed according to UML is not trivial due to complexity of the software itself, and the several different UML models/diagrams that can be used to model behavior and structure of the software. This paper presents an approach to transform up to three different UML behavioral diagrams (sequence, behavioral state machines, and activity into a single Transition System to support Model Checking of software developed in accordance with UML. In our approach, properties are formalized based on use case descriptions. The transformation is done for the NuSMV model checker, but we see the possibility in using other model checkers, such as SPIN. The main contribution of our work is the transformation of a non-formal language (UML to a formal language (language of the NuSMV model checker towards a greater adoption in practice of formal methods in software development.

  14. PERCEIVED AUTONOMY SUPPORT AND BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: A CONDITIONAL PROCESS MODEL OF POSITIVE EMOTION AND AUTONOMOUS MOTIVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin

    2015-06-01

    A variety of theoretical perspectives describe the crucial behavioral roles of motivation and emotion, but how these interact with perceptions of social contexts and behaviors is less well understood. This study examined whether autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement in physical education and whether this mediating process was moderated by positive emotion. A sample of 592 Korean middle-school students (304 boys, 288 girls; M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 0.8) completed questionnaires. Autonomous motivation partially mediated the positive association between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement. Positive emotion moderated the relationship between autonomous motivation and behavioral engagement. This indirect link was stronger as positive emotion increased. These findings suggest the importance of integrating emotion into motivational processes to understand how and when perceived autonomy support is associated with behavioral engagement in physical education.

  15. Predicting supportive behavior of parents and siblings to a family member with intellectual disability living in institutional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    This feasibility study examines whether the theory of planned behavior can predict supportive behavior provided by either parents to their offspring--or adult siblings to their brothers and sisters--with an intellectual disability living in 2 Israeli institutional care facilities. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings who were interviewed at baseline regarding their intentions to visit their offspring or sibling in the institutional care facility, to contact the caregiving staff, and to accept visits at home. Parents' and siblings' behavior regarding visitation and supportive behavior was examined after 6 months by caregiving staff. Core findings indicated that subjective norms in siblings and parents predicted frequency of home visits. Perceived behavioral control predicted frequency of contact between siblings and staff. Differences between parents and siblings regarding their supportive behaviors are discussed with respect to social work practice.

  16. Perceived social support buffers the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior: implications into suicide resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.

  17. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  18. Supporting cognition in systems biology analysis: findings on users' processes and design implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Barbara

    2009-02-13

    Current usability studies of bioinformatics tools suggest that tools for exploratory analysis support some tasks related to finding relationships of interest but not the deep causal insights necessary for formulating plausible and credible hypotheses. To better understand design requirements for gaining these causal insights in systems biology analyses a longitudinal field study of 15 biomedical researchers was conducted. Researchers interacted with the same protein-protein interaction tools to discover possible disease mechanisms for further experimentation. Findings reveal patterns in scientists' exploratory and explanatory analysis and reveal that tools positively supported a number of well-structured query and analysis tasks. But for several of scientists' more complex, higher order ways of knowing and reasoning the tools did not offer adequate support. Results show that for a better fit with scientists' cognition for exploratory analysis systems biology tools need to better match scientists' processes for validating, for making a transition from classification to model-based reasoning, and for engaging in causal mental modelling. As the next great frontier in bioinformatics usability, tool designs for exploratory systems biology analysis need to move beyond the successes already achieved in supporting formulaic query and analysis tasks and now reduce current mismatches with several of scientists' higher order analytical practices. The implications of results for tool designs are discussed.

  19. Development of materials to support parents whose babies cry excessively: findings and health service implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jaqui; Powell, Charlotte; Bamber, Deborah; Garratt, Rosemary; Brown, Jayne; Dyson, Sue; James-Roberts, Ian St

    2018-01-10

    Aim To develop evidence-based materials which provide information and support for parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. As well as meeting these parents' needs, the aim was to develop a package of materials suitable for use by the UK National Health Service (NHS). Parents report that around 20% of infants in Western countries cry excessively without an apparent reason during the first four months of age. Traditionally, research has focused on the crying and its causes. However, evidence is growing that how parents evaluate and respond to the crying needs to receive equal attention. This focus encompasses parental resources, vulnerabilities, well-being and mental health. At present, the UK NHS lacks a set of routine provisions to support parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. The rationales, methods and findings from a study developing materials for this purpose are reported. Following a literature review, 20 parents whose babies previously cried excessively took part in focus groups or interviews. They provided reports on their experiences and the supports they would have liked when their baby was crying excessively. In addition, they identified their preferred delivery methods and devices for accessing information and rated four example support packages identified by the literature review. Findings During the period their baby cried excessively, most parents visited a health service professional and most considered these direct contacts to have provided helpful information and support. Websites were similarly popular. Telephones and tablets were the preferred means of accessing online information. Groups to meet other parents were considered an important additional resource by all the parents. Three package elements - a Surviving Crying website, a printed version of the website and a programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner, were developed for

  20. Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2007-11-06

    Culture has long been considered to be not only unique to humans, but also responsible for making us qualitatively different from all other forms of life. In recent years, however, researchers studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have challenged this idea. Natural populations of chimpanzees have been found to vary greatly in their behavior. Because many of these interpopulation differences cannot be readily explained by ecological factors, it has been argued that they result from social learning and, therefore, can be regarded as cultural variations. Recent studies showing social transmission in captive chimpanzee populations suggest that this hypothesis is plausible. However, the culture hypothesis has been questioned on the grounds that the behavioral variation may be explained at a proximate level by genetic differences between subspecies. Here we use cladistic analyses of the major cross-site behavioral data set to test the hypothesis that the behavioral differences among the best-documented chimpanzee populations are genetically determined. If behavioral diversity is primarily the product of genetic differences between subspecies, then population data should show less phylogenetic structure when data from a single subspecies (P. t. schweinfurthii) are compared with data from two subspecies (P. t. verus and P. t. schweinfurthii) analyzed together. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the observed behavioral patterns of wild chimpanzee populations can be explained primarily by genetic differences between subspecies. Instead, our results support the suggestion that the behavioral patterns are the product of social learning and, therefore, can be considered cultural.

  1. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  2. Supportive intervention using a mobile phone in behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareva, David H; Okada, Hiroki; Kitawaki, Tomoki; Oka, Hisao

    2009-04-01

    The authors previously developed a mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) system as a real-time data collection device using a mobile phone. In this study, a real-time advice function and real-time reporting function were added to the previous system as a supportive intervention. The improved system was found to work effectively and was applied to several clinical cases, including patients with depressive disorder, dizziness, smoking habit, and bronchial asthma. The average patient compliance rate was high (89%) without the real-time advice and higher (93%) with the advice. The trends in clinical data for patients using a mobile EMA with/without the new function were analyzed for up to several months. In the case of dizziness, an improving trend in its clinical data was observed after applying the real-time advice, and in the case of depressive disorder, a stabilizing trend was observed. The mobile EMA system with the real-time advice function could be useful as a supportive intervention in behavior modification and for motivating patients in self-management of their disease.

  3. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSSs are computer-based information systems for providing necessary supports for business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs often serve the management, operations, and planning levels of all organizations and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily achieved in advance. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing DSSs. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 36 questions, distributes it among 213 employees who work for different offices in municipality of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.872. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.782 and 1014.521, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived three factors including system, analysis and transaction.

  4. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  5. Adaptive Encoding of Outcome Prediction by Prefrontal Cortex Ensembles Supports Behavioral Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, Alberto; Park, Junchol; Wood, Jesse; Kim, Yunbok; Moghaddam, Bita

    2017-08-30

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role in behavioral flexibility by monitoring action-outcome contingencies. How PFC ensembles represent shifts in behavior in response to changes in these contingencies remains unclear. We recorded single-unit activity and local field potentials in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) of male rats during a set-shifting task that required them to update their behavior, among competing options, in response to changes in action-outcome contingencies. As behavior was updated, a subset of PFC ensembles encoded the current trial outcome before the outcome was presented. This novel outcome-prediction encoding was absent in a control task, in which actions were rewarded pseudorandomly, indicating that PFC neurons are not merely providing an expectancy signal. In both control and set-shifting tasks, dmPFC neurons displayed postoutcome discrimination activity, indicating that these neurons also monitor whether a behavior is successful in generating rewards. Gamma-power oscillatory activity increased before the outcome in both tasks but did not differentiate between expected outcomes, suggesting that this measure is not related to set-shifting behavior but reflects expectation of an outcome after action execution. These results demonstrate that PFC neurons support flexible rule-based action selection by predicting outcomes that follow a particular action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tracking action-outcome contingencies and modifying behavior when those contingencies change is critical to behavioral flexibility. We find that ensembles of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex neurons differentiate between expected outcomes when action-outcome contingencies change. This predictive mode of signaling may be used to promote a new response strategy at the service of behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378363-11$15.00/0.

  6. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  7. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Michie, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. \\ud \\ud Method: A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral s...

  8. Constructing counterproductive behavior for supporting evironmental management system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarapuspa; Indyastuti, D. L.; Sari, W. R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the definition of counterproductive behavior based on supervisors’ and sub ordinaries’ perceptions. Recently, environmental management system is a strategic tool to gain a competitive advantage. Human resource is the vital factor for successful environmental management system. Counterproductive behavior will destroy environmental management system. Unfortunately, the construct of counterproductive behavior is still debatable. Different culture show different dimensions and indicators of counterproductive behavior. The unclear construct results ambiguous empirical evidence. This study results that many items are included of counterproductive behavior, such as come late, impolite communication, playing gadget in working time, and the other negative behaviors.

  9. Providing nutritional support to patients with thoracic cancer: findings of a dedicated rehabilitation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Cheryl; Hussain, Asmah; Zadora-Chrzastowska, Sonja; White, Gillian; Maddocks, Matthew; Wilcock, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    National guidelines recommend screening patients with thoracic cancer to identify those requiring nutritional support. To help quantify this area of need, the associated workload and explore its impact, we report findings from a dedicated rehabilitation service. Patients were screened soon after diagnosis to determine the prevalence of malnutrition, and various aspects compared between malnourished and not malnourished groups. A nutritional care plan was instigated and all contacts recorded, together with follow-up body weight. Of 243 patients seen, 35% were malnourished which was associated with a palliative treatment intent (P group received oral nutritional supplements, but also experienced problems tolerating them. Over one month, neither the pattern nor magnitude of the change in weight differed between malnourished and not malnourished groups. Overall, weight was stable, increased or decreased in 52 (27%), 80 (42%) and 59 (31%) respectively, with no difference in overall survival (P = 0.16). Our data provides a pragmatic insight into the implications of following national guidance on nutritional screening and support in this patient group. Nutritional support failed to prevent weight loss in some patients, and did not appear to impact on survival; new assessments and treatments for cachexia are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scales to Assess Student Behavior within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Faith G.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased emphasis on collecting and using data in schools has occurred, in part, because of the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). Commonly referred to as response to intervention in the academic domain and school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports in the behavioral domain, these initiatives have a…

  11. Changes in attention to an emotional task after sleep deprivation: neurophysiological and behavioral findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarra, Ramey; Fins, Ana I; Chayo, Isaac; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-01-01

    While sleep loss is shown to have widespread effects on cognitive processes, little is known about the impact of sleep loss on emotion processes. In order to expand on previous behavioral and physiological findings on how sleep loss influences emotion processing, we administered positive, negative, and neutral affective visual stimuli to individuals after one night of sleep deprivation while simultaneously acquiring EEG event related potential (ERP) data and recording affective behavioral responses. We compared these responses to a baseline testing session. We specifically looked at the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual ERP as an established sensitive measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli. Our results show that after sleep deprivation, the LPP no longer discriminates between emotional and non-emotional pictures; after sleep deprivation the LPP amplitude was of similar amplitude for neutral, positive, and negative pictures. This effect was driven by an increase in the LPP to neutral pictures. Our behavioral measures show that, relative to baseline testing, emotional pictures are rated as less emotional following sleep deprivation with a concomitant reduction in emotional picture-induced anxiety. We did not observe any change in cortisol concentrations after sleep deprivation before or after emotional picture exposure, suggesting that the observed changes in emotion processing are independent of potential stress effects of sleep deprivation. Combined, our findings suggest that sleep loss interferes with proper allocation of attention resources during an emotional task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavior of greedy sparse representation algorithms on nested supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailhé, Boris; Sturm, Bob L.; Plumbley, Mark

    2013-01-01

    is not locally nested: there is a dictionary and supports Γ ⊃ Γ′ such that OMP can recover all signals with support Γ, but not all signals with support Γ′. We also show that the support recovery optimality of OMP is globally nested: if OMP can recover all s-sparse signals, then it can recover all s...

  13. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  14. HUBUNGAN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR MELALUI ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT PADA BEBERAPA PUSKESMAS DI DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalia Rafsiah Sari Sari

    2015-03-01

    relationship Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior through Organizational Commitment. Keywords: Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Citizenship Behavior,Organizational Commitment

  15. Teachers’ Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers’ Self-Regulation : Relations With Social and Emotional Skills During Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children’s

  16. Teachers' Emotional and Behavioral Support and Preschoolers' Self-Regulation: Relations with Social and Emotional Skills during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…

  17. Practical Considerations in Creating School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marcie W.; Rey, Jannette; Connell, James; Thier, Kimberly; Feinberg, Adam; Putnam, Robert

    2007-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills. It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. There are many practical and systemic…

  18. Smartphone Habits and Behaviors in Supporting Students Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaq

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The widespread of smartphones usage have increased the convenience of accessing information and knowledge sharing for higher learning students. University’s students are exposed with the multi channels of knowledge from various sources primarily from online learning’s resources. The study examines smartphone habit, internet literacy, and mobile learning in relation to self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to the internal forces of a student’s belief in the abilities in utilizing smartphone as educational aid in the context of mobile learning. This study deploys a quantitative approach in assessing the relationship between self-efficacy, internet literacy and smartphone’s habits for of university students. Understanding student self-efficacy is important factor to deliver an effective ways in supporting mobile learning activities. In addition to documenting the findings of self-efficacy and mobile learning, the research also represents a model of internal and external factors that affects student self-efficacy to make mobile learning successful.

  19. Perceived Autonomy Support and Behavioral Engagement in Physical Education: Comment on Yoo (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello

    2016-08-01

    The role of emotion as moderator of the relationships between perceived autonomy supportive behavior and autonomous motivation and between motivation and behavioral engagement in physical education are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Dimensions of Principal Support Behaviors and Their Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed with the primary purpose of identifying the dimensions of principal support perceived by public high school teachers in Virginia and identifying the relationship between principal support and organizational citizenship behaviors. In addition, this study also examined the relationship between principal support and student…

  1. The Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline Survey: A Tool to Help Achieve Systemic Change through Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.; King, Joe P.

    2015-01-01

    The practices of schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) are dependent on staff implementation in classroom and common areas throughout the school. Thus, gaining the support and commitment of school staff is a critical step toward reaching full implementation of SWPBS. However, achieving buildingwide support can be challenging; many schools…

  2. Effective Resources Supporting Healthy Sexual Behavior in Formerly Incarcerated Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…

  3. Integrating Bullying Prevention into Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Chris P.; McIntosh, Kent; Gietz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against victims who are unable to defend themselves. Children and youth who engage in bullying behavior may have a physical advantage, higher social status, or power in numbers, whereas those who are targeted by bullies are likely to be solitary, smaller in stature,…

  4. A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Training Using Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide (BSP-QE) to Improve Positive Behavioral Support Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Diana Browning; Mayer, G. Roy; Cook, Clayton R.; Crews, S. Dean; Kraemer, Bonnie Rawlings; Gale, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of two trainings designed to increase the competencies of professionals to develop high quality positive behavior support plans for students that engage in problem behaviors that interfere with theirs and/or others' ability to learn. Training one consisted of training attendees on six key…

  5. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T

    2017-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  6. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Mahajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD, is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods: The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society‐United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS‐UPDRS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI. Cross‐sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS‐3 (motor score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD.Results: Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0% had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028. Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025.Discussion: PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD.

  7. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  8. Sex differences in brain and behavior in adolescence: Findings from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in brain and behavior were investigated across the lifespan. Parameters include neurobehavioral measures linkable to neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic indicators of brain structure and function. Sexual differentiation of behavior has been related to organizational factors during sensitive periods of development, with adolescence and puberty gaining increased attention. Adolescence is a critical developmental period where transition to adulthood is impacted by multiple factors that can enhance vulnerability to brain dysfunction. Here we highlight sex differences in neurobehavioral measures in adolescence that are linked to brain function. We summarize neuroimaging studies examining brain structure, connectivity and perfusion, underscoring the relationship to sex differences in behavioral measures and commenting on hormonal findings. We focus on relevant data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a community-based sample of nearly 10,000 clinically and neurocognitively phenotyped youths age 8-21 of whom 1600 have received multimodal neuroimaging. These data indicate early and pervasive sexual differentiation in neurocognitive measures that is linkable to brain parameters. We conclude by describing possible clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  10. Methodology development for estimating support behavior of spacer grid spring in core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam

    1998-04-01

    The fuel rod (FR) support behavior is changed during operation resulting from effects such as clad creep-down, spring force relaxation due to irradiation, and irradiation growth of spacer straps in accordance with time or increase of burnup. The FR support behavior is closely associated with time or increase of burnup. The FR support behavior is closely associated with FR damage due to fretting, therefore the analysis on the FR support behavior is normally required to minimize the damage. The characteristics of the parameters, which affect the FR support behavior, and the methodology developed for estimating the FR support behavior in the reactor core are described in this work. The FR support condition for the KOFA (KOrean Fuel Assembly) fuel has been analyzed by this method, and the results of the analysis show that the fuel failure due to the fuel rod fretting wear is closely related to the support behavior of FR in the core. Therefore, the present methodology for estimating the FR support condition seems to be useful for estimating the actual FR support condition. In addition, the optimization seems to be a reliable tool for establishing the optimal support condition on the basis of these results. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 26 figs

  11. Using statistical anomaly detection models to find clinical decision support malfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Soumi; McEvoy, Dustin S; Aaron, Skye; Hickman, Thu-Trang; Wright, Adam

    2018-05-11

    Malfunctions in Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems occur due to a multitude of reasons, and often go unnoticed, leading to potentially poor outcomes. Our goal was to identify malfunctions within CDS systems. We evaluated 6 anomaly detection models: (1) Poisson Changepoint Model, (2) Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model, (3) Hierarchical Divisive Changepoint (HDC) Model, (4) Bayesian Changepoint Model, (5) Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate (SHESD) Model, and (6) E-Divisive with Median (EDM) Model and characterized their ability to find known anomalies. We analyzed 4 CDS alerts with known malfunctions from the Longitudinal Medical Record (LMR) and Epic® (Epic Systems Corporation, Madison, WI, USA) at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. The 4 rules recommend lead testing in children, aspirin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease, pneumococcal vaccination in immunocompromised adults and thyroid testing in patients taking amiodarone. Poisson changepoint, ARIMA, HDC, Bayesian changepoint and the SHESD model were able to detect anomalies in an alert for lead screening in children and in an alert for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in immunocompromised adults. EDM was able to detect anomalies in an alert for monitoring thyroid function in patients on amiodarone. Malfunctions/anomalies occur frequently in CDS alert systems. It is important to be able to detect such anomalies promptly. Anomaly detection models are useful tools to aid such detections.

  12. A review of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, Kristiana G H; Mayo, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing an instrument's psychometric properties to determine appropriateness for use can be a challenging process. Dissecting the statistical terminology may be even more perplexing. There are several instruments that evaluate adolescents' perceived social support, but a fairly new instrument related to this construct assesses not only the availability of social support but also support for healthy behaviors in this population. The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors, first published in 2013, demonstrates adequate initial reliability and validity. The purpose of this article is to review the psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors and potential uses of the instrument.

  13. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Finding Support in Moodle: A Face-to-Face Chemistry Course for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Carolina Armijo; McAnally-Salas, Lewis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to know the students' perceptions of using online support in a chemistry course. To achieve this objective, a qualitative research was conducted over a chemistry course that was imparted in a face-to-face modality using a LMS (learning management system) for on-line support. The supports available in the LMS were forums,…

  15. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  16. Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Case of Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship among perceived organizational support, affective organizational commitment, and employee citizenship behavior in Kuwaiti business organizations. Employees¡¯ affective organizational commitment is proposed to mediate the relationship between perceived organizational support and employee citizenship behavior. Data were collected from 261 employees affiliated with 9 Kuwait business organizations. These businesses represented firms in the banking, and finan...

  17. Detachment from Parents, Problem Behaviors, and the Moderating Role of Parental Support among Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…

  18. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports and Students with Significant Disabilities: Where Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Enyart, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of schools implementing schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) has increased dramatically, the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in these efforts remains negligible. This article describes the evolution of positive behavior intervention and supports into the SWPBS approach used in many schools today,…

  19. The behavioral outcomes of a technology-supported leisure activity in people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.W.C. Gemert-Pijnen; N. Nijhof; Joost van Hoof; H. van Rijn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a technology-supported leisure game for people with dementia in relation to the stimulation of social behavior. OBJECTIVE: In this study we explore the additional impact of technology-supported leisure activities on behavioral outcomes

  20. The Relationship between Neighborhood Characteristics and Effective Parenting Behaviors: The Role of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…

  1. Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in High School Settings: Analysis of Eight High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Frank, Jennifer L.; Kato, Mimi McGrath; Doren, Bonnie; Fenning, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is a systems-level intervention designed to prevent the occurrence of problem behavior and increase social competence. A growing body of research documents that SWPBS reduces problem behavior and improves academics (e.g., McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006), yet documentation of the feasibility…

  2. Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Supports: Considerations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle; Obiakor, Festus E.

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms are not culturally neutral terrains, but rather are constructed around sets of norms, values, and expected behaviors that are culturally bound. Low tolerance levels and expectations are an indication of the incongruence between the education strategies utilized by teachers and the cultural and linguistic differences of students that are…

  3. Social Support Networks and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors Among Latino Immigrants in a New Receiving Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Theall, Katherine; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Thompson, Michelle M; Muth, Stephen Q; Friedman, Samuel R; Kissinger, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support. Moderate and high quantity and quality of social support were protective of HIV/STI sexual risk behavior compared to low quantity and quality of support, after adjustment for gender, years in New Orleans and residing with family. Neither measure of social support was associated with binge drinking. The findings suggest that increased quantity and quality of social support decrease HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors but do not influence binge drinking. Interventions that improve the quantity and quality of social support are needed for Latino immigrants.

  4. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  5. SupportNet for Frontline Behavioral Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    to help women and their children achieve safety and wellbeing while challenging communities to end sexual and family violence. In the process, TESSA...did not engage with the SupportNet intervention as a function of their level of burnout. Lack of military support was cited by staff as being a barrier...October 2013, which resulted in government employees being furloughed. Since the project itself was funded by the Department of Defense, the project was

  6. The "RAPID" cognitive-behavioral therapy program for inattentive children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-CQuestionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to measure outcome. Eighty-eight parents/carers, their children (age 8-11), and teachers at mainstream primary schools in London participated by completing the RATE-C Questionnaires; 48 participated in the group treatment following which the Questionnaires were readministered together with a semistructured interview. The intervention had a completion rate of 92%. Postgroup interviews supported the acceptability of a direct intervention with young children. Reliability of the RATE-C Total scores was excellent for parent/carer, child, and teacher ratings; postintervention parent/carer ratings indicated significant improvement on scales of attention, emotion, and conduct with medium to large effect. The results support the reliability of the RATE-C Scales, and feasibility and acceptability of the RAPID intervention.

  7. Social support and protection from depression: systematic review of current findings in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariépy, Geneviève; Honkaniemi, Helena; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies report an association between social support and protection from depression, but no systematic review or meta-analysis exists on this topic. To review systematically the characteristics of social support (types and source) associated with protection from depression across life periods (childhood and adolescence; adulthood; older age) and by study design (cross-sectional v cohort studies). A systematic literature search conducted in February 2015 yielded 100 eligible studies. Study quality was assessed using a critical appraisal checklist, followed by meta-analyses. Sources of support varied across life periods, with parental support being most important among children and adolescents, whereas adults and older adults relied more on spouses, followed by family and then friends. Significant heterogeneity in social support measurement was noted. Effects were weaker in both magnitude and significance in cohort studies. Knowledge gaps remain due to social support measurement heterogeneity and to evidence of reverse causality bias. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  8. Wearable devices and mobile technologies for supporting behavioral weight loss among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-10-30

    Promoting physical activity is essential for addressing elevated cardiovascular risk and high obesity rates affecting people with serious mental illness. Numerous challenges interfere with exercise participation in this high-risk group including mental health symptoms, low motivation, and limited access to safe and affordable options for physical activity. Wearable devices and mobile health technologies may afford new opportunities for promoting physical activity and supporting behavioral weight loss efforts. This exploratory study examined whether daily step count measured using Fitbit wearable devices was associated with weight loss and improved fitness among individuals with serious mental illness enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle program. Participants (n=34) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (23.5%), major depression (50.0%), or bipolar disorder (26.5%), and wore Fitbits most of the days (M=86.2%; SD=18.4%) they were enrolled in the study. At 6-months, higher average daily step count was associated with greater weight loss (F=5.07; df=1,32; p=0.0314), but not improved fitness (F=1.92; df=1,31; p=0.176). These findings demonstrate that encouraging participants with serious mental illness enrolled in lifestyle interventions to collect more steps may contribute to greater weight loss. This suggests that wearable devices may offer a feasible and potentially effective strategy for supporting behavioral weight loss in community mental health settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

  11. SupportNet for Frontline Behavioral Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Review of the Impact of Adherence on the Effectiveness of e-Therapies. Journal of Medical Internet Research , 13(3), 52. Frank, R. (2003, January...Improve the Uptake and Impact of eHealth Technologies. Journal of Medical Internet Research , 13(4), 111. 41 Appendix V SupportNet

  12. Change-supportive employee behavior – A career identity explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lysova, E.; Richardson, J.; Khapova, S.N.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how career identity informs employees’ willingness to engage in organizational change initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the findings of a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of 29 employees involved in a

  13. Social Behavior in Medulloblastoma: Functional Analysis of Tumor-Supporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    our findings in aim 1. In the current year, our lab moved from University of Oregon to University of Virginia to gain access to world -renowned...used MADM to probe into early phases of gliomagenesis, and surprisingly found the lack of overpopulation of mutant NSCs. Among NSC-derived cell types

  14. Support for a Campus Tobacco-Free Policy among Non- Smokers: Findings from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Isa, Mohamad Rodi; Fadzil, Mohd Ariff; Zamhuri, Mohammad Idris; Selamat, Mohamad Ikhsan; Mat Ruzlin, Aimi Nadira; Nik Ibrahim, Nik Shamsidah; Ismail, Zaliha; Abdul Majeed, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    A tobacco-free workplace policy is identified as an effective means to reduce tobacco use and protect people from second-hand smoke; however, the number of tobacco-free policies (TFP) remains very low in workplaces in Malaysia. This study explored the factors affecting support for a tobacco-free policy on two healthcare campuses in Malaysia, prior to the implementation of TFP. This cross- sectional study was conducted among 286 non-smokers from two healthcare training centres and two nearby colleges in Malaysia from January 2015 to April 2015. A standardized questionnaire was administered via staff and student emails. The questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, support for a tobacco-free policy and perceived respiratory and sensory symptoms due to tobacco exposure. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the independent effects of supporting a tobacco-free campus. The percentage of individuals supporting completely tobacco-free facilities was 83.2% (N=238), as opposed to 16.7% (N=48) in support of partially tobacco-free facilities. Compared to the supporters of partially tobacco-free facilities, non-smokers who supported completely tobacco-free health facilities were more likely to be female, have higher education levels, to be very concerned about the effects of other people smoking on their health and to perceive a tobacco-free policy as very important. In addition, they perceived that tobacco smoke bothered them at work by causing headaches and coughs and, in the past 4 weeks, had experienced difficulty breathing. In the multivariate model, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and other factors, only experiencing coughs and headaches increased the odds of supporting a completely tobacco-free campus, up to 2.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively. Coughs and headaches due to other people smoking at work enhances support for a completely tobacco-free campus among non-smokers.

  15. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943

  16. Source and Size of Social Support Network on Sedentary Behavior Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Crush, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. 2519 older adults (60+ years). Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report. Sources evaluated include spouse, son, daughter, sibling, neighbor, church member, and friend. Regarding size of social network, participants were asked, "In general, how many close friends do you have?" Multivariable linear regression. After adjustment, there was no evidence of an association between the size of social support network and sedentary behavior. With regard to specific sources of social support, spousal social support was associated with less sedentary behavior (β = -11.6; 95% confidence interval: -20.7 to -2.5), with evidence to suggest that this was only true for men. Further, an inverse association was observed between household size and sedentary behavior, with those having a greater number of individuals in the house having lower levels of sedentary behavior. These associations occurred independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, age, gender, race-ethnicity, measured body mass index, total cholesterol, self-reported smoking status, and physician diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, or diabetes. Spouse-specific emotion-related social support (particularly for men) and household size were associated with less sedentary behavior.

  17. Electroencephalographic findings related with mild cognitive impairment in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Taeko; Matsuura, Masato; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) slowing have been reported as common findings of idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and α-synucleinopathies. The objective of this study is to clarify the relation between MCI and physiological markers in iRBD. Cross-sectional study. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center. Thirty-one patients with iRBD including 17 younger patients with iRBD (younger than 70 y) and 17 control patients for the younger patients with iRBD. N/A. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and n-polysomnogram (PSG) were conducted of all participants. In patients with iRBD, the factors associated with MCI were explored among parameters of REM sleep without atonia (RWA), score of Sniffin' Sticks Test (threshold-discrimination-identification [TDI] score), RBD morbidity, and RBD severity evaluated with the Japanese version of the RBD questionnaire (RBDQ-JP). The younger iRBD group showed significantly lower alpha power during wake and lower MoCA score than the age-matched control group. MCI was detected in 13 of 17 patients (76.5%) on MoCA in this group. Among patients wtih iRBD, the MoCA score negatively correlated with age, proportion of slow wave sleep, TDI score, and EEG spectral power. Multiple regression analysis provided the following equation: MoCA score = 50.871-0.116*age -5.307*log (δ power during REM sleep) + 0.086*TDI score (R² = 0.598, P sleep), and 0.357 for TDI score (F = 9.900, P sleep and olfactory dysfunction, was revealed to be associated with cognitive decline in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

  18. Phasic or terminal detrusor overactivity in women: age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To search for relationships between phasic (P and terminal (T DO with age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior during involuntary detrusor contraction in woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic studies (triple lumen catheter 7F, seated position of 164 successive women referred for LUTS with diagnosis of DO were reviewed. Patients were stratified in 4 sub-groups: pre- (18-44y, peri- (45-54 y, post-menopause (55-74 y and oldest old (≥ 75 y. The urethral sensor was positioned at the level of the maximum urethral closure pressure for sphincter behavior analysis. A variation of at least 5 cmH2O in pressure (detrusor or urethra was chosen to assert DO or sphincter response. Sphincter response was classified as relaxation (re before or during DO, or steady (st. RESULTS: Occurrence of P and TDO was similar: 77 P and 87 T. The PDO group was significantly younger (p = 0.0003. TDO was more frequent in patients with a history of neurological disease. The percentage of PDO remained almost constant in age groups, while that of TDO increased with age from 6.7% to 23.2% (p = 0.0013. Uninhibited contraction occurred at a smaller bladder volume in the P group: 149 ± 95 vs. 221 ± 113 mL (p < 0.0001. Steady sphincter predominated in the TDO subgroup: 45.9% vs. 32.1% and increased significantly in each DO sub-group of ³ 75y. CONCLUSION: Steady sphincter during both P and TDO, and occurrence of TDO appear as specific of aging. The last result could be related to structural changes in the detrusor muscle with aging.

  19. Antecedents and organizational consequences of family supportive supervisor behavior: A multilevel conceptual framework for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, C.

    2012-01-01

    Family supportive supervision has emerged as an important prerequisite for effective work-family integration and employees' well-being. Scholars are addressing the need to develop family supportive managers and have introduced a new construct and measure, 'family supportive supervisor behavior'. So

  20. Optimism and benefit finding in parents of children with developmental disabilities: The role of positive reappraisal and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Éadaoin; McMahon, Jennifer; Gallagher, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Researchers have consistently documented the relationship between optimism and benefit finding; however, there is a dearth of research on the psychological mechanisms mediating their association. This cross-sectional study sought to elucidate the mediating role of positive reappraisal and social support in the optimism-benefit finding relationship in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities by testing a parallel multiple mediation model. One hundred and forty-six parents caring for children with developmental disabilities completed an online survey assessing optimism, positive reappraisal, social support and benefit finding. Optimism was not directly related to benefit finding but rather influenced it indirectly through positive reappraisal and social support. Specifically, higher levels of optimism predicted greater positive reappraisal and social support, which in turn led to greater benefit finding in parents. These results underscore the importance of targeting parents' perceptions of benefits through both positive reappraisal and social support in order to help them cope with the demands of the caregiving context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Actionable findings and the role of IT support: report of the ACR Actionable Reporting Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul A; Berland, Lincoln L; Griffith, Brent; Kahn, Charles E; Liebscher, Lawrence A

    2014-06-01

    The ACR formed the Actionable Reporting Work Group to address the potential role of IT in the communication of imaging findings, especially in cases that require nonroutine communication because of the urgency of the findings or their unexpected nature. These findings that require special communication with referring clinicians are classified as "actionable findings." The work group defines 3 categories of actionable findings that require, respectively, communication and clinical decision within minutes (category 1), hours (category 2), or days (category 3). Although the work group does not believe that there can be definitive lists of such findings, it developed lists in each category that would apply in most general hospital settings. For each category, the work group discusses ways in which IT can assist interpreting radiologists in successfully communicating to the relevant clinicians to ensure optimal patient care. IT systems can also help document the communication and facilitate auditing of the documentation. The work group recommends that vendors develop platforms that can be customized on the basis of local preferences and needs. Whatever system is used, it should be highly reliable and fit seamlessly into radiologists' workflow. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioral and functional MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates "uncanny" research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future "uncanny" studies consider CP and the DOH's category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects.

  3. Impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.

  4. Finding FRiENDs: Creating a Community of Support for Early Career Academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerine M Pegg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting on an academic journey can be a stressful and isolating experience. Although some universities have formal mentoring structures to facilitate this transition for new faculty, these structures do not always provide the variety of supports that may be needed to navigate the complexities of transitioning to the world of academia. As we (the authors of this paper began our academic journeys, we found ourselves searching for support that was not available within our institutions. By drawing on previous connections and building new connections to peers at other universities, we created an informal peer mentoring structure that has continued to support us through the early years of our careers in academia. In this paper we share our stories of the challenges we faced as early career academics, discuss the ways this informal peer mentoring community provided support for us at the beginnings of our academic journeys, and offer advice for other early career academics seeking non-traditional forms of support along the academic career path.

  5. Positive behavioral support planning in the inpatient treatment of severe disruptive behaviors: A description of service features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, Nakia M; Carr, Erika R; Hillbrand, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are increasingly used on inpatient units to assess and treat serious and dangerous behaviors displayed by patients with serious psychiatric impairment. A contemporary extension of traditional applied behavior analytic procedures, PBS plans integrate theories from several domains with perspectives on community psychology, positive psychology, and recovery-oriented care. Because there is little evidence to suggest that more invasive, punitive disciplinary strategies lead to long-term positive behavioral change (Parkes, 1996), PBS plans have emerged as an alternative to the use of seclusion and restraint or other forms of restrictive measures typically used on inpatient psychiatric units (Hammer et al., 2011). Moreover, PBS plans are a preferred method of intervention because more invasive interventions often cause more harm than good to all involved (Elliott et al., 2005). This article seeks to provide an integrated framework for the development of positive behavior support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. In addition to explicating the philosophy and core elements of PBS plans, this work includes discussion of the didactic and pragmatic aspects of training clinical staff in inpatient mental health settings. A case vignette is included for illustration and to highlight the use of PBS plans as a mechanism for helping patients transition to less restrictive settings. This work will add to the scant literature examining the use of positive behavioral support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Winter, Charlotte E; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents' observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions.

  7. Decision support methods for finding phenotype--disorder associations in the bone dysplasia domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razan Paul

    Full Text Available A lack of mature domain knowledge and well established guidelines makes the medical diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias (a group of rare genetic disorders a very complex process. Machine learning techniques can facilitate objective interpretation of medical observations for the purposes of decision support. However, building decision support models using such techniques is highly problematic in the context of rare genetic disorders, because it depends on access to mature domain knowledge. This paper describes an approach for developing a decision support model in medical domains that are underpinned by relatively sparse knowledge bases. We propose a solution that combines association rule mining with the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST to compute probabilistic associations between sets of clinical features and disorders, which can then serve as support for medical decision making (e.g., diagnosis. We show, via experimental results, that our approach is able to provide meaningful outcomes even on small datasets with sparse distributions, in addition to outperforming other Machine Learning techniques and behaving slightly better than an initial diagnosis by a clinician.

  8. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  9. Reciprocal Family, Friendship and Church Support Networks of African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne M; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined reciprocal support networks involving extended family, friends and church members among African Americans. Our analysis examined specific patterns of reciprocal support (i.e., received only, gave only, both gave and received, neither gave or received), as well as network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) as correlates of reciprocal support. The analysis is based on the African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Overall, our findings indicate that African Americans are very involved in reciprocal support networks with their extended family, friends and church members. Respondents were most extensively involved in reciprocal supports with extended family members, followed closely by friends and church networks. Network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) were significantly and consistently associated with involvement with reciprocal support exchanges for all three networks. These and other findings are discussed in detail. This study complements previous work on the complementary roles of family, friend and congregational support networks, as well as studies of racial differences in informal support networks.

  10. How do relationships support parenting? Effects of attachment style and social support on parenting behavior in an at-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol

    2007-09-01

    The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed.

  11. Supportive relationships and sexual risk behavior in adolescence: an ecological-transactional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan

    2006-04-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.

  12. How Parental Support during Homework Contributes to Helpless Behaviors among Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Melissa; May, Sidney; Wolf, Maryanne

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of parental practices on helpless behaviors of struggling readers during homework tasks. Parents (N = 36) of elementary students reported on their children's helpless behaviors, such as task avoidance and negative affect, during homework assignments, and on the nature and frequency of their support.…

  13. The Associations among Sibling and Peer-Bullying, Social Support and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Samantha; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Klossing, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peer bullying is associated with internalizing problems for children and adolescents. However, less is known about how these same behaviors are related to student well-being when they occur within the context of the sibling relationship and how supportive behavior may benefit those experiencing bullying. Objective: The purpose of this…

  14. Roles of Fatalism and Parental Support in the Relationship between Bullying Victimization and Bystander Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqiong; Chen, Peter Y.; Chen, Fu-Li; Wu, Wen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how past bullied victims engage two types of bystander behaviors (defender and outsider) when they witness bullying situations.We also investigate if fatalism mediates the relationship between past victimization and two bystander behaviors. Finally, we test if parental support moderates the relationship between fatalism and…

  15. The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network: Describing Our Scale-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Timothy J.; Longwill, Douglas A.; Staszkiewicz, Mark J.; Palmiero, James; Lawson, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Pennsylvania began scaling up high-fidelity implementation of SchoolWide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) in 2006-2007 due to converging regulatory, legal, ethical, and practical influences. The Pennsylvania Community of Practice on School-Based Behavioral Health adopted Algozzine et al.'s (2010) blueprint to describe and…

  16. Personalized Coaching Systems to support healthy behavior in people with chronic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Hermanus J.; op den Akker, Harm; Tabak, Monique; Wijsman, J.L.P; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2014-01-01

    Chronic conditions cannot be cured but daily behavior has a major effect on the severity of secondary problems and quality of life. Changing behavior however requires intensive support in daily life, which is not feasible with a human coach. A new coaching approach – so-called Personal Coaching

  17. Missed Opportunities for Religious Organizations to Support People Living with HIV/AIDS: Findings from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Melissa H.; Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

    2009-01-01

    Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili...

  18. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings supporting early diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Behzad; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2014-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease, which is usually transmitted to humans by tick bites or contact with blood or other infected tissues of livestock. Patients suffering from CCHF demonstrate an extensive spectrum of clinical symptoms. As it can take considerable time from suspecting the disease in hospital until reaching a definitive diagnosis in the laboratory, understanding the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of CCHF patients is of paramount importance for clinicians. The data were collected from patients who were referred to the Laboratory of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers at the Pasteur institute of Iran with a primary diagnosis of CCHF between 1999 and 2012 and were assessed by molecular and serologic tests. Referred patients were divided into two groups: patients with a CCHF positive result and patients with a CCHF negative result. The laboratory and clinical findings of these two groups were then compared. Two-thousand five hundred thirty-six probable cases of CCHF were referred to the laboratory, of which 871 cases (34.3%) were confirmed to be CCHF. Contact with infected humans and animals increased the CCHF infection risk (P important role in patient survival and the application of the findings of this study can prove helpful as a key for early diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Two-Year Findings from a National Effectiveness Trial: Effectiveness of Behavioral and Non-Behavioral Parenting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högström, Jens; Olofsson, Viveca; Özdemir, Metin; Enebrink, Pia; Stattin, Håkan

    2017-04-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of selective parent training (PT) programs are scarce, particularly in the case of effectiveness trials conducted within regular care settings. This study evaluated the 2-year effects of 4 programs: Comet, Incredible Years, Cope, and Connect and differences in the rate of change among programs were investigated using Latent Growth Modeling (LGM). Participants were parents who had sought help at 30 local service sector units (e.g., child psychiatric clinics and social services centers) for major problems in managing their children's externalizing behavior. Parents of 749 children (63 % boys) with moderate levels of externalizing behavior, aged 3-12, were randomized to one of the 4 PT programs. Assessments included parent-reported measures of child externalizing, hyperactivity and inattention, as well as parenting practices, sense of competence, and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. At 2-year follow-up, there were no differences in any of the child outcomes among the programs. All programs had reduced externalizing behaviors with large effect sizes (d = 1.21 to d = 1.32), and negative parenting practices with moderate to large effect sizes (d = 0.49 to d = 0.83). LGM analyses showed that the 2 behavioral programs, Comet and Incredible Years, produced more rapid reductions in externalizing behavior during the course of the intervention than the non-behavioral program, Connect. Connect, however, was the only program where children continued to improve after the intervention. Overall, the results indicate that the 4 programs were equally effective in a clinical setting, despite differences in their theoretical origin.

  20. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-12-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations.

  1. The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP’s) National Assessment of ...

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Depressed Affect among Epileptics: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gay R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated a program where cognitive-behavioral methods were utilized in a structured learning format with clinically depressed epileptics (N=13). Results indicated that cognitive behavioral interventions result in significant decreases in depression and increases in related areas of psychosocial functioning that are maintained over time. (LLL)

  3. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  4. Supporting Families to Cook at Home and Eat Together: Findings From a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon

    The current study tested the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention that provided families with meal plans, recipes, and ingredients to cook meals at home. Ten diverse families (1 adolescent, 1 parent) were provided with the resources to prepare 5 family dinners/wk for 8 weeks. Process data were collected by weekly telephone calls. Outcome data were collected by open-ended interviews with parent or caregiver and adolescents, separately. Most of the meals provided were prepared (86%) and a high proportion of meals prepared were eaten together by families (96%). Both parents and adolescents reported that the intervention was acceptable, particularly the opportunity to try new foods. Families reported multiple benefits to participation, including eating healthier, feeling better, and having improved relationships. Providing families with resources for home cooking appears to be an acceptable and well-enjoyed intervention. Further research measuring the health and social impacts of this intervention is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptions of Supportive Leadership Behaviors of School Site Administrators for Secondary Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Erin; Jung, Adrian Woo

    2012-01-01

    School administrators fall short of supporting special education teachers due to a lack of knowledge of and experience in special education. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare leadership behaviors perceived as supportive by special education teachers and school site administrators. Data collection involved a survey instrument…

  6. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  7. How Do Staff Perceive Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports? Implications for Teams in Planning and Implementing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.

    2016-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) offers an alternative to reactive and exclusionary school discipline practices. However, the shift to SWPBS requires substantial change in the practices of staff, and many leadership teams struggle to rally staff support for implementation. With a more thorough understanding of staff perceptions, level…

  8. Staff Concerns in Schools Planning for and Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyre, Ashli D.; Feuerborn, Laura L.; Woods, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Understanding staff concerns about a systemic change effort allows leadership teams to better anticipate and address staff needs for professional development and support. In this study, staff concerns in nine schools planning for or implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) were explored using the…

  9. Creep Behavior of Porous Supports in Metal-support Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, Dino; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Creep is the inelastic deformation of a material at high temperatures over long periods of time. It can be defined as timedependent deformation at absolute temperatures greater than one half the absolute melting. Creep resistance is a key parameter for high temperature steel components, e.g. SOFC...... metal supports, where high corrosion resistance is a major design requirement. The four variables affecting creep rate are strain, time, temperature, and stress level and make creep difficult to quantify. In this work, the creep parameters of a SOFC metal support have been determined for the first time...... by means of a thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA) for stresses in the range of 1-17 MPa and temperatures between 650-750 °C. The creep parameters of Crofer® 22 APU were also acquired and compared with values obtained from literature to validate the technique....

  10. Predictors of smoking cessation behavior among Bangladeshi adults: findings from ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C K; Nargis, Nigar; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Research findings on the predictors of smoking cessation behavior identified in Western countries may not be generalizable to smokers in the Southeast Asian countries (i.e., Bangladesh). This study examined the factors associated with smoking cessation behavior (quit attempts and smoking cessation) among a representative sample of Bangladeshi adults. Data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Survey in Bangladesh, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers, were analysed. Households were sampled using a stratified multistage design and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Respondents included in the study are 1,861 adult daily smokers (cigarette only or dual use of cigarette and bidi) in the Wave 1 survey who completed the Wave 2 follow up. Of the smokers (N = 1,861), 98 % were male, 18 % illiterate, 78 % married and 42 % were aged 40 or above; 89 % were cigarette smokers and 11 % were dual users (cigarette & bidi). Overall, 21.8 % of the baseline smokers made quit attempts (that is, making at least one quit attempt that lasted for at least 24 hours) during the 11- to 12-month interval between Waves 1 and 2 with only 4.1 % quitting successfully (that is, smokers who had stopped smoking for at least 6 months at the time of the Wave 2 survey). Significant predictors of attempts to quit included: residing areas outside Dhaka (OR = 3.41), being aged 40 or older (OR = 1.53), having a monthly income of above BDT10,000 (US$126) versus below BDT 5,000 (US$63) (OR = 1.57), intending to quit sometime in the future (OR = 1.73). Respondents not working indoors/outside the home were less likely to have made a quit attempt than those with no workplace restrictions on smoking (OR = 0.62). Predictors of successful smoking cessation included: being aged 40 or older (OR = 3.11), perceiving self-rated health as good or excellent (OR = 2.40), and an increased level of self-efficacy (OR = 1

  11. Associations between aspects of friendship networks and dietary behavior in youth: Findings from a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Swanson, Kenda

    2015-08-01

    To gather and synthesize current evidence on the associations between aspects of friendship networks (e.g., friends' dietary behavior, popularity) and an individual's dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A systematic search of six scientific online databases was conducted in August 2013. Eligible studies included child or adolescent participants (aged 6 to 18years), a measure of each participant's friendship network, and a measure of habitual dietary behavior for both the participant and the participant's nominated friend(s). Data on study design, participant characteristics, friendship networks, dietary behavior, and study outcomes were abstracted. From a total of 9041 articles retrieved, seven studies were included in this review. Overall, friends' unhealthy food consumption was associated with an individual's unhealthy food consumption, and this association appeared to be stronger for boys compared with girls. More popular adolescents also tended to consume more unhealthy foods. Best friends' total energy intake was correlated with an individual's total energy intake. Similarities among friends' healthy food consumption, as well as daily breakfast consumption, were inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence showed that an individual's unhealthy food consumption tended to become similar to friends' unhealthy food consumption over time. Social network analysis in the adolescent dietary behavior literature is beginning to emerge. Results highlight friends' particular influence on unhealthy food consumption among adolescents. Focus on modeling healthy dietary behaviors among adolescent friendship group may help reduce unhealthy dietary behaviors and promote healthy weight status among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic and episodic anger and gratitude toward the organization: Relationships with organizational and supervisor supportiveness and extrarole behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T; Wang, Yanxia; Jin, Jiafei; Eisenberger, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Gratitude and anger represent 2 fundamental moral emotions in response to help or harm. Research suggests that individuals perceive organizations to have humanlike qualities and thus hold them responsible for helpful or harmful treatment. Given this line of reasoning, we hypothesized that workers direct gratitude toward their organizations in response to supportive treatment and anger toward their organizations in response to unsupportive treatment. Gratitude and anger, in turn, were expected to influence daily extrarole behavior. After developing short measures of organization-directed anger and gratitude in 2 pilot studies, we tested these hypotheses in a daily diary study of 54 workers providing 421 daily reports. Results indicate that perceived organizational support was related to chronic gratitude and anger, which is stable from day to day, and chronic gratitude was in turn related to chronic differences in organizational citizenship behavior. Episodic anger and gratitude, which vary daily, were related to daily supervisor interactional justice and helping behavior, respectively, and in turn predicted daily episodic variance in organizational citizenship and counterproductive work behavior. These findings suggest that the moral emotions of gratitude and anger toward the organization are indicators of employee affective well-being and play a mediating role in the effects of organizational and supervisor supportiveness on employee performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Neighborhood Disorder and Children’s Antisocial Behavior: The Protective Effect of Family Support Among Mexican American and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 673 Mexican Origin families, the current investigation examined the degree to which family supportiveness acted as a protective buffer between neighborhood disorder and antisocial behavior during late childhood (i.e. intent to use controlled substances, externalizing, and association with deviant peers). Children’s perceptions of neighborhood disorder fully mediated associations between census and observer measures of neighborhood disorder and their antisocial behavior. Family support buffered children from the higher rates of antisocial behavior generally associated with living in disorderly neighborhoods. An additional goal of the current study was to replicate these findings in a second sample of 897 African American families, and that replication was successful. These findings suggest that family support may play a protective role for children living in dangerous or disadvantaged neighborhoods. They also suggest that neighborhood interventions should consider several points of entry including structural changes, resident perceptions of their neighborhood and family support. PMID:22089092

  14. Emotion regulation in bereavement: searching for and finding emotional support in social network sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döveling, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    In an age of rising impact of online communication in social network sites (SNS), emotional interaction is neither limited nor restricted by time or space. Bereavement extends to the anonymity of cyberspace. What role does virtual interaction play in SNS in dealing with the basic human emotion of grief caused by the loss of a beloved person? The analysis laid out in this article provides answers in light of an interdisciplinary perspective on online bereavement. Relevant lines of research are scrutinized. After laying out the theoretical spectrum for the study, hypotheses based on a prior in-depth qualitative content analysis of 179 postings in three different German online bereavement platforms are proposed and scrutinized in a quantitative content analysis (2127 postings from 318 users). Emotion regulation patterns in SNS and similarities as well as differences in online bereavement of children, adolescents and adults are revealed. Large-scale quantitative findings into central motives, patterns, and restorative effects of online shared bereavement in regulating distress, fostering personal empowerment, and engendering meaning are presented. The article closes with implications for further analysis in memorialization practices.

  15. Social support for healthy behaviors: Scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  16. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Snell; Elizabeth K. Englander

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. ...

  17. How does social support affect functional impairment in late life? Findings of a multicenter prospective cohort study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Mallon, Tina; van der Leeden, Carolin; Mamone, Silke; Wiese, Birgitt; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Stein, Janine; Bickel, Horst; Weeg, Dagmar; Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Luck, Tobias; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-09-01

    to investigate how social support affects functional impairment (FI) in late life in a longitudinal approach. in a multicenter prospective cohort study, subjects in old age (≥75 years at baseline) were interviewed every 1.5 years. Social support was quantified in the follow-up (FU) Waves 2 and 4 (FU Wave 2: n = 2,349; FU Wave 4: n = 1,484). FI was assessed by using the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. fixed effects regressions showed that a decrease in social support is associated with FI in the total sample and in both sexes. The effect on FI was most pronounced with the dimension social integration, whereas changes in practical support only affected FI in the total sample and changes in emotional support only affected FI in men. our findings emphasise the importance of social support for functional status in late life. Thus, strengthening social support in old age might be effective in maintaining functional abilities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Contextualization and standardization of the supportive leadership behavior questionnaire based on socio- cognitive theory in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its authorities have understood and recognized the importance of matching leadership styles with effective and competent care for success in health care organizations. This study aimed to develop the Supportive Leadership Behaviors Scale based on accepted health and educational theories and to psychometrically test it in the Iranian context. The instrument was based on items from established questionnaires. A pilot study validated the instrument which was also cross-validated via re-translation. After validation, 731 participants answered the questionnaire. The instrument was finalized and resulted in a 20-item questionnaire using the exploratory factor analysis, which yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors (all above 0.6). Mapping these four measures of leadership behaviors can be beneficial to determine whether effective leadership could support innovation and improvements in medical education and health care organizations on the national level. The reliability measured as Cronbach's alpha was 0.84. This new instrument yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors which are applicable in health and educational settings and are helpful in improving self -efficacy among health and academic staff.

  19. Correlation of parenting style and pediatric behavior guidance strategies in the dental setting: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of parenting style on the choice of proper behavior guidance strategies in pedodontics. Seventy-two children aged between 4 and 6 years (mean 5.12 years) with carious primary mandibular molars were selected. The Primary Caregivers' Practices Report (PCPR) was used to quantify authoritarian, permissive and authoritative aspects of the caregivers' parenting style. After inferior alveolar nerve block, carious lesions were removed and the teeth were restored using amalgam. The children's behavior during operation was assessed according to the sound, eye, and motor (SEM) scale. Communicative guidance, advance behavior guidance, parental separation, and deferred treatment were used for behavior management. The dominant authoritative score was observed in 50% of parents, permissive in 37.5%, and authoritarian in 12.5%. The mean SEM score in children belonging to authoritative parents was significantly lower than in children of permissive and of authoritarian parents (pparenting style. Advanced behavior guidance (protective stabilization) was applied in 16.7% of cases in the authoritative category and in 100% in the permissive and authoritarian categories. The use of restrictive devices (7.4%) and sedation (3.7%) was limited to the permissive category. Parental separation (40.7%) and deferred treatment (3.7%) were performed only in the permissive category. This study provides preliminary evidence that a child's reaction to restorative dental procedures is influenced by the nature of the caregiver's parenting style.

  20. Does Integrated Behavioral Health Care Reduce Mental Health Disparities for Latinos? Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioral health services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integrated behavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioral health services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845

  1. Can fear extinction be enhanced? A review of pharmacological and behavioral findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Seemann, Jocelyn R.; Maren, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest, from both a basic and clinical standpoint, in gaining a greater understanding of how pharmaceutical or behavioral manipulations alter fear extinction in animals. Not only does fear extinction in rodents model exposure therapy in humans, where the latter is a cornerstone of behavioral intervention for anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and specific phobias, but also understanding more about extinction provides basic information into learning and memory processes and their underlying circuitry. In this paper, we briefly review three principal approaches that have been used to modulate extinction processes in animals and humans: a purely pharmacological approach, the more widespread approach of combining pharmacology with behavior, and a purely behavioral approach. The pharmacological studies comprise modulation by: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), d-cycloserine, serotonergic and noradrenergic drugs, neuropeptides, endocannabinoids, glucocorticoids, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and others. These studies strongly suggest that extinction can be modulated by drugs, behavioral interventions, or their combination, although not always in a lasting manner. We suggest that pharmacotherapeutic manipulations provide considerable promise for promoting effective and lasting fear reduction in individuals with anxiety disorders. PMID:24374101

  2. Parental Perceived Control and Social Support: Linkages to Change in Parenting Behaviors During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  3. Power of Peer Support to Change Health Behavior to Reduce Risks for Heart Disease and Stroke for African American Men in a Faith-Based Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohye; Schorr, Erica; Hadidi, Niloufar Niakosari; Kelley, Robin; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Lindquist, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    Peer support has powerful potential to improve outcomes in a program of health behavior change; yet, how peer support is perceived by participants, its role, and how it contributes to intervention efficacy is not known, especially among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to identify the subjectively perceived experience and potential contributions of peer support to the outcomes of a peer group behavioral intervention designed to change health behavior to reduce risks for heart disease and stroke in African American men in a faith-based community. A peer support group intervention was implemented to increase health knowledge and to improve health behaviors in line with the American Heart Association's Life Simple 7 domains (get active, control cholesterol, eat better, manage blood pressure, lose weight, reduce blood sugar, and stop smoking). Fourteen peer group sessions and eight follow-up interviews with program participants were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Seven key themes emerged, including (1) enhancing access to health behavior information and resources, (2) practicing and applying problem-solving skills with group feedback and support, (3) discussing health behavior challenges and barriers, (4) sharing health behavior changes, (5) sharing perceived health outcome improvements and benefits, (6) feelings of belonging and being cared for, and (7) addressing health of family and community. Qualitative findings revealed a positive perception of peer support and greater understanding of potential reasons why it may be an effective strategy for African American men.

  4. Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Support Plans for Work-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelman, Angus; Wagner Bromley, Katherine; Mazzotti, Valerie L.

    2016-01-01

    Work experiences are linked to positive post-school outcomes for youth and young adults with disabilities. Unfortunately, students who struggle to manage conflict and challenges in work settings have a difficult time maintaining employment. Though ecological assessments are used to create supported work plans surrounding socially inappropriate…

  5. Finding myself: a theory on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a grounded theory research design to develop a theoretical model focused on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence. Quantitative research studies have linked spirituality with decreased health-risk behaviors and increased health-promotion behaviors during late adolescence. Qualitative, theoretical data is proposed to discover the underlying reasons this relationship exists and increase the ability to apply this knowledge to practice. Twenty-one adolescents, age 16-21 years, were e-mail interviewed and transcripts analyzed using a conceptual lens of Blumer's symbolic interactionism. From this analysis, a theoretical model emerged with the core concept, finding myself that represents 5 core process concepts. Implications of this study illustrate that late adolescents are aware of their personal spiritual maturation as well as its influence on behavior. In addition, a distinction between the generic concept of spirituality, personal spirituality, and religion emerged.

  6. The balanced scorecard as a potential instrument for supporting planning and improvement in accounting education: Comparative survey findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Cronje

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is firstly a comparison of the components of a potential balanced scorecard for accounting departments of universities in South Africa and Australia. Secondly, the various suggested measurement criteria of the balanced scorecard components are also compared. The findings of the research paper indicate no significant differences. The conclusion is that the balanced scorecard constitutes a potential instrument for supporting the planning and improvement of the accounting education environment.

  7. Breast cancer survivors' beliefs and preferences regarding technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gillian R; Oza, Sonal; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Pellegrini, Christine A; Conroy, David E; Penedo, Frank J; Spring, Bonnie J; Phillips, Siobhan M

    2016-01-01

    Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors' interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors' interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Breast cancer survivors [n=279; M age =60.7 ( SD =9.7)] completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors' interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. On average, survivors spent 10.1 ( SD =4.3) hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0%) and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%). Survivors believed they should move around after 30-60 (56.7%) or ≥60 (29.9%) minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1%) or walking in place (73.4%). The majority of survivors (79.9%) was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3%) 2-3 times/day (48.0%), 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%). Most survivors (73.5%) believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5%) via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3%) or text messages (54.4%). Technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions may be feasible and

  8. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Spring

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  9. Contextualization and standardization of the supportive leadership behavior questionnaire based on socio- cognitive theory in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, ,Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its ...

  10. Oxidation behavior of a Ni-Fe support in SOFC anode atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Na; Chen, Ming; Han, Minfang

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the long-term oxidation behavior of a Ni-Fe (1:1 weight ratio) support for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Ni-Fe supports were obtained through tape casting, high temperature sintering and pre-reducing in 97% H2/N2 (9/91)-3% H2O at 750 and 1000 °C, respect...... annealed in the two atmospheres maintained sufficiently high conductivity. The results from the current work demonstrate that the porous Ni-Fe support can be well employed in SOFCs, especially metal-supported SOFCs....

  11. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  12. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,

  13. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  14. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  15. Self-Injurious Behavior and Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J.; Byiers, Breanne J.; Raspa, Melissa; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We used National Fragile X Survey data in order to examine reported self-injurious behavior (SIB) to (a) generate lifetime and point prevalence estimates, (b) document detailed features of SIB (frequency, types, location, severity) in relation to gender, and (c) compare comorbid conditions between matched pairs (SIB vs. no SIB). Results indicate…

  16. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Bruguera, Carla; Michie, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral support sessions were obtained from the United Kingdom's national Quitline service and coded into component behavior change techniques (BCTs) using a taxonomy of 45 smoking cessation BCTs. Interrater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by comparing the number of BCTs identified in the manual with those delivered in telephone sessions by 4 counselors. Fidelity was assessed according to session type, duration, counselor, and BCT. Differences between self-reported and actual BCT use were examined. Average coding reliability was high (81%). On average, 41.8% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD = 16.2), with fidelity varying by counselor from 32% to 49%. Fidelity was highest in pre-quit sessions (46%) and for BCT "give options for additional support" (95%). Fidelity was lowest for quit-day sessions (35%) and BCT "set graded tasks" (0%). Session duration was positively correlated with fidelity (r = .585; p reliably coded in terms of BCTs. This can be used to assess fidelity to treatment manuals and to in turn identify training needs. The observed low fidelity underlines the need to establish routine procedures for monitoring delivery of behavioral support. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Measurement Development and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  18. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Actions, Habits, and the Neural Systems Supporting Instrumental Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Factors contributing to the formation of habits, defined as the stimulus-response associations that form the basis of much human and animal behavior, are not well understood, and although habits are believed to underlie many negative health behaviors such as addictions, the extent to which findings from animal research on habits apply in the human is largely unknown. In Study 1 (Chapter 2), we conducted two experiments on appetitive habit formation in adults with a history of early-life stres...

  19. Test-based approach to cable tray support system analysis and design: Behavior and test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigles, Damon G., E-mail: dreigles@engnovex.com [engNoveX, Inc., 19C Trolley Square, Wilmington, DE 19806 (United States); Brachmann, Ingo; Johnson, William H. [Bechtel Nuclear, Security & Environmental, 12011 Sunset Hills Rd, Suite 110, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Gürbüz, Orhan [Tobolski Watkins Engineering, Inc., 4125 Sorrento Valley Blvd, Suite B, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Describes dynamic response behavior of unistrut type cable tray supports. • Summarizes observations from past full-scale shake table test programs. • Outlines testing methodologies necessary to identify key system parameters. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant safety-related cable tray support systems subjected to seismic loadings were originally understood and designed to behave as linear elastic systems. This behavioral paradigm persisted until the early 1980s when, due to evolution of regulatory criteria, some as-installed systems needed to be qualified to higher seismic motions than originally designed for. This requirement prompted a more in-depth consideration of the true seismic response behavior of support systems. Several utilities initiated extensive test programs, which demonstrated that trapeze strut-type cable tray support systems exhibited inelastic and nonlinear response behaviors with plastic hinging at the connections together with high damping due to bouncing of cables in the trays. These observations were used to demonstrate and justify the seismic adequacy of the aforementioned as-installed systems. However, no formalized design methodology or criteria were ever established to facilitate use of these test data for future evaluations. This paper assimilates and reviews the various test data and conclusions for the purpose of developing a design methodology for the seismic qualification of safety-related cable tray support systems.

  20. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Nele; Sioen, Isabelle; Michels, Nathalie; Sleddens, Ester; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2014-07-23

    constructs) and (4) a small negative association between the parenting construct "coercive control" and sleep duration (β = -0.23). The significant but small associations between parenting constructs and the investigated variables suggest that different aspects of parenting style play an important role in the genesis of the health related behavior of children. Overall, our findings suggest that health professionals should encourage parents to apply the more positive parenting constructs i.e., more "structure" and "behavioral control", and less "coercive control". They could, for instance, supervise and manage their child's activities and help their child to achieve certain goals.

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRIVING SUPPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi DOI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving support and cruise assist systems are of growing importance in achieving both road traffic safety and convenience. Such driver support seeks to achieve, with the highest possible quality, nothing less than “driver-vehicle symbiosis under all conditions.” At the same time, many traffic accidents result from improper driver behavior. The author focuses on driver behavior under various driving conditions, conducting detailed measurement and analysis of visual perception and attention characteristics as well as perceptual characteristics involved in driving. The aim in doing so is to support research on driving support systems and driving workload reduction technologies that function as human-vehicle systems and take such characteristics into account.

  2. Impact of help-seeking behavior and partner support on postpartum depression among Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutairi AF

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi,1,2 Mahmoud Salam,1,2 Samiyah Alanazi,1 Manal Alweldawi,1 Najad Alsomali,1 Najla Alotaibi1 1King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, 2Science and Technology Unit, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD, including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB and partner support (PS on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city.Methods: Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ, and Partner Support Scale (PSS. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders.Results: The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates (β=0.250, t=2.063 and lower PS scores (β=-0.238, t=-2.038, were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P=0.043 and adj P=0.045, respectively. Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks (β=0.374, t=2.082, were more likely to

  3. Novice drivers' risky driving behavior, risk perception, and crash risk: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.

  4. Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…

  5. Longitudinal Mediation Modeling of Unhealthy Behaviors as Mediators between Workplace Demands/Support and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms.

  6. Longitudinal Mediation Modeling of Unhealthy Behaviors as Mediators between Workplace Demands/Support and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms. PMID:28036376

  7. Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J

    2011-03-01

    The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine.

  8. The Four-Tier Continuum of Academic and Behavioral Support (4T-CABS) Model: An Integrated Model for Medical Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N

    2017-11-01

    Not all students cope successfully with the demands of medical school, and students' struggles may result in study delay or dropout. To prevent these outcomes, medical schools need to identify students who are experiencing academic difficul ties and provide them with timely interventions through access to support programs. Although the importance of early identification and intervention is well recognized, less is known about successful strategies for identifying and supporting struggling students.Building on the literature and their own empirical findings, the authors propose an integrated, school-wide model for medical student success comprising a continuum of academic and behavioral support. This Four-Tier Continuum of Academic and Behavioral Support (4T-CABS) model focuses on improving both academic and behavioral outcomes by offering support for students at four levels, which range from adequate instruction for all, to targeted small-group interventions, to individualized support, and also include exit support for students who might be better off in another degree program. Additionally, medical schools should provide both academic and behavioral support; set high, yet realistic expectations and clearly communicate these to students; and intervene early, which requires timely identification of at-risk students who would benefit from the different types and tiers of support. Finally, interventions should be evidence based and fit the needs of the identified groups of students. The authors argue that adopting the core principles of the 4T-CABS model will enable medical schools to maximize academic engagement and performance for all students.

  9. Family and peer support matter for precoital and coital behaviors among adolescents in Lima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Tsui, Amy O.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15–17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies. PMID:25305443

  10. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  11. The Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the Organizational Health of Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Koth, Christine W.; Bevans, Katherine B.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Leaf, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 7,500 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. PBIS aims to alter school environments…

  12. A Case Study of Positive Behavior Supports-Based Interventions in a Seventh-Grade Urban Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Kroeger, Stephen D.; Altus, Jillian; Trytten, Joyce Brubaker

    2016-01-01

    Struggling with frequent off-task behavior, a teacher in a midwestern inner-city high school requested assistance in her social studies classroom. A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. A…

  13. Phase behavior of supported lipid bilayers: A systematic study by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poursoroush, Asma; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Laradji, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Solid-supported lipid bilayers are utilized by experimental scientists as models for biological membranes because of their stability. However, compared to free standing bilayers, their close proximity to the substrate may affect their phase behavior. As this is still poorly understood, and few co...

  14. Positive Behavior Support: A Proposal for Updating and Refining the Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Don; Dunlap, Glen; Kern, Lee; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Bambara, Linda M.; Brown, Fredda; Fox, Lise; Knoster, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) has been a dynamic and growing enterprise for more than 25 years. During this period, PBS has expanded applications across a wide range of populations and multiple levels of implementation. As a result, there have been understandable inconsistencies and confusion regarding the definition of PBS. In this essay, we…

  15. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  16. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  17. Exploring Barriers to Implementing a School-Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Ronald Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors related to the implementation of a School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (SWPBIS) program at a large middle school in the United States. Parent Teacher Student Association volunteers at the school reported that teacher fidelity to implementation of SWPBIS activities was inconsistent, threatening the…

  18. The Role of Leadership Capacity in Sustaining the School Improvement Initiative of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Christine; Martin, Barbara N.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines what occurred within schools successfully implementing and sustaining Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports through the lens of leadership capacity. Leadership capacity, a broad-based, skillful participation in leadership, promotes the capabilities of many organizational members to lead. Researchers used quantitative analysis…

  19. School Counselors' Education and Training, Competency, and Supportive Behaviors Concerning Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.; McDougald, Amanda M.; Kresica, Aimee M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined high school counselors' education and training, counseling competency, and supportive behavior regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Sexual minority students often face a range of school and mental health problems. Results show that participants' counseling competency skills, knowledge, and attitudes predict…

  20. Brief Report: Assessing Attitudes toward Culturally and Contextually Relevant Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…

  1. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  2. Predictors of Caregiver Supportive Behaviors towards Reproductive Health Care for Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chu, Cordia M.; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Although many previous studies have begun to address the reproductive health needs of women with intellectual disabilities; however, the supportive behaviors of caregivers to assist their reproductive health is not well understood. Data from a cross-sectional survey of ""2009 National Survey on Reproductive Health Care Needs and Health…

  3. How to Promote Innovative Behavior at Work? The Role of Justice and Support within Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linn D.

    2012-01-01

    To provide a more developed research model of innovation in organizations, we reconsidered current thinking about the effects of organizational justice on innovative behavior at work. We investigated the mediating role of perceived organizational support (POS) between the two constructs. As hypothesized, empirical results showed that justice…

  4. Factors Predicting Sustainability of the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Jonathan; May, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    The Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support model (SWPBIS) continues to gain widespread use across schools in the United States and abroad. Despite its widespread implementation, little research has examined factors that influence its sustainability. Informed by Rogers's diffusion theory, this study examined school personnel's…

  5. Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers' Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…

  6. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.

  7. The impact of volunteering on the volunteer: findings from a peer support programme for family carers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Georgina; Sinclair, James B; Brooks, Alice; Sullivan, Theresa; Ahmad, Shaheen; Poland, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    With an ageing population, there are increasing numbers of experienced family carers (FCs) who could provide peer support to newer carers in a similar care situation. The aims of this paper are to: (i) use a cross-sectional study design to compare characteristics of volunteers and recipients of a peer support programme for FCs of people with dementia, in terms of demographic background, social networks and psychological well-being; and (ii) use a longitudinal study design to explore the overall impact of the programme on the volunteers in terms of psychological well-being. Data were collected from programmes run in Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Berkshire and four London boroughs between October 2009 and March 2013. The volunteer role entailed empathic listening and encouragement over a 10-month period. Both carer support volunteers (N = 87) and recipient FCs (N = 109) provided baseline demographic information. Data on social networks, personal growth, self-efficacy, service use and well-being (SF-12; EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Control, Autonomy, Self-Realisation, Pleasure-19) were collected prior to the start of the intervention (N = 43) and at either 3- to 5 month or 10 month follow-up (N = 21). Volunteers were more likely than recipients of support to be female and to have cared for a parent/grandparent rather than spouse. Volunteers were also more psychologically well than support recipients in terms of personal growth, depression and perceived well-being. The longitudinal analysis identified small but significant declines in personal growth and autonomy and a positive correlation between the volunteers' duration of involvement and perceived well-being. These findings suggest that carers who volunteer for emotional support roles are resilient and are at little psychological risk from volunteering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Finding the traces of behavioral and cognitive processes in big data and naturally occurring datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Alexandra; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-10-01

    Today, people generate and store more data than ever before as they interact with both real and virtual environments. These digital traces of behavior and cognition offer cognitive scientists and psychologists an unprecedented opportunity to test theories outside the laboratory. Despite general excitement about big data and naturally occurring datasets among researchers, three "gaps" stand in the way of their wider adoption in theory-driven research: the imagination gap, the skills gap, and the culture gap. We outline an approach to bridging these three gaps while respecting our responsibilities to the public as participants in and consumers of the resulting research. To that end, we introduce Data on the Mind ( http://www.dataonthemind.org ), a community-focused initiative aimed at meeting the unprecedented challenges and opportunities of theory-driven research with big data and naturally occurring datasets. We argue that big data and naturally occurring datasets are most powerfully used to supplement-not supplant-traditional experimental paradigms in order to understand human behavior and cognition, and we highlight emerging ethical issues related to the collection, sharing, and use of these powerful datasets.

  9. A Digital Framework to Support Providers and Patients in Diabetes Related Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients. We present the qualitative analysis of D-WISE usability by both physicians and patients.

  10. The occurrence of recruitment supported from the finding of an increase in radiosensitivity of quiescent cells in solid tumors after fractionated irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    We examined the behavior of quiescent cells in solid tumors irradiated twice at various intervals with X-rays, using our recently developed method for selectively detecting the response of quiescent cells in solid tumors. To determine the labeling indices of tumors at the second irradiation, each mouse group included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted before the first irradiation. Radiosensitivity of total tumor cells at the second irradiation decreased in proportion to the increase in interval time. However, radiosensitivity of quiescent cells was raised with increase in the interval time. In addition, the labeling index at the second irradiation was higher than that at the first irradiation. These findings supported the occurrence of recruitment from quiescent to proliferating state during fractionated irradiation. (author)

  11. Association between suicidal ideation and behavior, and depression, anxiety, and perceived social support in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı Şengül, Melike Ceyhan; Kaya, Vildan; Şen, Cenk Ahmet; Kaya, Kemal

    2014-02-27

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between suicidal behavior and associated factors such as depression, anxiety, and perceived social support level in cancer patients. The study group included 102 patients who were under treatment in the oncology department and the control group included 100 individuals with similar sociodemographic features. A sociodemographic information form, Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, suicidal behavior inventory, suicidal ideation inventory, and multidimensional inventory of perceived social support were used. The mean Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. Thirteen patients in the study group attempted suicide, whereas 3 individuals attempted suicide in the control group. Similarly, the mean suicide behavior and ideation scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. The mean total multidimensional inventories of perceived social support score, as well as the mean family and friend sub-inventory scores in the control group were significantly higher compared to the study group. This study revealed that depression and anxiety occur frequently in cancer patients. Suicide attempts and ideation are higher in cancer patients compared to the control group. Social support perceived from family and friends is lower in cancer patients. Suicide attempts are correlated with depression, anxiety, low level of perceived social support, and advanced disease stage.

  12. Impact of help-seeking behavior and partner support on postpartum depression among Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Adel F; Salam, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Samiyah; Alweldawi, Manal; Alsomali, Najad; Alotaibi, Najla

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD), including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds. This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB) and partner support (PS) on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ), and Partner Support Scale (PSS). Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student's t -test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders. The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates ( β =0.250, t =2.063) and lower PS scores ( β =-0.238, t =-2.038), were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P =0.043 and adj P =0.045, respectively). Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks ( β =0.374, t =2.082), were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P =0.045) compared to those with <6 weeks of postpartum duration. The prevalence of PPD among the study participants was high, especially among higher para women who underwent normal delivery and women ≥6 weeks post cesarean-section, in comparison with the results in other studies. PPD is reduced by enhancing

  13. Spacecraft cabin environment effects on the growth and behavior of Chlorella vulgaris for life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David

    2018-02-01

    An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is necessary for humans to survive in the hostile environment of space. As future missions move beyond Earth orbit for extended durations, reclaiming human metabolic waste streams for recycled use becomes increasingly important. Historically, these functions have been accomplished using a variety of physical and chemical processes with limited recycling capabilities. In contrast, biological systems can also be incorporated into a spacecraft to essentially mimic the balance of photosynthesis and respiration that occurs in Earth's ecosystem, along with increasing the reuse of biomass throughout the food chain. In particular, algal photobioreactors that use Chlorella vulgaris have been identified as potential multifunctional components for use as part of such a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, a connection between the biological research examining C. vulgaris behavior and the engineered spacecraft cabin environmental conditions has not yet been thoroughly established. This review article characterizes the ranges of prior and expected cabin parameters (e.g. temperature, lighting, carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen, pressure, growth media, contamination, gravity, and radiation) and reviews algal metabolic response (e.g. growth rate, composition, carbon dioxide fixation rates, and oxygen evolution rates) to changes in those parameters that have been reported in prior space research and from related Earth-based experimental observations. Based on our findings, it appears that C. vulgaris offers many promising advantages for use in a BLSS. Typical atmospheric conditions found in spacecraft such as elevated carbon dioxide levels are, in fact, beneficial for algal cultivation. Other spacecraft cabin parameters, however, introduce unique environmental factors, such as reduced total pressure with elevated oxygen concentration, increased radiation, and altered gravity, whose effects on the biological responses

  14. Organizational Religious Behavior among Older African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M; Jackson, James S

    2009-07-01

    This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined.

  15. Study of the behavior of thermal shield support system for the French CPO series plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellet, S.; Roux, P.; Bhandari, D.R.; Schwirian, R.E.; Yu, C.; Matarazzo, J.C.; Singleton, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    Degradation/failure of thermal shield support system in PWRs has been observed in the US as well as in foreign plants. In almost all the cases, remedial actions were put in place at very high economic costs to the utilities only after the failures had occurred. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study to predict the long term behavior of a thermal shield support system due to flow-induced vibratory loads and thermal transients. Excellent agreement from the system finite model between the measured plant test data on the barrel/thermal shield beam and shell mode frequencies and the flexure strains confirms the basic structural behavior and physics of the flow induced vibrations. Loads and stresses on the support bolts and the flexures were determined to predict the fatigue life of the components

  16. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  17. High-Throughput Behavioral Screens: the First Step towards Finding Genes Involved in Vertebrate Brain Function Using Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerlai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish has been in the forefront of developmental biology for three decades and has become a favorite of geneticists. Due to the accumulated genetic knowledge and tools developed for the zebrafish it is gaining popularity in other disciplines, including neuroscience. The zebrafish offers a compromise between system complexity (it is a vertebrate similar in many ways to our own species and practical simplicity (it is small, easy to keep, and prolific. Such features make zebrafish an excellent choice for high throughput mutation and drug screening. For the identification of mutation or drug induced alteration of brain function arguably the best methods are behavioral test paradigms. This review does not present experimental examples for the identification of particular genes or drugs. Instead it describes how behavioral screening methods may enable one to find functional alterations in the vertebrate brain. Furthermore, the review is not comprehensive. The behavioral test examples presented are biased according to the personal interests of the author. They will cover research areas including learning and memory, fear and anxiety, and social behavior. Nevertheless, the general principles will apply to other functional domains and should represent a snapshot of the rapidly evolving behavioral screening field with zebrafish.

  18. Nano carbon supported platinum catalyst interaction behavior with perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and their interface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2016-01-01

    behavior of Nafion ionomer on platinized carbon nano fibers (CNFs), carbon nano tubes (CNTs) and amorphous carbon (Vulcan). The interaction is affected by the catalyst surface oxygen groups as well as porosity. Comparisons between the carbon supports and platinized equivalents are carried out. It reveals......The interaction between perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and supported platinum catalyst is essential. It directly influences platinum accessibility, stability of carbon support and platinum, proton conductivity and electron conductivity in an electrode. In this study, we compare the adsorption...... that the platinization step modifies the surface nature of the carbon supports in terms of specific surface area, crystallinity and especially porosity; therefore, ionomer adsorption over carbon is not always representative for the ionomer adsorption over carbon supported catalyst, though indicative. Moreover...

  19. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST IN THE EFFECT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan BÜYÜKYILMAZ; Yahya FİDAN

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates direct and indirect relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of employee perceptions of organizational support on the tendency to exhibit organizational citizenship behavior and to determine the mediating role of perceived trust in perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior relationship. The data used in the study we...

  20. [A group cognitive behavioral intervention for people registered in supported employment programs: CBT-SE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, T; Corbière, M; Lysaker, P H

    2014-06-01

    Supported employment programs are highly effective in helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive jobs quickly. However, job tenure is often a problem for many. Of the various obstacles to job tenure documented, dysfunctional beliefs regarding the workplace and one's own abilities has been proposed as a therapeutic target. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to describe the development and the content of a novel group cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase job tenure for people receiving supported employment services; (2) to present the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention; and (3) to investigate some preliminary data regarding employment outcomes. A group CBT intervention offered during 8 sessions over the course of one month, in order to respect the rapid job search principle of IPS (individual placement and support), was developed. The content was tailored to facilitate the learning of skills specific to the workplace, such as recognizing and managing one's stressors at work, determining and modifying dysfunctional thoughts (e.g. not jumping to conclusions, finding alternatives, seeking facts), overcoming obstacles (e.g. problem solving), improving one's self-esteem as a worker (recognizing strengths and qualities), dealing with criticism, using positive assertiveness, finding coping strategies (for symptoms and stress) to use at work, negotiating work accommodations and overcoming stigma. A trial is currently underway, with half the participants receiving supported employment as well as CBT-SE and the other half receiving only supported employment. A subsample of the first 24 participants having completed the 12-month follow-up were used for the analyses, including 12 having received at least 3 sessions out of the 8 group sessions and 12 receiving only supported employment. Feasibility and acceptability were determined by the group therapists' feedback, the participants' feedback as well as attendance to

  1. eHealth technologies to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Williams, Rebecca L; Wynne, Katie; Kriss, Michelle; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided.

  2. Visual Support in Children with Autism Spectrum Development as a Tool for Changing Problem Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    olpakova L.O.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data of observations made in a group of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 5-8 years experiencing behavioral problems and difficulties with communication and social interaction. A behavioral intervention was carried out in the group basing on the principles of applied behavioral analysis (ABA. Following the primary test and with accordance to the parents’ requests, a team of specialists worked over the period of six months attempting to change problem behaviors and to compensate for academic deficiencies in the children. Each day the specialists along with the parents collected data and introduced necessary corrections into the intervention plans. Since all children in the group could barely understand speech and had much difficulty with communication, one of the core methods employed in the work was visual support which became a basic element in every technique applied. Applying visual supports in education settings as well as at home contributed much to the compensation of the difficulties related to speech understanding and helped decrease the level of anxiety in the children, which, in turn, resulted in an apparent decline in problem behavior and faster progress in the acquisition of academic skills.

  3. Self-monitoring Lifestyle Behavior in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: Qualitative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Draucker, Claire Burke

    Excessive maternal gestational weight gain increases pregnancy and infant complications. Self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective strategy in weight management. Literature, however, is limited in describing pregnant women's engagement in self-monitoring. This qualitative study explored the experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women who self-monitored their eating, walking, and weight as participants in an intervention for excessive gestational weight gain prevention. Thirteen overweight and obese pregnant women participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive iteration data analysis was conducted. Five themes were identified: making self-monitoring a habit, strategies for self-monitoring, barriers to self-monitoring, benefits of self-monitoring, and drawbacks of self-monitoring. The women viewed self-monitoring as a "habit" that could foster a sense of self-control and mindfulness. Visual or tracing aids were used to maintain the self-monitoring habit. Forgetting, defective tracking aids, complexities of food monitoring, and life events could impede self-monitoring. Being unable to keep up with self-monitoring or to achieve goals created stress. Self-monitoring is a promising approach to weight management for overweight and obese pregnant women. However, healthcare providers should be aware that, although women may identify several benefits to self-monitoring, for some women, consistently trying to track their behaviors is stressful.

  4. Evolution of fuel rod support under irradiation consequences on the mechanical behavior of fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, A.; Bouffioux, P.

    2002-01-01

    The complete paper follows. According to the fuel management policy in French PWR with respect to high burn-up, the prediction of the mechanical behavior of the irradiated fuel assembly is required as far as excessive deformations of fuel assembly might lead to incomplete Rod Cluster Control Assembly insertion (safety problems) and fretting wear lead to leaking rods (plant operation problems). One of the most important parameter is the evolution of the fuel rod support in the grid cell as it directly governs the mechanical behavior of the fuel assembly and consequently allows to predict the behavior of irradiated structure in terms of (i) axial and lateral deformation (global behavior of the assembly) and (ii) fretting wear (local behavior of the rod). Fuel rod support is provided by a spring-dimple system fixed on the grid. During irradiation, the spring force decreases and a gap between the rod and the spring might open. This phenomenon is due to (i) irradiation-induced stress relaxation for the spring and for the dimples, (ii) grid growth and (iii) reduction of rod diameter. Two models have been developed to predict the behavior of the rod in the grid cell. The first model is able to evaluate the spring force relaxation during irradiation. The second one is able to evaluate the rotation characteristic of the fuel rod in the cell, function of the spring force. The main input parameters are (i) the creep laws of the grid materials, (ii) the growth law of the grid, (iii) the evolution of rod diameter and (iv) the design of the fuel rod support. The objectives of this paper are to: (i) evaluate the consequences of grid support design modifications on the fretting sensitivity in terms of predicted maximum gap during irradiation and operational time to gap appearance; (ii) evaluate, using a non-linear Finite Element assembly model, the impact of the evolution of grid support under irradiation on the mechanical behavior of the full assembly in terms of axial and

  5. Relationship between perceived organizational support, leadership behavior, and job satisfaction: An empirical study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Ariffin Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As the second largest producer of cement after Egypt in the Middle East, Iran planned to increase production from 33 million ton/yr (Mt/yr currently to 70 Mt/yr by 2021 due to increase in local demand and also to compete in export markets (Dehqan, 2002. Thus, Iran is experiencing some changes in workforce participation in order to achieve high level of organisational performance and effectiveness. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support on the job satisfaction of Iranian employees. Data were collected through questionnaire from 136 employees working in Tehran Cement Company. Consideration leadership behavior was found to have significant impact on both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction whereas perceived organisational support was significantly related to extrinsic job satisfaction. Interestingly, the interaction of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support were not significantly related to job satisfaction. The implications to human resource development for organizations that want to increase employee commitment is to focus on improving the quality of the supportive relationships between the employees and both the leader and the organisation.

  6. Gambling and health risk behaviors among U.S. college student-athletes: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina; Paskus, Thomas S

    2007-05-01

    To examine prevalence and associations of gambling problems and health risk behaviors among college athletes from the first national survey of gambling among U.S. college student-athletes. Conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), this self-administered and anonymous survey collected information from a nationally representative sample of 20,739 student-athletes. Males consistently had higher past-year prevalence of gambling than females (e.g., 62.4% of males reported some type of gambling vs. 42.8% of females). Based on DSM-IV Gambling Screen, this study identified 4.3% of males and 0.4% of females as problem/pathological gamblers. A general upward trend existed that as the level of gambling problems increased, so did the prevalence of substance use, gorging/vomiting, and unprotected sex. Cross-group comparisons by gambler type were all significant. Problem and pathological gamblers also experienced significantly more drug/alcohol-related problems than non-gamblers and social gamblers. Direct associations found between gambling and multiple risk behaviors in college student-athletes support the persistence of the youth problem-behavior syndrome and suggest the need for multi-faceted initiatives to tackle these risk behaviors simultaneously.

  7. Group treatment for trichotillomania: cognitive-behavioral therapy versus supportive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Older persons' experiences of a home-based exercise program with behavioral change support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-12-01

    It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.

  9. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    nurturance” and “coercive control” with sedentary behavior (β = 0.16 for both parent constructs) and (4) a small negative association between the parenting construct “coercive control” and sleep duration (β = −0.23). Conclusion The significant but small associations between parenting constructs and the investigated variables suggest that different aspects of parenting style play an important role in the genesis of the health related behavior of children. Overall, our findings suggest that health professionals should encourage parents to apply the more positive parenting constructs i.e., more “structure” and “behavioral control”, and less “coercive control”. They could, for instance, supervise and manage their child’s activities and help their child to achieve certain goals. PMID:25052905

  10. Right brain, left brain in depressive disorders: Clinical and theoretical implications of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J

    2017-07-01

    The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information. Dichotic listening and visual hemifield findings for non-verbal or emotional processing have revealed abnormal perceptual asymmetry in depressive disorders, and electrophysiological findings have shown reduced right-lateralized responsivity to emotional stimuli in occipitotemporal or parietotemporal cortex. We discuss models of neural networks underlying these alterations. Of clinical relevance, individual differences among depressed patients on measures of right-left brain function are related to diagnostic subtype of depression, comorbidity with anxiety disorders, and clinical response to antidepressants or cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Informatics to support the IOM social and behavioral domains and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hripcsak, George; Forrest, Christopher B; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Stead, William W

    2015-07-01

    Consistent collection and use of social and behavioral determinants of health can improve clinical care, prevention and general health, patient satisfaction, research, and public health. A recent Institute of Medicine committee defined a panel of 11 domains and 12 measures to be included in electronic health records. Incorporating the panel into practice creates a number of informatics research opportunities as well as challenges. The informatics issues revolve around standardization, efficient collection and review, decision support, and support for research. The informatics community can aid the effort by simultaneously optimizing the collection of the selected measures while also partnering with social science researchers to develop and validate new sources of information about social and behavioral determinants of health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  12. Association between suicidal ideation and behavior, and depression, anxiety, and perceived social support in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Şengül, Melike Ceyhan Balcı; Kaya, Vildan; Şen, Cenk Ahmet; Kaya, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between suicidal behavior and associated factors such as depression, anxiety, and perceived social support level in cancer patients. Material/Methods The study group included 102 patients who were under treatment in the oncology department and the control group included 100 individuals with similar sociodemographic features. A sociodemographic information form, Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, suicidal behavi...

  13. Peer support of complex health behaviors in prevention and disease management with special reference to diabetes: systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edwin B; Boothroyd, Renée I; Elstad, Emily A; Hays, Laura; Henes, Amy; Maslow, Gary R; Velicer, Clayton

    2017-01-01

    Examine Peer Support (PS) for complex, sustained health behaviors in prevention or disease management with emphasis on diabetes prevention and management. PS was defined as emotional, motivational and practical assistance provided by nonprofessionals for complex health behaviors. Initial review examined 65 studies drawn from 1442 abstracts identified through PubMed, published 1/1/2000-7/15/2011. From this search, 24 reviews were also identified. Extension of the search in diabetes identified 30 studies published 1/1/2000-12/31/2015. In initial review, 54 of all 65 studies (83.1%) reported significant impacts of PS, 40 (61.5%) reporting between-group differences and another 14 (21.5%) reporting significant within-group changes. Across 19 of 24 reviews providing quantifiable findings, a median of 64.5% of studies reviewed reported significant effects of PS. In extended review of diabetes, 26 of all 30 studies (86.7%) reported significant impacts of PS, 17 (56.7%) reporting between-group differences and another nine (30.0%) reporting significant within-group changes. Among 19 of these 30 reporting HbA1c data, average reduction was 0.76 points. Studies that did not find effects of PS included other sources of support, implementation or methodological problems, lack of acceptance of interventions, poor fit to recipient needs, and possible harm of unmoderated PS. Across diverse settings, including under-resourced countries and health care systems, PS is effective in improving complex health behaviors in disease prevention and management including in diabetes.

  14. Non-verbal behavioral interactions of depressed patients with partners and strangers : The role of behavioral social support and involvement in depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW; Jansen, JHC; Bouhuys, AL; Jenner, JA; vandenHoofdakker, RH

    Excessive support seeking and lack of receiving social support have been associated with depression onset and unfavorable course of depression. It has been assumed that social support is effected by observable behaviors that express involvement. Twenty-five patients with major depression were

  15. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  16. Behavioral Laterality of the Brain: Support for the Binary Construct of Hemisity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Eldine Morton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three terms define brain behavioral laterality: Hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one’s first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person’s binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to confirm the existence of such individual differences, due to its assertion that each individual lay somewhere on a gradient between competing left and right brain extremes. Recently, hemisity, a more accurate behavioral laterality context, has emerged. It posits that one’s behavioral laterality is binary: i.e., inherently either right or left brain-oriented. This insight enabled the quantitative determination of right or left behavioral laterality of thousands of subjects. MRI scans of right and left brain-oriented groups revealed two neuroanatomical differences. The first was an asymmetry of an executive element in the anterior cingulate cortex. This provided hemisity both a rationale and a primary standard. RPs and LPs gave opposite answers to many behavioral preference either-or, forced choice questions. This showed that several sex vs. hemisity traits are being conflated by society. Such was supported by the second neuroanatomical difference between the hemisity subtypes, that RPs of either sex had up to three times larger corpus callosi than LPs. Individuals of the same hemisity but opposite sex had more personality traits in common than those of the same sex but different hemisity. Although hemisity subtypes were equally represented in the general population, the process of higher education and career choice caused substantial hemisity sorting among the professions. Hemisity appears to be a valid and promising area for quantitative research of

  17. A network architecture supporting consistent rich behavior in collaborative interactive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James; Glencross, Mashhuda; Pettifer, Steve; Hubbold, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Network architectures for collaborative virtual reality have traditionally been dominated by client-server and peer-to-peer approaches, with peer-to-peer strategies typically being favored where minimizing latency is a priority, and client-server where consistency is key. With increasingly sophisticated behavior models and the demand for better support for haptics, we argue that neither approach provides sufficient support for these scenarios and, thus, a hybrid architecture is required. We discuss the relative performance of different distribution strategies in the face of real network conditions and illustrate the problems they face. Finally, we present an architecture that successfully meets many of these challenges and demonstrate its use in a distributed virtual prototyping application which supports simultaneous collaboration for assembly, maintenance, and training applications utilizing haptics.

  18. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics—A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence. PMID:26835016

  19. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics—A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley R Oberlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill, we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1 Build a foundation of trust; (2 Employ multiple interventions; (3 Stratify the population; (4 Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5 Embed medication adherence into the organization’s culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  20. Improving medication adherence among kidney transplant recipients: Findings from other industries, patient engagement, and behavioral economics-A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Shelley R; Parente, Stephen T; Pruett, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful barrier to successful organ transplantation, but one that has been routinely thwarted through modern pharmacotherapeutics. Despite the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy, medication non-adherence leads to an increased risk of graft rejection, higher hospital utilization and costs, and poor outcomes. We conduct a scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework methodology to identify established or novel interventions that could be applied to kidney transplant recipients to improve medication adherence. As the desired outcome is a behavior (taking a pill), we assess three areas: behavioral-focused interventions in other industries, patient engagement theories, and behavioral economic principles. Search strategies included mining business, social sciences, and medical literature with additional guidance from six consultative interviews. Our review suggests that no intervention stands out as superior or likely to be more effective than any other intervention; yet promising strategies and interventions were identified across all three areas examined. Based on our findings, we believe there are five strategies that transplant centers and other organizations can implement to improve medication adherence: (1) Build a foundation of trust; (2) Employ multiple interventions; (3) Stratify the population; (4) Develop collaborative partnerships; and (5) Embed medication adherence into the organization's culture. The effectiveness of these interventions will need to be investigated further, but we believe they are a step in the right direction for organizations to consider in their efforts to improve medication adherence.

  1. eHealth technologies to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in diabetes self-management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollo ME

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Megan E Rollo,1 Elroy J Aguiar,2 Rebecca L Williams,1 Katie Wynne,3 Michelle Kriss,3 Robin Callister,4 Clare E Collins1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA; 3Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Hunter New England Health, New Lambton, NSW, Australia;\t4School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided. Keywords: diabetes self-management, eHealth, nutrition, physical activity, smartphones, wearables

  2. Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2012-07-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

  3. Effects of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments on organizational citizenship behavior of support staff at Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripapun Leephaijaroen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the effects of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. The research method of this study was a mixed method combining quantitative and qualitative methods. For the quantitative research method, data were collected from 144 support staff at Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Thailand and the hypotheses were tested using the stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. For the qualitative research method, in-depth interviews with 11 support staff were used to explain the quantitative findings. The findings revealed that the components of the big-five personality traits and organizational commitments which significantly affected OCB were agreeable personality, continuance commitment, conscientious personality, affective commitment, and emotionally-stable personality. In examining intensively each dimension of the OCB as a dependent variable, the results showed the following: 1 agreeable personality, affective commitment, conscientious personality, and normative commitment had positive significant effects on altruistic behavior; 2 conscientious personality, agreeable personality, and continuance commitment had positive significant effects on conscientious behavior; 3 affective commitment and agreeable personality had positive significant effects on sportsmanship behavior; 4 emotionally stable personality and continuance commitment had positive significant effects on courteous behavior; and 5 continuance commitment, agreeable personality, conscientious personality, and emotionally-stable personality had positive significant effects on civic virtue behavior.

  4. Behavioral laterality of the brain: support for the binary construct of hemisity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Bruce E

    2013-10-01

    hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one's first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person's binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs) exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to confirm the existence of such individual differences, due to its assertion that each individual lay somewhere on a gradient between competing left and right brain extremes. Recently, hemisity, a more accurate behavioral laterality context, has emerged. It posits that one's behavioral laterality is binary: i.e., inherently either right or left brain-oriented. This insight enabled the quantitative determination of right or left behavioral laterality of thousands of subjects. MRI scans of right and left brain-oriented groups revealed two neuroanatomical differences. The first was an asymmetry of an executive element in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This provided hemisity both a rationale and a primary standard. RPs and LPs gave opposite answers to many behavioral preference "either-or," forced choice questions. This showed that several sex vs. hemisity traits are being conflated by society. Such was supported by the second neuroanatomical difference between the hemisity subtypes, that RPs of either sex had up to three times larger corpus callosi than LPs. Individuals of the same hemisity but opposite sex had more personality traits in common than those of the same sex but different hemisity. Although hemisity subtypes were equally represented in the general population, the process of higher education and career choice caused substantial hemisity sorting among the professions. Hemisity appears to be a valid and promising area for quantitative research of behavioral laterality.

  5. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  6. Understanding consumer health information-seeking behavior from the perspective of the risk perception attitude framework and social support in mobile social media websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohua; Liu, Shan

    2017-09-01

    This study integrates the risk perception attitude framework and social support to examine factors influencing consumers' intentions to seek health information in mobile social media websites. We develop a research model consisting of four social support dimensions, perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. A survey is conducted among patients with non-serious conditions. A two-step approach of structural equation modeling is used to test the research model. Among the four dimensions of social support, tangible support and appraisal support significantly influence perceived risk, whereas emotional support and esteem support significantly influence health self-efficacy. Perceived health risk and health self-efficacy significantly influence the health information-seeking behavior intention of consumers. Specifically, health self-efficacy significantly moderates the relationship between perceived risk and behavior intention. This study highlights the integrated effects of social capital and risk perception attitude framework on health information-seeking intention. It examines relationships among perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and behavior intention in the mobile social media context. The findings help understand effects of social capital factors on perceived health risk and health self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.

  8. A Phylogenetic Comparative Study of Bantu Kinship Terminology Finds Limited Support for Its Co-Evolution with Social Organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtille Guillon

    Full Text Available The classification of kin into structured groups is a diverse phenomenon which is ubiquitous in human culture. For populations which are organized into large agropastoral groupings of sedentary residence but not governed within the context of a centralised state, such as our study sample of 83 historical Bantu-speaking groups of sub-Saharan Africa, cultural kinship norms guide all aspects of everyday life and social organization. Such rules operate in part through the use of differing terminological referential systems of familial organization. Although the cross-cultural study of kinship terminology was foundational in Anthropology, few modern studies have made use of statistical advances to further our sparse understanding of the structuring and diversification of terminological systems of kinship over time. In this study we use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods of phylogenetic comparison to investigate the evolution of Bantu kinship terminology and reconstruct the ancestral state and diversification of cousin terminology in this family of sub-Saharan ethnolinguistic groups. Using a phylogenetic tree of Bantu languages, we then test the prominent hypothesis that structured variation in systems of cousin terminology has co-evolved alongside adaptive change in patterns of descent organization, as well as rules of residence. We find limited support for this hypothesis, and argue that the shaping of systems of kinship terminology is a multifactorial process, concluding with possible avenues of future research.

  9. IDEIA and the Means to Change Behavior Should Be Enough: Growing Support for Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher; Axelrod, Saul

    2008-01-01

    With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, classrooms are now mandated to employ behavioral methods to address target behaviors. These relevant behavioral strategies have long been advanced and disseminated by the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Notwithstanding this capability, proponents of the…

  10. Moderating effects of nurses' organizational justice between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Lack of existing literature on the correlation among organizational justice, organizational support, and organizational citizenship behaviors has created a research gap in previous evidence-based practice (EBP) studies on nursing personnel. To investigate whether organizational justice among nurses has a moderating effect between their organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors in order to bridge such a gap of existing literature with the EBP study on nursing personnel. Nursing staff of one large and influential hospital in Taiwan was surveyed. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 386 were collected with a valid response rate of 96.50%. SPSS 17.0 and Amos 17.0 statistical software packages were used for data analysis. Nurses' organizational support positively influences their organizational citizenship behaviors, and their organizational justice perception has a positive moderating effect between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors. Results call hospitals' attention to the type of individual behaviors that may improve organizational performance. When nursing staff perceive fair and impartial treatment by the organization and supportive emotional attachment, behaviors beneficial for the organization are expressed in return. Subjective perceptions of nursing staff play an important role in organizational exchange relationship; the higher the degree of nursing staff's perceived organizational justice, the higher the degree of their organizational support, perception, and exhibition of organizational citizenship behaviors such as altruistic behavior and dedication to the work. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Supportive Behaviors by Parents and Adult Siblings of Immediate Relatives with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting supportive behaviors by parents and adult siblings of immediate relatives with intellectual disability. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings whose immediate relatives with intellectual disability resided in two institutional care facilities. Three…

  12. A Collaborative Approach to Implement Positive Behavior Support Plans for Children with Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Consultation versus Consultation and Feedback Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of consultation alone and consultation plus feedback on the proper use of positive behavior support strategies (PBS) on behaviors of three mothers with children with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that consultation plus feedback was more effective than consultation alone…

  13. The Effect of Teacher Training on the Knowledge of Positive Behavior Support and the Quality of Behavior Intervention Plans: A Preliminary Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether through a series of teacher training. The participants could acquire better knowledge on Positive Behavior Support (PBS), and develop high quality behavior intervention plans. Thirty-six teachers from three public schools participated in the study. The competency-based training consisted of 12…

  14. UNDERSTANDING THE SUBJECT´S BEHAVIOR IN THE INTERACTION WITH A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM UNDER TIME PRESSURE AND MISSING INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiane Benedetti Corso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to determine how time pressure and missing information in decision-making affect the behavior of decision makers. Data was collected through an experimental task of simulating the purchase of a car, which was structured with the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process multi-criteria method in a Decision Support System. When pressured by time, the experimental subjects focused on the car of their choice; whereas with no time pressure, some of them rationalized more, used the information, and did not agree with the chosen car. Assumptions of the Theory of Image justified some findings, indicating that previously structured images in the mind of the decision maker are a way to cope with time pressure. Given the missing information, the use of background knowledge and individual experience were the most prominent coping strategy.

  15. The Influence of Social Support on the Prosocial Behavior of College Students: The Mediating Effect Based on Interpersonal Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    A sample of 720 college students from 10 different universities at the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center are investigated using the Social Support Scale, the Prosocial Behavior Scale, and the Interpersonal Trust Scale. Data are analyzed using SPSS20.0 and Amos7.0. Results show that the subjective support and support utilization of college…

  16. Motivational Interviewing support for a behavioral health internet intervention for drivers with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Ingersoll

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While Internet interventions can improve health behaviors, their impact is limited by program adherence. Supporting program adherence through telephone counseling may be useful, but there have been few direct tests of the impact of support. We describe a Telephone Motivational Interviewing (MI intervention targeting adherence to an Internet intervention for drivers with Type 1 Diabetes, DD.com, and compare completion of intervention benchmarks by those randomized to DD.com plus MI vs. DD.com only. The goal of the pre-intervention MI session was to increase the participant's motivation to complete the Internet intervention and all its assignments, while the goal of the post-treatment MI session was to plan for maintaining changes made during the intervention. Sessions were semi-structured and partially scripted to maximize consistency. MI Fidelity was coded using a standard coding system, the MITI. We examined the effects of MI support vs. no support on number of days from enrollment to program benchmarks. Results show that MI sessions were provided with good fidelity. Users who received MI support completed some program benchmarks such as Core 4 (t176 df = −2.25; p < .03 and 11 of 12 monthly driving diaries significantly sooner, but support did not significantly affect time to intervention completion (t177 df = −1.69; p < .10 or rates of completion. These data suggest that there is little benefit to therapist guidance for Internet interventions including automated email prompts and other automated minimal supports, but that a booster MI session may enhance collection of follow-up data.

  17. Social Support, Insomnia, and Adherence to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia After Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Garland, Sheila N; Heckler, Charles E; Peoples, Anita R; Kleckner, Ian R; Cole, Calvin L; Perlis, Michael L; Morrow, Gary R; Mustian, Karen M; Roscoe, Joseph A

    2017-01-27

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to be efficacious in treating cancer survivors' insomnia, 30-60% of individuals have difficulty adhering to intervention components. Psychosocial predictors of adherence and response to CBT-I, such as social support, have not been examined in intervention studies for cancer survivors. Data from a randomized placebo-controlled 2 x 2 trial of CBT-I and armodafinil (a wakefulness promoting agent) were used to assess adherence. Ninety-six cancer survivors participated in the trial (mean age 56, 86% female, 68% breast cancer). CBT-I and armodafinil were administered over the course of seven weeks, and participants were assessed at baseline, during intervention, postintervention, and at a three-month follow-up. Social support was assessed using a Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy subscale, insomnia severity was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index, and adherence was measured based on CBT-I sleep prescriptions. At baseline, social support was negatively correlated with insomnia severity (r = -0.30, p = 0.002) and associations between social support, CBT-I, and insomnia were maintained through the three-month follow-up. Social support was positively associated with adherence to CBT-I during intervention weeks 3, 4, and 5, and with overall intervention adherence. At postintervention, both social support and treatment with CBT-I independently predicted decreased insomnia severity (p adherence and improved sleep independent of CBT-I. Additional research is needed to determine whether social support can be leveraged to improve adherence and response to CBT-I.

  18. Discussion of Extinction-Based Behavioral Sleep Interventions for Young Children and Reasons Why Parents May Find Them Difficult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Hayley; Blunden, Sarah; Hauck, Yvonne

    2016-11-15

    The majority of behavioral sleep interventions for young children involve extinction procedures where parents must ignore their child's cries for a period. Many parents have difficulties with this, contributing to attrition, non-compliance, and treatment avoidance. Yet why these methods are difficult to implement has rarely been addressed in the literature. This paper discusses seven potential reasons why parents may find extinction sleep interventions difficult: enduring crying, practical considerations, fear of repercussions, misinformation, incongruence with personal beliefs, different cultural practices, and parent wellness. These reasons are discussed in relation to the current literature. Practicing health professionals and sleep researchers could benefit from an awareness of these issues when suggesting extinction interventions and offering alternatives which may be more appropriate for family circumstances and facilitate parental informed choice. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  19. IGA resistance of TT Alloy 690 and concentration behavior of Broached Egg Crate tube support configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kusakabe, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Arioka, K.; Ochi, T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the Steam Generator (SG), TT Alloy 690 and BEC (Broached Egg Crate) type tube support plate has been developed. Some tests are carried out to heighten the reliability for these improvements all the more and the following results are obtained. (1) SERT test (Slow Extension Rate Test) made clear that TT690 has less IGA susceptibility in comparison with MA600. (2) The alkaline susceptibility on the occurrence of IGA/SCC on TT690 and MA600 obtained by SERT corresponds to that obtained by Model Boiler test. (3) By model boiler test, superior concentration behaviors for BEC type tube support plate configuration have been recognized in comparison with Drill type. This result is obtained by the joint research of the five utilities (Kansai Epco, Hokkaido Epco, Shikoku Epco, Kyushu Epco, JAPCO) and MHI

  20. Supporting interactive visual analytics of energy behavior in buildings through affine visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Matthias; Brewer, Robert S.; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    Domain experts dealing with big data are typically not familiar with advanced data mining tools. This especially holds true for domain experts within energy management. In this paper, we introduce a visual analytics approach that empowers such users to visually analyze energy behavior based......Viz, that interactively maps data from real world buildings. It is an overview +detail inter-active visual analytics tool supporting both rapid ad hoc explorations and structured evaluation of hypotheses about patterns and anomalies in resource consumption data mixed with occupant survey data. We have evaluated...... the approach with five domain experts within energy management, and further with 10 data analytics experts and found that it was easily attainable and that it supported visual analysis of mixed consumption and survey data. Finally, we discuss future perspectives of affine visual analytics for mixed...

  1. Effectiveness of social behaviors for autonomous wheelchair robot to support elderly people in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Shiomi

    Full Text Available We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items.

  2. Linking Workplace Aggression to Employee Well-Being and Work: The Moderating Role of Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yragui, Nanette L; Demsky, Caitlin A; Hammer, Leslie B; Van Dyck, Sarah; Neradilek, Moni B

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) on the relationship between two types of workplace aggression (i.e., patient-initiated physical aggression and coworker-initiated psychological aggression) and employee well-being and work outcomes. Data were obtained from a field sample of 417 healthcare workers in two psychiatric hospitals. Hypotheses were tested using moderated multiple regression analyses. Psychiatric care providers' perceptions of FSSB moderated the relationship between patient-initiated physical aggression and physical symptoms, exhaustion and cynicism. In addition, FSSB moderated the relationship between coworker-initiated psychological aggression and physical symptoms and turnover intentions. Based on our findings, family-supportive supervision is a plausible boundary condition for the relationship between workplace aggression and well-being and work outcomes. This study suggests that, in addition to directly addressing aggression prevention and reduction, family-supportive supervision is a trainable resource that healthcare organizations should facilitate to improve employee work and well-being in settings with high workplace aggression. This is the first study to examine the role of FSSB in influencing the relationship between two forms of workplace aggression: patient-initiated physical and coworker- initiated psychological aggression and employee outcomes.

  3. Four Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurious Behavior among Chinese Adolescents: Findings from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Xin

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (SIB among adolescents is an important public health issue worldwide. It is still uncertain whether homogeneous subgroups of SIB can be identified and whether constellations of SIBs can co-occur due to the high heterogeneity of these behaviors. In this study, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a large school-based sample and latent class analysis was performed (n = 10,069, mean age = 15 years to identify SIB classes based on 11 indicators falling under direct SIB (DSIB, indirect SIB (ISIB, and suicide attempts (SAs. Social and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were examined after controlling for age and gender. Results showed that a four-class model best fit the data and each class had a distinct pattern of co-occurrence of SIBs and external measures. Class 4 (the baseline/normative group, 65.3% had a low probability of SIB. Class 3 (severe SIB group, 3.9% had a high probability of SIB and the poorest social and psychological status. Class 1 (DSIB+SA group, 14.2% had similar scores for external variables compared to class 3, and included a majority of girls [odds ratio (OR = 1.94]. Class 2 (ISIB group, 16.6% displayed moderate endorsement of ISIB items, and had a majority of boys and older adolescents (OR = 1.51. These findings suggest that SIB is a heterogeneous entity, but it may be best explained by four homogenous subgroups that display quantitative and qualitative differences. Findings in this study will improve our understanding on SIB and may facilitate the prevention and treatment of SIB.

  4. Peer support in the community: initial findings of a mentoring program for individuals with traumatic brain injury and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Mary R; Cantor, Joshua; Charatz, Heather; Rosenthal, Robin; Ashman, Teresa; Gundersen, Nancy; Ireland-Knight, Lynne; Gordon, Wayne; Avner, Judith; Gartner, Audrey

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a community-based peer support program for individuals and their family members following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Community-based sample of family members and individuals with traumatic brain injury. Twenty individuals who had participated in the peer support program (11 individuals with TBI and 9 family members). Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a retrospective structured interview assessing self-reported impacts of peer support on empowerment, quality of life, mood, skills and knowledge, and social supports; an in-depth qualitative interview with a subgroup of family members focused on the specific benefits/limitations of the peer support program. Participants in the peer support program reported positive impacts of peer support on increasing their knowledge of TBI, enhancing their overall quality of life, improving their general outlook, and enhancing their ability to cope with depression post TBI. The peer support program was reported to have had a minimal impact on enhancing social support from families, friends, and the community, with varying impacts noted on levels of happiness, coping with anger and anxiety, communication with professionals, and control over one's life. Qualitative analysis suggests the merits of this type of community-based support and areas of improvement for the peer support program itself. Preliminary data suggest that peer support is a promising approach to enhancing coping for both individuals and their family members after TBI.

  5. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  6. HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Chhim, Srean; Pal, Khuondyla; Mun, Phalkun; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-05-23

    Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016. Participants were recruited from 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Behavioral data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews, and rapid finger-prick HIV testing was performed. Descriptive data analyses were conducted using STATA. This study included 1,375 transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD = 7.1). The overall prevalence of HIV was 5.9%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among urban participants compared to their rural counterparts (6.5 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.02). Almost one in five (19.6%) had never been tested for HIV prior to the study. Overall, 45.0% reported ever using gender affirming hormones. More than one-third (39.1%) reported not using condoms in their last sex, 29.8% had engaged in sex in exchange for money/gifts, and 14.0% reported that they had experienced at least one symptom of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the past year. About one in ten (10.1%) reported having used some form of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, while 6.5% reported having sex during or after using illicit drugs. A significant number of participants experienced sexual abuse (39.2%), losing a job (24.3%), or physical abuse (23.6%) because of their transgender identity. In addition, 82.9 and 88.9% would be willing to use the HIV self-test and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), respectively, if they become available. The high prevalence

  7. Selecting Products Considering the Regret Behavior of Consumer: A Decision Support Model Based on Online Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the remarkable promotion of e-commerce platforms, consumers increasingly prefer to purchase products online. Online ratings facilitate consumers to choose among products. Thus, to help consumers effectively select products, it is necessary to provide decision support methods for consumers to trade online. Considering the decision makers are bounded rational, this paper proposes a novel decision support model for product selection based on online ratings, in which the regret aversion behavior of consumers is formulated. Massive online ratings provided by experienced consumers for alternative products associated with several evaluation attributes are obtained by software finders. Then, the evaluations of alternative products in format of stochastic variables are conducted. To select a desirable alternative product, a novel method is introduced to calculate gain and loss degrees of each alternative over others. Considering the regret behavior of consumers in the product selection process, the regret and rejoice values of alternative products for consumer are computed to obtain the perceived utility values of alternative products. According to the prior order of the evaluation attributes provided by the consumer, the prior weights of attributes are determined based on the perceived utility values of alternative products. Furthermore, the overall perceived utility values of alternative products are obtained to generate a ranking result. Finally, a practical example from Zol.com.cn for tablet computer selection is used to demonstrate the feasibility and practically of the proposed model.

  8. E-Cigarettes Use Behavior and Experience of Adults: Qualitative Research Findings to Inform E-Cigarette Use Measure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoshin; Davis, Andrew H; Dohack, Jaime L; Clark, Pamela I

    2017-02-01

    findings reveal that vaping is not a mere replacement for combustible cigarette smoking and that many users of e-cigarettes enjoy product characteristics such as flavors and "clouds" that are unavailable in combustible cigarettes. Therefore, commonly available cigarette smoking measures are not well suited to measurement of e-cigarette use behavior, and indication that new measures need to be developed to accurately track e-cigarette use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.B.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the

  10. The Effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on the Intrinsic Motivation of Third Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…

  11. The Moderating Effects of Support for Violence Beliefs on Masculine Norms, Aggression, and Homophobic Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Kimmel, Michael S.; Wilchins, Riki

    2011-01-01

    In 2 studies, beliefs supporting the use of violence moderated the association between normative masculine activities and aggressive behavior (Study 1) and normative masculine attitudes and aggressive and homophobic behavior (Study 2) among adolescent boys. These beliefs also moderated the association between normative masculine activities and…

  12. Who Shapes Whom in the Family: Reciprocal Links between Autonomy Support in the Family and Parents' and Adolescents' Coping Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante

    2011-01-01

    Coping research has neglected the study of the reciprocal links between parents' and adolescents' coping behaviors and the potential influence of parental support for the development of adolescent autonomy. This study, therefore, analyzed the coping behaviors of fathers, mothers, and children (53% females) in 196 families who participated in a…

  13. "It Takes a Village": A Case Study of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Implementation in an Exemplary Urban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Hays, Danica G.; Cholewa, Blaire E.

    2018-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a widely implemented, culturally responsive framework using prevention and intervention activities to promote a safe school climate and positive academic and behavioral student outcomes. Using a qualitative single-case study design, authors provide a rich description of PBIS implementation…

  14. Readiness for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and School Mental Health Interconnection: Preliminary Development of a Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, Vittoria; Weist, Mark; Eber, Lucille; Barrett, Susan; Cashman, Joanne; Rosser, Mariola; Bazyk, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) and school mental health (SMH) are prominent initiatives in the United States to improve student behavior and promote mental health and wellness, led by education and mental health systems, respectively. Unfortunately, PBIS and SMH often operate separately in districts and schools, resulting in…

  15. Does It Matter Who Participates in Our Studies?: A Caution when Interpreting the Research on Positive Behavioral Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Rost, Nichole

    2005-01-01

    Research on the treatment of challenging behaviors such as aggression, tantrums, and self-injury expanded significantly over the past two decades. However, despite of the rather impressive numbers of studies, it is still uncertain whether positive behavioral support (PBS) is effective with everyone. To be able to tell family members and…

  16. Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Behavior Regulation and Virtual School Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Claire; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Scherer, Catherine; Roizen, Nancy; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Tony is a 6-year-old multiracial boy diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined type who is followed in your primary care practice and has started on a stimulant medication. Tony continues to have difficulty with emotion regulation and impulse control both at home and at school. He was asked to leave his private school soon after beginning first grade because of physical fighting, emotional outbursts, and arguing with teachers.His mother made the decision to enroll Tony in online virtual schooling for the remainder of the academic year, with the plan to transition back to traditional school for the next academic year. They have enrolled in a program that offers lessons online and sends materials to the home for the child to use to complete certain types of assignments (e.g., science experiments). Virtual schools are different from traditional home schooling because children receive their instruction from teachers online with parental assistance as opposed to parents being responsible for teaching all material. Tony's mother comes to your practice requesting assistance with setting up an appropriate school environment for her son at home, where she can monitor and support his academic progress.Tony is a bright child, with an Intelligence Quotient in the superior range. He has advanced academic skills, but he becomes dysregulated if he is told he is wrong or that he has answered a question incorrectly. For example, if he answered a question incorrectly in class, he would become verbally abusive toward his teacher and often have temper tantrums. This challenging behavior occurred daily at school and was one of the factors leading to his expulsion. The behavior had predated the introduction of stimulant medication and had remained consistent after he began medication.Tony's parents are highly educated, and both parents hold professional jobs with steady income. His parents have good command of typical behavior management strategies such as

  18. A learning collaborative of CMHCs and CHCs to support integration of behavioral health and general medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoy, Steven D; Mauer, Barbara; Kern, John; Girn, Kamaljeet; Ingoglia, Charles; Campbell, Jeannie; Galbreath, Laura; Unützer, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Integration of general medical and mental health services is a growing priority for safety-net providers. The authors describe a project that established a one-year learning collaborative focused on integration of services between community health centers (CHCs) and community mental health centers (CMHCs). Specific targets were treatment for general medical and psychiatric symptoms related to depression, bipolar disorder, alcohol use disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This observational study used mixed methods. Quantitative measures included 15 patient-level health indicators, practice self-assessment of resources and support for chronic disease self-management, and participant satisfaction. Sixteen CHC-CMHC pairs were selected for the learning collaborative series. One pair dropped out because of personnel turnover. All teams increased capacity on one or more patient health indicators. CHCs scored higher than CMHCs on support for chronic disease self-management. Participation in the learning collaborative increased self-assessment scores for CHCs and CMHCs. Participant satisfaction was high. Observations by faculty indicate that quality improvement challenges included tracking patient-level outcomes, workforce issues, and cross-agency communication. Even though numerous systemic barriers were encountered, the findings support existing literature indicating that the learning collaborative is a viable quality improvement approach for enhancing integration of general medical and mental health services between CHCs and CMHCs. Real-world implementation of evidence-based guidelines presents challenges often absent in research. Technical resources and support, a stable workforce with adequate training, and adequate opportunities for collaborator communications are particular challenges for integrating behavioral and general medical services across CHCs and CMHCs.

  19. Australian smokers' support for plain or standardised packs before and after implementation: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Partos, Timea R; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2015-11-01

    Plain packaging (PP) for tobacco products was fully implemented in Australia on 1 December 2012 along with larger graphic health warnings. Using longitudinal data from the Australian arm of the ITC Four Country Survey, we examined attitudes to the new packs before and after implementation, predictors of attitudinal change, and the relationship between support and quitting activity. A population-based cohort study design, with some cross-sectional analyses. Surveys of Australian smokers assessed attitudes to PP at four time points prior to implementation (from 2007 to 2012) and one post-implementation wave collected (early/mid-2013). Trend analysis showed a slight rise in opposition to PP among smokers in the waves leading up to their implementation, but no change in support. Support for PP increased significantly after implementation (28.2% pre vs 49% post), such that post-PP more smokers were supportive than opposed (49% vs 34.7%). Multivariate analysis showed support either before or after implementation was predicted by belief in greater adverse health impacts of smoking, desire to quit and lower addiction. Among those not supportive before implementation, having no clear opinion about PP (versus being opposed) prior to the changes also predicted support post-implementation. Support for PP was prospectively associated with higher levels of quitting activity. Since implementation of PP along with larger warnings, support among Australian smokers has increased. Support is related to lower addiction, stronger beliefs in the negative health impacts of smoking, and higher levels of quitting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Making cognitive decision support work: Facilitating adoption, knowledge and behavior change through QI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Charlene; Brunker, Cherie; Butler, Jorie; Supiano, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    This paper evaluates the role of facilitation in the successful implementation of Computerized Decision Support (CDS). Facilitation processes include education, specialized computerized decision support, and work process reengineering. These techniques, as well as modeling and feedback enhance self-efficacy, which we propose is one of the factors that mediate the effectiveness of any CDS. In this study, outpatient clinics implemented quality improvement (QI) projects focused on improving geriatric care. Quality Improvement is the systematic process of improving quality through continuous measurement and targeted actions. The program, entitled "Advancing Geriatric Education through Quality Improvement" (AGE QI), consisted of a 6-month, QI based, intervention: (1) 2h didactic session, (2) 1h QI planning session, (3) computerized decision support design and implementation, (4) QI facilitation activities, (5) outcome feedback, and (6) 20h of CME. Specifically, we examined the impact of the QI based program on clinician's perceived self-efficacy in caring for older adults and the relationship of implementation support and facilitation on perceived success. The intervention was implemented at 3 institutions, 27 community healthcare system clinics, and 134 providers. This study reports the results of pre/post surveys for the forty-nine clinicians who completed the full CME program. Self-efficacy ratings for specific clinical behaviors related to care of older adults were assessed using a Likert based instrument. Self-ratings of efficacy improved across the following domains (depression, falls, end-of-life, functional status and medication management) and specifically in QI targeted domains and were associated with overall clinic improvements. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Structure dynamics with regard to non-linear support behavior; Dynamische Strukturberechnung unter Beruecksichtigung nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, W. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Because of modifications to a feed-water line of a power plant structural calculations of the pipework were performed. As a result of a linear (modal) analysis very high restraint forces on the supports were calculated. In order to reduce conservatisms in the calculation the model was optimized with regard to the support stiffnesses and nonlinear behavior of slide bearings, guides and shock absorbers were taken into account. The main result of the non-linear analysis, which was performed by methods of direct-integration, was that nonlinearity yields evident differences in structural frequencies and in energy dissipation (damping) in comparison to the linear analysis. The high restraint forces on the supports became smaller for most of the supports but at some points the forces of the non-linear analysis were even higher. So the conservatism of the linear analysis is not fully valid for the whole structure. The relevance of the non-linear effects in dynamic piping calculations is shown by comparing the calculation result with measurements which were performed on structures in the plant. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Aenderung der Speisewasserleitung einer Kraftwerksanlage wurde die Struktur neu berechnet. Die Analysen mit einem linearen Modell (modal), das ueblicherweise verwendet wird, ergaben hohe Lasten an Halterungen. Zum Abbau von Konservativitaeten wurde eine realistischere Modellierung durch die Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Verhaltens der in der Anlage befindlichen Gleitlager, Fuehrungen und Stossbremsen in der Berechnung vorgenommen. Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass durch die Nichtlinearitaet das Frequenzverhalten der Struktur und die Dissipation von Energie durch Reibvorgaenge wesentlich beeinflusst werden. Des Weiteren ist festzustellen, dass aus linearen Analysen nicht uneingeschraenkt konservative Ergebnisse gewonnen werden. Die Relevanz der Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens bei einer dynamischen Strukturberechnung wird

  2. [Social networks in drinking behaviors among Japanese: support network, drinking network, and intervening network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji

    2005-10-01

    The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.

  3. Towards human behavior recognition based on spatio temporal features and support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabri, Sawsen; Ouarda, Wael; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    Security and surveillance are vital issues in today's world. The recent acts of terrorism have highlighted the urgent need for efficient surveillance. There is indeed a need for an automated system for video surveillance which can detect identity and activity of person. In this article, we propose a new paradigm to recognize an aggressive human behavior such as boxing action. Our proposed system for human activity detection includes the use of a fusion between Spatio Temporal Interest Point (STIP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HoG) features. The novel feature called Spatio Temporal Histogram Oriented Gradient (STHOG). To evaluate the robustness of our proposed paradigm with a local application of HoG technique on STIP points, we made experiments on KTH human action dataset based on Multi Class Support Vector Machines classification. The proposed scheme outperforms basic descriptors like HoG and STIP to achieve 82.26% us an accuracy value of classification rate.

  4. Customer Purchasing Behavior Analysis as Alternatives for Supporting In-Store Green Marketing Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alex Syaekhoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing concerns about environmental protection, the environmental sustainability of businesses has been widely considered in the manufacturing and supply chain context. Further, its adoption has been implemented in the retail industry for marketing field, including green product promotion. This study aimed to propose a customer purchasing behavior analysis as an alternative for supporting decision-making in order to promote green products in retail stores. Hence, right-on-target marketing strategies can be implemented appropriately. The study was carried out using shopping path data collected by radio frequency identification (RFID from a large retail store in Seoul, South Korea. In addition, the store layout and its traffic were also analyzed. This method is expected to help experts providing appropriate decision alternatives. In addition, it can help retailers in order to increase product sales and achieve high levels of customer satisfaction.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Static Behavior of Fibrous Concrete Simply Supported Deep Beams under Patch Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Hanna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of steel and polypropylene fibers on static behavior of simply supported deep beams of normal concrete strength under patch loading. Also the paper studied the effect of web opening and its positions on shear capacity and mode of failures for steel fiber concrete deep beams under the same conditions of loading and strength.       Sixteen beams of (1000*300*100mm, eighteen cubes (150*150*150mm and thirty cylinders (150*300mm in dimensions were cast with different fiber volume content (0, 0.4, 0.64 and 0.89% as additives. Shear capacity, mode of failure and three of mechanical strengths were tested.       After testing, the results indicate that shear capacity increases with increasing volume of steel fiber content with change on mode of failure while midspan displacement decreases.

  6. Female employees' perceptions of organisational support for breastfeeding at work: findings from an Australian health service workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Danielle; Janson, Anneka; Nolan, Michelle; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and...

  7. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  8. Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Supportive Behaviors toward LGBT Students: Relationship to Gay-Straight Alliances, Antibullying Policy, and Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Katie; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the association between 3 school-level supports for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward LGBT youth. Framed within social support theory, the study used survey method with a sample of 98 teachers in Grades 6-12. The purpose was to examine the relation…

  9. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and postintervention…

  10. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention.

  11. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

  13. Study the Dynamic Behavior of Rotor Supported on a Worn Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Naji Jamil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of wear in the fluid film journal bearings on the dynamic behavior of rotor bearing system has been studied depending on the analytical driven of dynamic stiffness and damping coefficients of worn journal bearing. The finite element method was used to modeling rotor bearing system. The unbalance response, critical speed and natural frequency of rotor bearing system have been studied to determine the changes in these parameters due to wear. MATLAB software was used to find the analytical values of dynamic coefficients of journal bearing. The results of rotor mounted on fluid film journal bearings showed that the wear in journal bearing increases the amplitude of unbalance response and decrease critical speed, stability and the natural frequencies.

  14. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  15. Positive Behavior Supports: Using Class Dojo as a Token Economy Point System to Encourage and Maintain Good Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eliana; Hoang, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The use of positive reinforcement sometimes gets lost in translation because educators forget the importance of acknowledging good behaviors. We instinctively tend to punish and give consequences because we often forget the importance of preventing undesired behaviors from occurring in the first place. More efforts should be spent on maintaining…

  16. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalicek, Wendy; O'Reilly, Mark; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Davis, Tonya; Shogren, Karrie; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Antonucci, Massimo; Langthorne, Paul; Andrews, Alonzo; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the therapist conducting the assessment. Results of the…

  17. Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviors among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Walsh, Elaine

    2009-08-01

    If and how family support and self-esteem might interact to protect against adolescent suicide risk is not well understood. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the moderating effect of family support on the relationship between self-esteem and suicide risk behaviors among potential high school dropouts (N = 849), using questionnaires and in-depth assessment interviews. Family support moderated the impact of self-esteem on suicide risk; the ameliorating effect of self-esteem was stronger among adolescents with low versus high family support. Self-esteem influences adolescent suicide risk behaviors for youth with low as well as high family support. Interventions designed to strengthen both self-esteem and support resources are appropriate.

  18. The process by which perceived autonomy support predicts motivation, intention, and behavior for seasonal influenza prevention in Hong Kong older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pak-Kwong; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Liu, Jing-Dong; Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Si, Gangyan; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-07-28

    This study examined the effectiveness of a theoretical framework that integrates self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in explaining the use of facemasks to prevent seasonal influenza among Hong Kong older adults. Data were collected at two time points in the winter in Hong Kong, during which influenza is most prevalent. At Time 1, older adults (N = 141) completed self-report measures of SDT (perceived autonomy support from senior center staff, autonomous motivation for influenza prevention) and TPB (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention for influenza prevention) constructs with respect to facemask used to prevent infection. Two weeks later, at Time 2, participants' acceptance of a facemask to prevent influenza in the presence of an experimenter with flu-like symptoms was recorded. Path analysis found that perceived autonomy support of senior center staff was positively and significantly linked to autonomous motivation for facemask use, which, in turn, was positively related to intentions to wear facemasks through the mediation of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. However, the effect of intention on facemask use was not significant. Results generally support the proposed framework and the findings of previous studies with respect to intention, but the non-significant intention-behavior relationship may warrant future research to examine the reasons for older adults not to wear facemasks to prevent seasonal influenza despite having positive intentions to do so.

  19. The process by which perceived autonomy support predicts motivation, intention, and behavior for seasonal influenza prevention in Hong Kong older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Kwong Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effectiveness of a theoretical framework that integrates self-determination theory (SDT and the theory of planned behavior (TPB in explaining the use of facemasks to prevent seasonal influenza among Hong Kong older adults. Methods Data were collected at two time points in the winter in Hong Kong, during which influenza is most prevalent. At Time 1, older adults (N = 141 completed self-report measures of SDT (perceived autonomy support from senior center staff, autonomous motivation for influenza prevention and TPB (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention for influenza prevention constructs with respect to facemask used to prevent infection. Two weeks later, at Time 2, participants’ acceptance of a facemask to prevent influenza in the presence of an experimenter with flu-like symptoms was recorded. Results Path analysis found that perceived autonomy support of senior center staff was positively and significantly linked to autonomous motivation for facemask use, which, in turn, was positively related to intentions to wear facemasks through the mediation of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. However, the effect of intention on facemask use was not significant. Conclusions Results generally support the proposed framework and the findings of previous studies with respect to intention, but the non-significant intention-behavior relationship may warrant future research to examine the reasons for older adults not to wear facemasks to prevent seasonal influenza despite having positive intentions to do so.

  20. Predicting the filial behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian adolescents from perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and parental warmth and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of Social Support and Disclosure of Child Abuse on Adult Suicidal Ideation: Findings From a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Fallon, Barbara; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi

    2017-11-16

    To examine the proportion of Canadian adults with a history of child abuse who disclosed the abuse to child protection services before age 16 years and identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on lifetime suicidal ideation. Data for this study came from the Statistics Canada 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N = 9,076). Binary logistic regression was conducted to identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on suicidal ideation while simultaneously adjusting for the effect of type of child abuse and demographic, socioeconomic, health, and mental health factors. Of the 9,076 respondents who experienced at least one child abuse event, 21.5% reported ever experiencing suicidal ideation. Fewer than 6% of the respondents disclosed the abuse to someone from a child protection service before age 16 years. In the multivariate logistic regression model, respondents who disclosed the abuse to someone from child protection services were 1.37 times more likely to report lifetime suicidal ideation (95% CI, 1.10-1.71) than those who did not. Each additional unit increase in social support decreased the odds of lifetime suicidal ideation by a factor of 3% (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). Social support interventions that are effective in improving individuals' perception that support is available to them may help reduce suicidal ideation among those with a history of child abuse. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Regular drinking may strengthen the beneficial influence of social support on depression: findings from a representative Israeli sample during a period of war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C; Rapaport, Carmit; Zalta, Alyson K; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J

    2014-07-01

    Social support is consistently associated with reduced risk of depression. Few studies have investigated how this relationship may be modified by alcohol use, the effects of which may be particularly relevant in traumatized populations in which rates of alcohol use are known to be high. In 2008 a representative sample of 1622 Jewish and Palestinian citizens in Israel were interviewed by phone at two time points during a period of ongoing terrorism and war threat. Two multivariable mixed effects regression models were estimated to measure the longitudinal association of social support from family and friends on depression symptoms. Three-way interaction terms between social support, alcohol use and time were entered into the models to test for effect modification. Findings indicated that increased family social support was associated with less depression symptomatology (p=Social support from friends was also associated with fewer depression symptoms (p=effect of social support was stronger for those who drank alcohol regularly than those who did not drink or drank rarely. These findings suggest that social support is a more important protective factor for depression among regular drinkers than among those who do not drink or drink rarely in the context of political violence. Additional research is warranted to determine whether these findings are stable in other populations and settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystallization and melting behavior of isotactic polypropylene composites filled by zeolite supported β-nucleator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Juan; Li, Gu; Tan, Nanshu; Ding, Qian; Mai, Kancheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The supported calcium pimelate β-zeolite was prepared. ► The β-nucleation of zeolite was enhanced dramatically through reaction. ► High β-phase content iPP composites were obtained by introducing the β-zeolite into iPP. - Abstract: In order to prepare the zeolite filled β-iPP composites, the calcium pimelate as β-nucleator supported on the surface of zeolite (β-zeolite) was prepared by the interaction between calcified zeolite and pimelic acid. The β-nucleation, crystallization behavior and melting characteristic of zeolite, calcified zeolite and β-zeolite filled iPP composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffractometer. The results indicated that addition of the zeolite and calcified zeolite as well as β-zeolite increased the crystallization temperature of iPP. The zeolite and calcified zeolite filled iPP composites mainly crystallized in the α-crystal form and the strong β-heterogeneous nucleation of β-zeolite results in the formation of only β-crystal in β-zeolite filled iPP composites. The zeolite filled β-iPP composites with high β-crystal contents (above 0.90) can be easily obtained by adding β-zeolite into iPP matrix.

  4. Regulation of adhesion behavior of murine macrophage using supported lipid membranes displaying tunable mannose domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaindl, T; Oelke, J; Kaufmann, S; Tanaka, M; Pasc, A; Konovalov, O V; Funari, S S; Engel, U; Wixforth, A

    2010-01-01

    Highly uniform, strongly correlated domains of synthetically designed lipids can be incorporated into supported lipid membranes. The systematic characterization of membranes displaying a variety of domains revealed that the equilibrium size of domains significantly depends on the length of fluorocarbon chains, which can be quantitatively interpreted within the framework of an equivalent dipole model. A mono-dispersive, narrow size distribution of the domains enables us to treat the inter-domain correlations as two-dimensional colloidal crystallization and calculate the potentials of mean force. The obtained results demonstrated that both size and inter-domain correlation can precisely be controlled by the molecular structures. By coupling α-D-mannose to lipid head groups, we studied the adhesion behavior of the murine macrophage (J774A.1) on supported membranes. Specific adhesion and spreading of macrophages showed a clear dependence on the density of functional lipids. The obtained results suggest that such synthetic lipid domains can be used as a defined platform to study how cells sense the size and distribution of functional molecules during adhesion and spreading.

  5. Depression, financial problems and other reasons for suspending medical studies, and requested support services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa; Ma, Colleen; Lampe, Lisa; Hunt, Glenn; Malhi, Gin; Walter, Garry

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to qualitatively explore medical students' reasons for suspending, or thinking of suspending, their studies and the types of support services they request. Data were collected through an anonymous online survey. Medical students' responses to open-ended questions were analyzed thematically. Responses were received from 475 students. Financial problems, doubts as to whether medicine was the right vocation, and depression were the most commonly reported themes. Students endorsed a wide range of other pressures and concerns, barriers to obtaining assistance, and also suggested solutions and services to address their concerns. Medical students' financial concerns and potential depressive symptoms should be addressed by university and faculty support services. Government financial support mechanisms for students should also be reviewed. Students' suggestions of the types of services and their location must be borne in mind when allocating resources.

  6. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-04-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists.

  7. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Koji; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-01-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists. (author)

  8. Social networks and social support for healthy eating among Latina breast cancer survivors: implications for social and behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.

  9. Electrochemical behavior of platinum nanoparticles on a carbon xerogel support modified with a [(trifluoromethyl)-benzenesulfonyl]imide electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Mei, Hua; DesMarteau, Darryl; Creager, Stephen E

    2014-12-11

    A monoprotic [(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonyl]imide (SI) superacid electrolyte was used to covalently modify a mesoporous carbon xerogel (CX) support via reaction of the corresponding trifluoromethyl aryl sulfonimide diazonium zwitterion with the carbon surface. Electrolyte attachment was demonstrated by elemental analysis, acid-base titration, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ion-exchange capacity of the fluoroalkyl-aryl-sulfonimide-grafted carbon xerogel (SI-CX) was ∼0.18 mequiv g(-1), as indicated by acid-base titration. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited onto the SI-grafted carbon xerogel samples by the impregnation and reduction method, and these materials were employed to fabricate polyelectrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) electrodes by the decal transfer method. The SI-grafted carbon-xerogel-supported platinum (Pt/SI-CX) was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy to determine platinum nanoparticle size and distribution, and the findings are compared with CX-supported platinum catalyst without the grafted SI electrolyte (Pt/CX). Platinum nanoparticle sizes are consistently larger on Pt/SI-CX than on Pt/CX. The electrochemically active surface area (ESA) of platinum catalyst on the Pt/SI-CX and Pt/CX samples was measured with ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) using both hydrogen adsorption/desorption and carbon monoxide stripping methods and by in situ CV within membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The ESA values for Pt/SI-CX are consistently lower than those for Pt/CX. Some possible reasons for the behavior of samples with and without grafted SI layers and implications for the possible use of SI-grafted carbon layers in PEMFC devices are discussed.

  10. Support for a ban on tobacco powerwalls and other point-of-sale displays: findings from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Allen, Jane A; Kosa, Katherine M; Curry, Laurel E

    2015-02-01

    This study uses focus group data to document consumer perceptions of powerwall and other point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays, and support for a ban on tobacco displays. Four focus groups were conducted in 2012 by a trained moderator. The study comprised 34 adult residents of New York State, approximately half with children under age 18 years living at home. Measures used in the study were awareness and perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, and level of support for a ban on tobacco displays. Analysis focused on perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, level of support for a ban on tobacco displays and reasons participants oppose a display ban. This study documents a general lack of concern about tobacco use in the community, which does not appear to be associated with support for a ban on POS tobacco displays. Although all participants had seen tobacco powerwalls and most considered them to be a form of advertising, participants were divided as to whether they played a role in youth smoking. Additional research is warranted to determine what factors individuals weigh in assigning value to a ban on POS tobacco displays and other tobacco control policies and how educational efforts can influence those assessments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Instructional and Motivational Classroom Discourse and Their Relationship with Teacher Autonomy and Competence Support--Findings from Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemer, Katharina; Gröschner, Alexander; Kunter, Mareike; Seidel, Tina

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates whether productive classroom discourse in the form of instructional and motivational classroom discourse (Turner et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology" 94: 88-106, 2002) provides a supportive social context for students that fosters the fulfilment of the basic psychological needs of autonomy and…

  12. Female employees' perceptions of organisational support for breastfeeding at work: findings from an Australian health service workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Danielle; Janson, Anneka; Nolan, Michelle; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2011-11-30

    Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and practice. A cross sectional survey of female employees of the Sydney South West Area Health Service was conducted in late 2009. A mailed questionnaire was sent to 998 eligible participants who had taken maternity leave over the 20-month period from January 2008 to August 2009. The questionnaire collected items assessing breastfeeding intentions, awareness of workplace policies, and the level of organisational and social support available. For those women who had returned to work, further questions were asked to assess the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding in the work environment, as well as barriers and enabling factors to combining breastfeeding and work. Returning to work was one of the main reasons women ceased breastfeeding, with 60 percent of women intending to breastfeed when they returned to work, but only 40 percent doing so. Support to combine breastfeeding and work came mainly from family and partners (74% and 83% respectively), with little perceived support from the organisation (13%) and human resources (6%). Most women (92%) had received no information from their managers about their breastfeeding options upon their return to work, and few had access to a room specially designated for breastfeeding (19%). Flexible work options and lactation breaks, as well as access to a private room, were identified as the main factors that facilitate breastfeeding at work. Enabling women to continue breastfeeding at work has benefits for the infant, employee and organisation. However, this

  13. Female employees' perceptions of organisational support for breastfeeding at work: findings from an Australian health service workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Danielle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women's return to work can be a significant barrier to continued breastfeeding. Workplace policies and practices to promote and support continued, and longer duration of, breastfeeding are important. In the context of the introduction of a new breastfeeding policy for Area Health Services in New South Wales, Australia, a baseline survey was conducted to describe current practices and examine women's reports of perceived organisational support on breastfeeding intention and practice. Methods A cross sectional survey of female employees of the Sydney South West Area Health Service was conducted in late 2009. A mailed questionnaire was sent to 998 eligible participants who had taken maternity leave over the 20-month period from January 2008 to August 2009. The questionnaire collected items assessing breastfeeding intentions, awareness of workplace policies, and the level of organisational and social support available. For those women who had returned to work, further questions were asked to assess the perceptions and practices of breastfeeding in the work environment, as well as barriers and enabling factors to combining breastfeeding and work. Results Returning to work was one of the main reasons women ceased breastfeeding, with 60 percent of women intending to breastfeed when they returned to work, but only 40 percent doing so. Support to combine breastfeeding and work came mainly from family and partners (74% and 83% respectively, with little perceived support from the organisation (13% and human resources (6%. Most women (92% had received no information from their managers about their breastfeeding options upon their return to work, and few had access to a room specially designated for breastfeeding (19%. Flexible work options and lactation breaks, as well as access to a private room, were identified as the main factors that facilitate breastfeeding at work. Conclusions Enabling women to continue breastfeeding at work has

  14. Bullying, Social Support, and Psychological Distress: Findings From RELACHS Cohorts of East London's White British and Bangladeshi Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Harding, Seeromanie; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to test whether bullying in adolescents relates to poor mental health and whether social support mitigated this effect. In 2001, 28 schools in East London were randomly selected for surveys of two representative mixed ability classes: year 7 (11-12 years) and year 9 (13-14 years). Repeated measures were obtained from the same pupils 2 years later, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (total difficulties score [TDS]) as a measure of psychological distress. A simple one-level random intercepts model with measurements nested within pupils was used to investigate the effects of bullying and social support from friends and family on TDS. We also assessed whether culturally congruent friendships offered a mental health advantage. Bullying was associated with a higher mean TDS (coefficient, 95% confidence interval: White British: 2.15, 1.41-2.88; Bangladeshi: 1.65, .91-2.4); a high level of family social support was associated with a lower TDS (White British: -2.36, -3.33 to -1.39; Bangladeshi: -2.34, -3.15 to -.149). Social support from friends was helpful for White British adolescents (-1.06, -2.07 to -.04). Culturally congruent friendships offered no general advantage. Bullying is associated with psychological distress; family social support is independently associated with less psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual behaviors of US women at risk of HIV acquisition: A longitudinal analysis of findings from HPTN 064

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, J.; Befus, M.; Hughes, J.; Wang, J.; Golin, C. E.; Adimora, A.A.; Kuo, I.; Haley, D. F.; del Rio, C.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Rompalo, A.; Mannheimer, S.; Soto-Torres, L.; Hodder, S.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about participants’ sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected ...

  16. Perceived stress and eating behaviors by sex, obesity status, and stress vulnerability: findings from the vitamins and lifestyle (VITAL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Beresford, Shirley A A; McGregor, Bonnie A; White, Emily

    2014-11-01

    Stress has been associated with eating patterns in human studies with differences due to the type and duration of stressor, type of food, and individual susceptibility factors. Laboratory and smaller epidemiological studies have reported stress-associated preferences for foods high in sugar and fat; associations have been found more consistently among women and people who are obese. Larger studies are needed to sufficiently test these relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between self-reported amount of stress and dietary nutrient intakes (percentage energy from fat, carbohydrates, added sugar) and dietary behaviors (number of eating occasions and servings of fruits and vegetables, high-fat snacks, fast-food items, and sweetened drinks) by sex, obesity status, and stress vulnerability. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of perceived stress with eating patterns among 65,235 older adults while adjusting for demographic factors, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, number of comorbidities, and other relevant covariates. Higher perceived stress was associated with greater intake of energy from fat, high-fat snacks, and fast-food items as well as lower intake of energy from carbohydrates (all P for trend ≤0.002). Among those with high perceived stress vulnerability, perceived stress was associated with fewer eating occasions (P for interaction stress arising from everyday experiences among an older, mostly white population. These findings have public health implications and suggest that stress may be important to consider in programs promoting healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST IN THE EFFECT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan BÜYÜKYILMAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates direct and indirect relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of employee perceptions of organizational support on the tendency to exhibit organizational citizenship behavior and to determine the mediating role of perceived trust in perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior relationship. The data used in the study were gathered by questionnaire from 228 graduate students studying at the Karabuk University Institute of Social Sciences and at the same time working in state and private institutions. In the process of testing the hypotheses, path analysis was used in the context of structural equation modeling. As a result of the study, it was determined that organizational trust fully mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support and the dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness and sportsmanship of organizational citizenship behavior and partially mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support and the dimensions of courtesy and civic virtue of organizational citizenship behavior.

  18. A Synthesis Of Knowledge About Caregiver Decision Making Finds Gaps In Support For Those Who Care For Aging Loved Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvelink, Mirjam M; Ngangue, Patrice A G; Adekpedjou, Rheda; Diouf, Ndeye T; Goh, Larissa; Blair, Louisa; Légaré, France

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a mixed-methods knowledge synthesis to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve caregivers' involvement in decision making with seniors, and to describe caregivers' experiences of decision making in the absence of interventions. We analyzed forty-nine qualitative, fourteen quantitative, and three mixed-methods studies. The qualitative studies indicated that caregivers had unmet needs for information, discussions of values and needs, and decision support, which led to negative sentiments after decision making. Our results indicate that there have been insufficient quantitative evaluations of interventions to involve caregivers in decision making with seniors and that the evaluations that do exist found few clinically significant effects. Elements of usual care that received positive evaluations were the availability of a decision coach and a supportive decision-making environment. Additional rigorously evaluated interventions are needed to help caregivers be more involved in decision making with seniors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Teachers’ and Education Support Professionals’ Perspectives on Bullying and Prevention: Findings From a National Education Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Gulemetova, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Given growing concerns regarding the prevalence and seriousness of bullying, the National Education Association recently drew upon its membership to launch a national study of teachers’ and education support professionals’ perceptions of bullying, and need for additional training on bullying prevention efforts and school-wide policies. The data were collected from a representative sample of 5,064 National Education Association members (2,163 teachers and 2,901 education support professionals). Analyses indicated that compared to education support professionals, teachers were more likely to witness students being bullied, more likely to view bullying as a significant problem at their school, and were more likely to have students report bullying to them. Teachers were more likely to be involved in bullying policies at their school, yet both groups reported wanting more training related to cyberbullying and bullying related to students’ sexual orientation, gender issues, and racial issues. Implications for school psychologists and the development of school-wide bullying prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:25414539

  20. Important nonurgent imaging findings: use of a hybrid digital and administrative support tool for facilitating clinician communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evan; Sanger, Joseph; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    A departmental tool that provides a digital/administrative solution for communication of important imaging findings was evaluated. The tool allows the radiologist to click a button to mark an examination for ordering physician follow-up with subsequent fax and confirmation. The tool's log was reviewed. Of 466 entries; 99.4% were successfully faxed with phone confirmation. Most common reasons for usage were lung nodule/mass (29.2%) and osseous fracture (12.4%). Subsequent clinical action was documented in 41.0% of entries. Our data show the reliability of the tool in assisting the communication of findings, as well as providing documentation of notification, with minimal workflow disruption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual Sexual Stimuli-Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gola, M.; Wordecha, M.; Marchewka, A.; Sescousse, G.T.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain

  2. The role of welding techniques in the biomechanical behavior of implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sabrina Alessandra; Presotto, Anna Gabriella Camacho; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio Arruda; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz

    2017-09-01

    This in vitro study investigated the role of welding techniques of implant-supported prostheses in the 2D and 3D marginal misfits of prosthetic frameworks, strain induced on the mini abutment, and detorque of prosthetic screws. The correlations between the analyzed variables were also investigated. Frameworks were cast in commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti). A marginal misfit of 200μm was simulated in the working models (control group) (n=20). The 2D marginal misfit was analyzed according to the single-screw test protocol using a precision optical microscope. The 3D marginal misfit was performed by X-ray microtomography. Strain gauge analysis was performed to investigate the strain induced on the mini abutment. A digital torque meter was used for analysis of the detorque and the mean value was calculated for each framework. Afterwards, the frameworks were divided into two experimental groups (n=10): Laser (L) and TIG (T). The welding techniques were performed according to the following parameters: L (390V/9ms); T (36A/60ms). The L and T groups were reevaluated according to the marginal misfit, strain, and detorque. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test and Person correlation analysis (α=0.05). Welding techniques statistically reduced the 2D and 3D marginal misfits of prosthetic frameworks (p0.05). Positive correlations were observed between 2D and 3D marginal misfit reading methods (r=0.943, pwelding techniques improved the biomechanical behavior of the implant-supported system. TIG can be an acceptable and affordable technique to reduce the misfit of 3-unit Ti frameworks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations between dyadic coping and supportive care needs: findings from a study with hematologic cancer patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißflog, Gregor; Hönig, Klaus; Gündel, Harald; Lang, Dirk; Niederwieser, Dietger; Döhner, Hartmut; Vogelhuber, Martin; Mehnert, Anja; Ernst, Jochen

    2017-05-01

    The way couples mutually cope with hematologic cancer is likely to influence their levels of supportive care needs (SCN). Therefore, this study evaluated the levels of dyadic coping (DC) and SCN and the concurrent associations between both variables. Three hundred thirty patients with a hematologic malignancy (63% male) and their partners completed the dyadic coping inventory (DCI) and the supportive care needs survey (SCNS-SF-34-G). The levels of dyadic coping (DC) and supportive care needs (SCN) were compared with representative validation samples. Correlational analyses and actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) were calculated to estimate the association between DC and SCN. Partners' stress communication of cancer patients (as part of DC) was decreased in contrast to that of a non-cancer sample. The perception of partners' delegated DC was higher (both with a moderate effect size of g ≥ |0.50|). SCN of patients and partners were lower in the dimensions health system/information and physical problems/daily living in contrast to those of a cancer patients' validation sample (both with a small effect of g ≥ |0.20|). Higher perceptions of partners' negative DC were associated with higher SCN for both patients and partners. The same was true for patients' own stress communication and SCN, but only for the patients. Sociodemographic and illness-related factors were only partially related with the SCN of patients and partners. In order to diminish SCN of patients and partners, a possible way is to strengthen the quality of the dyadic relation. Due to its associations with elevated SCN, stress communication and negative dyadic coping behaviours may be useful targets for psychosocial interventions.

  4. Behavior change techniques used in group-based behavioral support by the English stop-smoking services and preliminary assessment of association with short-term quit outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Evans, Adam; Michie, Susan

    2011-12-01

    To develop a reliable coding scheme for components of group-based behavioral support for smoking cessation, to establish the frequency of inclusion in English Stop-Smoking Service (SSS) treatment manuals of specific components, and to investigate the associations between inclusion of behavior change techniques (BCTs) and service success rates. A taxonomy of BCTs specific to group-based behavioral support was developed and reliability of use assessed. All English SSSs (n = 145) were contacted to request their group-support treatment manuals. BCTs included in the manuals were identified using this taxonomy. Associations between inclusion of specific BCTs and short-term (4-week) self-reported quit outcomes were assessed. Fourteen group-support BCTs were identified with >90% agreement between coders. One hundred and seven services responded to the request for group-support manuals of which 30 had suitable documents. On average, 7 BCTs were included in each manual. Two were positively associated with 4-week quit rates: "communicate group member identities" and a "betting game" (a financial deposit that is lost if a stop-smoking "buddy" relapses). It is possible to reliably code group-specific BCTs for smoking cessation. Fourteen such techniques are present in guideline documents of which 2 appear to be associated with higher short-term self-reported quit rates when included in treatment manuals of English SSSs.

  5. A Mediator Role of Perceived Organizational Support in Workplace Deviance Behaviors, Organizational Citizenship and Job Satisfaction Relations: A Survey Conducted With Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşad Zorlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to estimate the effect of workplace deviance behavior on organizational citizenship and job satisfaction and to put forward the mediator role of the organizational support perception in possible relations. The information based on hypothetical and literature are provided in the research principally and then the research part including the questionnaire applied to the employees of Kirsehir Municipality is presented. The validity and reliability tests have been performed successfully and the artificial neural network method has been used as the analysis method. In parallel with the averages and correlation values of the variables in the analysis the Artificial Neural Networks have been modelled by determining the inputs and outputs. In accordance with the findings obtained the workplace deviance behavior has a negative impact on the organizational citizenship and job satisfaction and the organizational support perception can take the mediator role as a relative for eliminating the abovementioned effect. When the artificial neural networks’ being used as the analysis method and the difficulties in measuring the workplace deviance behavior are taken into consideration it can be stated that the findings obtained have at a certain level of originality in terms of management discipline.

  6. A Mediator Role of Perceived Organizational Support in Workplace Deviance Behaviors, Organizational Citizenship and Job Satisfaction Relations: A Survey Conducted With Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursad Zorlu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to estimate the effect of workplace deviance behavior on organizational citizenship and job satisfaction and to put forward the mediator role of the organizational support perception in possible relations. The information based on hypothetical and literature are provided in the research principally and then the research part including the questionnaire applied to the employees of Kirsehir Municipality is presented. The validity and reliability tests have been performed successfully and the artificial neural network method has been used as the analysis method. In parallel with the averages and correlation values of the variables in the analysis the Artificial Neural Networks have been modelled by determining the inputs and outputs. In accordance with the findings obtained the workplace deviance behavior has a negative impact on the organizational citizenship and job satisfaction and the organizational support perception can take the mediator role as a relative for eliminating the abovementioned effect. When the artificial neural networks’ being used as the analysis method and the difficulties in measuring the workplace deviance behavior are taken into consideration it can be stated that the findings obtained have at a certain level of originality in terms of management discipline.

  7. Development and Implementation of an Interactive Text Messaging Campaign to Support Behavior Change in a Childhood Obesity Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah; Ferisin, Stephanie; Sharifi, Mona; Steinberg, David; Bennett, Gary; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Horan, Christine; Koziol, Renata; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-01-01

    Text messaging is a promising means of intervening on an array of health issues among varied populations, but little has been published about the development of such interventions. The authors describe the development and implementation of an interactive text messaging campaign for parents to support behavior change among children in a childhood obesity randomized controlled trial. The authors invited 160 parents to participate in a text messaging intervention that provided behavior change support in conjunction with health coaching phone calls and mailed materials on behavioral goals. Throughout the 1-year intervention, the authors sent 1-2 text messages per week. The first asked how the child did with a target behavior the day before; parents who replied received an immediate feedback message tailored to their response. The second included a tip about how to work toward a behavioral goal. Baseline surveys indicate that text messaging is a common means of communication for parents, and many are willing to use text messaging to support behavior change for their child. Results at 1 year indicate a high level of engagement with the text messaging intervention, with nearly two thirds responding to 75% or more of the questions they were sent by text.

  8. Medicaid Expenditures for Fee-for-Service Enrollees with Behavioral Diagnoses: Findings from a 50 State Claims Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Martha C; Lally, Cathy; Druss, Benjamin G

    2017-01-01

    Medicaid is an important funder of care for individuals with behavioral (psychiatric and/or substance use) diagnoses, and expenditures will likely increase with expansion of services under the Affordable Care Act. This study provides national estimates of Medicaid expenditures using a comprehensive sample of fee-for-service Medicaid enrollees with behavioral diagnoses. Data for analysis came from 2003 to 2004 Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) files for 50 states and the District of Columbia. Individuals with behavioral diagnoses had high rates of chronic medical comorbidities, and expenditures for medical (non-behavioral) diagnoses accounted for 74 % of their health care expenditures. Total Medicaid expenditure was approximately 15 billion dollars (equivalent to 18.91 billion in 2016 dollars) for individuals with any behavioral diagnosis. Medicaid fee-for-service beneficiaries with behavioral diagnoses have a high treated prevalence of individual medical comorbid conditions, and the majority of health care expenditures in these individuals are for medical, rather than behavioral health, services.

  9. Computerized Adaptive Test vs. decision trees: Development of a support decision system to identify suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, D; Baca-Garcia, E; Aguado, D; Courtet, P; Lopez-Castroman, J

    2016-12-01

    Several Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) have been proposed to facilitate assessments in mental health. These tests are built in a standard way, disregarding useful and usually available information not included in the assessment scales that could increase the precision and utility of CATs, such as the history of suicide attempts. Using the items of a previously developed scale for suicidal risk, we compared the performance of a standard CAT and a decision tree in a support decision system to identify suicidal behavior. We included the history of past suicide attempts as a class for the separation of patients in the decision tree. The decision tree needed an average of four items to achieve a similar accuracy than a standard CAT with nine items. The accuracy of the decision tree, obtained after 25 cross-validations, was 81.4%. A shortened test adapted for the separation of suicidal and non-suicidal patients was developed. CATs can be very useful tools for the assessment of suicidal risk. However, standard CATs do not use all the information that is available. A decision tree can improve the precision of the assessment since they are constructed using a priori information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fostering SMART partnerships to develop an effective continuum of behavioral health services and supports in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Eric J; Duong, Mylien T; Lyon, Aaron R; Pullmann, Michael D; Cook, Clayton R; Cheney, Douglas; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The education sector offers compelling opportunities to address the shortcomings of traditional mental health delivery systems and to prevent and treat youth mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) problems. Recognizing that social and emotional wellness is intrinsically related to academic success, schools are moving to adopt multi-tier frameworks based on the public health model that provide a continuum of services to all children, including services to address both academic and MEB problems. In this article, we review the potential value of multi-tier frameworks in facilitating access to, and increasing the effectiveness of, mental health services in schools, and review the empirical support for school-based mental health interventions by tier. We go on to describe a community-academic partnership between the Seattle Public Schools and the University of Washington School Mental Health Assessment, Research, and Training (SMART) Center that exemplifies how multi-tier educational frameworks, research and evidence, and purposeful collaboration can combine to improve development and implementation of a range of school-based strategies focused on MEB needs of students. Finally, we present a set of 10 recommendations that may help guide other research and practice improvement efforts to address MEB problems in youth through effective school mental health programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Fostering SMART Partnerships to Develop an Effective Continuum of Behavioral Health Services and Supports in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Eric J.; Duong, Mylien T.; Lyon, Aaron R.; Pullmann, Michael D.; Cook, Clayton R.; Cheney, Douglas; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The education sector offers compelling opportunities to address the shortcomings of traditional mental health delivery systems and to prevent and treat youth mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) problems. Recognizing that social and emotional wellness is intrinsically related to academic success, schools are moving to adopt multi-tier frameworks based on the public health model that provide a continuum of services to all children, including services to address both academic and MEB problems. In this paper, we review the potential value of multi-tier frameworks in facilitating access to, and increasing the effectiveness of, mental health services in schools and review the empirical support for school-based mental health interventions by tier. We go on to describe a community-academic partnership between the Seattle Public Schools and the University of Washington School Mental Health Assessment, Research, and Training (SMART) Center that exemplifies how multi-tier educational frameworks, research and evidence, and purposeful collaboration can combine to improve development and implementation of a range of school-based strategies focused on MEB needs of students. Finally, we present a set of 10 recommendations that may help guide other research and practice improvement efforts to address MEB problems in youth through effective school mental health programming. PMID:26963185

  12. Work-Family Conflict, Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), and Sleep Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425

  13. Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from "Sex under the Age of 25".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, Hanneke; Verbeek, Mirthe; Van den Borne, Marieke; Meijer, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: "Sex under the age of 25." Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls) completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18-24) engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others), but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12-17). The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention.

  14. Social Support, Trust in Health Information, and Health Information-Seeking Behaviors (HISBs): A Study Using the 2012 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Chen, Yixin; Wendorf Muhamad, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict health information-seeking behaviors (HISBs) from three different sources (family, the Internet, doctors). To test the model, a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) (N = 3,285). Findings suggest higher social support from family predicts higher trust in health information from family members (abbreviated as trust in this article). Trust is positively related to HISBs from all three sources, with the path linking trust to HISB from family being the strongest. The effect of social support on HISB from family is partially mediated by trust, while effect of social support on HISBs from the Internet/doctors is fully mediated by trust. Implications of the study are discussed.

  15. A new standard of sexual behavior? Are claims associated with the "hookup culture" supported by general social survey data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monto, Martin A; Carey, Anna G

    2014-01-01

    Popular media have described intimate relationships among contemporary college students as dominated by a pervasive sexual "hookup culture," implying that students are involved in frequent sexual encounters pursued by both participants without the expectation of a continuing relationship. The hookup culture has been described as "a nationwide phenomenon that has largely replaced traditional dating on college campuses" (Bogle, 2008 , p. 5). We tested whether these claims are supported among young adults (18-25) who had completed at least one year of college. Contrasting 1988-1996 waves of the General Social Survey with 2004-2012 waves, we found respondents from the current era did not report more sexual partners since age 18, more frequent sex, or more partners during the past year than respondents from the earlier era. Sexually active respondents from the current era were more likely than those from the earlier era to report sex with a casual date/pickup or friend, and less likely to report sex with a spouse/regular partner. These modest changes are consistent with cultural shifts in the "scripts" and terminology surrounding sexuality. We find no evidence of substantial changes in sexual behavior that would indicate a new or pervasive pattern of non-relational sex among contemporary college students.

  16. Estimating active transportation behaviors to support health impact assessment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J Mansfield

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be

  17. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  18. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as “active transportation”), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59) premature deaths potentially could

  19. Sources of information used to support quality use of medicines: findings from a national survey of nurse practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas; Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Stuart, Meg; Dunn, Sandra V

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sources, both print and electronic formats, which Australian nurse practitioners (NPs) currently use to obtain information regarding quality use of medicines (QUM). An additional aim was to document NPs' preferences for continuing education in relation to QUM. A national electronic survey of Australian NPs was conducted in 2007 and again in 2010. Eighty percent of respondents accessed information on QUM from professional literature, which may include scholarly journal articles, reports, and independent publications. There was a decrease in the percentage of respondents who obtained information from drug industry representatives. NPs prefer to receive medicines information in an electronic form, rather than a paper-based version, and over the time period more NPs are utilizing electronic sources rather than paper. These findings provide important insights into medical information products for the developers who may be able to use these results to ensure that their products meet the needs of NP clinicians. Additionally, the finding that NPs prefer to receive their continuing information related to medicines in electronic format, but also highly value conference proceedings, may help to inform future planning of NP education needs in relation to QUM. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Communication Disorders and Challenging Behaviors: Supporting Children's Functional Communication Goals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Katy

    2017-01-01

    Children with communication disorders may express frustrations through challenging behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and social withdrawal. Challenging behaviors may lead to difficulties with building social competencies including emotional regulation and peer engagement. Individualized planning of functional goals for children with…

  1. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  2. Theory-guided, empirically supported avenues for intervention on HIV medication nonadherence: findings from the Healthy Living Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Catz, Sheryl L; Remien, Robert H; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Morin, Stephen F; Charlebois, Edwin; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Goldsten, Rise B; Wolfe, Hannah; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Chesney, Margaret A

    2003-12-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in efforts to maximize HIV treatment benefits. Previous studies of antiretroviral adherence are limited by low statistical power, homogeneous samples, and biased assessment methods. Based on Social Action Theory and using a large, diverse sample of men and women living with HIV, the objectives of the current study are to clarify correlates of nonadherence to ART and to provide theory-guided, empirically supported direction for intervening on ART nonadherence. Cross-sectional interview study utilizing a computerized interview. Recruited from clinics, agencies, and via media ads in four U.S. cities from June 2000 to January 2002. Two thousand seven hundred and sixty-five HIV-positive adults taking ART. Computer-assessed self-reported antiretroviral adherence. Thirty-two percent reported less than 90% adherence to ART in the prior 3 days. A number of factors were related to nonadherence in univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses identified that being African American, being in a primary relationship, and a history of injection drug use or homelessness in the past year were associated with greater likelihood of nonadherence. Furthermore, adherence self-efficacy, and being able to manage side effects and fit medications into daily routines were protective against nonadherence. Being tired of taking medications was associated with poorer adherence whereas a belief that nonadherence can make the virus stronger was associated with better adherence. Results support the need for multifocused interventions to improve medication adherence that address logistical barriers, substance use, attitudes and expectancies, as well as skills building and self-efficacy enhancement. Further exploration of issues related to adherence for African Americans and men in primary relationships is warranted.

  3. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  4. How Persuasive are Serious Games, Social Media and mHealth Technologies for Vulnerable Young Adults? Design Factors for Health Behavior and Lifestyle Change Support: Sexual Health Case. Proceedings Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; den Daas, Chantal; David, Silke; Kelders, Saskia; Kulyk, Olga; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Modern eHealth technologies, such as serious games, social media and mobile applications addressing health behavior support are evolving rapidly. High-risk young adults with low educational background and of foreign origin could especially benefit from personalized health technologies, designed for

  5. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups.

  6. How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. PMID:21655144

  7. Regular drinking may strengthen the beneficial influence of social support on depression: Findings from a representative Israeli sample during a period of war and terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C.; Rapaport, Carmit; Zalta, Alyson K.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Hall, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social support is consistently associated with reduced risk of depression. Few studies have investigated how this relationship may be modified by alcohol use, the effects of which may be particularly relevant in traumatized populations in which rates of alcohol use are known to be high. Methods In 2008 a representative sample of 1622 Jewish and Palestinian citizens in Israel were interviewed by phone at two time points during a period of ongoing terrorism and war threat. Two multivariable mixed effects regression models were estimated to measure the longitudinal association of social support from family and friends on depression symptoms. Three-way interaction terms between social support, alcohol use and time were entered into the models to test for effect modification. Results Findings indicated that increased family social support was associated with less depression symptomatology (p=<.01); this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time (p=<.01). Social support from friends was also associated with fewer depression symptoms (p=<.01) and this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time as well (p=<.01). Stratified analyses in both models revealed that the effect of social support was stronger for those who drank alcohol regularly than those who did not drink or drank rarely. Conclusions These findings suggest that social support is a more important protective factor for depression among regular drinkers than among those who do not drink or drink rarely in the context of political violence. Additional research is warranted to determine whether these findings are stable in other populations and settings. PMID:24838033

  8. The Role of Leadership Support for Health Promotion in Employee Wellness Program Participation, Perceived Job Stress, and Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoert, Jennifer; Herd, Ann M; Hambrick, Marion

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between leadership support for health promotion and job stress, wellness program participation, and health behaviors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Four worksites with a range of wellness programs were selected for this study. Participants in this study were employees (n = 618) at 4 organizations (bank, private university, wholesale supplier, and public university) in the southeastern United States, each offering an employee wellness program. Response rates in each organization ranged from 3% to 34%. Leadership support for health promotion was measured with the Leading by Example instrument. Employee participation in wellness activities, job stress, and health behaviors were measured with multi-item scales. Correlation/regression analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the relationships among the scaled variables. Employees reporting higher levels of leadership support for health promotion also reported higher levels of wellness activity participation, lower job stress, and greater levels of health behavior ( P = .001). To ascertain the amount of variance in health behaviors accounted for by the other variables in the study, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed a statistically significant model (model F 7,523 = 27.28; P = .001), with leadership support for health promotion (β = .19, t = 4.39, P = .001), wellness activity participation (β = .28, t = 6.95, P stress (β = -.27, t = -6.75, P ≤ .001) found to be significant predictors of health behaviors in the model. Exploratory regression analyses by organization revealed the focal variables as significant model predictors for only the 2 larger organizations with well-established wellness programs. Results from the study suggest that employees' perceptions of organizational leadership support for health promotion are related to their participation in wellness activities, perceived job stress levels, and health behaviors.

  9. Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey--Budapest, Hungary, 1999. Findings on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, A; Kiss, E; Mowery, P

    2004-06-01

    In Hungary, a large proportion of adult morbidity and mortality can be attributed to health risk behaviors that begin in early adolescence. To date, studies examining health risk behaviors among youth have rarely been undertaken in Hungary. In order to expand current research in this area, the Hungarian Metropolitan Institute of State Public Health and Public Health Officer Service and the Office on Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented the Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey. The objective of this study was to examine health behavior risk factors among secondary school students in Budapest in 1999. The 1999 Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey is cross-sectional school-based survey A 2-stage cluster sampling design was used to produce a representative sample of secondary students in grades 9-12 in Budapest. Information was collected on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 28.7% of students had rarely or never worn a seatbelt and 68.1% drunk alcohol. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 14.5% had been threatened or injured with a weapon, 12.9% experienced dating violence, and 13.5% seriously considered suicide. Of the 44.7% of students who had had sexual intercourse, 29.5% had > or = 4 sex partners. Of sexually active students, 50.4% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Many secondary school students in Budapest practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems both in the short and long-term. Programs and policies that adequately address such behaviors among secondary school students are needed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  10. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Health Status and Health Care Experiences among Homeless Patients in Federally Supported Health Centers: Findings from the 2009 Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588

  12. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  13. Sexual Behaviors of US Women at Risk of HIV Acquisition: A Longitudinal Analysis of Findings from HPTN 064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, J; Befus, M; Hughes, J; Wang, J; Golin, C E; Adimora, A A; Kuo, I; Haley, D F; Del Rio, C; El-Sadr, W M; Rompalo, A; Mannheimer, S; Soto-Torres, L; Hodder, S

    2015-07-01

    We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about individual sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and concurrent partnerships. The baseline prevalence of each behavior was >30 % among the 2,099 participants, 88 % reported partner(s) with >1 HIV risk characteristic and both individual and partner risk characteristics decreased over time. Less than high school education and food insecurity predicted consistent/increased engagement in exchange sex and UAI, and partner's concurrency predicted participant concurrency. Our results demonstrate how interpersonal and social factors may influence sustained high-risk behavior by individuals and suggest that further study of the economic issues related to HIV risk could inform future prevention interventions.

  14. P-Wave Amplitude and PR Changes in Patients With Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia: Findings Supportive of a Central Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michael E; Donateo, Paolo; Bottoni, Nicola; Iori, Matteo; Brignole, Michele; Kipp, Ryan T; Kopp, Douglas E; Leal, Miguel A; Eckhardt, Lee L; Wright, Jennifer M; Walsh, Kathleen E; Page, Richard L; Hamdan, Mohamed H

    2018-04-19

    The mechanism of inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) remains incompletely understood. We prospectively compared 3 patient groups: 11 patients with IST (IST Group), 9 control patients administered isoproterenol (Isuprel Group), and 15 patients with cristae terminalis atrial tachycardia (AT Group). P-wave amplitude in lead II and PR interval were measured at a lower and higher heart rate (HR1 and HR2, respectively). P-wave amplitude increased significantly with the increase in HR in the IST Group (0.16±0.07 mV at HR1=97±12 beats per minute versus 0.21±0.08 mV at HR2=135±21 beats per minute, P =0.001). The average increase in P-wave amplitude in the IST Group was similar to the Isuprel Group ( P =0.26). PR interval significantly shortened with the increases in HR in the IST Group (146±15 ms at HR1 versus 128±16 ms at HR2, P PR interval was noted in the Isuprel Group ( P =0.6). In contrast, patients in the atrial tachycardia Group experienced PR lengthening during atrial tachycardia when compared with baseline normal sinus rhythm (153±25 ms at HR1=78±17 beats per minute versus 179±29 ms at HR2=140±28 beats per minute, P PR shortening similar to what is seen in healthy controls following isoproterenol infusion. The increase in P-wave amplitude and absence of PR lengthening in IST support an extrinsic mechanism consistent with a state of sympatho-excitation with cephalic shift in sinus node activation and enhanced atrioventricular nodal conduction. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. A pilot training program for people in recovery of mental illness as vocational peer support workers in Hong Kong - Job Buddies Training Program (JBTP): A preliminary finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kevin Kei Nang; Lo, William Tak Lam; Chiu, Rose Lai Ping; Lau, Bien Shuk Yin; Lau, Charles Ka Shing; Wu, Jen Kei Yu; Wan, Siu Man

    2016-10-24

    The present study reviews the delivery of a pilot curriculum-mentorship-based peer vocational support workers training in a Hong Kong public psychiatric hospital. The present paper reports (1) on the development of a peer vocational support workers training - Job Buddies Training Program (JBTP) in Hong Kong; and (2) preliminary findings from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The curriculum consists of 15-session coursework, 8-session storytelling workshop and 50-hour practicum to provide Supported Employment Peer Service (SEPS) under the mentorship of occupational therapists. Six trainees were assessed using three psychosocial assessments and qualitative methods. Compared to the baseline, the Job Buddies (JB) trainees showed an increase in awareness of their own recovery progress, occupational competence and problem-solving skills at the end of the training. Their perceived level of self-stigma was also lessened. In post-training evaluation, all Job Buddies trainees said they perceived positive personal growth and discovered their own strengths. They also appreciated the help from their mentors and gained mutual support from other trainees and from exposure with various mini-projects in the training. This pilot study provides an example of incorporating peer support and manualized training into existing work rehabilitation service for our JB trainees. Further studies on the effectiveness of service provided by peer support workers and for development on the potential use of peer support workers in other clinical and rehabilitation settings with larger subjects will be fruitful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  17. Study of the ion-channel behavior on glassy carbon electrode supported bilayer lipid membranes stimulated by perchlorate anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiquan; Shi, Jun; Huang, Weimin, E-mail: huangwm@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a kind of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) layer membranes was supported on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). We studied the ion channel behavior of the supported bilayer lipid membrane by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SCEM) in tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) solution. Perchlorate anion was used as a presence of stimulus and ruthenium(II) complex cations as the probing ions for the measurement of SECM, the lipid membrane channel was opened and exhibited the behavior of distinct SECM positive feedback curve. The channel was in a closed state in the absence of perchlorate anions while reflected the behavior of SECM negative feedback curve. The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected and it was dependant on the potential of SECM. - Highlights: • The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected. • Dynamic investigations of ion-channel behavior of supported bilayer lipid membranes by scanning electrochemical microscopy • A novel way to explore the interaction between molecules and supported bilayer lipid membranes.

  18. Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satistaction Dan Organizational Citizenship Behavior Pada PT. Bank Maluku Cabang UTAMA Kota Ambon

    OpenAIRE

    Waileruny, Hulawa Theresia

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction dan Organizational Citizenship Behavior pada PT. Bank Maluku Cabang Utama Kota Ambon. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 103 orang karyawan PT. Bank Maluku Cabang Utama Kota Ambon. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif, data penelitian diperoleh melalui kuesioner penelitian yang telah diisi oleh responden. Metode pengolahan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan validitas, relia...

  19. Residents’ Support Intentions and Behaviors Regarding Urban Trees Programs: A Structural Equation Modeling-Multi Group Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban trees are more about people than trees. Urban trees programs need public support and engagement, from the intentions to support to implement actions in supporting the programs. Built upon the theory of planned behavior and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, this study uses Beijing as a case study to investigate how subjective norm (cognition of urban trees, attitude (benefits residents’ believe urban trees can provide, and perceived behavioral control (the believed ability of what residents can do affect intention and its transformation into implemented of supporting action. A total of 800 residents were interviewed in 2016 and asked about their opinion of neighborhood trees, park trees, and historical trees, and analyzed, respectively. The results show that subjective norm has a significant positive effect on intentions pertaining to historical and neighborhood trees. Attitudes influence intentions, but its overall influence is much lower than that of the subjective norm, indicating that residents are more likely to be influenced by external factors. The perceived behavioral control has the strongest effect among the three, suggesting the importance of public participation in strengthening intention. The transformation from intention to behavior seems relatively small, especially regarding neighborhood trees, suggesting that perceptions and participation need to be strengthened.

  20. Contribution of partner support in self-management of rheumatoid arthritis patients : An application of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, Mathilde M.H.; van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.; Suurmeijer, Theo P.B.M.

    The aim of this exploratory study was to test the applicability of a model derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior on self-management. In this model social support from the partner, attitude and self-efficacy are determinants of intention, and intention and self-efficacy are determinants of

  1. Predicting the Filial Behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian Adolescents from Perceived Parental Investments, Filial Emotions, and Parental Warmth and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…

  2. Identifying Configurations of Perceived Teacher Autonomy Support and Structure: Associations with Self-Regulated Learning, Motivation and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Sierens, Eline; Goossens, Luc; Soenens, Bart; Dochy, Filip; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Aelterman, Nathalie; Haerens, Leen; Beyers, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, the aim of this study was (a) to examine naturally occurring configurations of perceived teacher autonomy support and clear expectations (i.e., a central aspect of teacher structure), and (b) to investigate associations with academic motivation, self-regulated learning, and problem behavior. Based on…

  3. Adolescent Resilience in Northern Uganda: The Role of Social Support and Prosocial Behavior in Reducing Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…

  4. Initial Principal Readiness to Interconnect Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and School Mental Health: A Sequential Multivariate Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Andrew Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 20% of youth in the U.S. are experiencing a mental health challenge; a rate that is said to increase by more than 50% by 2020. Schools are the largest provider of mental health services to youth, yet two of schools' most efficacious evidence-based systems, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and school mental health…

  5. Scale-Up of Safe & Civil Schools' Model for School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa; Ward, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the scale-up of a Safe & Civil Schools "Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies" positive behavioral interventions and supports initiative through 4 years of "real-world" implementation in a large urban school district. The study extends results from a previous randomized controlled trial…

  6. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  7. Preschool Teachers' Financial Well-Being and Work Time Supports: Associations with Children's Emotional Expressions and Behaviors in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth K.; Johnson, Amy V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Wang, Yudan C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among teachers' financial well-being, including teachers' wages and their perceptions of their ability to pay for basic expenses, and teachers' work time supports, including teachers' paid planning time, vacation days, and sick days, and children's positive emotional expressions and behaviors in preschool…

  8. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  9. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  10. The Contributions of Teachers' Emotional Support to Children's Social Behaviors and Self-Regulatory Skills in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Wanless, Shannon B.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Cameron, Claire; Peugh, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The present observational study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of children's social and self-regulatory outcomes in first-grade classrooms. Specifically, goals were the following: (1) to explore relations between emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions and children's social behaviors (aggression with peers,…

  11. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Brain Connectivity Supporting Catastrophizing in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Asimina; Kim, Jieun; Cahalan, Christine M; Loggia, Marco L; Franceschelli, Olivia; Berna, Chantal; Schur, Peter; Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic, common pain disorder characterized by hyperalgesia. A key mechanism by which cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) fosters improvement in pain outcomes is via reductions in hyperalgesia and pain-related catastrophizing, a dysfunctional set of cognitive-emotional processes. However, the neural underpinnings of these CBT effects are unclear. Our aim was to assess CBT's effects on the brain circuitry underlying hyperalgesia in FM patients, and to explore the role of treatment-associated reduction in catastrophizing as a contributor to normalization of pain-relevant brain circuitry and clinical improvement. In total, 16 high-catastrophizing FM patients were enrolled in the study and randomized to 4 weeks of individual treatment with either CBT or a Fibromyalgia Education (control) condition. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans evaluated functional connectivity between key pain-processing brain regions at baseline and posttreatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Catastrophizing correlated with increased resting state functional connectivity between S1 and anterior insula. The CBT group showed larger reductions (compared with the education group) in catastrophizing at posttreatment (PCBT produced significant reductions in both pain and catastrophizing at the 6-month follow-up (PCBT group also showed reduced resting state connectivity between S1 and anterior/medial insula at posttreatment; these reductions in resting state connectivity were associated with concurrent treatment-related reductions in catastrophizing. The results add to the growing support for the clinically important associations between S1-insula connectivity, clinical pain, and catastrophizing, and suggest that CBT may, in part via reductions in catastrophizing, help to normalize pain-related brain responses in FM.

  12. The Influence of Need-Supportive Teacher Behavior on the Motivation of Students with Congenital Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research has indicated that need-supportive learning environments positively influence students' motivation. According to self-determination theory, a need-supportive learning environment is one in which teachers provide structure, autonomy support, and involvement, and thereby support their students' psychological needs for…

  13. How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5 and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1 cessation, (2 quit attempts, and (3 successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5 and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1 cessation, (2 quit attempts, and (3 successful

  14. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jin-Kyoung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.

  15. Very early social support following mild stroke is associated with emotional and behavioral outcomes three months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Marie; Sibon, Igor; Renou, Pauline; Poli, Mathilde; Swendsen, Joel

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether social contact and support received during hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke predict depression and daily life functioning three months later. Prospective observational study using Ecological Momentary Assessments to evaluate the number of social contacts as well as social support received from family, friends and medical staff within 24 hours following admission for stroke. Patients also monitored depression symptoms and behavior in real-time and in daily life contexts three months later. A university hospital acute stroke unit. Thirty-four mild ischemic stroke patients. None. One-day Ecological Momentary Assessments immediately following stroke collected information concerning perceived social support, number of social contacts and depression symptoms. Ecological Momentary Assessments was repeated three months later and addressed depression levels as well as activities of daily living, such as working, cooking, shopping and housework. The number of social interactions received at hospitalization did not predict three-month outcomes. However, a better quality of moral support from friends and family immediately after stroke was associated with decreases in later depression levels ( p = 0.041) and increases in activities of daily living ( p = 0.011). Material support from friends and family was associated with increases in activities of daily living ( p = 0.012). No effect was observed for support received from medical staff. Patient perceptions of better support quality, and not quantity, immediately following mild stroke, are associated with better behavioral and emotional outcomes three months later.

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  17. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  18. Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

  19. The Interaction of Motivation and Therapist Adherence Predicts Outcome in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jonathan D.; Barlow, David H.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a post-hoc, exploratory examination of the relationships among patient motivation, therapist protocol adherence, and panic disorder outcome in patients treated with cognitive behavioral therapy within the context of a randomized clinical trial for the treatment of panic disorder (Barlow, Gorman, Shear, & Woods, 2000). Results…

  20. Teen Dating Violence (Physical and Sexual) Among US High School Students: Findings From the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M

    2015-05-01

    National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were

  1. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  2. The Association Between Men's Concern About Demonstrating Masculine Characteristics and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors: Findings from the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Powell, Wizdom; Gottert, Ann; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brito, Maximo O

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative analyses exploring the relationship between masculinities and men's sexual risk behaviors have most commonly used one dimension of masculinities: men's gender ideology. Examining other dimensions may enhance our understanding of and ability to intervene upon this relationship. In this article, we examined the association between gender role conflict/stress (GRC/S)-men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics-and three different sexual risk behaviors (having two or more sex partners in the last 30 days; never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners; and drinking alcohol at last sex) among a sample of heterosexual men in the Dominican Republic who were participating in an HIV prevention intervention (n = 293). The GRC/S Scale we used was adapted for this specific cultural context and has 17 items (α = 0.75). We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between GRC/S and each sexual behavior, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. In adjusted models, a higher GRC/S score was significantly associated with increased odds of having two or more sex partners in the past 30 days (AOR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.01-1.74), never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners (AOR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.04-2.01), and drinking alcohol at last sex (AOR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.13-2.17). These results highlight the importance of expanding beyond gender ideology to understanding the influence of GRC/S on men's sexual risk behaviors. Interventions should address men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics to reduce the social and internalized pressure men feel to engage in sexual risk behaviors.

  3. Tutorial teaching assistants in the classroom: Similar teaching behaviors are supported by varied beliefs about teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Michelle Goertzen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a long-term program to develop effective, research-based professional development programs for physics graduate student teaching assistants (TAs, we first identify their current classroom practices and why they engage in these practices. In this paper, we identify a set of teaching practices we call “focusing on indicators,” which occurs when TAs use signs such as key words or diagrams as evidence that students understand the target idea; these indicators are more superficial than a detailed explanation. Our primary finding is that although the three TAs discussed here share a common behavior, the beliefs and motivations that underlie this behavior vary. We argue that TA professional development focused on changing these TAs’ focus-on-indicator behavior is unlikely to be effective. Instead, responsive TA professional development will need to address the TAs’ beliefs that guide the observed classroom behavior.

  4. Mechanical and Structural Behavior of Granular Material Packed Beds for Space Life Support System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ramesh B.; Anandakumar, Ganesh

    2005-01-01

    Long-term human mission to space, such as living in International Space Station (ISS), Lunar, and Martian bases, and travel to Mars, must m ake use of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) to generate and recycle critical life supporting elements like oxygen and water. Oxygen Gen eration Assembly (OGA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA), critical c omponents of ALSS, make use of series of granular material packed beds for generation and recycling of oxygen and water. Several granular m aterials can be used for generation, recycling, processing and recovery of oxygen and water. For example, they may include soft bed media, e.g. ion exchange resins for oxygen generation assembly and hard bed media such as, activated alumina, magchem (Magnesium oxide) and activa ted carbon to remove organic species like ethanol, methanol, and urea from wastewater in Water recovery/processing assembly. These beds are generally packed using a plate-spring mechanism to provide sufficien t compaction to the bed media throughout the course of operation. This paper presents results from an experimental study of a full-scale, 3 8.1 cm (15 inches) long and 3.7 cm (1.44 inches) diameter. activated alumina bed enclosed in a cylinder determining its force-displacement behavior, friction mobilizing force, and axial normal stress distribu tion under various axially applied loads and at different levels of packing. It is observed that force-displacement behavior is non-linear for low compaction level and becomes linear with increase in compaction of the bed media. Axial normal stress distribution along the length of the bed media decreased non-linearly with increase in depth from the loading end of the granular media. This paper also presents experimental results on the amount of particulates generated corresponding to various compaction levels. Particulates generated from each of the tests were measured using standard US sieves. It was found that the p articulates and the overall displacement of

  5. Relationship between perceived social support and self-care behavior in type 2 diabetics: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, Siamak; Parham, Mahmoud; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Social support is one of the most effective factors on the diabetic self-care. This study aimed to assess social support and its relationship to self-care in type 2 diabetic patients in Qom, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 325 diabetics attending the Diabetes Mellitus Association. Patients who meet inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected using random sampling method. Data were collected by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, with hemoglobin A 1 C test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent t -test, analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and linear regression test, using 0.05 as the critical significance level, provided by SPSS software. The mean and standard deviation of self-care and social support scores were 4.31 ± 2.7 and 50.32 ± 11.09, respectively. The mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1 C) of patients was 7.54. There was a significant difference between mean score of self-care behaviors and social support according to gender and marital status ( P social support significantly correlated ( r = 0.489, P > 0.001) and also predictive power of social support was 0.28. Self-care was significantly better in diabetics with HbA 1 C ≤7%. Patients who had higher HbA 1 C felt less, but not significant, social support. This study indicated the relationship between social support and self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetic patients. Interventions that focus on improving the social support and self-care of diabetic control may be more effective in improving glycemic control.

  6. Evidence-informed health policy 1 - synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Moynihan, Ray; Paulsen, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-17

    Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We undertook a multi-method study in three phases - a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits - and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1) collaborate with other organizations; 2) establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3) be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4) build capacity among those working in the organization; 5) use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6) start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7) be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations and networks: 1) support collaborations among organizations; 2) support local adaptation efforts; 3) mobilize support; and 4) create global public goods. This synthesis of

  7. Evidence-informed health policy 1 – Synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Ray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We undertook a multi-method study in three phases – a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits – and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Results Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1 collaborate with other organizations; 2 establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3 be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4 build capacity among those working in the organization; 5 use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6 start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7 be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO and other international organizations and networks: 1 support collaborations among organizations; 2 support local adaptation efforts; 3 mobilize support; and 4 create

  8. Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) in Mobile Health: Key Components and Design Principles for Ongoing Health Behavior Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Smith, Shawna N; Spring, Bonnie J; Collins, Linda M; Witkiewitz, Katie; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A

    2018-05-18

    The just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) is an intervention design aiming to provide the right type/amount of support, at the right time, by adapting to an individual's changing internal and contextual state. The availability of increasingly powerful mobile and sensing technologies underpins the use of JITAIs to support health behavior, as in such a setting an individual's state can change rapidly, unexpectedly, and in his/her natural environment. Despite the increasing use and appeal of JITAIs, a major gap exists between the growing technological capabilities for delivering JITAIs and research on the development and evaluation of these interventions. Many JITAIs have been developed with minimal use of empirical evidence, theory, or accepted treatment guidelines. Here, we take an essential first step towards bridging this gap. Building on health behavior theories and the extant literature on JITAIs, we clarify the scientific motivation for JITAIs, define their fundamental components, and highlight design principles related to these components. Examples of JITAIs from various domains of health behavior research are used for illustration. As we enter a new era of technological capacity for delivering JITAIs, it is critical that researchers develop sophisticated and nuanced health behavior theories capable of guiding the construction of such interventions. Particular attention has to be given to better understanding the implications of providing timely and ecologically sound support for intervention adherence and retention.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of unhealthy weight control behaviors: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Eric M; Rose, Jennifer S; Kenney, Lindsay; Rosselli-Navarra, Francine; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study examined the prevalence, clinical correlates, age trends, and stability of unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB; purging and diet pill use) in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to provide similar, comparative analyses for a nationally representative sample of American youth. Methods Data were extracted from the restricted use data files of survey Waves I, II, and III of the National Longitudinal Study of...

  10. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy Plus Contingency Management for Cocaine Use: Findings During Treatment and Across 12-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, David H; Hawkins, Wesley E; Covi, Lino; Umbricht, Annie; Preston, Kenzie L

    2003-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) rapidly reduces cocaine use, but its effects subside after treatment. Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) produces reductions months after treatment. Combined, the 2 might be complementary. One hundred ninety-three cocaine-using methadone-maintained outpatients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of group therapy (CBT or a control condition) and voucher availability (CM contingent on cocaine-negative urine or noncontingent). Follow-ups occurred 3, 6, and 12 months po...

  11. Risky driving behavior and road traffic crashes among young Asian Australian drivers: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Lam, Lawrence T

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in risky driving behavior and likelihood of traffic crash according to the country of birth of recently licensed young drivers. The groups examined include those born in Australia, those born in Asia, and those born in other countries. The DRIVE study is a prospective cohort study of drivers aged 17-24 years holding their first-year provisional driver license in New South Wales, Australia. Information obtained from 20,822 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire was linked to police-reported traffic crashes. Self-reported risky driving behaviors and police-reported traffic crashes in young drivers. Young drivers who were born in Asian countries were less likely to report engaging in risky driving behaviors than their Australian-born counterparts. The proportion of participants reporting a high level of risky driving was 31.5 percent (95% confidence intervale [CI], 30.8-32.1) among Australian-born drivers compared to 25.6 percent (95% CI, 23.1-28.2) among Asian-born drivers and 30.4 percent (95% CI, 28.4-32.5) among those born in other regions. Asian-born participants had half the risk of a crash as a driver than their Australian-born counterparts (relative risk [RR] 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) after adjusting for a number of demographic factors and driving and risk-taking behaviors. The comparative risk was even lower among those aged 17 years (RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.29-0.75). Risk estimates for people born in other regions did not differ to those for Australian-born respondents. The study highlights the lower level of risky driving and significantly reduced crash risk for Australian drivers born in Asian countries relative to those born locally. Further research is needed to examine factors underlying this reduced risk and the impact of the length of residence in the host country.

  12. Exploring Self-Care and Preferred Supports for Adult Parents in Recovery from Substance Use Disorders: Qualitative Findings from a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Phyllis A; Pope, Charlene; York, Janet; Smith, Gigi; Mueller, Martina

    2017-11-01

    Very little is known about the self-care behaviors (SCB) that adult parents employ and the preferred supports they utilize to maintain their recovery from substance use disorders (SUD) while also parenting their children. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach to explore perceptions of self-care and parenting to inform future self-care interventions for parents in early recovery. Nineteen mothers and fathers of at least one child between the ages of 6-18 were interviewed by telephone about parental self-care practices while in recovery from SUD, recovery management, and preferred supports in the community. Participants described the experience of parenting as challenging, with variations in the level of support and resources. Self-care included meaningful connection with recovery support and children, taking care of physical health, maintaining spirituality, healthy eating, exercise, journaling, continuing education, staying busy, sponsorship, establishing boundaries, self-monitoring, abstinence, and dealing with destructive emotions. Participants reported SCB as being a critical component of their ongoing recovery and their parenting practices, though differences in SCB by gender and for minorities require further exploration. Parental gains were perceived as benefits of SCB that minimized the negative impact of prior parental drug use on their children.

  13. The influence of the nature and textural properties of different supports on the thermal behavior of Keggin type heteropolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU POPA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain highly dispersed heteropolyacids (HPAs species, H3PMo12VO40 and H3PVMo11O40 were supported on various supports: silica (Aerosil - Degussa and Romsil types and TiO2. The structure and thermal decomposition of supported and unsupported HPAs were followed by different techniques (TGA-DTA, FTIR, XRD, low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy. All the supported HPAs were prepared by impregnation using the incipient wetness technique with a 1:1 mixture of water–ethanol. Samples were prepared with different concentrations to examine the effect of loading on the thermal behavior of the supported acid catalysts. The thermal stability was evaluated with reference to the bulk solid acids and mechanical mixtures. After deposition on silica types supports, an important decrease in thermal stability was observed on the Romsil types and a small decrease on the Aerosil type. The stability of the heteropolyacids supported on titania increased due to an anion-support interaction, as the thermal decomposition proceeded in two steps. The structure of the HPAs was not totally destroyed at 450 ºC as some IR bands were still preserved. A relatively uniform distribution of HPAs on the support surface was observed for all compositions of the active phase. No separate crystallites of solid phase HPAs were found in the SEM images.

  14. Visual Sexual Stimuli-Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS.

  15. Visual Sexual Stimuli—Cue or Reward? A Perspective for Interpreting Brain Imaging Findings on Human Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Artur; Sescousse, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies using visual sexual stimuli (VSS), especially within the emerging field of research on compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB). A central question in this field is whether behaviors such as excessive pornography consumption share common brain mechanisms with widely studied substance and behavioral addictions. Depending on how VSS are conceptualized, different predictions can be formulated within the frameworks of Reinforcement Learning or Incentive Salience Theory, where a crucial distinction is made between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (related to reward anticipation vs. reward consumption, respectively). Surveying 40 recent human neuroimaging studies we show existing ambiguity about the conceptualization of VSS. Therefore, we feel that it is important to address the question of whether VSS should be considered as conditioned stimuli (cue) or unconditioned stimuli (reward). Here we present our own perspective, which is that in most laboratory settings VSS play a role of reward, as evidenced by: (1) experience of pleasure while watching VSS, possibly accompanied by genital reaction; (2) reward-related brain activity correlated with these pleasurable feelings in response to VSS; (3) a willingness to exert effort to view VSS similarly as for other rewarding stimuli such as money; and (4) conditioning for cues predictive of VSS. We hope that this perspective article will initiate a scientific discussion on this important and overlooked topic and increase attention for appropriate interpretations of results of human neuroimaging studies using VSS. PMID:27574507

  16. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  17. An Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Caregivers How to Support Social Skill Development in Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahfuz; Simpson, Andrea; Danaher, Katey; Haesen, James; Makela, Tanya; Thomson, Kendra

    2018-06-01

    Limited research has explored how to best train caregivers to support their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) despite caregivers being well suited to promote generalization and maintenance of their child's skills in the natural environment. Children with ASD have been shown to benefit from social skill training, which is not always conducted in the natural context. This research examined the efficacy of behavioral skills training (BST) with, and without in situ training (IST), for teaching caregivers how to also use BST to support their child's context-specific social skills. Although caregivers met mastery criterion within BST sessions, their skills did not generalize to the natural environment until IST was introduced. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. The effect of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of strip footing supported on reinforced sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on the influence of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of a model strip footing adjacent to the excavation and supported on reinforced granular soil. Initially, the response of the strip footings supported on un-reinforced sand and subjected to vertical loads (which were constant during the test due to adjacent deep excavation-induced lateral soil movement were obtained. Then, the effects of the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in supporting soil on the model footing behavior under the same conditions were investigated. The studied factors include the value of the sustained footing loads, the location of footing relative to the excavation, the affected depth of soil due to deep excavation, and the relative density of sand. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the supporting sand significantly decreases both vertical settlements and the tilts of the footings due to the nearby excavation. However, the improvements in the footing behavior were found to be very dependent on the location of the footing relative to excavation. Based on the test results, the variation of the footing measured vertical settlements with different parameters are presented and discussed.

  19. Use of a training program to enhance NICU nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behaviors and offering supportive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2003-06-01

    This study tested the use of a developmentally supportive care (DSC) training program in the form of videotaped and personalized instruction to increase nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behavioral signals and offering supportive care. The study used a two-group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental repeated measures design. The participants were 25 NICU nurses, 13 in the intervention group, and 12 in the control group. An instrument developed for the purpose of the study was a video test that measured the effectiveness of the DSC training. The video test questionnaires were administered to the participants twice with an interval of four weeks. ANCOVA controlling the baseline scores was used for data analysis. In general, the results support the hypothesis that nurses' cognitive abilities were enhanced after the DSC training. The increase in nurses' cognitive abilities is the prerequisite for behavioral change, based on the assumptions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986). As nurses' cognitive abilities increased, it would be possible that nurse behaviors in taking care of these preterm infants might change. Therefore, the author recommends that in order to improve NICU care quality and the outcomes of preterm infants, the concepts of developmentally supportive care be incorporated into NICU caregiving practice by educating nurses.

  20. What Influences Chinese Adolescents’ Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents’ attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents’ online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying. PMID:28458649

  1. What Influences Chinese Adolescents' Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents' attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents' online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying.

  2. Finding Family Support Resource Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... led by a peer (e.g., survivor ) or mental health specialist . Some groups are specifically for patients or parents while others welcome the whole family , including siblings and grandparents . The focus of conversation can also ...

  3. Behavioral laterality of the brain: support for the binary construct of hemisity

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Three terms define brain behavioral laterality: hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one's first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person's binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs) exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to...

  4. Socio-economic variation in price minimizing behaviors: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  5. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of

  6. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  7. Perceived Social Support From Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality Among Low-Income, Urban, Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Baltimore, MD. 296 youth aged 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Primary dependent variable: diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Adjusted multiple linear regressions (α, P Friend and parent support for healthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high-fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β = -1.65; SE = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, -2.66 to -0.63). These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving Behavioral Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: What Are the Barriers to Stopping and Which Behavior Change Techniques Can Influence These? Application of Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katarzyna A; Fergie, Libby; Coleman-Haynes, Tom; Cooper, Sue; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Ussher, Michael; Dyas, Jane; Coleman, Tim

    2018-02-17

    Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts ( n = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&Fs most influencing women's smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support. Effective cessation interventions in randomized trials from a recent Cochrane review were coded into component BCTs using existing taxonomies. B&Fs were categorized using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Matrices, mapping BCT taxonomies against TDF domains, were consulted to investigate the extent to which BCTs in existing interventions target key B&Fs. Experts ranked "smoking a social norm" and "quitting not a priority" as most important barriers and "desire to protect baby" an important facilitator to quitting. From 14 trials, 23 potentially-effective BCTs were identified (e.g., information about consequences). Most B&Fs fell into "Social Influences", "Knowledge", "Emotions" and "Intentions" TDF domains; few potentially-effective BCTs mapped onto every TDF domain. B&Fs identified by experts as important to cessation, are not sufficiently targeted by BCT's currently within interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy.

  9. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user’s preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  10. Effects of Social Support About Physical Activity on Social Networking Sites: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Yang, Jingzhen; Janz, Kathleen F; Snetselaar, Linda G; Eckler, Petya

    2015-01-01

    Despite the physical and mental health benefits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), only about half of college students participate in the recommended amount of LTPA. While college students are avid users of social network sites (SNSs), whether SNSs would be an effective channel for promoting LTPA through peer social support is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support from students' contacts on SNSs on their intention to participate in LTPA, applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants were recruited through a mass e-mail sent to undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university in fall 2011. In total, 439 surveys were analyzed. Descriptive analyses and analysis for mediating effects were conducted. Social support about LTPA from contacts on SNSs has indirect effect on intention through affective attitude, instrumental attitude, and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The results indicate that social support about LTPA from contacts on SNSs might not be effective to change students' intention unless attitudes and PBC are changed. Future interventions aiming to promote students' intention to participate in LTPA by increasing support from contacts on SNSs should increase affective attitude, instrumental attitude, and PBC at the same time.

  11. An analysis of functional communication training as an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F; Boelter, Eric W; Jarmolowicz, David P; Chin, Michelle D; Hagopian, Louis P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force, 1995) and adapted by Jennett and Hagopian (2008) for evaluation of single-case research studies were used to examine the support for FCT. Results indicated that FCT far exceeds criteria to be designated as a well-established treatment for problem behavior exhibited by children with ID and children with autism spectrum disorder, and can be characterized as probably efficacious with adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of a pedometer-based behavioral modification program with telephone support on physical activity and sedentary behavior in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Karlijn P; Deforche, Benedicte I; Ruige, Johannes B; Bouckaert, Jacques J; Tudor-Locke, Catrine E; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M

    2011-08-01

    Effectiveness of a behavioral modification program on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in diabetes patients. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 24-weeks intervention consisted of a face-to-face session, pedometer and seven telephone follow-ups. Mean selection criteria were 35-75 years; 25-35 kg/m(2); ≤ 12% HbA1c, treated for type 2 diabetes; no PA limitations. PA and sedentary behavior were measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire over the short- (24 weeks) and intermediate- (1 year) term. The intervention group increased their steps/day by 2744, their total PA by 23 min/day (pbehavior by 23 min/day (pbehavior (pbehavioral modification program with telephone support showed lasting positive effects on steps/day, PA and sedentary behavior. This study tested a convenient way to increase PA among type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings of support staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Linda J M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T

    2013-11-01

    Working with clients who show challenging behavior can be emotionally demanding and stressful for support staff, because this behavior may cause a range of negative emotional reactions and feelings. These reactions are of negative influence on staff wellbeing and behavior. Research has focused on negative emotions of staff. However, a distinction between emotions and feelings has never been made in the research field of intellectual disabilities. Negative emotions and feelings may be regulated by emotional intelligence, a psychological construct that takes into account personal style and individual differences. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence on the one hand and emotions and feelings on the other. Participants were 207 support staff serving clients with moderate to borderline intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings were measured with questionnaires. The results show that emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings are related. However, found relationships were weak. Most significant relations were found between feelings and stress management and adaptation elements of emotional intelligence. Because the explored variables can change over time they call for a longitudinal research approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of Nurse-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Supportive Psychotherapy Telehealth Interventions for Chronic Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Thomas; Atkinson, J Hampton; Holloway, Rachael; Chircop-Rollick, Tatiana; D'Andrea, John; Garfin, Steven R; Patel, Shetal; Penzien, Donald B; Wallace, Mark; Weickgenant, Anne L; Slater, Mark

    2018-04-16

    This study evaluated a nurse-delivered, telehealth intervention of cognitive behavioral therapy versus supportive psychotherapy for chronic back pain. Participants (N=61) had chronic back pain (pain "daily" ≥ 6 months at an intensity ≥4/10 scale) and were randomized to an 8-week, 12-session, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or to Supportive Care (SC) matched for frequency, format, and time, with each treatment delivered by a primary care nurse. The primary outcome was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Secondary outcomes included the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Patient Global Impressions Scale (CGI). CBT participants (n=30) showed significant improvements on the RMDQ (means=11.4[5.9] vs. 9.4[6.1] at baseline and post-treatment, respectively, p.10). The results suggest that telehealth, nurse-delivered CBT and SC treatments for chronic back pain can offer significant and relatively comparable benefits. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608530. This article describes the benefits of training primary care nurses to deliver evidence-based behavioral therapies for low back pain. Due to the high prevalence of chronic pain and the growing emphasis on non-opioid therapies, training nurses to provide behavior therapies could be a cost-effective way to improve pain management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Explaining the Relation between Religiousness and Reduced Suicidal Behavior: Social Support Rather than Specific Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Alee; Fiske, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Religiousness has been associated with decreased risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are not well characterized. The present study examined the roles of religious beliefs and social support in that relation. A survey measuring religiousness, social support, suicidal…

  16. The Relationship between Work Engagement Behavior and Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between work engagement and perceived organizational support and organizational climate. The present study, in which quantitative methods have been used, is carried out in the relational screening model. Perceived organizational support scale, organizational climate scale, and work…

  17. Family Support in Prevention Programs for Children at Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Kim, Annie; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Burns, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a review of empirically based prevention programs to identify prevalence and types of family support services within these programs. A total of 238 articles published between 1990 and 2011 that included a family support component were identified; 37 met criteria for inclusion. Following the Institute of Medicine's typology, prevention…

  18. Incorporating Applied Behavior Analysis to Assess and Support Educators' Treatment Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Fallon, Lindsay M.

    2017-01-01

    For evidence-based interventions to be effective for students they must be consistently implemented, however, many teachers struggle with treatment integrity and require support. Although many implementation support strategies are research based, there is little empirical guidance about the types of treatment integrity, implementers, and contexts…

  19. Positive Social Support, Negative Social Exchanges, and Suicidal Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Barton, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students.…

  20. Parenting and Military Children’s Behavior: Preliminary Finding in Military Family of New Order Era and Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruri Dindasari Fatimah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pola asuh keluarga militer berimplikasi terhadap pola perilaku anak sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh beberapa kajian. Kajian-kajian tersebut lebih banyak membahas mengenai pola asuh tanpa melihat adanya hubungan dengan perubahan struktur organisasi yang bersifat fundamental pada tubuh militer Indonesia pasca Reformasi. Karena itu, kajian ini kemudian membahas tentang perbedaan pola asuh yang diterapkan pada keluarga militer di era Orde Baru dan pasca Reformasi serta implikasinya terhadap pola perilaku anak. Hal ini didasarkan pada argumentasi bahwa, sejalan dengan perubahan nilai-nilai di dalam tubuh militer Indonesia di masa Orde Baru dan pasca reformasi, terjadi juga perubahan pola asuh dalam keluarga anggota militer. Penelitian ini menggunakan kasus pada keluarga militer yang orang tuanya bergabung dengan militer pada era Orde Baru dan pasca Reformasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif di mana data dikumpulkan dengan wawancara mendalam padakeluarga militer era Orde Baru dan pasca Reformasiyang masing-masing keluarga terdiri dari ayah, ibu, dan anak yang tinggal di Kota Depok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pola asuh pada keluarga militer Orde Baru dan pasca Reformasi berada pada ruang antara yang sifatnya demokratis dan otoriter. Pola asuh pada gilirannya juga berpengaruh pada pola perilaku anak-anak dalam keluarga militer. Penelitian ini juga mengemukakan faktor-faktor lain di luar pola asuh yang berkontribusi terhadap pola perilaku anak di dalam keluarga militer. Abstract The parenting patterns of military family has had a implication towards their children’s behavior as stated by several studies. Those studies discussed on the parenting patterns but few has associated it with the fundamental change of Indonesian military organization post Reformation era. Therefore, this study poladiscuss the difference of parenting pattern applied in the military family before (new order and post Reformation and how the

  1. Managing severe behavioral symptoms of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis: case report and findings in current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Lima Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric symptoms emerge in the early stages of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and patients often seek treatment in psychiatric departments before visiting any other general medical services. Numerous articles about anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been published in the scientific community worldwide, but few emphasize the role of psychiatry in symptom management.Case description: We describe the case of a patient with anti- -NMDAR encephalitis seen in our service and discuss the management of behavioral symptoms based on current scientific literature. High doses of atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were used to control agitation, and trazodone was administered to treat insomnia.Comments: Consultation-liaison psychiatry may help the healthcare team adjust the management of neuropsychiatric complications that might affect inpatients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors and behavior lifestyles of young women: implications from findings of the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, C E; Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Johnson, C C; Berenson, G S

    1997-12-01

    The primary purposes of this article are to highlight important issues related to cardiovascular risk factors and behavior life-styles in young women and to examine racial (black-white) differences in risk factors that relate to cardiovascular disease. In childhood, some girls show cardiovascular risk factors of higher blood pressure levels, dyslipidemia, and obesity, all of which continue into young adulthood. Factors that contribute to abnormal risk factors are a high-saturated fat diet, excess energy intake related to inactivity, and cigarette smoking. Trends of obesity are documented; and young white girls are continuing to use tobacco, more so than boys and black girls. Although the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease is delayed in women, the stage is set in childhood for the development of early cardiovascular risk.

  3. Male Escorts' and Male Clients' Sexual Behavior During Their Last Commercial Sexual Encounter: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Two Online Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

    2016-05-01

    Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission.

  4. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  5. Informing a Behavior Change Communication Strategy: Formative Research Findings From the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodish, Stephen; Aburto, Nancy; Dibari, Filippo; Brieger, William; Agostinho, Saozinha P; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition interventions targeting the first 1000 days show promise to improve nutritional status, but they require effective implementation. Formative research is thus invaluable for developing such interventions, but there have been few detailed studies that describe this phase of work within the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement. To inform a stunting prevention intervention in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, by describing the sociocultural landscape and elucidating characteristics related to young child food, illness, and health. This formative research utilized a rapid assessment procedures (RAP) approach with 3 iterative phases that explored local perceptions and behaviors around food and illness among the Macua, Mwani, and Maconde ethnic groups. Ethnographic methods, including in-depth interviews, direct observations, free lists, and pile sorts, were used to collect data from community leaders, caregivers, and children 6 to 23 months. Data were analyzed drawing from grounded theory and cultural domain analysis. Geographic differences drive sociocultural characteristics amid 3 ethnic groups that allow for segmentation of the population into 2 distinct audiences for behavior change communications. These 2 communities have similar classification systems for children's foods but different adult dietary patterns. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement did not fall into the existing food classification systems of either community, and participants preferred its promotion through community leader channels. Community members in both groups have little recognition of and perceived severity toward nutrition-related illnesses. Within Cabo Delgado, the cultural heterogeneity yields substantial differences related to food, illness, and health that are necessary to consider for developing an effective nutrition intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Developing Sustainable Workplaces with Leadership: Feedback about Organizational Working Conditions to Support Leaders in Health-Promoting Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jiménez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizations should support leaders in promoting their employees’ health in every possible way to achieve a sustainable workplace. A good way to support leaders could include getting feedback about their health-promoting behavior from their employees. The present study introduces an instrument (Health-Promoting Leadership Conditions; HPLC that enables the provision of feedback about the leaders’ efforts to create health-promoting working conditions in seven key aspects: health awareness, workload, control, reward, community, fairness and value-fit. The instrument was used in employee surveys and in an online study, obtaining a sample of 430 participants. The results showed that all seven key aspects of health-promoting leadership can be assigned to a main factor of health-promoting leadership. In addition, the HPLC shows high construct validity with dimensions of stress, resources and burnout (Recovery-Stress- Questionnaire for Work [RESTQ-Work] and Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey [MBI-GS]. The results indicate that the HPLC can be used as a basis on which to assess health-promoting leadership behavior with a focus on changing working conditions. By getting feedback about their leadership behavior from their employees, leaders can identify their potential and fields for improvement for supporting their employees’ health and developing a sustainable workplace.

  7. HIV test offers and acceptance: New York State findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system and the National HIV behavioral surveillance, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Leung, Shu-Yin; Sinclair, Amber H; Battles, Haven B; Swain, Carol-Ann E; French, Patrick Tyler; Anderson, Bridget J; Sowizral, Mycroft J; Ruberto, Rachael; Brissette, Ian; Lillquist, Patricia; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    The New York State HIV testing law requires that patients aged 13-64 years be offered HIV testing in health care settings. We investigated the extent to which HIV testing was offered and accepted during the 24 months after law enactment. We added local questions to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) surveys asking respondents aged 18-64 years whether they were offered an HIV test in health care settings, and whether they had accepted testing. Statewide prevalence estimates of test offers and acceptance were obtained from a combined 2011-2012 BRFSS sample (N = 6,223). Local estimates for 2 high-risk populations were obtained from NHBS 2011 men who have sex with men (N = 329) and 2012 injection drug users (N = 188) samples. BRFSS data showed that 73% of New Yorkers received care in any health care setting in the past 12 months, of whom 25% were offered an HIV test. Sixty percent accepted the test when offered. The levels of test offer increased from 20% to 29% over time, whereas acceptance levels decreased from 68% to 53%. NHBS data showed that 81% of men who have sex with men received care, of whom 43% were offered an HIV test. Eighty-eight percent accepted the test when offered. Eighty-five percent of injection drug users received care, of whom 63% were offered an HIV test, and 63% accepted the test when offered. We found evidence of partial and increasing implementation of the HIV testing law. Importantly, these studies demonstrated New Yorkers' willingness to accept an offered HIV test as part of routine care in health care settings.

  8. Remote sensing supported surveillance and characterization of tailings behavior at a gold mine site, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Anssi; Tuomela, Anne; Rossi, Pekka M.; Davids, Corine

    2017-04-01

    The management of vast amounts of tailings produced is one of the key issues in mining operations. The effective and economic disposal of the waste requires knowledge concerning both basic physical properties of the tailings as well as more complex aspects such as consolidation behavior. The behavior of tailings in itself is a very complex issue that can be affected by flocculation, sedimentation, consolidation, segregation, deposition, freeze-thaw, and desiccation phenomena. The utilization of remote sensing in an impoundment-scale monitoring of tailings could benefit the management of tailings, and improve our knowledge on tailings behavior. In order to gain better knowledge of tailings behavior in cold climate, we have utilized both modern remote sensing techniques and more traditional in situ and laboratory measurements in characterizing thickened gold tailings behavior at a Finnish gold mine site, where the production has been halted due to low gold prices. The remote sensing measurements consisted of elevation datasets collected from unmanned aerial vehicles during summers 2015 and 2016, and a further campaign is planned for the summer 2017. The ongoing traditional measurements include for example particle-size distribution, frost heave, frost depth, water retention, temperature profile, and rheological measurements. Initial results from the remote sensing indicated larger than expected settlements on parts of the tailings impoundment, and also highlighted some of the complexities related to data processing. The interpretation of the results and characterization of the behavior is in this case complicated by possible freeze-thaw effects and potential settlement of the impoundment bottom structure consisting of natural peat. Experiments with remote sensing and unmanned aerial vehicles indicate that they could offer potential benefits in frequent mine site monitoring, but there is a need towards more robust and streamlined data acquisition and processing. The

  9. Adolescents just do not know what they want: a qualitative study to describe obese adolescents' experiences of text messaging to support behavior change maintenance post intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Fenner, Ashley A; Straker, Leon M

    2014-04-08

    Adolescents are considered a hard to reach group and novel approaches are needed to encourage good health. Text messaging interventions have been reported as acceptable to adolescents but there is little evidence regarding the use of text messages with overweight and obese adolescents to support engagement or behavior change after the conclusion of a healthy lifestyle program. The intent of this study was to explore the opinions of overweight adolescents and their parents regarding the use of text messages as a support during the maintenance period following an intervention. This paper reports on the findings from focus groups conducted with adolescents (n=12) and parents (n=13) who had completed an eight-week intensive intervention known as Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP). Focus groups were conducted three months post intensive intervention. Participants were asked about their experiences of the prior three-month maintenance phase during which adolescents had received tri-weekly text messages based on the self-determination theory and goal-setting theory. Participants were asked about the style and content of text messages used as well as how they used the text messages. Data were analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Two clear themes emerged from the focus groups relating to (1) what adolescents liked or thought they wanted in a text message to support behavior change, and (2) how they experienced or responded to text messages. Within the "like/want" theme, there were five sub-themes relating to the overall tone of the text, frequency, timing, reference to long-term goals, and inclusion of practical tips. Within the "response to text" theme, there were four sub-themes describing a lack of motivation, barriers to change, feelings of shame, and perceived unfavorable comparison with other adolescents. What adolescents said they wanted in text messages often conflicted with their actual experiences. Parent reports provided a

  10. Effectiveness of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in a Middle School as Measured by Office Discipline Referrals and Explored in Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Student behavior stands out among issues that greatly affect students' success and even teacher job satisfaction. Researchers have created Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) as a system of interventions that can help students improve their behavior and become more successful. This study sought to add to the body of knowledge…

  11. Supporting Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders' Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Justin D.; Ciullo, Stephen; Brunsting, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses two strategies to improve reading outcomes for middle and high school adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The first is providing secondary students a choice of accessible, engaging activities to more actively engage them during reading instruction and foster intrinsic motivation to engage in literacy…

  12. (Un)ethical behavior and performance appraisal: the role of affect, support, and organizational justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, G.; Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Performance appraisals are widely used as an HR instrument. This study among 332 police officers examines the effects of performance appraisals from a behavioral ethics perspective. A mediation model relating justice perceptions of police officers’ last performance appraisal to their work affect,

  13. Gambling, Risk-Taking, and Antisocial Behavior: A Replication Study Supporting the Generality of Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Lalumière, Martin L; Williams, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Research suggests that high frequency gambling is a component of the "generality of deviance", which describes the observation that various forms of risky and antisocial behavior tend to co-occur among individuals. Furthermore, risky and antisocial behaviors have been associated with such personality traits as low self-control, and impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. We conducted a replication (and extension) of two previous studies examining whether high frequency gambling is part of the generality of deviance using a large and diverse community sample (n = 328). This study was conducted as a response to calls for more replication studies in the behavioral and psychological sciences (recent systematic efforts suggest that a significant proportion of psychology studies do not replicate). The results of the present study largely replicate those previously found, and in many cases, we observed stronger associations among measures of gambling, risk-taking, and antisocial behavior in this diverse sample. Together, this study provides evidence for the generality of deviance inclusive of gambling (and, some evidence for the replicability of research relating to gambling and individual differences).

  14. Tiered Models of Integrated Academic and Behavioral Support: Effect of Implementation Level on Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Sansosti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control…

  15. Bullying in Secondary Schools: Action Planning Using a Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Tory De Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Bullying behavior is not a new issue, but despite the efforts of many, the problem continues to plague our students and schools, particularly in secondary schools. Secondary school leaders need a school-wide strategic plan for bullying prevention. Students need to be engaged in learning how to resolve conflicts and in understanding how bullying…

  16. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  17. Doing It MySELF: A Protocol Supporting Young Adults in Managing Their Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Diane E.; Bauer, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Self-advocacy, self-management, self-regulation, and self-knowledge are complex terms, often considered forms of self-determination. Whatever term you may use, helping young adults with intellectual disability (ID) make authentic decisions about their own goals and behaviors often results in passive agreement. Even though advancing…

  18. Family Support Is Associated with Behavioral Strategies for Healthy Eating among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral…

  19. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) System as a Form of Intervention and Support for New Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The period covering the first 3 months of life consists of a series of pivotal, life-changing transitions for the infant, for the parents, and for the emerging parent-child relationship. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system is a relationship-based tool that offers individualized information to parents about their baby's communication…

  20. Positive Behavior Support in Delaware Schools: Developing Perspectives on Implementation and Outcomes. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Cheryl M.; Cooksy, Leslie J.; Murphy, Aideen; Rubright, Jonathan; Bear, George; Fifield, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In Spring 2010, the Delaware Education Research and Development Center conducted an evaluation of Delaware's PBS project, an initiative focused on developing a school-wide system of strategies to reduce behavior problems and foster a positive school climate. The study focused on facilitators and barriers to PBS implementation, and also included…

  1. Behavior Modification for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Treatments and Supports. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L., Ed.; Laud, Rinita B., Ed.; Matson, Michael L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few decades, the field of dual diagnosis as applied to those with intellectual disabilities has boasted a monumental surge in assessment devices and treatment approaches. These relatively recent advances include those in the development of behavior modification principles and procedures that have had a dramatic impact on services for…

  2. Preventing Behavioral Disorders via Supporting Social and Emotional Competence at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Annika; Albers, Lucia; von Kries, Rüdiger; Hillenbrand, Clemens; Hennemann, Thomas

    2015-09-25

    13-18% of all preschool children have severe behavioral problems at least transiently, sometimes with long-term adverse consequences. In this study, the social training program "Lubo aus dem All! - Vorschulalter" (Lubo from Outer Space, Preschool Version) was evaluated in a kindergarten setting. 15 kindergartens were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, in a 2:1 ratio. The intervention was designed to strengthen emotional knowledge and regulation, the ability to take another person's point of view, communication skills, and social problem solving. The control group continued with conventional kindergarten activities. The primary endpoint was improvement in social-cognitive problem solving strategies, as assessed with the Wally Social Skills and Problem Solving Game (Wally). Secondary endpoints were improvement in prosocial behavior and reduction in problematic behavior, as assessed with the Preschool Social Behavior Questionnaire (PSBQ) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF). Data were collected before and after the intervention and also 5 months later. Mixed models were calculated with random effects to take account of the cluster design and for adjustment for confounding variables. 221 children in kindergarten, aged 5-6 years, were included in the study. Randomization was unsuccessful: the children in the intervention group performed markedly worse on the tests carried out before the intervention. Five months after the end of the intervention, the social-cognitive problem solving strategies of the children in the intervention group had improved more than those of the children in the control group: the intergroup difference in improvement was 0.79 standard deviations of the Wally test (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-1.46). This effect was just as marked 5 months later (0.63, 95% CI 0.03-1.23). Prosocial behavior, as measured by the PSBQ, also improved more in the intervention group, with an intergroup difference of 0

  3. Effect of the nature of the support on molybdenum catalytic behavior in diesel particulate combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Silvana; Appel, Lucia G.; Schmal, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Mo/SiO 2 and Mo/TiO 2 catalysts with three different molybdenum contents were prepared using non-porous supports and the thermal spreading method for the combustion of a particulate material (PM). The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N 2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the thermal spreading preparation method does not induce relevant textural changes on the supports. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the occurrence of thermal spreading of MoO 3 onto silica and titania supports. Diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) results provided clear evidence of different Mo species on these systems: highly dispersed species on the silica catalysts and polymolybdates on the titania catalysts. It may be inferred that when prepared by the thermal spreading method the nature of the support determines the kind of molybdenum species formed in these catalysts, irrespective of the Mo content. The reactive data were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), using a physical mixture of PM and the catalysts. The silica-supported catalysts showed higher reactivity for PM combustion than the titania-supported ones, being the most active the systems with the Mo monolayer. The results suggested that the dispersed species are far more active than the polymolybdates or MoO 3 itself

  4. Target prioritization and strategy selection for active case-finding of pulmonary tuberculosis: a tool to support country-level project planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Van Weezenbeek, Catharina

    2013-02-02

    Despite the progress made in the past decade, tuberculosis (TB) control still faces significant challenges. In many countries with declining TB incidence, the disease tends to concentrate in vulnerable populations that often have limited access to health care. In light of the limitations of the current case-finding approach and the global urgency to improve case detection, active case-finding (ACF) has been suggested as an important complementary strategy to accelerate tuberculosis control especially among high-risk populations. The present exercise aims to develop a model that can be used for county-level project planning. A simple deterministic model was developed to calculate the number of estimated TB cases diagnosed and the associated costs of diagnosis. The model was designed to compare cost-effectiveness parameters, such as the cost per case detected, for different diagnostic algorithms when they are applied to different risk populations. The model was transformed into a web-based tool that can support national TB programmes and civil society partners in designing ACF activities. According to the model output, tuberculosis active case-finding can be a costly endeavor, depending on the target population and the diagnostic strategy. The analysis suggests the following: (1) Active case-finding activities are cost-effective only if the tuberculosis prevalence among the target population is high. (2) Extensive diagnostic methods (e.g. X-ray screening for the entire group, use of sputum culture or molecular diagnostics) can be applied only to very high-risk groups such as TB contacts, prisoners or people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (3) Basic diagnostic approaches such as TB symptom screening are always applicable although the diagnostic yield is very limited. The cost-effectiveness parameter was sensitive to local diagnostic costs and the tuberculosis prevalence of target populations. The prioritization of appropriate target

  5. Behavior of Equipment Support Beam Joint Directly Connected to A Steel-plate Concrete(SC) Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Kwon, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    To decrease the time for building nuclear power plants, a modular construction method, 'Steel-plate Concrete(SC)', has been investigated for over a decade. To construct a SC wall, a pair of steel plates are placed in parallel similar to a form-work in conventional reinforced concrete (RC) structures, and concrete is filled between the steel plates. Instead of removing the steel plates after the concrete has cured, the steel plates serve as components of the structural member. The exposed steel plate of SC structures serves as the base plate for the equipment support, and the headed studs welded to the steel plates are used as anchor bolts. Then, a support beam can be directly welded to the surface of the steel plate in any preferred position. In this study, we discuss the behavior and evaluation method of the equipment support joint directly connected to exposed steel plate of SC wall

  6. Motor behavior during the first chewing cycle in subjects with fixed tooth- or implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats; Svensson, Krister G

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate sensory information from periodontal mechanoreceptors (PMRs) is important for optimizing the positioning of food and adjustment of force vectors during precision biting. This study was designed to describe motor behavior during the first cycle of a natural chewing task and to evaluate the role of such sensory input in this behavior. While 10 subjects with natural dentition, 11 with bimaxillary fixed tooth-supported prostheses (TSP) and 10 with bimaxillary fixed implant-supported prostheses (ISP) (mean age 69 [range 61-83]) chewed a total of five hazelnuts, their vertical and lateral jaw movements were recorded. Data obtained during the first chewing cycle of each hazelnut were analyzed. The amplitude of vertical and lateral mandibular movement and duration of jaw opening did not differ between the groups, indicating similar behavior during this part of the chewing cycle. However, only 30% of the subjects in the natural dentate group, but 82% of those in the TSP and 70% in the ISP group exhibited slippage of the hazelnut during jaw closure in at least one of five trials. The TSP and ISP groups also exhibited more irregular and narrower patterns of motion (total lateral/vertical movement = 0.15 and 0.19, respectively, compared to 0.27 for the natural group). Subjects with fixed tooth- or implant-supported prostheses in both jaws show altered behavior, including inadequate control of the hazelnut, during the first chewing cycle. We propose that these differences are due to impairment or absence of sensory signaling from PMRs in these individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  8. Effect of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a technology-supported behavioral intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang1, Susan M Sereika2,3, Eileen R Chasens2, Linda J Ewing4, Judith T Matthews2,5, Lora E Burke2,31School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 2School of Nursing, 3Graduate School of Public Health, 4School of Medicine, 5University Center for Social and Urban Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USABackground: Examination of mediating behavioral factors could explain how an intervention works and thus provide guidance to optimize behavioral weight-loss programs. This study examined the mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a behavioral weight-loss trial testing the use of personal digital assistants (PDA for self-monitoring.Methods: Mediation analysis was conducted to examine the possible mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity between treatments using varying self-monitoring methods (paper record, PDA, and PDA with daily tailored feedback messages and weight loss.Findings: The sample (N = 210 was predominantly white (78% and female (85%. Compared to a paper record, using a PDA for self-monitoring diet (P = 0.027 and physical activity (P = 0.014 had significant direct effects on weight loss at 12 months, as well as a significant indirect effect on outcomes through improved adherence to self-monitoring (PS < 0.001. Receiving an automated daily feedback message via PDA only had a significant indirect effect on weight through self-monitoring adherence to diet (P = 0.004 and physical activity (P = 0.002.Conclusions: Adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity is important as the underlying mechanism in this technology-supported behavioral weight-loss intervention.Keywords: behavioral intervention, self-monitoring, mobile technology, mediation analysis, weight loss, adherence 

  9. Cardiometabolic syndrome and its association with education, smoking, diet, physical activity, and social support: findings from the Pennsylvania 2007 BRFSS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Núñez, Ana E

    2010-07-01

    The authors aimed to examine the prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and its association with education, smoking, diet, physical activity, and social support among white, black, and Hispanic adults using data from the 2007 Pennsylvania Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, the largest population-based survey in the state. The authors examined associations between CMS and associated factors cross-sectionally using univariate and multivariate methods. The study included a representative sample of 12,629 noninstitutionalized Pennsylvanians aged > or =18. Components of CMS included obesity, hypercholesterolemia, angina (as a surrogate for decreased high-density lipoprotein), prehypertension or hypertension, and prediabetes or diabetes. CMS was identified as the presence of > or =3 CMS components. The results show that the prevalence of CMS was 20.48% in blacks, followed by Hispanics (19.14%) and whites (12.26%), (Psmoking, daily consumption of vegetables and/or fruits <3 servings, and lack of social support were significantly associated with the odds of having CMS. In conclusion, black and Hispanic adults have a significantly higher prevalence of CMS than whites. The significant association between CMS and risk factors provides new insights in the direction of health promotion to prevent and control CMS in those who are at high risk.

  10. Noticing cigarette health warnings and support for new health warnings among non-smokers in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control project (ITC China survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health warnings labels (HWLs have the potential to effectively communicate the health risks of smoking to smokers and non-smokers, and encourage smokers to quit. This study sought to examine whether non-smokers in China notice the current text-only HWLs and whether they support adding more health information and including pictures on HWLs. Methods Adult non-smokers (n = 1324 were drawn from Wave 4 (September 2011–November 2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC China Survey. The proportion of non-smokers who noticed the HWLs, and supported adding more health information and pictures to the HWLs was examined. Additionally, the relation between non-smokers’ demographic characteristics, including whether they had a smoking partner, their number of smoking friends, and noticing the HWLs and support for adding health information and pictures was examined. Because the HWLs changed during the survey period (April 2012, differences between non-smokers who completed the survey before and after the change were examined. Results 12.2% reported they noticed the HWLs often in the last month. The multivariate model, adjusting for demographics showed that respondents with a smoking partner (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42–4.13, p = 0.001 noticed the HWLs more often. 64.8% of respondents agreed that the HWLs should have more information, and 80.2% supported including pictures. The multivariate model showed that non-smokers who completed the survey after the HWLs were implemented (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40–0.99, p = 0.04 were less likely to support adding more health information. The multivariate model showed a significant relation between having a smoking partner and supporting pictorial HWLs (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.24–3.33, p = 0.005. Conclusions The findings indicate that the Chinese HWLs are noticed by a minority of non-smokers and that non-smokers strongly support strengthening the Chinese warning labels with more health

  11. Age and Gender Differences in Social Network Composition and Social Support Among Older Rural South Africans: Findings From the HAALSI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Morris, Katherine Ann; Manderson, Lenore; Perkins, Jessica M; Berkman, Lisa F

    2018-03-26

    Drawing on the "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa" (HAALSI) baseline survey, we present data on older adults' social networks and receipt of social support in rural South Africa. We examine how age and gender differences in social network characteristics matched with patterns predicted by theories of choice- and constraint-based network contraction in older adults. We used regression analysis on data for 5,059 South African adults aged 40 and older. Older respondents reported fewer important social contacts and less frequent communication than their middle-aged peers, largely due to fewer nonkin connections. Network size difference between older and younger respondents was greater for women than for men. These gender and age differences were explicable by much higher levels of widowhood among older women compared to younger women and older men. There was no evidence for employment-related network contraction or selective retention of emotionally supportive ties. Marriage-related structural constraints impacted on older women's social networks in rural South Africa, but did not explain choice-based network contraction. These findings suggest that many older women in rural Africa, a growing population, may have an unmet need for social support.

  12. The Effect of The Locus of Control on Organizational Citizenship Behavior The Mediating Role Perceived Organizationel Support : Case Study of A University

    OpenAIRE

    Güçel, Cem; Tokmak, İsmail; Turgut, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of locus of control on organizational citizenship behaviors and the mediating effect of the perceived organizational support. For this aim, firstly, the locus of control, then organizational citizenship behaviors and, finally, the mediating effect of the perceived organizational support are explained. In the application part, a questionnaire including the measures of the locus of control, organizational support and organization...

  13. THE EFFECT OF THE LOCUS OF CONTROL ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR THE MEDIATING EFFECT PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT: CASE STUDY OF A UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    GUCEL, Cem; TOKMAK, Ismail; TURGUT, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of locus of control on organizational citizenship behaviors and the mediating effect of the perceived organizational support. For this aim, firstly, the locus of control, then organizational citizenship behaviors and, finally, the mediating effect of the perceived organizational support are explained. In the application part, a questionnaire including the measures of the locus of control, organizational support and organizational citizenship beh...

  14. US State-level income inequality and risks of heart attack and coronary risk behaviors: longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    To examine prospectively the association between US state income inequality and incidence of heart attack. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,445). Respondents completed interviews at baseline (2001-2002) and follow-up (2004-2005). Weighted multilevel modeling was used to determine if US state-level income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) at baseline was a predictor of heart attack during follow-up, controlling for individual-level and state-level covariates. In comparison to residents of US states in the lowest quartile of income inequality, those living in the second [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.16-2.53)], third (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.28-2.57), and fourth (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.26-3.29) quartiles were more likely to have a heart attack. Similar findings were obtained when we excluded those who had a heart attack prior to baseline. This study is one of the first to empirically show the longitudinal relationship between income inequality and coronary heart disease. Living in a state with higher income inequality increases the risk for heart attack among US adults.

  15. Improving Behavioral Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: What Are the Barriers to Stopping and Which Behavior Change Techniques Can Influence Them? Application of Theoretical Domains Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Haynes, Tom; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Ussher, Michael; Dyas, Jane; Coleman, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts (n = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&Fs most influencing women’s smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support. Effective cessation interventions in randomized trials from a recent Cochrane review were coded into component BCTs using existing taxonomies. B&Fs were categorized using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Matrices, mapping BCT taxonomies against TDF domains, were consulted to investigate the extent to which BCTs in existing interventions target key B&Fs. Experts ranked ‘smoking a social norm’ and ‘quitting not a priority’ as most important barriers and ‘desire to protect baby’ an important facilitator to quitting. From 14 trials, 23 potentially-effective BCTs were identified (e.g., ‘information about consequences). Most B&Fs fell into ‘Social Influences’, ‘Knowledge’, ‘Emotions’ and ‘Intentions’ TDF domains; few potentially-effective BCTs mapped onto every TDF domain. B&Fs identified by experts as important to cessation, are not sufficiently targeted by BCT’s currently within interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy. PMID:29462994

  16. Persuasive user experiences of a health Behavior Change Support System: A 12-month study for prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Pasi; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Jokelainen, Terhi; Keränen, Anna-Maria; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a severe health problem in the world. Even a moderate 5% weight loss can significantly reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which can be vital for preventing comorbidities caused by the obesity. Health Behavior Change Support Systems (hBCSS) emphasize an autogenous approach, where an individual uses the system to influence one's own attitude or behavior to achieve his or her own goal. Regardless of promising results, such health interventions technology has often been considered merely as a tool for delivering content that has no effect or value of its own. More research on actual system features is required. The objective of this study is to describe how users perceive persuasive software features designed and implemented into a support system. The research medium in this study is a web-based information system designed as a lifestyle intervention for participants who are at risk of developing a metabolic syndrome or who are already suffering from it. The system was designed closely following the principles of the Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) model and the Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS) framework. A total of 43 system users were interviewed for this study during and after a 52 week intervention period. In addition, the system's login data and subjects' Body Mass Index (BMI) measures were used to interpret the results. This study explains in detail how the users perceived using the system and its persuasive features. Self-monitoring, reminders, and tunneling were perceived as especially beneficial persuasive features. The need for social support appeared to grow along the duration of the intervention. Unobtrusiveness was found to be very important in all stages of the intervention rather than only at the beginning. Persuasive software features have power to affect individuals' health behaviors. Through their systematicity the PSD model and the BCSS framework provide effective support for the design and development of

  17. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494

  18. Families Need Support: The Challenges of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. PHP-c86

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Being a parent is exhausting work, even when children do not have emotional problems. All parents need information, encouragement, training, and support to raise healthy children. No one is born with all the skills necessary to handle every problem, yet too often, when parents do ask for help for their children, they are turned down until the…

  19. Supporting Minority Ethnic Children and Adolescents with Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Difficulties in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the mental health needs of ethnic minority children and young people in the United Kingdom and the services that are provided to support them. The author discusses the complex and distinctive pattern of ethnic minority distribution in the United Kingdom, along with a consideration of what is known about the mental health of…

  20. UPMC Prescription for Wellness: A Quality Improvement Case Study for Supporting Patient Engagement and Health Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maners, Rebecca J; Bakow, Eric; Parkinson, Michael D; Fischer, Gary S; Camp, Geoffrey R

    Addressing patient health and care behaviors that underlie much of chronic disease continues to challenge providers, medical practices, health systems, and insurers. Improving health and care as described by the Quadruple Aim requires innovation at the front lines of clinical care: the doctor-patient interaction and office practice. This article describes the use of Lean Six Sigma in a quality improvement (QI) effort to design an effective and scalable method for physicians to prescribe health coaching for healthy behaviors in a primary care medical home within a large integrated delivery and financing system. Building on the national Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded Prescription for Health multisite demonstration, this QI case study provides important lessons for transforming patient-physician-practice support systems to better address lifestyle and care management challenges critical to producing better outcomes.

  1. Perceived Child Weight Status, Family Structure and Functioning, and Support for Health Behaviors in a Sample of Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Ferriby, Megan; Noria, Sabrena; Skelton, Joseph; Taylor, Christopher; Needleman, Bradley

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this study is to describe the associations between bariatric surgery patients' perspectives of their child's weight status, family support for eating and exercise behavior change, and family structure and functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive design with pre- and postsurgery (N = 224) patients was used. Demographics, perceptions of child weight status, family support for eating habits and exercise, and family functioning were assessed from patients at a University Bariatric Clinic. Patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese reported more impaired family functioning, less family exercise participation, and more discouragement for eating habit change in the family compared to patients who did not perceive their child to be overweight/obese. Single parents more often perceived their children to be overweight/obese, and had more impaired family functioning, and less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Patients with impaired family functioning reported less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Bariatric patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese and identified as single parents reported more impaired family functioning and less support for eating habits and family participation in exercise. Assessing pre- and postsurgery measures from parents and children will allow the further identification of relationship variables that can be targeted to promote positive family changes that benefit parents and children long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. High Expectations, Strong Support: Faculty Behaviors Predicting Latina/o Community College Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Carol A.; Kim, Young K.; Andrade, Luis M.; Bahner, Daniel T.

    2018-01-01

    In this study we investigated the extent to which faculty interaction contributed to Latina/o student perceptions of their learning, using a sample of 10,071 Latina/o students who took the Community College Survey of Student Engagement. Findings were disaggregated for men and women, but results were quite similar between the 2 groups. Frequent…

  3. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Stephen; Gregory, Steven; Ellis, Genette L.; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC) obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8) and 6 (ages 10–11). A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed. PMID:29479332

  4. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nowicki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8 and 6 (ages 10–11. A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed.

  5. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  6. Simulation of laser interaction with ablative plasma and hydrodynamic behavior of laser supported plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Huifeng; Yuan Hong [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-101, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Tang Zhiping [CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-01-28

    When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.

  7. KINETIC BEHAVIOR IN THE HYDROGENATION OF FURFURAL OVER IR CATALYSTS SUPPORTED ON TIO2

    OpenAIRE

    ROJAS, HUGO; MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ J.; REYES, PATRICIO

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of the liquid-phase hydrogenation of furfuraldehyde to furfuryl alcohol over Ir catalysts supported over TiO2 was studied in the temperature range of 323 to 373 K. The effect of furfural concentration, hydrogen pressure and the solvent effect were also studied. A high selectivity towards furfuryl alcohol was demonstrated. Initial rates describes the order global of the reaction. The experimental data could also be explained using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with of a single-si...

  8. On the freezing behavior and diffusion of water in proximity to single-supported zwitterionic and anionic bilayer lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiec, A.; Buck, Z. N.; Brown, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the freezing/melting behavior of water hydrating single-supported bilayers of a zwitterionic lipid DMPC with that of an anionic lipid DMPG. For both membranes, the temperature dependence of the elastically scattered neutron intensity indicates distinct water types undergoing...... translational diffusion: bulk-like water probably located above the membrane and two types of confined water closer to the lipid head groups. The membranes differ in the greater width of the water freezing transition near the anionic DMPG bilayer compared to zwitterionic DMPC as well as in the abruptness...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT, JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TOWARD ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR (A Study of the Permanent Lecturers at University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiske Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in this research is all of the permanent lecturers employed at University of Lambung Mangkurat (ULM. The respondents are taken from 4 academic ranks, which are represented by Asisten Ahli (Instructor, Lektor (Assistant Professor, Lektor Kepala (Associate Professor, and Guru Besar (Professor. One hundred and thirty samples were collected by using a proportional-stratified random sampling method. A Partial Least Square (PLS method was used to analyze the data. The results showed that lecturers with a positive perception of the organizational support available to them feel more satisfied with their job, which in turn encourages the creation of a high organizational commitment and results in the emergence of positive organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. These study’s results showed us the application of social exchange theory and organizational support theory in a higher educational institution. The findings of this study are considered to be important, as they provide additional empirical evidence regarding the importance of organizational support as a basis for improving the ULM lecturers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and OCB. The implications and further research are also discussed.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Simone

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP is an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy and combined treatment (SPSP and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. The question remains, however, how Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy compares with other established psychotherapy methods. The present study compares Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy to the evidence-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in terms of acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy in the outpatient treatment of depression. Moreover, this study aims to identify clinical predictors that can distinguish patients who may benefit from either of these treatments in particular. This article outlines the study protocol. The results of the study, which is being currently carried out, will be presented as soon as they are available. Methods/Design Adult outpatients with a main diagnosis of major depressive disorder or depressive disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV criteria and mild to severe depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥ 14 are randomly allocated to Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Both treatments are individual psychotherapies consisting of 16 sessions within 22 weeks. Assessments take place at baseline (week 0, during the treatment period (week 5 and 10 and at treatment termination (week 22. In addition, a follow-up assessment takes place one year after treatment start (week 52. Primary outcome measures are the number of patients refusing treatment (acceptability; the number of patients terminating treatment prematurely (feasibility; and the severity of depressive symptoms (efficacy according to an independent rater, the clinician and the patient. Secondary outcome measures include general psychopathology, general psychotherapy outcome, pain, health-related quality of life, and cost

  11. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  12. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  13. An experimental investigation of the seismic behavior of semi-supported steel shear walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanpour, Alireza; Jönsson, Jeppe; Moharrami, H.

    2010-01-01

    . These half scale models represent an intermediate storey in a multi-storey steel frame. Hysteresis loops traced from the load deflection curves of these tests have an “S” shape and dissipate energy well. The system has an acceptable level of ductility, which enables its use as a lateral earthquake load......A semi-supported steel shear wall (SSSW) has been developed in the recent decade, the steel wall is connected to secondary columns that do not carry vertical loads and are used to enable the plate to enter into the post buckling region and develop a tension field. Theoretical research...

  14. A study on mechanical behavior of support elements induced by shaft sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro; Koike, Masashi; Ijiri, Yuji; Shimada, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been excavating three deep shafts through soft sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this paper, the authors discussed change in stress and the stress distribution in a concrete lining and steel arch ribs induced by the 6.5 m diameter shaft sinking. They conducted not only field measurements of stress in support elements at a depth of around 220 m but also three-dimensional numerical analysis which models the shaft excavation procedure such as timing of installation of support elements and setting and removal of a concrete form. As a result, it was clarified that more than 10 MPa difference in circumferential stress occurred in a 2 m high and 400 mm thick concrete lining due to anisotropy of initial stress and three-dimensional effect of an excavation face. It was also found that a concrete lining gradually deformed from an original cylindrical form to a shape of an ellipsis with the long axis pallarel to the direction of the minimum horizontal principal stress after a concrete form was removed. (author)

  15. A STUDY ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SUPPORT ELEMENTS INDUCED BY SHAFT SINKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro; Koike, Masashi; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ijiri, Yuji

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been excavating three deep shafts through soft sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this paper, the authors discussed change in stress and the stress distribution in a concrete lining and steel arch ribs induced by the 6.5 m diameter shaft sinking. They conducted not only field measurements of stress in support elements at a depth of around 220 m but also three-dimensional numerical analysis which models the shaft excavation procedure such as timing of installation of support elements and setting and removal of a concrete form. As a result, it was clarified that more than 10 MPa difference in circumferential stress occurred in a 2 m high and 400 mm thick concrete lining due to anisotropy of initial stress and three-dimensional effect of an excavation face. It was also found that a concrete lining gradually deformed from an original cylindrical form to a shape of an ellipsis with the long axis pallarel to the direction of the minimum horizontal principal stress after a concrete form was removed.

  16. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. Social support from teachers mediates physical activity behavior change in children participating in the Fit-4-Fun intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2013-05-28

    Few studies have examined the mediators of behavior change in successful school-based physical activity interventions. The aim of this study was to explore potential mediators of physical activity in the Fit-4-Fun program for primary school children. Group randomized controlled trial. Four primary schools were recruited in April, 2011 and randomized by school into intervention or control conditions. Participants included 213 children (mean age = 10.7 years ± 0.6; 52.2% female) with the treatment group (n = 118) completing the 8-week multi-component Fit-4-Fun program. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Physical activity was measured using Yamax SW700 pedometers (mean steps/day) and questionnaires were used to assess constructs from Social Cognitive Theory and Competence Motivation Theory. Hypothesized mediators measured included social support from peers, parents and teachers; physical activity self-efficacy (barrier and task); enjoyment; and perceived school physical environment. Mediation was assessed using Preacher and Hayes' multiple mediation regression SPSS macro. Action theory (A), conceptual theory (B) and the significance of the product of coefficients (AB) are reported. The intervention had a significant effect on physical activity (pFun program successfully targeted social support for physical activity provided by classroom teachers which contributed to improved physical activity in children. These results demonstrate that classroom teachers play a key role in influencing physical activity behavior outcomes in children.Trial Registration No: ACTRN12611000976987.

  18. Mother Behavior Prefer Untrained Traditional Birth Attendant As Labor Support Person At Tembilahan Hulu Public Health Center Districts On 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alhidayati yati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR is one indicator of health development in Indonesia. Deliveries by health personnel to be very important in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Coverage of births attended by skilled health personnel at health centers Tembilahan Hulu has yet to reach the target of 90%. Target Health Center Tembilahan Hulu is 80% but reached only 45%. The number of maternal deaths in health centers Hulu 2016 Tembilahan 1 case and the number of infant mortality as much as 5 case, one cause of death is handled by TBAs. Objective: to know the mother's behavior in selecting birth attendants in health centers working area Tembilahan Hulu. Design: Qualitative research, to obtain in-depth information about how the Mother Behavior in Choosing Auxiliary Power Delivery at Puskesmas Tembilahan Hulu 2016. Methods: This study used a qualitative descriptive method, which is an approach to research that revealed certain social situations to describe reality correctly, formed by words based on the techniques of collecting and analyzing relevant data obtained from the natural situation. Results and Discussion: Research shows that mothers choose birth attendants decision is closely linked to the knowledge, attitudes, social culture, access to health services, family support. Conclusions: The behavior of mothers in selecting birth attendant is still a lot to TBAs compared to the health worker / midwife.

  19. Profiles of African American College Students’ Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha W.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within–ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intraperso-nal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk—above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers—below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk—average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk—above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk—above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed. PMID:27215314

  20. Profiles of African American College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha W; Cooper, Shauna M; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within-ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intrapersonal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk-above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers-below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk-above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk-above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed.