... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...
Ganz, D; Sher, L
Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems.
Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.
Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)—the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study
intervention. The group-based intervention used mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to increase emotional regulatory...Normative Misperceptions of Alcohol Use Among Substance Abusing Army Personnel. 8. Manuscript: Spicing up the military: Use and effects of synthetic...Coordinator was hired and trained . In August of 2010, our counselors and research assistants were hired and began training . Over Year 2, we experienced
Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar
Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model
Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla
To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two thousand and nineteen women aged 20 to 44 were randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant's demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06-3.98) and sexual violence (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05-2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08-2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.46-4.00) compared to women with 1 sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.
... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch...
Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway
SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V
The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants.
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Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K
Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...
Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John
Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...
Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R
Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....
Rios-Zertuche, Diego; Cuchilla, Jose; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Hernández, Bernardo; Jara, Patricia; Mokdad, Ali H; Iriarte, Emma
We applied the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction to analyze factors associated with risky sexual behaviors for adolescent students living in the poorest segments in Costa Rica. We used data from a school-based knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors survey from the poorest districts of Costa Rica, collected for Salud Mesoamerica Initiative. We analyzed responses of 919 male and female students (12-19 years old) to determine factors associated with sexual intercourse and condom use. One of every four students reported being sexually active. Students that reported being sexually active were more likely to consume excessive alcohol (OR 3.04 [95 % CI 1.94-4.79]). While 88.0 % [95 % CI 73.5-95.1] of sexually active adolescents said they would use a condom the next time they have sex, only 53.1 % [95 % CI 39.3-66.5] reported condom use the last time. Non-condom-users felt purchasing condoms was uncomfortable (OR 0.34 [95 % CI 0.12-0.93]). Poor adolescents in Costa Rica begin sexual activities early and undertake behaviors that increase their risk for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. We found the urgent need to address alcohol abuse, and recognize gender differences in youth health programs.
Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth
Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too ... Ysbrand Cosijn Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read ...
Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others
Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…
Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam
Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…
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Bondi, M W; Drake, A I; Grant, I
To define the combined effects of drug and alcohol abuse on verbal learning and memory, 70 alcoholic and 80 polysubstance abuse (PSA) individuals with concurrent alcohol abuse were compared on a list learning task, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Despite demonstrating similar learning strategies, response styles, and error patterns, the PSA group nontheless exhibited significantly greater recall deficits than the alcoholic group on the CVLT. These deficits were particularly evident in those who were heaviest abusers of cocaine. PSA participants did not, however, evidence greater recognition memory deficits. This pattern of greater deficits on recall than on recognition memory, as well as poor consolidation, is consistent with the initiation-retrieval difficulties of patient groups with subcortical dysfunction. It is concluded that the combined use of alcohol and drugs, cocaine in particular, may compound memory difficulties beyond what is typically observed in alcoholic individuals.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...
Basu, Debasish; Singh, Jaspreet
Epidemiology, definitions, concepts and various other relevant aspects including management of drug and alcohol abuse are reviewed. The role of general/primary care physicians has been highlited in the persepctive of substance-abuse disorders.
Calsyn, Donald A; Cousins, Sarah J; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R; Woody, George
Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n = 505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer-administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-9).
Calsyn, Donald A.; Cousins, Sarah J.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Woody, George
Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n=505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. PMID:20163383
Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R
significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Behavioral Sciences. Date...
King, Cheryl A.
Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…
Olson, Steve; Gerstein, Dean R
... on Alternative Policies Affecting the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1985 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific ...
Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
The authors sought to clarify the sources of parent-offspring resemblance for drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior, using a novel genetic-epidemiological design. Using national registries, the authors identified rates of drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior in 41,360 Swedish individuals born between 1960 and 1990 and raised in triparental families comprising a biological mother who reared them, a "not-lived-with" biological father, and a stepfather. When each syndrome was examined individually, hazard rates for drug abuse in offspring of parents with drug abuse were highest for mothers (2.80, 95% CI=2.23-3.38), intermediate for not-lived-with fathers (2.45, 95% CI=2.14-2.79), and lowest for stepfathers (1.99, 95% CI=1.55-2.56). The same pattern was seen for alcohol use disorders (2.23, 95% CI=1.93-2.58; 1.84, 95% CI=1.69-2.00; and 1.27, 95% CI=1.12-1.43) and criminal behavior (1.55, 95% CI=1.44-1.66; 1.46, 95% CI=1.40-1.52; and 1.30, 95% CI=1.23-1.37). When all three syndromes were examined together, specificity of cross-generational transmission was highest for mothers, intermediate for not-lived-with fathers, and lowest for stepfathers. Analyses of intact families and other not-lived-with parents and stepparents showed similar cross-generation transmission for these syndromes in mothers and fathers, supporting the representativeness of results from triparental families. A major strength of the triparental design is its inclusion, within a single family, of parents who provide, to a first approximation, their offspring with genes plus rearing, genes only, and rearing only. For drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior, the results of this study suggest that parent-offspring transmission involves both genetic and environmental processes, with genetic factors being somewhat more important. These results should be interpreted in the context of the strengths and limitations of national registry data.
Tennant, F S; Detels, R; Clark, V
Unsatisfactory intrafamilial relationships and child-rearing practices have frequently been implicated as prime determinants of personalities that are susceptible to drug and alcohol abuse. Five thousand forty-four US Army soldiers were surveyed by anonymous questionnaires. The reported occurrence of a variety of activities, events and behaviors in childhood among drug and alcohol abusers were compared to non users. Childhood antecedents that were associated with non-use of illegal drugs and which showed as much as a 20% difference in reported occurrence between abusers and non-users of illegal drugs were: spanking, church attendance, first alcoholic drink after 15 years, and perceived "happy" parental marriage. These associations were found uithin white and non-white groups and in subjects with divorced or separated parents. There was no antecedent that showed as much as a 20% difference in reported occurrence between alcohol abusers and non-users.
Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena
Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.
Copeland, William E; Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A
This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that might affect treatment planning. A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gross, G A
An uncontrolled, retrospective study of 58 consecutive patients admitted to a hospital substance abuse unit assessed the effects of alcohol consumption on cholesterol levels. From the dietary histories completed by 54 of the patients, it was found that the alcoholics consumed a high-calorie diet containing a high percentage of foods with a high cholesterol content, but in small quantities. Most of their caloric intake was derived from the alcohol. Abusers of substances other than alcohol had a low-calorie intake of the same quality as alcoholics. It appears that low consumption of alcohol rather than something intrinsic in alcohol or other drugs is related to low levels of total cholesterol in persons consuming a high cholesterol-containing diet. The author also suggests that an unexplained relationship between low cholesterol levels and some gastrointestinal malignancies may be due to the effects of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract.
Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley
Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.
. They are then faced with further guilt, and drink again in response. Patients should be assisted to break this cycle. Alcohol abuse is a chronic disease, and relapse is part of the condition. Patients should be encouraged to seek help.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available...
Nada, Khaled H; Suliman, El Daw A
To measure the prevalence of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and related factors in a large, probability-based sample of boys and girls aged 12-17 years living on the streets of Egypt's largest urban centers of Greater Cairo and Alexandria. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of street children. Procedures entailed using key informants and field observation to create a sampling frame of locations at predetermined time intervals of the day, where street children congregate in the two cities, selecting a random sample of time-locations from the complete list, and intercepting children in the selected time-locations to assess eligibility and conduct interviews. Interviews gathered basic demographic information, life events on the street (including violence, abuse, forced sex), sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. A total of 857 street children were enrolled in the two cities, with an age, sex, and time-location composition matching the sampling frame. The majority of these children had faced harassment or abuse (93%) typically by police and other street children, had used drugs (62%), and, among the older adolescents, were sexually active (67%). Among the sexually active 15-17-year-olds, most reported multiple partners (54%) and never using condoms (52%). Most girls (53% in Greater Cairo and 90% in Alexandria) had experienced sexual abuse. The majority of street children experienced more than one of these risks. Overlaps with populations at highest risk for HIV were substantial, namely men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers, and injection drug users. Our study using a randomized TLS approach produced a rigorous, diverse, probability-based sample of street children and documented very high levels of multiple concurrent risks. Our findings strongly advocate for multiple services including those addressing HIV and STI prevention and care, substance use, shelters, and sensitization of authorities to the plight of
Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M
This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... 20933
New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.
This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…
Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, Km; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K
Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.
Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Ramírez, Jessica Liliana Pinto; Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio Rangel; López, Paul Anthony Camacho
Previous studies have confirmed high prevalence of alcohol abuse in adolescent students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. However, few studies on the associated factors have been carried out. Assessment of prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in student children and adolescents from Bucaramanga. A random sample of adolescent students completed an anonymous questionnaire about the consumption of alcohol, illegal and legal substances, together with the CAGE questionnaire and a series of scales and questionnaires assessing risk factors for alcohol abuse. To adjust for confusing variables, a multivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression model. 2916 students were surveyed with an average age between 10 and 22, and a mean of 14.4 years (SD 1.65), 51.1% were female, 36% were in the last two years of high school (10(th) and 11(th) grades), and 17.66% were in private schools. The alcohol abuse pattern as measured by the CAGE scale was 14.6% (95% CI, 13.3 - 16.0%). The associated factors were: age (OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.27), having a smoking or consuming alcohol sibling (OR: 1.48, 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.17) antisocial behavior (OR 3.03, 95% CI, 2.12 - 4.32) and best friend who uses illicit substances (OR 1.71, 95% CI, 1.06 - 2.76), best friend who smokes or drinks alcohol (OR 2.01, 95% CI, 1.40 - 2.88). One out of 7 students showed a pattern of alcohol abuse. The associated factors were the influence of friends, family, age and antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
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Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.
This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...
Alcohol abuse prevention is a hot topic on college campuses across the nation and Virginia Tech's Division of Student Affairs and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Task Force is committed to addressing the issue as it relates to Virginia Tech campus community.
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Garofalo, C.; Wright, Aidan G.C.
Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse rognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse,
Sogi Uematzu, Cecilia; Perales Cabrera, Alberto
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of alcohol use/abuse, its distribution by gender and age and associated risk factors in undergraduate medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mental health survey data base from 1115 medical students on a public university of Lima City was used. RESULTS: The frequency of CAGE positive, indicator of drinking problem, was 13,7%. The alcohol consumption onset mean age was earlier in the younger students, especially in women. Multivariate analysis showed signif...
Brooks, Mark L.; And Others
Studied the relationship between personality variables and alcohol abuse in college students. Results indicated that these personality variables were not strong predictors of alcohol abuse. However, subjects identified as being highly trait anxious or trait angry were more likely to abuse alcohol than subjects low on these variables. (Author)
unemployment is seen in families with evidence of alcohol abuse. In some respects mothers who are alcohol abusers seem to have a different effect on their children than fathers who are alcohol abusers. So, for example, there is a higher occurence of violence-related crimes and convictions for sexual offences...
Brown, Sandra A.; And Others
Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…
Vaeth, J M; Horton, A M; Ahadpour, M
Earlier research had demonstrated that alcoholics with attention deficit disorder residual type (ADDRT) differ from other alcoholics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of drug abuse on the relationship of ADDRT and alcoholism as reflected on the MMPI. Groups of 48 male alcoholics, 28 ADDRT alcoholics, 25 ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers and 18 alcohol and drug abusers were all administered the MMPI. Significant differences were found between the alcoholic and ADDRT alcoholic groups on scales Pd, Sc, Si, F, and K. For the ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers versus the alcohol and drug abuser groups, they differed on scales K, Hs, D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, F, K, and L.
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Ananda P. Dasanayake
Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95% CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95% CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.
Oster, R A
A peer counseling program was developed as a method for preventing drug and alcohol abuse among high school juniors and seniors. The program was implemented and the results were monitored to evaluate the impact of the program on the students. An analysis of the data showed that the students were able to learn and utilize peer counseling skills but that the prevention of drug abuse could not be documented in this study. Subjective reports, however, were found to support the effects of the program.
Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J
The purpose of this study is to review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called 'designer', drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. In this review, we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them.
Achur, Rajeshwara N; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E
There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long-term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels, and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake.
Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah
Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.
Yu. P. Sivolap
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other
Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Cecília Danielle Bezerra Oliveira
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the abusive consumption of alcohol in the elderly in the municipality of Santa Cruz - PB. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, with quantitative approach with a sample of 170 elderly. To perform the study, three instruments were used: the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test - Geriatric Version (MAST-G. The data were analyzed in the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 21. Results: 14.7% of the elderly were classified by the MAST-G score as elderly individuals presenting problems related to alcohol abuse, the majority of whom were male, single, with education above 05 years, who reside alone, and present some pathology and make use of medications. Conclusion: the research points out the need for multiprofessional work in health in Primary Care, in order to develop health actions that include the prevention of alcohol consumption and minimize the deleterious effects of consumption, in order to reduce the number of undesirable events arising from the use of that substance. Keywords: Primary health care; Alcohol; Old man.
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... inadequate skills and facilities rendering them unable to meet the ever increasing demand. Research into culturally adopted treatment intervention strategies is necessary to enhance the effectiveness and treatment of alcohol abuse in Uganda. Keywords: Alcohol abuse, addiction treatment, Uganda, alcohol dependence, ...
This study examined the prevalence of alcohol abuse in Calabar South, Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Unlike earlier studies of alcohol use in Nigeria, the study focused on a segment of the population that is difficult to reach and probably at high risk of alcohol and drug abuse. In addition, the focus of ...
Bulik, C M
The author studied patterns of drug and alcohol abuse in 35 bulimic women, 35 healthy control subjects, and their first- and second-degree relatives. The bulimic women and their families had significantly higher rates of substance abuse disorders.
Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.
Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.
This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433
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Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.
Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…
Although all children have the potential for becoming destructively involved with psychoactive drugs, there is considerable evidence that youngsters with particular kinds of psychologic and family problems are at high risk for chemical dependency. These include youngsters with developmental deficiencies that interfere with their capacity to master the environment. Children with a strong family history of alcoholism or drug abuse also seem to be at high risk. Obviously, there is some overlap between these two groups, not only because parental drug abuse and alcoholism may damage the fetus, but because chemically dependent parents are more likely to abuse or neglect their children because of the impact of their own illness on their functioning as parents. In addition, families in which drug use is modeled as a typical behavior are more likely to produce adolescents who use drugs, although rigid rules against drug use are relatively ineffective in preventing adolescents from experimenting with drugs. Finally, certain behavior patterns in young childhood--particularly severe aggressiveness, rebelliousness, and learning problems at school--seem to be correlated with the development of chemical dependency during adolescence.
Misch, Donald A.
As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…
P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)
textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the
Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.
Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012
Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…
drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace is probably about .30. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES94 Drug Abuse , Alcohol...8217Rev 2 89’ toyAS’I 0 13 zoo Integrity and Substance A-buseý Va-idity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and %Lcohol Abuse Frank L. Schmidt...nflegri’ty and S, c ,s EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Drug and alcohol abuse is a major problem in the workplace . In this report,
Swenson, J R; Dimsdale, J E; Rockwell, E; Carroll, W; Hansbrough, J
We reviewed records of adult patients admitted to our burn unit who were reported to abuse drugs or alcohol from 1985 to 1988. The proportion of patients reported as abusing drugs increased significantly from 1987 to 1988, compared to previous years. However, there was no increase in the proportion of patients reported to abuse alcohol. Patients identified as abusing drugs had longer hospital stays, compared to patients who were not reported to abuse substances. Methamphetamine and cocaine were the drugs most often abused by patients who abused drugs or both drugs and alcohol. Mechanisms of burn injury in these patients included "accidental" burn injury related to acute intoxication, and self-injury due to psychosis or depression.
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Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.
This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…
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Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J
Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.
Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
Marcos Henrique Fernandes
Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population
Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran
The authors document the lifetime prevalence and etiological correlates of alcohol abuse in a sample of elderly World War II veterans. Subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residing in a veterans' long-term care facility were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. A second investigator gave the Modified Combat Exposure Scale and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse was 53%. There was no correlation between alcohol abuse and any other psychiatric diagnosis. There was a significant correlation between the severity of combat stress and subsequent alcohol abuse. Veterans with alcohol abuse also had significantly more wartime head injuries. There was also a trend for the alcoholic group to have experienced more pre-war stressors. Examination of pre-war variables and the severity of the combat stress might help to identify veterans at risk for development of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 1996 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vida Ana Politakis
Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Diﬀerences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.
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This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...
Domestic violence and child abuses especially as perpetrated by men and linked to alcohol abuse is an issue well covered in what I term conventional liberal scholarship. In this I deploy Maria Lugones' decolonising feminism theory in which the position of the black women is at the bottom of the human hierarchy and the ...
Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.
This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.
Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A
Alcohol and drug use peaks during young adulthood and can interfere with critical developmental tasks and set the stage for chronic substance misuse and associated social, educational, and health-related outcomes. There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to guide substance abuse prevention efforts during this critical developmental period. This paper discusses the particular relevance of behavioral economic theory to young adult alcohol and drug misuse, and reviews of available literature on prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that decisions to use drugs and alcohol are related to the relative availability and price of both alcohol and substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drugs. Behavioral economic measures of motivation for substance use are based on relative levels of behavioral and economic resource allocation towards drug versus alternatives, and have been shown to predict change in substance use over time. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including brief interventions that increase future orientation and engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use. Prevention approaches that increase engagement in constructive future-oriented activities among young adults (e.g., educational/vocational success) have the potential to reduce future health disparities associated with both substance abuse and poor educational/vocational outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D.C.: National Defense University, 1989. 2 ibid. 3 Wrich, James. "The Impact of Substance Abuse at the Workplace ". Corporate Strategies for...25 ibid. 26 Axel, Helen. " Drugs of Abuse : Public Attitudes, Politics and Business". Corporate Strategies for Controlling Substance Abuse . 1986...Programming". Drug Abuse Services Research Series: Extent and Adeauacy of Insurance Coverage for Substance Abuse Services. Vol 2:154-165. Washington, D. C
Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among secondary school students in southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: demographic factors and the influence of parents and peers. ... predictors and influence of peers and parents on students' alcohol use and binge drinking. Results: About 54% of students ...
Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia
This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…
Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile
Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…
The Medical and Social Consequences of Alcohol Abuse. First of Two Articles. Dr Eluzai Hakim, FRCP Consultant Physician,. St Mary's Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight. PO30 5TG UK*. Introduction. The prevalence of alcohol related illness in the. Southern Sudan is unknown, though there is anecdotal information that ...
Katz, Gregory; Kunyvsky, Yehuda; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi; Raskin, Sergey; Abramowitz, Moshe Z
Psychoactive substance abuse, which includes abuse of alcohol and street drugs, is common among first-episode psychosis patients, but the prevalence of cannabis abuse is particularly high. However, there have been very few reported studies concerning the occurrence of psychoactive substance abuse among first-episode psychotic individuals using standard toxicological testing. We study the prevalence of cannabis and alcohol abuse among first-psychoticepisode inpatients as well as compare the demographic, diagnostic, and psychopathological profiles of substance abusers versus nonusers. Subjects were recruited from the Jerusalem Mental Health Center between 2012 and 2014. Ninety-one consecutively admitted psychiatric patients diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria with a first psychotic episode due to schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, bipolar disorder, brief psychotic episode, and psychosis NOS disorder entered the study. The diagnoses of schizophrenia (all types), psychosis NOS disorder, brief psychotic episode, and schizophreniform disorder were categorized as "only psychosis" and those of bipolar disorder manic episode with psychotic features (congruent and incongruent) and severe depression with psychotic features were categorized as "predominantly affective symptoms." Urine tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were performed during the first 48 hours of admission, and likewise self-report questionnaires were administered. Alcohol abuse and dependence were diagnosed by self-report. Of the 91 subjects in the study, 49 (53.8%) did not abuse any illegal psychoactive substance. Twenty patients (22%) abused only cannabis; 14 (15.4%) abused cannabis and another psychoactive substance; 54 (59.3%) of the subjects reported no alcohol abuse; 33 (36.3%) reported occasional drinking (between two and ten times a month); and 4 (4.4%) reported continuous repeated drinking (more than ten times a month). There was no correlation between the demographic characteristics and the
Le Maître, Tara Wardi; Dhanabalan, Gopalakrishnan; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Alkass, Kanar; Druid, Henrik
In animal studies, impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with behavioral pathologies including addiction to alcohol. We hypothesize that alcohol abuse may have a detrimental effect on the neurogenic pool of the dentate gyrus in the human hippocampus. In this study we investigate whether alcohol abuse affects the number of proliferating cells, stem/progenitor cells, and immature neurons in samples from postmortem human hippocampus. The specimens were isolated from deceased donors with an on-going alcohol abuse, and from controls with no alcohol overconsumption. Mid-hippocampal sections were immunostained for Ki67, a marker for cell proliferation, Sox2, a stem/progenitor cell marker, and DCX, a marker for immature neurons. Immunoreactivity was counted in alcoholic subjects and compared with controls. Counting was performed in the three layers of dentate gyrus: the subgranular zone, the granular cell layer, and the molecular layer. Our data showed reduced numbers of all three markers in the dentate gyrus in subjects with an on-going alcohol abuse. This reduction was most prominent in the subgranular zone, and uniformly distributed across the distances from the granular cell layer. Furthermore, alcohol abusers showed a more pronounced reduction of Sox2-IR cells than DCX-IR cells, suggesting that alcohol primarily causes a depletion of the stem/progenitor cell pool and that immature neurons are secondarily affected. These results are in agreement with observations of impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animal studies and lend further support for the association between hippocampal dysfunction and alcohol abuse.
Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L
This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
... Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Denying... a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol interferes with the health, safety, or... alcohol abusers? 5.857 Section 5.857 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of...
Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J.K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence
The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22841890
McCaul, M E
Epidemiological research has clearly demonstrated the importance of a family history as a determinant of future alcohol and, possibly, drug use in offspring of alcoholics. Laboratory studies have examined a wide range of potential markers both in the presence and absence of alcohol challenge, which may predict those subjects at high risk for the future development of alcoholism. While this body of research has yielded several replicable differences in FHP and FHN subjects, it also has been marked by many discrepancies in outcomes across studies. Future refinements in subject ascertainment and laboratory methodologies may help to bring greater procedural uniformity and consistency in study outcomes.
Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713
The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.
Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D
The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André
The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William
Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…
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Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price
Objectives Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this paper examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. Methods A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, while densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Conclusion Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused. PMID:27642071
Fernanda Jorge Guimarães
Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.
Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki
To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p sexual risk behavior.
Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.
Background Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). Methods The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Results Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Conclusions Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. PMID:27705843
Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.
This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…
Yahya Ayhan Acar
Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.
Foster, Susan E; Vaughan, Roger D; Foster, William H; Califano, Joseph A
To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry. Analysis of multiple cross-sectional national data sets. The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2000 US Census, the 2000 to 2001 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, and the 2001 Adams Business Research. A total of 260,580 persons aged 12 years and older across 4 data sources. Underage drinking or pathological drinking defined as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for abusive or dependent drinking. Total amount of alcohol consumed and the cash value for alcohol consumed among underage and adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence as well as all underage drinkers combined with adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence. The short-term cash value of underage drinking to the alcohol industry was 22.5 billion dollars in 2001-17.5% of total consumer expenditures for alcohol. The long-term commercial value of underage drinking is the contribution of underage drinking to maintaining consumption among adult drinkers with alcohol abuse and dependence, which was equal to at least 25.8 billion dollars in 2001. The combined value of illegal underage drinking and adult pathological drinking to the industry was at least 48.3 billion dollars, or 37.5% of consumer expenditures for alcohol, in 2001. Alternative estimates suggest that these costs may be closer to 62.9 billion dollars, or 48.8% of consumer expenditures for alcohol.
... by section 333 of the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and... connection with the performance of any program or activity relating to alcoholism or alcohol abuse education... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol...
Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.
Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina
Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the
... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Terminating Tenancy § 5.860 When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers? The lease must provide... to evict alcohol abusers? 5.860 Section 5.860 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...
Misch, Donald A.
Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…
... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...
Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.
This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…
The numerous company programs in North America that have developed countermeasures against drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace, ranging from prevention, health promotion and education, to treatment and rehabilitation, provide instructive examples of an effective approach that in most cases has more than paid for its cost. (Author/CT)
Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane
Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…
Alcohol abuse among patients with and without HIV infection attending public clinics in Western Kenya. DN Shaffer, R Njeri, AC Justice, WW Odero, WM Tierney. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.
Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P
In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Clinical, Treatment and Health...
Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L
Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jean H; Lee, Sing; Chow, Julie; Lau, Joseph; Tsang, Adley; Choi, Jacqueline; Griffiths, Sian M
To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3% of males being alcohol abusers and 2.3% dependent on alcohol. The corresponding figures for women were all lower at 3.6%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Younger age groups showed the highest prevalence of these drinking problems. Among male binge drinkers, 18.7% were also alcohol abusers and 12.3% were alcohol dependent. Among female binge drinkers, 16% reported alcohol abuse and 9.9% reported dependence. Male binge drinkers were less likely to be older, less likely to be students but more likely to be employed in the service industry. Female binge drinkers were less likely to be over 60 years of age or married but more likely to be smokers. In both genders, smoking was significantly associated with the likelihood of binge drinking (OR = 3.6-12.3), alcohol abuse (OR = 3.0-12.1), and dependence (OR = 5.2-20.6). Although binge drinking has been well tolerated in Chinese culture, it is strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence in both genders in Hong Kong. Our findings suggest that prevalence of problematic alcohol consumption warrants greater promotion of alcohol harms awareness. Higher rates of heavy drinking in younger-aged individuals may reflect changing lifestyle behaviors and herald higher future levels of alcohol-related health and social problems.
Safer, L A; Harding, C G
This paper describes the Under Pressure Program, an innovative communication-centered approach designed to involve Chicago public junior and senior high school students in considering the problems and prevention of adolescent substance abuse. The centerpiece of the program is a 30-minute live musical play, Captain Clean, which incorporates extensive postperformance dialogue and role play to explore the pressures and feelings of adolescents regarding substance abuse. This unique blend of live entertainment and applied learning techniques enables adolescents to understand the pressures they face and teaches them to make responsible choices, in addition to serving as a vehicle for effective school and community substance abuse intervention. By going beyond the 60-second "just say no" television and radio campaigns, the Under Pressure Program addresses the underlying causes of adolescent substance abuse. Students are engaged in active participation rather than the traditional "teach and preach." The goals of the program are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of live theatre in preventing and intervening in adolescent substance abuse, and (2) to examine the effectiveness of live theatre, via postperformance dialogue and role playing, in soliciting feedback from adolescents as to their own feelings about substance abuse and using school counselors and other available resources, and to build upon their recommendations for improving substance abuse prevention and intervention programs. The program is targeted at predominantly minority, low-income students who have been identified as "high risk." The Under Pressure format consists of four integral parts: faculty/staff community in-service: theatrical performance (Captain Clean); postperformance dialogue and role play; and student, faculty, counselor, and community follow-up.
Kim, Yeon Ha
This study investigated adverse childhood experiences of Korean college students and the impact such experiences have on students' depression and alcohol abuse. Using an online questionnaire, 939 college students were surveyed regarding their adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms and alcohol use habits. About half of the participants claimed to have experienced at least one adversity in their childhood. Eight percent of participants reported experiencing four or more categories of adversity. The correlations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms, alcohol abusive behaviors, and the comorbid condition of the two outcomes were significant when students' gender, geographical regions, maternal and paternal education, and family incomes were adjusted. Graded associations of cumulated adverse childhood experiences with the outcome variables were evident. These findings strengthen the link between child maltreatment and adult public health issues carrying socioeconomic burdens, two matters that have not been extensively studied in Korean contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Serry, N; Bloch, S; Ball, R; Anderson, K
To determine whether doctors who abuse substances differ from controls in terms of their physical and psychological well-being, and their marital and occupational functioning. The 44 doctors concerned in all cases of substance abuse which came before the Medical Board of Victoria between 1984 and 1990 were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire, psychological tests and a semi-structured interview. A control group of 42 doctors, obtained from the Medical Register, was also invited, and the groups were compared. The study was carried out at St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, under the auspices of the Medical Board of Victoria. Questionnaires were returned by 70% of the drug-dependent doctors and 83% of the controls. However, interviews were given by only 20% of the drug-dependent doctors. The groups differed significantly in terms of marital status (P < 0.002), overall health (P < 0.003), general wellbeing (P < 0.0009), and having experienced physical illness (P < 0.02) and psychiatric illness (P < 0.006) since graduation. No differences were found on the standardised questionnaires; this may reflect successful treatment. Substance abuse in medical practitioners is a major problem and is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention and early intervention are crucial.
Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L
Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca
In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…
The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.
Chan, Lai Fong; Maniam, T; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Loh, Sit Fong; Sinniah, Aishvarya; Idris, Zawaha Haji; Che Rus, Sulaiman; Hassan Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon
The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior. This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data. The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11). Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie
PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...... intervention in relation to surgery as a good idea. They did not consider quit drinking as a major problem during their hospital stay and had all remained abstinent in this period. About half of the patients were ready or partly ready to participate in an alcohol intervention. Patient opinions...
Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey
Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...
Curran, T A
We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...
Wodarski, John S
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple
Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui
Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…
Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M
This study examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents and the extent to which these associations may be affected by ethnicity. Four hundred fifty-eight psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-19, completed measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Multiple regression analyses examined the joint and independent predictors of drug and alcohol abuse for European Americans, Latino Americans, and African Americans separately. Seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted drug abuse for all groups, and predicted alcohol abuse for European Americans and Latino Americans. However, several differences were noted with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the model. Such differences may reflect distinct risk factors for drug and alcohol abuse in these three ethnic groups and may also have implications for prevention and treatment programs.
Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P
In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis....
Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493
The major reasons why women abuse drugs and alcohol are presented with a focus on societal and psychologic bases. A structured format is provided for eliciting a history while motivating the patient to obtain adequate treatment. A workable treatment contract is presented. A three-stage method of treatment is described, which focuses on the following: (1) achieving abstinence, (2) maintaining abstinence, and (3) achieving sobriety (advanced recovery).
Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…
Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...
Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.
Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…
Powers, M.B.; Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) produces better outcomes than individual-based treatment for alcoholism and drug abuse problems (e.g., [Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and
Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda
Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.
Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L
We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold
Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.
Pettersson, P; Ellsinger, B M; Sjöberg, C; Björntorp, P
Anthropometric, hormonal and liver function parameters were examined in 18 premenopausal women with a history of early alcohol abuse, and compared with the data for randomly selected controls of the same age. The alcoholic women showed slightly elevated levels of transaminases, but no clinical or laboratory signs of advanced liver damage. These women were characterized by an increased waist-to-hip ratio, due to enlarged waist circumference. Several endocrine abnormalities were found, including irregular or absent menses as well as low oestrogen, progesterone and delta-4-androstendione levels. The concentration of free testosterone was high and that of sex-hormone-binding globulin was low. These data suggest abdominal distribution of body fat, as well as hyperandrogenicity in alcoholic, premenopausal women. It is postulated that the endocrine abnormalities might be responsible for the abdominal fat distribution.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents.DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record data were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit and at the delivery. The sample in the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk consists of 2148 women, their children and partners (if any, but at 15-17-years-old follow-up only data about 1020 participants were available. MAIN EXPOSURES: Use of alcohol by mother/father before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 15-17 years of child’s age.OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of alcohol by 15-17-year-old adolescent.RESULTS: Use of alcohol more than once a week by mother before pregnancy was associated with alcohol abuse by adolescents, unlike father’s use of alcohol before and during pregnancy. Use of alcohol both by mother and father during adolescence of their offspring was strongly associated with alcohol abuse by the child. In the multivariate analysis only alcohol use by mother during adolescence of the child was significantly associated with alcohol use by the adolescent.CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that concurrent social factors influence regular alcohol use among adolescents more intensively than early life factors.
..., National Institutes of Health, Shady Grove West, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20892, 240-276..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research...
Ísis Eloah Machado
Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.
Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D
Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Giordano, Amanda L.; Holm, Jessica M.; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Sender, Kristy M.; Ramsey, Zachary B.; Abernathy, Meagan R.
Previous researchers have established the relationship between substance abuse and shame and religiosity/spirituality and shame. This study investigated the associations among shame, religiosity, spirituality, and drinking behavior in a college student sample (N = 310). Participants classified as hazardous drinkers reported higher levels of shame…
Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.
The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…
Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J
To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.
Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C.; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Correia, Christopher J.
Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue. PMID:24672063
Walker, Leigh C; Lawrence, Andrew J
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction. Therefore it is important to expand our knowledge and understanding of the neural pathways and mechanisms involved in alcohol seeking and abuse. The orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptide system is an attractive target, given the recent FDA and PMDA approval of suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia. Orexin is synthesized exclusively in neurons located in the lateral (LH), perifornical (PEF), and dorsal medial (DMH) hypothalamus. These neurons project widely throughout the neuraxis with regulatory roles in a wide range of behavioral and physiological responses, including sleep-wake cycle neuroendocrine regulation, anxiety, feeding behavior, and reward seeking. Here we summarize the literature to date, which have evaluated the interplay between alcohol and the orexin system.
Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S
American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use
Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Phelps, Carolyn E Roecker; Reichle, Adam C
Using a sample of 1117 female college students, this study examined emotional, behavioral, and social-cognitive mechanisms of sexual abuse revictimization. It was hypothesized that numbing, alexithymia, alcohol problems, mistrust, and adult attachment dimensions would mediate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual abuse (ASA). Aside from the close adult attachment dimension, the results indicated that all of the hypothesized mediators were associated with CSA. However, only alcohol problems and mistrust met the necessary conditions of mediation. The results with respect to mistrust are especially unique in that it is one of the first empirical demonstrations of a social-cognitive mechanism for sexual abuse revictimization. Thus, these results enhance our understanding of interpersonal mediators of the relationship between CSA and ASA and provide a new direction for future research.
Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra
This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159
Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....
Montisci, Massimo; Terranova, Claudio; Snenghi, Rossella; Ferrara, Santo Davide
The paper describes a case of suicide in a young man affected by compensated chronic hydrocephalus who was subject to alcohol abuse. The case was studied by means of a complex set of analyses, including circumstantial and clinical data, anatomohistopathological findings, and chemicotoxicologic tests. What clearly emerges in the case is the importance of a continuing neuropsychological follow-up in patients with shunted hydrocephalus. The forensic interest in the case is due to the peculiar autopsy findings discussed in relation to the possible causes of sudden death in subjects with hydrocephalus.
Tennant, F S; Day, C M; Ungerleider, J T
One hundred fifty consecutive, first-visit, general medical patients were simply and inexpensively screened by questionnaire, personal inquiry, and physical examination for drug and alcohol abuse. Seventeen (11.3%) currently used psychoactive drugs, excluding alcohol, and ten (6.7%) used drugs or alcohol on a daily basis to the point that the patient considered it an abuse problem. The majority of the drug and alcohol users recognized their problem on a short questionnaire that was part of a medical intake form. Almost all of the recognized abusers of drugs or alcohol subsequently entered treatment of their problem.
with a pH range of 3.5 to 9.5. Examination of the electrophoretic patterns of the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) revealed polymorphism in cytosolic ALDH 1. We confirmed that the polymorphism follows Mendel's law of inheritance, and is governed by two codominant alleles. Moreover, the polymorphism of ALDH 1 observed in Wistar strain rats correlated closely with the differences in ethanol consumption behavior or alcohol preference. 2) Effects of abusable drugs on learning behavior of rat. In general, animal experiments for assessing drug effects, regardless whether they measure learning or intrinsic motor or physiological function, use behavioral indicators that produce a positive or negative reinforcement. In other words, the behavioral effect of a drug is assessed by whether it enhances the animal's behavior in a positive reinforcement or decreases its response in a negative reinforcement. However, the behavioral indicator of the animal is rarely an independent entity within the body, but is closely associated with other behavioral components. Even when a behavioral indicator is enhanced by a drug, whether the apparent increase is due to the enhancing effect of the drug or a result of decreases of other behavioral components cannot be judged. We therefore devised a multiple active/passive avoidance learning apparatus which is a device for analyzing drug effects in rats using a running-wheel. We used this device to assess the effects of a drug on the animal from three dimensions simultaneously; excitatory, inhibitory and discriminatory behaviors. From these we attempted to clarify the overall effect of the drug on high order learning behavior of animal. This method enables direct examination of the so-called "learning capability" of an animal, which cannot be elucidated by single scheule learning that is strongly influenced by behavioral characteristics such as excitation and inhibition. Therefore, a method which uses avoidance learning as indicator is the best
Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223 Alcohol...
Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K
Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.
Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Araas, Teresa E.; Adams, Troy B.
Objective: Alcohol abuse among college students is associated with a quality of life burden. The current study replicated and extended previous research on protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by examining relationships between PBS use and negative alcohol-related consequences. Method: A national sample of 29,792 U. S. college students who…
Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M
The authors examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in 462 hospitalized adolescents, and the extent to which these associations may be affected by gender or by substance type. Participants completed a battery of psychometrically-sound, self-report measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the joint and independent predictors of drug abuse and alcohol abuse, for males and for females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted both drug and alcohol abuse, for both males and females. However, several differences were found with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the predictive models--with only delinquent predisposition making a significant independent contribution for all four conditions. We found distinct patterns of psychosocial predictor variables for drug and alcohol abuse, as well as distinct patterns for males and females. These results may reflect differing risk factors for drug abuse and alcohol abuse in adolescent psychiatric patients--and differing risk factors for males and females. Such differences have potential implications for prevention and treatment.
Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka
The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Boitt, Richard Kimuge
The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…
Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne
The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…
Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.
Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…
Othman Mohamad Hashim
Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and
Sheketha R. Hauser
Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed – including the mesocorticolimbic (MCL dopamine system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT-7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT-7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT-7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.
Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A
Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.
Abidi, L.; Oenema, A.; van den Akker, M.; van de Mheen, D.
Objective: Primary care professionals are encouraged to screen patients for alcohol abuse. However, patients with alcohol abuse are often under-diagnosed as well as under-registered in medical records in general practices. This study aims to report on the registration rates of alcohol abuse
Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Schippers, Gerard M.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol
Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Schippers, G.M.
Background: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol
Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (ages 0-11) processed during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 41). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Past year HIV-risk sexual behavior was assessed via self-reports during 2003-2004 (N = 800). Logistic regression was used to examine differences in sexual risk behavior between the abuse and neglect and control groups, and latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test mediator models. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in middle adulthood, odds ratio = 2.84, 95% CI [1.74, 4.64], p ≤ .001, and this relationship was mediated by risky romantic relationships in young adulthood. Results of this study draw attention to the potential long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect for physical health, in particular sexual risk, and point to romantic relationships as an important focus of intervention and prevention efforts. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Einbender, Alison J.; Friedrich, William N.
Compared psychological functioning and behavior of 46 sexually abused girls (ages 6-14) with that of 46 nonabused girls matched on age, race, family income, and family constellation. Found that sexually abused children demonstrated heightened sexual preoccupation and behavior problems, lower cognitive abilities and school achievement, and more…
Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.
Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century...
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew
Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more dr...
Our fears about youthful substance abuse and our faith in popular treatments are misdirected. Most illicit substance use by the young is not pathologic or compulsive. Excessive substance use among the young most often involves alcohol. Youthful substance abusers tend to abuse many substances--therefore an understanding of substance abuse requires an awareness of individual motivation and of the person's social circumstances. Therapy lacking this understanding has proven fruitless. Our best hope for the young--whether or not they have significant histories of substance abuse--lies in engaging the natural processes of maturation, real-world rewards, and the creation of a world worth living in.
Vadlamudi, Raja S; Adams, Susie; Hogan, Beth; Wu, Tiejian; Wahid, Zia
Alcohol abuse is a worldwide public health concern. Nurses, representing the largest body of health care providers, are a potential resource to provide screening and brief intervention for patients with alcohol problems. This study evaluates the effect of an educational intervention on the attitudes, beliefs, and confidence levels of nurses regarding screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems. One hundred eighty-one students at Vanderbilt University School of Nursing participated in a four-hour educational intervention to train providers in brief negotiated intervention (BNI) for screening, early detection and brief treatment of alcohol problems. Participants completed questionnaires before and after this training. Analysis of the data using paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance showed statistically significant positive change in the nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and confidence levels regarding alcohol abuse and its treatment after the educational intervention. For example, the percentage of nurses who reported always having confidence in assessing patients' readiness to change their behavior increased from 8.3% to 23.5% after training. In conclusion, the BNI educational intervention can be effective in promoting positive changes among nurses in attitudes, beliefs, and confidence levels regarding alcohol abuse and its treatment.
Author's abstract: Methodology and conclusions on the role of the abusive use of alcohol in traffic safety were developed through three related projects. Project I is a case-history investigation of 616 traffic fatalities from metropolitan Wayne Coun...
Witte, Tricia H; Kopkin, Megan R; Hollis, Sean D
Previous research has shown a strong bias for laypersons to believe alcohol use and aggression to go hand-in-hand (see Quigley & Leonard, 2006 ). Furthermore, research has shown that alcohol use can be seen as a mitigating circumstance for aggression, resulting in a reduction of blame and accountability (Bullock, 2002 ; Katz & Arias, 2001 ; Tryggvesson, 2004 ). The present study investigated observers' judgments of intimate partner violence (IPV) when the perpetrator was under the influence of alcohol. We hypothesized that participants would view violent behavior as more common and less abusive if they thought the perpetrator was under the influence of alcohol. College students (n = 79) viewed a video depicting an increasingly abusive interaction between college-age dating partners (see Witte & Kendra, 2010 ) and half of the participants were lead to believe that the perpetrator was drinking alcohol prior to the interaction. Participants rated the videotaped vignette at four timepoints to assess the degree to which they believed the interaction was normal/common and abusive. Observers judged the abusive behavior as more common and less abusive when alcohol was involved, but only for psychologically abusive behaviors and moderately severe physically abusive behaviors. The results of this study provide support for the notion that direct observers of IPV judge moderately abusive behavior as more common and less abusive when alcohol is involved. With this, theories concerning alcohol expectancies and interpretations of interpersonal violence can be more readily applied to real-life scenarios, such as in the validity of eye-witness testimony.
Irving, L M; Seidner, A L; Burling, T A; Thomas, R G; Brenner, G F
Attitudes about quitting cigarette smoking were assessed at admission to a substance abuse treatment program for homeless veterans. The majority were interested in quitting smoking, believed that inpatient drug/alcohol treatment was the best time to quit, and that quitting would not threaten their sobriety. Using cluster analysis, four subgroups of inpatients with different levels of interest, confidence, and motivation regarding quitting smoking were identified. Our inpatients' positive attitudes about quitting smoking stand in contrast with previously reported attitudes of many health professionals, and suggest that inpatient treatment could be an opportune time to provide stop-smoking interventions. Findings also suggest that different treatment approaches may be needed for subgroups of inpatients with varying attitudes about quitting.
Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R
Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a
McMillan, Franklin D; Duffy, Deborah L; Zawistowski, Stephen L; Serpell, James A
Abuse is an intentional act that causes harm to an individual. Dogs (Canis familiaris) with a known or suspected history of abuse were solicited for the study. A panel of 5 experts in canine behavior and abuse selected the dogs judged as having a certain or near certain history of being abused for inclusion in the study. Behavioral evaluations of the dogs were obtained using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire, which utilizes ordinal scales to rate either the intensity or frequency of the dog's behaviors. Sixty-nine dogs ultimately met the criteria for inclusion in the study. When compared with a convenience sample of 5,239 companion dogs, abused dogs were reported as displaying significantly higher rates of aggression and fear directed toward unfamiliar humans and dogs, excitability, hyperactivity, attachment and attention-seeking behaviors, persistent barking, and miscellaneous strange or repetitive behaviors. Delineating the behavioral and psychological characteristics of abused dogs provides the first step in identifying and distinguishing the risk factors and sequelae associated with abuse, which may inform the development of preventive and therapeutic programs for nonhuman animal abuse.
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...
Miskulin, Maja; Petrović, Goranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Puntarić, Dinko; Milas, Josip; Dahl, Danielle; Rudan, Stjepan
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol abuse among university students in Osijek, Croatia and its possible interconnections with gender, year of study, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area, sources of financing and type of residence during study. A validated questionnaire was self-administered to cross-faculty representative student sample of "J. J. Strossmayer" University of Osiek in June 2006. General demographic data, as well as data on academic features and student socio-economical status were obtained. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for assessing the extent of alcohol consumption, with cut off value of 8 indicating possible alcohol problems. The majority of study participants 90.9% (755/831) had tried alcohol at least once in their life. Among this group, 43.8% (331/755) had an AUDIT total score of 8 or more: 69.2% (229/331) were males and 30.8% (102/331) were females. Among the study participants who screened positive, 70.4% (233/331) responded positively to simple advice focused on the reduction of hazardous drinking (AUDIT 8-15), 14.5% (48/331) needed brief counseling and continued monitoring (AUDIT 16-19), and 15.1% (50/331) clearly warranted further diagnostic evaluation for alcohol dependence (AUDIT 20 and above). Significantly different statistical data was found within the following factors: gender, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area and type of residence (chi2 = 76.232, p = 0.0000; Fisher exact test = 31.828, p = 0.0000; chi2 = 11.667, p = 0.0086 and chi2 = 6.639, p = 0.0362 respectively). Alcohol consumption resulting in risk behaviors is common among university students from eastern Croatia. These findings emphasize the need for comprehensive and effective preventative strategies directed towards student population.
Ana Carolina Robbe Mathias
Full Text Available A entrevista motivacional e a prevenção de recaída são abordagens de tratamento para pessoas com problemas relativos ao uso indevido de álcool e drogas. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o caso de um paciente demonstrando a utilização das duas abordagens associadas em tratamento em grupo e descrevemos o uso das técnicas, as várias etapas do tratamento e os resultados alcançados. São discutidos os resultados encontrados e as vantagens das técnicas.Motivational Interviewing and relapse prevention are treatment approaches for individuals with alcohol or drug abuse problems. This article describes a group therapy treatment case, showing the association of both techniques. Each step of the treatment techniques is demonstrated and exemplified as long as their results. Results and advantages of the techniques are discussed.
Rose, R J
Although behavioral problems associated with abuse of alcohol emerge during late adolescence and adulthood, some behavioral characteristics indicative of an increased risk of alcoholism may already be obvious during early childhood. Studies in several countries have demonstrated that children with high levels of novelty-seeking behavior and low levels of harm-avoidance behavior are more likely to develop alcohol-related problems during adolescence. Moreover, as early as age 3, children at high risk of future alcoholism because of a family history are more active, more impatient, and more aggressive than matched controls of low-risk children. Causal influences on the initiation of drinking must be distinguished from those that affect patterns of consumption once drinking is initiated. Studies of adolescent twins have demonstrated that initiation of drinking is primarily influenced by the drinking status of parents, siblings, and friends and by socioregional differences in the environments within which adolescent twins reside. The influence of genetic factors is negligible. Conversely, once initiated, differences in frequency and quantity of drinking are strongly influenced by genetic factors. However, these influences, too, are modulated by sibling and peer effects and by regional environmental variation.
Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N
To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.
Stephen M Topper
Full Text Available Alcohol has a wide variety of effects on physiology and behavior. One of the most well-recognized behavioral effects is disinhibition, where behaviors that are normally suppressed are displayed following intoxication. A large body of evidence has shown that alcohol-induced disinhibition in humans affects attention, verbal, sexual, and locomotor behaviors. Similar behavioral disinhibition is also seen in many animal models of ethanol response, from invertebrates to mammals and primates. Here we describe several examples of disinhibition in the nematode C. elegans. The nematode displays distinct behavioral states associated with locomotion (crawling on land and swimming in water that are mediated by dopamine. On land, animals crawl and feed freely, but these behaviors are inhibited in water. We found that additional behaviors, including a variety of escape responses are also inhibited in water. Whereas alcohol non-specifically impaired locomotion, feeding, and escape responses in worms on land, alcohol specifically disinhibited these behaviors in worms immersed in water. Loss of dopamine signaling relieved disinhibition of feeding behavior, while loss of the D1-like dopamine receptor DOP-4 impaired the ethanol-induced disinhibition of crawling. The powerful genetics and simple nervous system of C. elegans may help uncover conserved molecular mechanisms that underlie alcohol-induced disinhibition of behaviors in higher animals.
basis for a potential approach to prospectively identifying individuals - including individuals with PTSD - at increased risk for future alcohol use...responses to 90, 95 and 100 decibel (dB) white noise stimuli presented in counterbalanced semi-randomized order were tested in alcohol -naYve young adult ...Davis et al., 1997) that is common to many alcoholics (Cloninger, 1987; Kushner et al., 2000) and that is a major risk factor for alcohol abuse (Koob
Petukhov Konstantin Alekseevich
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify ways to reduce the impact of risk factors of national modernization associated with alcohol consumption. In study it is used a method of formalize poll of adult residents of Perm region based on a multi-stage sample reflecting the population distribution by territory, sex, age and education. The timing of the survey - June 2012. Sample size was 1000 respondents. As a result, it was detected the number of relationships between social well-being of the respondents, their attitude to their own health and socio-demographic characteristics, on the one hand, and the attitude to the problem of alcohol abuse, anti-alcoholic legislative initiatives on the other. The obtained results may contribute to the expansion of the methodological and theoretical framework of the concept of "risk society", the enrichment of prognostic tools used to assess risk factors for regional socio-cultural development. Practical results includes the recommendations for improving the regulation of consumption of alcohol and prevention programs risk behavior.
Константин Алексеевич Петухов
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify ways to reduce the impact of risk factors of national modernization associated with alcohol consumption. In study it is used a method of formalize poll of adult residents of Perm region based on a multi-stage sample reflecting the population distribution by territory, sex, age and education. The timing of the survey - June 2012. Sample size was 1000 respondents. As a result, it was detected the number of relationships between social well-being of the respondents, their attitude to their own health and socio-demographic characteristics, on the one hand, and the attitude to the problem of alcohol abuse, anti-alcoholic legislative initiatives on the other. The obtained results may contribute to the expansion of the methodological and theoretical framework of the concept of "risk society", the enrichment of prognostic tools used to assess risk factors for regional socio-cultural development. Practical results includes the recommendations for improving the regulation of consumption of alcohol and prevention programs risk behavior.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-33
Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da Rocha
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers. This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. METHODS: Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. RESULTS: In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48 in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5 in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.
Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques da; Barrio-Lera, Juan Pablo; Jardim, Gabriel Behr Gomes; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Cirolini, Luiza; Jung, Ivo Emilio da Cruz; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Souza Filho, Olmiro Cezimbra de; Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da
Despite the decline in the prevalence of tobacco use in many countries, including Brazil, there are growing numbers of smokers who continue to smoke at a low daily rate, or less frequently (non-daily smokers). This group needs to be better characterized in order to direct preventive actions and public health policies. The aim here was to compare lifestyle, health characteristics and alcoholism problems among young adult smokers, non-daily smokers and non-smokers. This was a cross-sectional study in which volunteers from the university community and its surrounds in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were included between October 2007 and January 2008. Out of 1240 volunteers initially contacted in a university cafeteria, a total of 728 participants of mean age 22.45 ± 3.32 years were selected for final analysis. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. In general, it was observed that the non-daily smokers showed intermediate characteristics in relation to the smokers and non-smokers. However, there was a significant association between non-daily smoking and alcohol abuse. The non-daily smokers presented an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.48) in relation to the daily smokers and an odds ratio of 3.3 (confidence interval: 1.7-6.5) in relation to the non-smokers, with regard to presenting a positive CAGE test, thereby indicating alcohol abuse or dependence. The study suggested that non-daily smoking and alcohol consumption were concomitant behaviors.
Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette
An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...... investigated the role of pretreatment coping strategies in outcome of outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. The pretreatment coping strategies of 136 clients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse were examined as a predictor of drinking pattern after treatment. The pretreatment coping strategies...... were assessed by the COPE questionnaire. Drinking pattern after treatment was assessed at follow-up one year after treatment was entered. Results indicated that some pretreatment coping strategies are identifiable as adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, respectively, regarding successful...
intervention programs for the prevention of sexual assault revictimization , the perpetration of sexual assault, and the misuse of alcohol. A longitudinal... revictimization as adults characterize the third area. The last domain may be related to the first and consists of health problems that are of a...symptomatology, revictimization proneness, low self-esteem, and suicidal ideation and behaviors. Still other assessments of the sexual abuse literature
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction , and Relapse...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction ...system in pathological anxiety: a focus on panic with relevance to generalized anxiety and phobias. Biol Psychiatry 46:1205-18. Stevens DR
Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hinkin, C H; Castellon, S A; Dickson-Fuhrman, E; Daum, G; Jaffe, J; Jarvik, L
This study examined the sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of a modified version of the CAGE, a screening measure used in the detection of older alcohol- and drug-abusing individuals. In a retrospective review of clinical records of 976 patients screened by a geriatric substance abuse program, the authors examined patients' responses on a modified version of the CAGE that included queries regarding drug use. The CAGE was administered to individuals age 50 or over draw from three diagnostic groups: alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and normal controls. Analysis of variance and discriminant function analyses revealed that the modified CAGE was able to discriminate both alcohol and drug abusers from controls. Analyses examining test sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves revealed the CAGE to demonstrate excellent sensitivity but poor specificity. Omitting the "cut down'' item from the CAGE significantly improved specificity with only a modest drop in sensitivity. Given the ease of administration and sensitivity to both alcohol and drug abuse, these data suggest that the modified CAGE is well suited as a screening instrument for geriatric drug and alcohol abuse.
problems. About 10% of adult Americans have a serious alcohol problem. Excessive alcohol consumption may impair judgment and increase the risk of...no family history of alcoholism . The risk is far greater for children of alcoholic mothers than alcoholic fathers. The child of an alcoholic father...is at greater risk if the mother instilled in the child high esteem for the father. One characteristic of alcohol dependence is increasing tolerance
Klerman, G L; Leon, A C; Wickramaratne, P; Warshaw, M G; Mueller, T I; Weissman, M M; Akiskal, H
Previous studies have reported an increase in depression among recent birth cohorts. Concurrent with the increase in rates of depression, there have been increases in rates of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. This study sought to determine if the recent increase in rates of depression could be attributed to co-morbid alcohol and drug abuse. The data derived from two studies: (1) a sample of relatives of probands with affective disorder; and (2) a community survey of the US population. The piecewise exponential statistical model was applied to evaluate the association of gender, age, period and birth cohort with rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) separately for those with, and without, diagnoses of alcohol or drug abuse. Elevated rates of MDD occurred among those with co-morbid drug and alcohol abuse in both the family and community samples. However, there were also temporal increases in rates of MDD in those with no such co-morbidity. Specifically there were effects of age and gender for both studies; in addition, there was a period effect in the family study and a birth cohort effect in the community sample. The recent increases in depression in the US cannot be accounted for solely by concurrent increases in co-morbid drug and alcohol abuse. Temporal (period and cohort) effects on rates of depression occur in addition to the contribution of co-morbid drug and alcohol abuse or dependence.
Les Whitbeck, B; Chen, Xiaojin; Hoyt, Dan R; Adams, Gary W
This report investigates the effects of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation on meeting diagnostic criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse among American Indians who share a common culture in the upper Midwest. We introduce an empirical measure of historical loss and hypothesize that historical loss will mediate the effects of discrimination on meeting 12-month diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse. We also hypothesize that enculturation will be negatively associated with 12-month alcohol abuse and mediate or moderate the effects of discrimination. A sample of 452 (351 women) American-Indian parents/caretakers (mean age: women = 39 years, men = 42 years) of children ages 10 to 12 years participated in diagnostic interviews for lifetime and 12-month alcohol abuse. The subjects' perceptions of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation were also measured. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate direct and potential mediating effects of latent constructs of enculturation (a resiliency factor) and historical loss (a risk factor) on the relationship between discrimination and meeting criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse. Historical loss mediated the effects of discrimination on 12-month alcohol abuse among women. Enculturation neither mediated nor moderated the effects of discrimination but had an independent negative effect on alcohol abuse. In a combined model comprising both enculturation and historical loss, the effects of discrimination on 12-month alcohol abuse were mediated. This study presents important new evidence that historical loss affects American-Indian alcohol abuse. It also provides evidence for the resiliency effects of enculturation on alcohol abuse.
Armstrong, Sean C; Tsogtbaatar, Byamba
Alcohol abuse has become recognized by numerous organizations in Mongolia as one of their primary public health challenges. Despite the crisis of alcohol abuse in Mongolia, the dominance of narcology in shaping the health system's response has allowed the alcohol industry to control the debate. The Mongolian population largely interprets the World Health Organization's (WHO) "standard drink" as a consumption guideline rather than a measure of abuse. In addition, the focus on high levels of dependence, as defined by narcology, has allowed the WHO to officially write off the problem, stating that less than 1% of the adult population can be categorized as "alcoholics." As the government focuses on new policy-based approaches to the issue, the rhetoric undermines participation and support, while the industry finds new ways to learn from narcology in their efforts to grow. However, by reinvesting profits from alcohol and a public health-focused approach, solutions can be found.
Bickel, W K; Snider, S E; Quisenberry, A J; Stein, J S
Understanding the abuse liability of novel drugs is critical to understanding the risk these new compounds pose to society. Behavioral economics, the integration of psychology and economics, can be used to predict abuse liability of novel substances. Here, we describe the behavioral economic concept of reinforcer pathology and how it may predict the use of novel drugs in existing drug-users and initiation of use in the drug-naive. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique
Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…
Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel
This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement.
Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.
Rush, Christina C; Curry, John F; Looney, John G
The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent drinkers. Participants anonymously completed a survey as part of a universal alcohol abuse prevention program between September 2007 and April 2008. Co-occurring disordered eating behaviors and binge drinking characterized 17.1% of males and 19.0% of females. Rates of binge drinking were higher in those with disordered eating behaviors. Students with disordered eating behaviors also had more positive and negative alcohol expectancies and engaged in more risky and fewer protective drinking behaviors than their counterparts. Students with disordered eating behaviors have outcome expectancies and behavior patterns associated with problematic drinking. These findings may enhance prevention and intervention programs.
Brown, B. Bradford
Surveyed perceptions of the causes, severity, and treatment of elderly substance abuse as reported by 30 drug-abuse, health care, and social service practitioners. Perceptions differed as a function of both the basic type of services an agency provided and its specific response to older abusers. (Author)
Milman, Doris H.; And Others
This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…
Brown, B B; Chiang, C P
Despite the rising incidence of drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly, information concerning the social and psychological factors fostering such abuse is scanty and potentially biased toward the limited number of older abusers who obtain professional help. Using a brief interview with carefully selected samples, the present study compares characteristics of social background and social support among 21 older clients (age 55 and over) of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggest that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment for substance abuse more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Controlling for age and gender effects, substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single and divorced elderly and among respondents who lived alone; presence or absence of living companions was more influential than relationships with nearby social supports. Implications for health and social service programs as well as for further research are discussed.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.
This document includes two statements of policy for the University of Hawaii's drug and alcohol abuse prevention program. The first, "Illegal Drugs and Substance Abuse," opens with an introduction stating the University's general mission and that mission's incompatibility with substance abuse. A second section details the University's…
Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan
Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0
1Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, South Africa. 2School of Health Systems and ... the past decade, numerous studies have pointed to alcohol's potential role in sexual risk behaviours and HIV infection. Consequently ..... baseline differences with the experimental group having had higher ...
Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul
Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…
Jun 15, 2011 ... is seen in several communities as an emblem of male superiority. Men also take alcohol to enhance sexual performance, for social acceptance, and to overcome societal stresses. This study also recorded a high prevalence of female alcohol abusers at 35.51%, which is not consistent with the finding ...
Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.
Rocco, M; Prinzi, G; Campagna, E; Battaglia, T; Barucco, T; Polchi, S; Kisialiou, A; Colasanti, M; Felli, E; Lepiane, P; Santoro, R; Vennarecci, G; Ettorre, G M
Clinical practice requires an accurate psychological assessment of subjects with clinical history of alcohol abuse and/or substance abuse (abuse history [AH]) for therapeutic choice. This study aims to identify significant correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 scales in patients awaiting liver transplantation. We evaluated a personality questionnaire containing MMPI-2 scales in the sample of 308 patients (81.8% males and 18.2% females) awaiting liver transplantation. The AH group composed 44.49% of patients and in the abuse free (AF) group, 55.51%. Scales were compared using Shapiro-Wilk test and Mann-Whitney U test. Interrelationships were examined using Spearman's correlation. This analysis found 27 scales of the MMPI-2 that were statistically different between 2 groups (AF and AH). In the AH group, we found a significant correlation between the following pairs of scales: Schizophrenia Scale (Sc) with the Addictions Potential Scale, Social Introversion scale (Si) with the Psychopathic Deviate scale (Pd), and Social Discomfort scale with Pd; the ES scale was negatively correlated with the Sc and Si scales. This interim study showed that the understanding of these indicators is crucial both for the assessment accuracy and for a prediction of the degree of therapy compliance after the transplantation. The scales of the MMPI-2 indicated a marked tendency to emotional rigidity, a lack of self-esteem and susceptibility judgment. Social introversion and social discomfort trends lead to impulsive behavior and deviant actions that combine poorly with good compliance with treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bravo, Adrian J; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R
College-related alcohol beliefs, or beliefs that drinking alcohol is central to the college experience, have been shown to robustly predict alcohol-related outcomes among college students. Given the strength of these associations, it is imperative to understand more proximal factors (i.e., closer in a causal chain leading to alcohol-related outcomes) that can explain these associations. The current research examined alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a potential mediator of the association between college-related alcohol beliefs and alcohol outcomes among college student drinkers. Participants were undergraduate students from a large southeastern university (Sample 1; n = 561) and a large southwestern university (Sample 2; n = 563) in the United States that consumed alcohol at least once in the previous month. Path analysis was conducted examining the concurrent associations between college-related alcohol beliefs, PBS use (both as a single facet and multidimensionally), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences (i.e., double mediation). In both samples, there was a significant double-mediated association that suggested that higher college-related alcohol beliefs is associated with lower PBS use (single facet), which is associated with higher alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Multidimensionally, only one double-mediation effect (in Sample 2 only) was significant (i.e., college-related alcohol beliefs → manner of drinking PBS → alcohol consumption → alcohol-related consequences). Conclusions/Importance: These results suggest that targeting these college-related alcohol beliefs as well as PBS use are promising targets for college alcohol interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
may die from these seizures. A literature study was performed of deaths due to alcohol-induced seizures, either during withdrawal or as late-onset seizures where the aetiology was established as long time alcohol abuse and a necropsy had shown no other possible cause of death than a seizure. RESULTS......: It was not possible to find any well-documented cases. It is, however, difficult to compare cases in the literature, as there is no generally accepted classification or nomenclature of seizures related to alcohol abuse....... aetiologies, but in police reports a person known to have seizures is most likely to be reported as suffering from epilepsy. It is a well-known fact that alcoholics have seizures either due to "alcohol-induced epilepsy" or due to withdrawal from drinking. It also seems to be generally accepted that alcoholics...
Swendsen, Joel; Burstein, Marcy; Case, Brady; Conway, Kevin P.; Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen R.
Context Comprehensive descriptions of substance use and abuse trajectories have been lacking in nationally representative samples of adolescents. Objective To examine the prevalence, age at onset, and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse among US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime estimates of alcohol and illicit substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of abuse, with or without dependence. Results By late adolescence, 78.2% of US adolescents had consumed alcohol, 47.1% had reached regular drinking levels defined by at least 12 drinks within a given year, and 15.1% met criteria for lifetime abuse. The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. The associations observed by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity often varied significantly by previous stage of use. Conclusions Alcohol and drug use is common in US adolescents, and the findings of this study indicate that most cases of abuse have their initial onset in this important period of development. Prevention and treatment efforts would benefit from careful attention to the correlates and risk factors that are specific to the stage of substance use in adolescents. PMID:22474107
In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.
Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde
Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.
Shimane, Takuya; Wada, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro
This study examines the prevalence of risky drinking and the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse among college freshmen. A total of 376 college freshmen (126 boys and 248 girls) in a Japanese university participated in the study. The subjects were asked to complete self-administered, anonymous questionnaires during their class. The number of participants who had used drugs was small. The following 2 items for substance abuse were included in the questionnaires: (1) those who had drug using peers who used drugs and (2) those who had been persuaded to use drugs by their peers. On the basis of the responses, the participants were classified into 3 groups: (1) high-risk group (HRG), which accounted for 1.4% of the subjects and comprised those who answered "yes" to both the above-mentioned two items; (2) risk group (RG), which accounted for 7.4% and comprised participants who answered "yes" to one of the two items; and (3) control group (CG), which accounted for 91.2% and comprised those who did not answer "yes" to either of the two items. Bivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association between risky drinking behaviors and risk groups of substance abuse. The results of our study indicated that 87.0% of the participants reported lifetime alcohol use, and 69.4% reported the consumption of alcohol during the past 30 days. Of the former group, 21.4% had engaged in binge drinking, 8.6% had experienced alcohol-related harassment, 9.5% had experienced alcohol-induced blackouts, and 82.0% had experienced drinking alcohol with peers without adults. There were significant associations between risk groups of substance abuse and risky drinking such as binge drinking (p = 0.001), alcohol-induced blackouts (p = 0.020), alcohol-related harassment (p = 0.012), alcohol consumption during the past 30 days (p = 0.047). However, lifetime alcohol use (p = 0.264) and experience of drinking alcohol with peers without adults (p = 0
Pilatti, Angelina; Caneto, Florencia; Garimaldi, Javier Alejandro; Vera, Belén Del Valle; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
The aim of the study was to analyze independent and potential interactive effects of age at drinking onset and family history of alcohol abuse on subsequent patterns of alcohol drinking, alcohol-related problems and substance use. Participants were college students (60.3% females, mean age = 20.27 ± 2.54 years) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several measures were used to assess alcohol, tobacco and drug use. The Spanish version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire was used to assess alcohol-related problems. Factorial analyses of variance, or its non-parametric equivalent, were performed to explore differences in substance use behaviors and alcohol-related problems in subjects with early or late drinking onset and with or without family history of alcohol abuse. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the association between these two risk factors and categorical measures of alcohol, tobacco and drug use. Early onset of drinking was associated with amount of consumption of alcohol including up to hazardous levels, as well as tobacco and drug use. However, the frequency of alcohol problems and frequency of episodes of alcohol intoxication were only related to age of onset in those with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Delaying drinking debut is particularly important in the prevention of future alcohol problems in those adolescents who have a family history of such problems.
Full Text Available The imbalance between testosterone (T and cortisol (C levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV. Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV.
Fals-Stewart, William; Birchler, Gary R.; Kelley, Michelle L.
Married or cohabiting female alcoholic patients (n = 138) and their non-substance-abusing male partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equally intensive interventions: (a) behavioral couples therapy plus individual-based treatment (BCT; n = 46), (b) individual-based treatment only (IBT; n = 46), or (c) psychoeducational attention control…
Jupp, Bianca; Lawrence, Andrew J
Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug dependence represents a serious health and social issue within the community. As drug dependence has become more widely recognized as a clinical disorder and the severity of the problem been fully realized, options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Treatment has progressed from purely social and behavioral approaches to now encompass pharmacotherapy to attempt to disrupt the mechanisms underlying these disorders. Despite these advances, many forms of addiction lack effective therapeutics and the prevalence of this disorder remains unacceptably high. As a result, a significant effort within the research community has been dedicated to the identification of novel targets for the development of therapeutics based upon our understanding of the pathological processes underlying addiction. The current review aims to provide an overview of existing and clinically trialed pharmacotherapies for alcohol, opiate, psychostimulant, nicotine, cannabis and inhalant addictions. Further, we discuss some of the potential targets that have been recently indentified from basic studies that may hold promise for the development of novel treatments.
Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah
The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Hartman, Georgia L.; And Others
Prosecuting and defense attorneys across Indiana were surveyed concerning the acceptability of specific behaviors associated with child abuse. Among respondents (n=154) prosecutors had more severe judgments than defense attorneys on 32 of the 42 behaviors. Cognitive dissonance theory is proposed as an explanation for these findings. (Author/DB)
Manjunatha S Muttigi
Full Text Available Background: Glutathione S Transferase (GST has been involved in detoxification process in the liver and its activity has been shown to be increased in alcohol abusers. In the current work we measured the GST activity, total thiol status, AST, ALT, and direct bilirubin in chronic alcohol abusers before and 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Methods: Serum and urine GST activity and total thiol status were determined using spectrophotometric methods and serum transaminases were determined using clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: We found,significant increase in serum and urine GST (p<0.001, AST (p<0.001, ALT (p<0.001, and decrease in total thiol status (p<0.001 in chronic alcohol abusers. GST activity significantly decreased (p<0.001 and total thiol status were improved significantly (p<0.001 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary data to suggest the role of GST as prognostic indicator of alcohol abstinence with possible trend towards an improvement in liver function.
Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R
Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large
Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves
hypersomniacs, without any change in alcohol dependence or abuse frequency. Although disruption of hypocretin signaling in rodents reduces drug-seeking behaviors, our results do not support that hypocretin deficiency constitutes a protective factor against the development of drug addiction in humans. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A
Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Ogbu, Uzor C
Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR, benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:76–79.
Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H
Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).
Ogbu, Uzor C; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse.
Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin
This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spirituality predicted fewer alcohol symptoms, and, importantly, religious affiliation moderated the effects of problematic peers and family members on adolescent alcohol symptoms. The findings suggest further study of intervention and prevention efforts regarding the benefits from consideration of the complex relationships among multiple environmental variables.
Miley, W M
This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men.
Pearson, A L; Bowie, C; Thornton, L E
To investigate the relationship between access to off-license alcohol outlets and areas with dual treatment for alcohol/drug abuse and anxiety/mood disorder compared to areas with anxiety/mood disorder only in an urban setting in New Zealand. Ecologic study. Within small areas (2840 meshblocks, mean size 0.05 km(2)) in the city of Auckland, New Zealand, counts of adults receiving anxiety/mood disorder treatment (2008-9) were identified and the proportions of these individuals also receiving treatment for alcohol/drug abuse were generated. Access to off-license alcohol outlets were defined as: 1) shortest road distance from the population-weighted centroid of each small area to an outlet; 2) count of outlets within a 3 km road network buffer; and 3) relative density of outlets across Auckland (determined through kernel density estimates). To test for the relationship between access to alcohol outlets and dual diagnosis, meshblocks without any cases of anxiety/mood disorder were excluded from analyses. Remaining meshblocks were dichotomized into any or no dual diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between access to alcohol outlets and treatment for the dual conditions. Neighbourhoods with dual diagnosis were generally similar to those with anxiety/mood disorder only, in terms of ethnic and gender/age composition. Regression analyses indicated statistically significant decreased risk of dual diagnosis for those areas with the lowest density (using a buffer) of alcohol outlets (OR = 0.75, P-value = 0.027) compared with areas with the highest density, after adjustment for deprivation and population density. All access measures also indicated significant linear trends where dual diagnosis was more likely in areas with greater access. Generally, decreased access to alcohol outlets was associated with decreased odds of dual diagnosis of alcohol/drug abuse and anxiety/mood disorder. Measures to control access to alcohol outlets may be an
Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev
One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195
Sampaio Filho, Francisco Jucier Luz; de Sousa, Pedro Ricardo Mesquita; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Nóbrega, Maria de Fátima Bastos; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa
Alcohol use has been a major precipitating cause of situations of vulnerability in adolescence. The study aims to analyze the risk perception about the relationship of adolescent alcohol use and sexual behavior. The subjects were ten adolescents between 14 and 19, students from a public school in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach based on the technique of focus group and systematized by means of five workshops. Teenagers recognize the risk between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior and emphasize that drinking facilitates the relations between sexual peers and indicate the influence of media in this process. The perception of adolescents and their relation to alcohol abuse and its consequences is particularly relevant to the implementation of public policies for preventing and fighting alcohol consumption at this stage of growth and development.
Krug, Isabel; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Bulik, Cynthia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Masuet, Cristina; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
To assess lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence, and novelty seeking in three different eating disorder groups (anorexia nervosa-restrictive; anorexia nervosa-binge eating/purging; anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa). A total sample of 371 eating disorder patients participated in the current study. Assessment measures included the prevalence of substance abuse and family history of alcohol abuse/dependence as well as the novelty-seeking subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Significant differences across groups were detected for lifetime substance abuse, with anorexia nervosa-restrictive individuals exhibiting a significant lower prevalence than the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa-binge eating/ purging patients (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence the same pattern was observed (P = 0.04). Novelty seeking was associated with substance abuse (P = 0.002), with the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa group exhibiting significantly higher scores on the novelty-seeking scale than the other two groups (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence was not related to novelty seeking (P = 0.092). Lifetime substance abuse appears to be more prevalent in anorexia nervosa patients with bulimic features. Higher novelty-seeking scores may be associated with diagnosis cross-over.
Gloria, A M; Peregoy, J J
This article presents a sociocultural alcohol/drug counseling model for counselors working with Latino users/abusers. Intended to supplement different treatment models, this model addresses pre-treatment issues of Latino users/abusers. A demographic overview of Latinos and a discussion of selected Latino cultural values and issues as they relate to substance use/abuse are included. These cultural values include Simpatía, Personalismo, Familismo, Gender Roles (Machismo and Hembrismo/Marianisimo), Vergüenza, and Espiritismo. Along with identifying misperceptions and issues that may occur within the counseling session, specific recommendations and interventions for counselors are provided.
... Agreement (MOA), pursuant to the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Act of 1986 (the Act), as... villages, as well as alcohol and substance abuse treatment professionals in developing an MOA. The MOA... Native individuals and families and the need for holistic approaches to address these issues. In response...
Brickham, Dana M.
People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…
... member is engaged in criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right of peaceful enjoyment... of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. 882.518 Section 882.518 Housing and Urban... Operation § 882.518 Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. (a...
... right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents. (c) Evidence of criminal activity. The... of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. 982.553 Section 982.553 Housing and Urban... Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers. (a) Denial of...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and...
Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.
This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.
Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez
This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...
Sean P Farris; Robert Adron Harris; Igor ePonomarev
Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpec...
Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.
Randolph, Mary E.; Torres, Hector; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Lloyd, Bronwyn; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
Objectives The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of gender and ethnicity in the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior. Method Sexually active college students (n = 425) reported on alcohol expectancies, perceived risk of HIV, and drinking and sexual behavior in the context of a larger health behavior survey. Results Approximately one-third of participants reported binge drinking 3 or more times in the past two weeks. African American women reported less drinking and less positive alcohol expectancies than other women. Older men engaged more often than younger men in binge drinking and reported more sexual partners in the past year. Younger age and greater perceived risk for HIV were positively associated with condom use for both women and men. Conclusion Collectively, these findings suggest that alcohol abuse and HIV prevention efforts among young adults need to consider gender, ethnicity, and age. PMID:19253158
A study of 271 Polish students (ages 13-14) found that their most frequent stressors were teachers' abusive behaviors in classroom teaching and assessment. Students' coping strategies, and their school results, were determined by the intensity of school stress, anxiety, and temperamental characteristics. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/CR)
Witkin, Lewis, Hertzman, Machover , Meissner & Wapner, 1954), these instruments were designed to measure the construct of field-dependence/independence in...Dependence in alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1959, 20, 493-504. Witkin, H., Lewis, H., Hertzman, M., Machover , K., Meissner, P
sample consisted of 400 respondents aged 10-50 years resident in Calabar South. Life time ... easily brand it as a norm to drink alcohol across the whole social spectrum with the student population constituting a .... TABLE 5: Ranking of the various brands of Alcoholic beverages according to order of preference by gender.
Thoreson, Richard W.
The academic environment, trends in higher education, and issues in adult development create an ideal environment for alcohol misuse. A typology for the professors at risk, the impact of alcohol misuse upon their performance, and means of dealing with the problem are proposed. (Author/MLW)
The excessive use of alcohol is a significant problem in South Africa. The consequences are far-reaching, both for the health of the individual, and for society as a whole. This article examines the role of the family physician in the identification and management of patients with alcohol-use disorders.
Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo; Vivo, Juana-María; Galiana, Laura; Gracia, Enrique
The association between alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence (IPV) has been reiterated in numerous studies. Some authors have found higher levels of risk factors in intimate partner violence offenders (IPVOs) with alcohol problems than in IPVOs without such problems. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship of contextual variables with harmful alcohol use in a sample of IPVOs. This cross-sectional research analyzes data from 231 IPVOs. In addition to demographic data, information was collected on alcohol use, ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events and perceived social support and rejection. The sample was divided into hazardous and nonhazardous alcohol users, according to the AUDIT test scale. No differences were found between groups on demographic variables. The results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis supplemented with ROC curves revealed that Latin American immigrants as opposed to Spanish nationality, accumulating stressful life events, and perceiving low social support significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol abuse, with adequate predictive power. Contextual variables such as ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events, and lack of social support may explain harmful alcohol consumption. These variables should be taken into account in batterer intervention programs in order to reduce one of the most relevant risk factors of IPV: alcohol abuse.
Lila, Marisol; Gracia, Enrique; Catalá-Miñana, Alba
There is general consensus that alcohol abuse is a risk factor to be considered in batterer intervention programs. Intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems are more likely to dropout of batterer intervention programs. However, there is little research on intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing batterer intervention programs. In this study, we analyze drop-out rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems and explore whether perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing a batterer intervention program differ from those who do not have alcohol abuse problems in a number of outcomes. The sample was 286 males convicted for intimate partner violence against women, attending a community-based batterer intervention program. Final (i.e., recidivism) and proximal (i.e., risk of recidivism, responsibility attributions, attitudes toward violence, sexism, psychological adjustment, and social integration) intervention outcomes were analyzed. Chi-square test, binary logistic regression, and one-way ANOVA were conducted. Results confirmed higher dropout rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems. Results also showed a reduction in alcohol abuse among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing the batterer intervention program. Finally, results showed that, regardless of alcohol abuse problems, perpetrators who completed the batterer intervention program showed improvements in all intervention outcomes analyzed. Perpetrators both with and without alcohol abuse problems can show positive changes after completing an intervention program and, in this regard, the present study highlights the need to design more effective adherence strategies for intimate partner violence perpetrators, especially for those with alcohol abuse problems.
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning.
Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E
Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it
Freudenberger, Herbert J.
This article discusses the problems of gay addicts in a drug and alcohol abuse therapeutic community. Suggestions are made to improve the situation so that gay addicts need not be devious in their actions or scorned by other members of the therapeutic community. (EJT)
Towers, Richard L.
This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
These teaching guides and student study guides and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary-level course for drug and alcohol abuse program personnel are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the 292-hour course…
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
A concise collection of federal publications in the area of illegal drug and alcohol abuse, this catalog begins with a listing of seven federal clearinghouse, with information on services, user audience, and a contact provided for each. The main part of the document provides briefly annotated information on federal publications organized into the…
Balfour, Danny L.; Walker, James R.
Examined effects of training of day caregivers in drug and alcohol abuse prevention skills. Found significant improvement in participant learning and skill application over mere provision of training materials without accompanying training sessions. Act of attending sessions appeared to increase participant feelings of responsibility for…
Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.
This report evaluates this prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change in the area of alcohol abuse among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's third year, this paper presents summative evaluations for seven Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to translate models developed…
Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.
This report evaluates the alcohol abuse prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's second year, this paper presents summative evaluations for nine Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to implement model programs developed during…
VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.
This leaflet examines how family members, friends, and professionals sometimes enable individuals with disabilities to abuse alcohol and other drugs. The leaflet points out: that this enabling occurs because of overcompensation for the disability by others or because of others' feeling that the individual with a disability is entitled to use…
Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance
Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.
Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…
Duarte, R.; Escario, J. J.
Alcohol abuse and truancy are two widespread problems among the adolescent Spanish population. Given the negative consequences of both behaviours for human capital acquiring and their origin in adolescence, our study lies in analysing the relationship between these risk behaviours. From a methodological point of view, our contribution consists of…
Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.
Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…
Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; van den Brink, Wim
We examined the validity of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) regarding the identification of lifetime physical and sexual abuse histories using the Structured Trauma Interview (STI) as external criterion in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 144). Compared to the STI, the ASI showed a lower incidence
Child sexual abuse, harmful alcohol use and age as determinants of sexual risk behaviours among freshmen in a Nigerian University. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Eight hundred and forty one (841), freshmen who attended a routine orientation program were asked to respond to a questionnaire. Results ...
Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott
Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…
Ong, Lee Za; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih Chin
Forty-two rehabilitation counselors participated in a study regarding perceived training needs concerning alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) treatment and assessment. Participants reported that 85% of consumers with whom they worked had AODA issues, yet over half rated their graduate training in AODA treatment and assessment as poor, and their…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
Brust, J C
Recreationally abused substances include both legal and illegal agents, broadly classified as opioids, psychostimulants, sedatives, cannabis (marijuana), hallucinogens, inhalants, dissociative anesthetics (phencyclidine), anticholinergics, ethanol, and tobacco. These substances are associated with an array of neurological emergencies resulting from overdose, withdrawal, and other medical and neurological complications.
... consequences and effects of drug abuse. An asset for health care professionals and the general public because of its easy-to-follow structure, index, and extensively researched com- prehensive sections. . . . A very useful guide for medical and other health professions students who need to have this type of information at their fingertips as...
... P1700.24B). (c) Active duty Army personnel apprehended for drunk driving, on or off the installation... drug abuse facility. (d) Active duty Navy personnel apprehended for drunk driving on or off the... apprehended for drunk driving seek ASAP evaluation and assistance. (g) Navy and DLA civilian personnel charged...
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, demographic. Characteristics of the study population and type of substance abused among children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Method :1160 patients below the age of 18 years who had attended psychiatric care between December 1980 and ...
The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...
findings have been interpreted in terms of sociopathy and neurotic depression or anxiety. Machover et al. (123) interpreted elevated scale 5 (Mf)* findings...ics to scale 4 of the MMPI. Q J Stud Alcohol 24:23-38 (1963). 122. Machover , S., and F. S. Puzzo. Clinical and objective studies of per- sonality... Machover , S., F. S. Puzzo, K. Machover , and F. Plumeau. Clinical and objective studies of personality variables in alcoholism. III: An objective study of
Low, Nancy C; Lee, Sok S; Johnson, Jeffrey G; Williams, Janet B; Harris, Emily S
Both clinical and population-based studies show that anxiety disorders and substance misuse frequently co-occur in adults, whereas among adolescents, less examination of this association has been done. Adolescence is frequently the time of substance use initiation and its subsequent interaction with anxiety disorders has not been fully explored. It is unknown in adolescents whether anxiety is more related to alcohol abuse versus cannabis abuse. In addition, as depression has been implicated in adolescents with both anxiety and substance misuse, its role in the association should also be considered. To test the association between current anxiety with alcohol versus cannabis abuse disorders. Cross-sectional, clinician-administered, structured assessment--using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders--to evaluate anxiety, mood and substance abuse disorders among 632 adolescents recruited from primary care settings. Results show a strong association between current anxiety and alcohol [odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-11.8], but not cannabis (odds ratio = 1.4; 95% CI 0.4-4.7) abuse. This association in adolescents reflects the importance for increased awareness of anxiety symptoms and alcohol use patterns in primary care. The lack of association of anxiety with cannabis abuse in this group may reflect differences in cannabis' anxiolytic properties or that this young group has had less exposure thus far. Given adolescence is a time of especially rapid psychosocial, hormonal and brain development, primary care may provide an opportunity for further investigation and, potentially, early screening and intervention.
Labrie, Joseph W; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R; Lac, Andrew
Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH- same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH- females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shati, Ali A; Elsaid, Fahmy G
Alcohol abuse has many harmful effects on human body. This study aimed to investigate the role of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as natural product extracts to detoxify the injuries of alcohol abuse on liver and brain of mice. Alcohol at a dose of 1.25 ml/50 ml water was orally administered at the first day of treatment with continuously increase of 1.25 ml per day to the end of experiment (14 days, 0.1 ml/45 g /d). Mice also were orally administered with alcohol and water extracts of thyme and ginger in concentration of 500 mg /kg body weight for 2 weeks. The results showed very highly significant increase in nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level in liver and brain and a very highly significant decrease in the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity in alcoholic group. In addition, the liver function enzymes such as L-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and butyryl cholinesterase activities showed very highly significant increase in alcoholic group. In contrast, the water extracts of thyme and ginger showed significant amelioration on these changes both in liver and brain tissues. The water extracts of thyme and ginger has detoxifying and antioxidant effects. Therefore, it is recommended to use them to avoid alcohol toxicity.
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew
Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH− females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. PMID:20359831
Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G
Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated.
Rotheram-Borus, M J; Mahler, K A; Koopman, C; Langabeer, K
Relationships between sexual abuse and sexual risk, substance use, emotional distress, and conduct problems were examined among 190 runaways. Those who had been abused were significantly more likely than nonabused peers to engage in unprotected sex, have more sexual partners, and use alcohol and drugs, but did not differ in emotional distress. Those abused after age 13 were more often engaged in sex work than nonabused peers. Males abused before age 13 had more sexual partners than those not abused, and runaway males were significantly more likely to have been sexually abused than has been reported in prior research.
Unsworth, David J; Mathias, Jane L
Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs. Data from 22 studies were analyzed using a random-effects model: Hedges's g effect sizes measured the mean difference in outcomes of individuals with/without a history of preinjury abuse, and Bayes factors assessed the probability that the outcomes differed. Patients with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse had poorer neuroradiological outcomes, including reduced hippocampal (g = -0.82) and gray matter volumes (g = -0.46 to -0.82), and enlarged cerebral ventricles (g = -0.73 to -0.80). There were limited differences in cognitive outcomes: Executive functioning (g = -0.51) and memory (g = -0.39 to -0.43) were moderately affected, but attention and reasoning were not. The findings for fine motor ability, construction, perception, general cognition, and language were inconclusive. Postinjury substance and alcohol use (g = -0.97 to -1.07) and emotional functioning (g = -0.29 to -0.44) were worse in those with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse (psychological outcomes). This study highlighted the type and extent of post-TBI differences between persons with and without a history of alcohol or substance abuse, many of which may hamper recovery. However, variation in the criteria for premorbid abuse, limited information regarding the history of abuse, and an absence of preinjury baseline data prevented an assessment of whether the differences predated the TBI, occurred as a result of ongoing alcohol/substance abuse, or
Hilderbrand, Elisa R; Lasek, Amy W
Animal models are essential for understanding the biological factors that contribute to drug and alcohol addiction and discovering new pharmacotherapies to treat these disorders. Alcohol (ethanol) is the most commonly abused drug in the world, and as the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) increases, so does the need for effective pharmacotherapies. In particular, treatments with high efficacy in the growing number of female AUD sufferers are needed. Female animals remain underrepresented in biomedical research and sex differences in the brain's response to alcohol are poorly understood. To help bridge the gender gap in addiction research, this Review discusses strategies that researchers can use to examine sex differences in the context of several common animal models of AUD. Self-administration, two-bottle choice, drinking in the dark, and conditioned place preference are discussed, with a focus on the role of estrogen as a mediator of sex differences in alcohol-related behaviors.
Beane, E A; Beck, J C
Problem. To study court ordered substance abuse commitment (SAC) in one jurisdiction. We investigated who was evaluated, by whom, and with what outcome. Is SAC primarily a purely civil procedure as originally intended? Are men and women being treated equally? Questionnaire survey of court clinicians to determine demographic and clinical status of persons evaluated, the process of evaluation, and the disposition. SAC is common and more frequent in criminal cases than in purely civil ones. SAC of women is clearly influenced by the restricted choices for disposition: either state prison or an unlocked facility. SAC is an important public health procedure, which courts are using in highly variable and at times unintended ways. SAC has emerged as an alternative to other dispositions in criminal cases involving substance-abusing defendants.
Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.
Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J
This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.
Lee, Moon J
This study examined college students' responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages (i.e., fear vs. humor appeal) aimed at discouraging heavy/binge drinking. An experiment was conducted with 94 college students. As expected, college students generally expressed higher levels of interest in anti-alcohol abuse media messages when watching fear appeal than those watching humor appeal. However, college binge drinkers who watched the fear appeal reported lower levels of readiness to change their drinking behavior than those who watched the humor appeal. This pattern was the opposite among college nonbinge drinkers, in that college nonbinge drinkers were more likely to say they would change their drinking behaviors when exposed to fear appeal than those who were exposed to humor appeal or those who did not watch any media messages. Conventional fear appeal to scare college binge drinkers seems ineffective and even counterproductive while humor appeal, if well designed, could offer alternative ways to communicate with college binge drinkers.
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The resu...
Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben
Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...
Lo, Celia C; Monge, Allison N; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C
The present study examined whether and how collegians' misuse of prescription drugs and alcohol abuse are associated with mental illness and with a lack of mental health care. Nationally representative data were derived from 5,241 full-time American college students who completed the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We observed the presence of alcohol abuse/dependence and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs to be associated with relatively serious mental illness and with lack of health care. In pursuing gender-specific results, we found that the association between alcohol abuse and mental illness was stronger among females than males.
Rich, S. Lynne; Wilson, Janet K.; Robertson, Angela A.
This study examines the impact of abuse trauma (physical and sexual) on alcohol and drug use of high-risk girls (12–18 years of age) who were surveyed within the first two weeks of their incarceration. One-way ANOVA analyses and Tukey post-hoc tests indicate physical abuse with a weapon was associated with higher marijuana use and number of drugs used. Sexual abuse, especially within the past year increased marijuana use, alcohol use, number of drugs used, and alcohol and other drug (AOD) pro...
Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.
Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…
major occupation is farming and brewing of a local alcohol, burukutu from grains, usually guinea corn by fermentation for local consumption. It is predominantly a Christian ethnic group. There were 1,202 adults of ages 16 years and above with a total number of 320 families. Out of these 320 families, adults of 16 - 54 years ...
Humans have drunk alcohol for at least twelve thousand years. It has been used in religious rituals, in ancient cultures as diverse as Samaria,. Babylon, Egypt, China and Anglo-Saxon Britain1. ... such as sexual gratification without thinking of the consequences of their actions - such as unplanned pregnancy, or engaging in.
Epstein, E E; Ginsburg, B E; Hesselbrock, V M; Schwarz, J C
Our data show that when substance abusers are subtyped simultaneously by antisocial personality disorder and the onset of depression relative to alcohol or drug abuse, groups of people with unique personality and affective profiles are identified. The profiles are represented by measures of affect-related personality variables such as trait anxiety, trait depression, histrionic traits, sensation seeking, and novelty seeking. These measures were chosen in an attempt to show that a "low arousal" personality type may be associated with antisocial personality and may thus indirectly be linked to a certain type (i.e., ASP/nondepressed) of substance abuser. By using a multi-symptomatic typological schema (i.e., a constellation of diagnostic categories rather than just one), we can show that different personality or affective profiles are indeed associated with certain subtypes of substance abusers and that depressed people who use drugs or alcohol are different affectively from antisocial types. We also show that the relationship between "low" and "high" arousal personality profile and subtypes based on co-morbid psychopathology is highlighted even more when we take into account the onset of dysthymia or depression that is primary versus secondary to substance abuse. Our findings are in accord with others' descriptions of the "affective arousal" dimensions of personality and are the first to link these dimensions with subtypes based on ASP and depression.
Nadew, Gelaye T
Generations of Aboriginal people have been exposed to strings of traumatic events with devastating psychosocial health consequences, including psychiatric morbidities and mortalities, and medical complications. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric morbidity directly linked to traumatic events. Despite research findings indicating traumatic exposure and resultant PTSD in Indigenous communities, little attention has been given to this condition in mental healthcare delivery. Consequently, clinical and psychosocial interventions are misguided and failed to deliver positive outcomes. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between exposure to traumatic events, prevalence of PTSD and alcohol abuse in remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. A combination of structured clinical interview and multiple survey questionnaires - Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and Impact of Events Scale (IES), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Indigenous Trauma Profile (ITP) - were administered to 221 Indigenous participants aged 18 to 65 years. The overwhelming majority, 97.3% (n=215) of participants were exposed to traumatic events. Analysis of CIDI results using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria shows a life time prevalence of 55.2% (n=122) for PTSD, 20% (n=44) for major depression (recurrent) and 2.3% (n=5) for a single episode. A total of 96% (n=212) participants reported consuming a drink containing alcohol and 73.8% (n=163) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders, abuse and dependence. Of participants who met the PTSD diagnostic criteria, 91% (n=111) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders. Other impacts of trauma such as other anxiety disorders, dysthymic disorder and substances abuses were also identified. The rate of exposure to traumatic events and prevalence of PTSD are disproportionately higher in the communities studied than the national average and one of the
Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev
One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sean P Farris
Full Text Available Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS. Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 events (ChIP-Seq revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B / DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7 / VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction.
Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P=0.005. Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P=0.02. This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND.
Fals-Stewart, William; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Lam, Wendy K.K.
Gay (N = 52) and lesbian (N = 48) alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients and their nonsubstance-abusing same-sex relationship partners were randomly assigned to equally intensive interventions consisting of: (a) behavioral couples therapy plus individual-based treatment (BCT); or (b) individual-based treatment only (IBT). This study reports two separate trials, one with gay male participants and one with lesbian female participants. For both gay and lesbian AUD patients, those who received BCT h...
Juarez, Barbara; Morel, Carole; Ku, Stacy M; Liu, Yutong; Zhang, Hongxing; Montgomery, Sarah; Gregoire, Hilledna; Ribeiro, Efrain; Crumiller, Marshall; Roman-Ortiz, Ciorana; Walsh, Jessica J; Jackson, Kelcy; Croote, Denise E; Zhu, Yingbo; Zhang, Song; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Edwards, Scott; Roberts, Amanda; Hodes, Georgia E; Lu, Yongke; Calipari, Erin S; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Friedman, Allyson K; Han, Ming-Hu
Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is the most prevalent substance-use disorder worldwide. There is substantial individual variability in alcohol drinking behaviors in the population, the neural circuit mechanisms of which remain elusive. Utilizing in vivo electrophysiological techniques, we find that low alcohol drinking (LAD) mice have dramatically higher ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neuron firing and burst activity. Unexpectedly, VTA dopamine neuron activity in high alcohol drinking (HAD) mice does not differ from alcohol naive mice. Optogenetically enhancing VTA dopamine neuron burst activity in HAD mice decreases alcohol drinking behaviors. Circuit-specific recordings reveal that spontaneous activity of nucleus accumbens-projecting VTA (VTA-NAc) neurons is selectively higher in LAD mice. Specifically activating this projection is sufficient to reduce alcohol consumption in HAD mice. Furthermore, we uncover ionic and cellular mechanisms that suggest unique neuroadaptations between the alcohol drinking groups. Together, these data identify a neural circuit responsible for individual alcohol drinking behaviors.
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye
Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539
Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye
To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.
Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E
This review summarizes findings from human and animal research investigating the influence of progesterone and its metabolites allopreganolone and pregnanolone (progestins) on the effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. Since a majority of these studies have used cocaine, this will be the primary focus; however, the influence of progestins on other drugs of abuse will also be discussed. Collectively, findings from these studies support a role for progestins in (1) attenuating the subjective and physiological effects of cocaine in humans, (2) blocking the reinforcing and other behavioral effects of cocaine in animal models of drug abuse, and (3) influencing behavioral responses to other drugs of abuse such as alcohol and nicotine in animals. Administration of several drugs of abuse in both human and nonhuman animals significantly increased progestin levels, and this is explained in terms of progestins acting as homeostatic regulators that decrease and normalize heightened stress and reward responses which lead to increased drug craving and relapse. The findings discussed here highlight the complexity of progestin-drug interactions, and they suggest a possible use for these agents in understanding the etiology of and developing treatments for drug abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.
The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…
Kezić, Slobodanka; Mihanović, Mate; Zilić-Dzeba, Jadranka; Sain, Ivica
The subject of the study is the influence of alcohol abusing father on the clinical picture of PTSD patient. The father plays an important identification role in the psychological development of his son. Therefore it is to be expected that an alcohol abusing father will become a (negative) role model for his son and that he will also later on in stressful situations try to reduce the anxiety and depression by consuming larger quantities of alcoholic drinks. The aim of the study is to find out whether there are differences in PTSD clinical picture in patients whose fathers abused alcohol and in those whose fathers did not have such problem. The participating patients were from the Psychiatric hospital "Sveti Ivan". Mississippi and Watson scales were applied, as well as a questionnaire named "Early traumas" from which the variable "alcohol abuse of the father" was selected. The analysis shows that the participants who in their family histories had fathers who abused alcohol developed a milder clinical picture of PTSD, i.e. they reactions to the stress later on were less sensitive compared to the control group of participants whose fathers did not abuse alcohol and whose clinical pictures of the disorder were more severe.
In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...
You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...
Full Text Available Local translation of mRNAs is a mechanism by which cells can rapidly remodel synaptic structure and function. There is ample evidence for a role of synaptic translation in the neuroadaptations resulting from chronic drug use and abuse. Persistent and coordinated changes of many mRNAs, globally and locally, may have a causal role in complex disorders such as addiction. In this review we examine the evidence that translational regulation by microRNAs drives synaptic remodeling and mRNA expression, which may regulate the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use.MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that control the translation of mRNAs in the cell and within spatially restricted sites such as the synapse. MicroRNAs typically repress the translation of mRNAs into protein by binding to the 3’UTR of their targets. As ‘master regulators’ of many mRNAs, changes in microRNAs could account for the systemic alterations in mRNA and protein expression observed with drug abuse and dependence. Recent studies indicate that manipulation of microRNAs affects addiction-related behaviors such as the rewarding properties of cocaine, cocaine-seeking behavior and self-administration rates of alcohol. There is limited evidence, however, regarding how synaptic microRNAs control local mRNA translation during chronic drug exposure and how this contributes to the development of dependence.Here, we discuss research supporting microRNA regulation of local mRNA translation and how drugs of abuse may target this process. The ability of synaptic microRNAs to rapidly regulate mRNAs provides a discrete, localized system that could potentially be used as diagnostic and treatment tools for alcohol and other addiction disorders.
Poliana Patrício Aliane
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar e comparar diferenças nas habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool. Foram pesquisados 80 sujeitos, entre dependentes e não-dependentes, usuários do SUS, e usados dois instrumentos para coleta dos dados: Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS e AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Foi realizado um estudo comparativo das HS entre os grupos de dependentes e não-dependentes de álcool e álcool e outras drogas (AOD. Os resultados obtidos mostraram não existir diferença no escore do IHS entre dependentes e não-dependentes. Os homens obtiveram maior média nas habilidades de conversação e desenvoltura social e autocontrole da agressividade que as mulheres e, na amostra masculina, dependentes de álcool apresentaram maior média na habilidade de autocontrole da agressividade que dependentes de AOD. Apesar de a literatura sobre o tema discutir os déficits de HS entre dependentes, este estudo não confirmou esta hipótese.This research aims to evaluate and compare differences in Social Skills of alcohol abusers and non-abusers. Eighty people were interviewed, among alcohol abusers and non-abusers, patients of a Health Care Center (SUS. Two instruments were used to collect the data: Social Skills Inventory (ISS and AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. A Comparative study between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers including other drugs was carried out. The results showed that there is no difference between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers ISS scores. Men showed a better score in conversation and social abilities also in self-control of the aggressiveness than women did. In addiction, men addicted to alcohol showed a better score in self-control of the aggressiveness than men addicted to alcohol and other drugs. Although literature about this topic shows that the alcohol abuse have an decrease of these social skills, this research does not
Orellana, Juan A.; Cerpa, Waldo; Carvajal, Maria F.; Lerma-Cabrera, José M.; Karahanian, Eduardo; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.
Alcohol dependence causes physical, social, and moral harms and currently represents an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcoholism is the third leading cause of death worldwide, after tobacco consumption and hypertension. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a growing trend in alcohol abuse among adolescents, characterized by the consumption of large doses of alcohol over a short time period. Since brain development is an ongoing process during adolescence, short- and long-term brain damage associated with drinking behavior could lead to serious consequences for health and wellbeing. Accumulating evidence indicates that alcohol impairs the function of different components of the melanocortin system, a major player involved in the consolidation of addictive behaviors during adolescence and adulthood. Here, we hypothesize the possible implications of melanocortins and glial cells in the onset and progression of alcohol addiction. In particular, we propose that alcohol-induced decrease in α-MSH levels may trigger a cascade of glial inflammatory pathways that culminate in altered gliotransmission in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The latter might potentiate dopaminergic drive in the NAc, contributing to increase the vulnerability to alcohol dependence and addiction in the adolescence and adulthood. PMID:28424592
Morton, Cory M.
This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...
Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K; Bartlett, Selena E; Janak, Patricia H; Ron, Dorit
Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders.
Baydala, Lola T; Sewlal, Betty; Rasmussen, Carmen; Alexis, Kathleen; Fletcher, Fay; Letendre, Liz; Odishaw, Janine; Kennedy, Merle; Kootenay, Brenda
In response to substance abuse within their community, the Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation invited the University of Alberta (UofA) to partner in a collaborative effort to establish a school-based substance abuse prevention program. An evidence-based substance abuse prevention program was reviewed and adapted by the community to ensure that it incorporated their cultural beliefs, values, language, and visual images. The adapted program was delivered to students at Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation School and changes in student participants' knowledge, attitudes, refusal skills, and self-beliefs were measured. Benefits and challenges of adapting the program were documented. The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, Guidelines for Research Involving Aboriginal People, provided a frame of reference for the work throughout the research process. A pre-/posttest questionnaire was used to measure changes in student participants' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use. Focus groups (FGs) documented community members' experiences of and responses to the program adaptations and delivery. Results included (1) positive changes in students' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use, (2) ownership of and investment in the program by the community, (3) teaching approaches that correspond with the learning contexts, worldview, and relationships of the community, and (4) participation of community Elders. Quantitative and qualitative measures provide evidence for the importance, benefits, and challenges of employing a culturally adapted evidence-based substance abuse prevention program with Aboriginal students attending a First Nations school.
Lucchese, Roselma; Silva, Paloma Cinthia Duarte; Denardi, Tainara Catozzi; Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes de; Vera, Ivânia; Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Bueno, Alexandre de Assis; Fernandes, Inaina Lara
ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the prevalence of the probability of common mental disorders among abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Method: a cross-sectional study. The sample was made up of 234 individuals undergoing treatment and rehabilitation for chemical dependence in private clinics and in a Psychosocial Care Center in the Southeast area of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Instruments on sociodemographic profile, use of licit and/or illicit drugs, and a questionnaire that tracks common...
King-Kallimanis, B.L.; Oort, F.J.; Lynn, N.; Schonfeld, L.
This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a
King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Oort, Frans J.; Lynn, Nancy; Schonfeld, Lawrence
This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a
Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T
The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.
Weiland, Barbara J; Korycinski, Steven T; Soules, Mary; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M
During emerging adulthood, alcohol and substance use peak. Previous research has suggested that prefrontal and subcortical brain volumes may relate to risk for development of substance abuse. Epidemiological studies indicate that early initiation of alcohol or drug use significantly increases the likelihood of later substance use disorder diagnoses. We hypothesized that frontal regions would be smaller in young adults with early substance use and related problems (early-risk, ER), compared with a control group without early use/problems (C). We further hypothesized that these volumes would be associated with more externalizing behaviors, an additional robust predictor of substance abuse. One hundred and six subjects, ages 18-23, underwent high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance image scanning. Individuals were categorized as C (n=64) or ER (n=42) using a composite-score of early alcohol/drug use and problems based on prospectively collected assessments; externalizing behaviors were also previously assessed during adolescence. Neuroanatomical volumes were compared between groups and correlated with behavioral measures. ER subjects exhibited more externalizing behaviors than their control counterparts. Total left frontal cortex and left superior frontal cortex volumes were significantly smaller in the ER group, controlling for family history of alcoholism and current substance use. Total gray matter volumes were negatively associated with substance risk score. Further, externalizing behavior score was negatively correlated with both left superior cortical and left total cortical volumes. These findings suggest that smaller frontal cortical volumes, specifically the left superior frontal cortex, represent an underlying risk factor for substance abuse in emerging adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina
The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…
Rathus, S A; Fichner-Rathus, L; Siegel, L J
Behavioral and familial correlates of predominantly White, suburban heroin abusers were investigated to determine whether such abuse was self-contained experimentation or suggestive of generalized personality disorders and impaired family relationships. Twenty of 296 male high school students recruited from 10 middle-class suburban schools had engaged in episodic heroin abuse. Of 29 antisocial behaviors other than heroin abuse assessed, heroin abusers engaged in 16 significantly more frequently. Heroin abusers found their fathers to be significantly less nice, honest, strong, and kind than did nonabusers, according to semantic differential technique. They found themselves to be significantly less strong than did nonabusers, suggesting failure to model themselves after adequately coping fathers. Heroin abusers also found their mothers to be significantly less fair, honest, and valuable than did nonabusers. It was concluded that episodic heroin abuse among suburban adolescents is suggestive both of generalized antisocial behavior and of impaired family relationships.
Cui, Naixue; Deatrick, Janet A; Liu, Jianghong
Although there is a substantial amount of literature documenting the relationship between child abuse and behavioral problems in China, there is, on the other hand, a limited number of studies on the joint and unique associations of maternal and paternal physical abuse with child behaviors within the Chinese context. The present study, using the family systems theory as the theoretical framework, aims to examine these joint and the unique associations of maternal and paternal physical abuse with externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a community sample of Chinese children. A total of 296 children (54.7% boys, mean age 12.31±0.56years) from two-parent families participated in the study, and they reported their physical abuse experience by their mother and father in the previous year using the Chinese version of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale. Participants, using the Youth Self Report, reported personal externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and, similarly, their mothers, using the Child Behavior Checklist, assessed children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Linear mixed effect models with random intercept and slope were used to examine the joint and unique associations of maternal and paternal physical abuse with child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results revealed that physically abused children were more likely to be simultaneously abused by both mothers and fathers. Furthermore, when compared with their non-abused counterparts, children with physical abuse that was carried out solely by mothers (externalizing behaviors: β=6.71, 95% CI=2.45-10.98, pphysically abused solely by fathers did not significantly differ from those of their non-abused counterparts, which may result from the small sample size. The present findings suggest that maternal physical abuse may have a dominant and unique association with child behaviors, regardless of whether paternal physical abuse occurs within the family. Implications for future
Abidi, L; Oenema, A; van den Akker, M; van de Mheen, D
Primary care professionals are encouraged to screen patients for alcohol abuse. However, patients with alcohol abuse are often under-diagnosed as well as under-registered in medical records in general practices. This study aims to report on the registration rates of alcohol abuse diagnoses in general practices in comparison to patients' self-reported rates of alcohol use disorder. Data of a total number of 2,349 patients were analyzed from the SMILE study, a large prospective cohort study conducted in The Netherlands. Two data collection strategies were combined: (1) Patient self-report data on alcohol consumption as well as other sociodemographic characteristics; (2) Medical record (ICPC codes) data of diagnoses of chronic and acute alcohol abuse of the same patients. GPs' registrations of diagnoses were compared with the self-report data using descriptive statistics. Based on the results of the patient reported data, 179 (14.8%) male participants had an alcohol use disorder. Of the total number of female patients, 82 (7.2%) had an alcohol use disorder. One of the male and none of the female patients with an alcohol use disorder were registered as such by the GP. This study found that 11.1% of the total patient sample reported an alcohol use disorder, of which a strikingly low number of patients were recorded as such by their GP. It is likely that low recognition due to barriers related to alcohol screening as well as registration avoidance due to the stigma around alcohol abuse play a role in low registration.
Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika; Åslund, Cecilia; Nordquist, Niklas; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars
The aim of the present study was to investigate MAOA gene-environment (G*E) interactions in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption. In the county of Västmanland, Sweden, all 17-18-year-old students were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire and provide a saliva sample during class hours. A total of 2263 students completed the questionnaire (77.4%) and a saliva sample was provided by 2131 participants. Failed MAOA u-variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotype analyses and internal non-responses left 851 boys and 735 girls (total n=1586) to be investigated. Alcohol use disorder identification test was used to measure hazardous alcohol consumption. MAOA u-VNTR was used to measure biological risk in interaction with poor family relations and experience of sexual abuse. The model was also adjusted for non-independent socioeconomic variables, separated parents, type of housing and parental unemployment. Results showed that the MAOA u-VNTR, in interaction with psychosocial risk factors, such as the quality of family relations and sexual abuse, was related to high alcohol consumption among adolescents. Girls, carrying the long MAOA u-VNTR variant showed a higher risk of being high alcohol consumers, whereas among boys, the short allele was related to higher alcohol consumption. The present study supports the hypothesis that there is a relation between MAOA u-VNTR and alcohol consumption and that this relation is modulated by environmental factors. Furthermore, the present study also supports the hypothesis that there is a sex difference in the G*E interaction. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Kruger, Cristian Maikel; Porto De Toledo, Isabela; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela
The aim of this systematic review was to answer the focused question, "In adults, is there any association between sleep bruxism (SB) and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse?" This systematic review included studies in which the investigators assessed SB diagnosis by using questionnaires, clinical assessment, or polysomnography and evaluated its association with alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse. The authors graded SB as possible, probable, or definitive. The authors developed specific search strategies for Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. The authors searched the gray literature by using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies by using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. From among 818 studies, the authors selected 7 for inclusion in which samples ranged from 51 through 10,229 participants. SB was associated highly with alcohol and tobacco use. In 1 study, the investigators noted a positive and weak association for heavy coffee drinkers. The odds for SB seem to increase almost 2 times for those who drank alcohol, almost 1.5 times for those who drank more than 8 cups of coffee per day, and more than 2 times for those who were current smokers. The abuse of methylenedioxymethamphetamine associated with SB remained without sufficient evidence. On the basis of limited evidence, SB was associated positively with alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. The association between the studied drugs could not be discredited; however, there is still a need for stronger evidence based on studies with greater methodological rigor. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B; Denardi, Kathleen A; Walker, Dave P
Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.
Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991
Mitchell, Jennifer M; Arcuni, Peter A; Weinstein, Dawn; Woolley, Josh D
A pharmacotherapy that both improves social abilities and promotes abstinence may be particularly helpful for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin has prosocial and antiaddiction effects. We performed a pilot, laboratory-based, preclinical trial of oxytocin in subjects with alcohol abuse (as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 Edition criteria) to evaluate therapeutic potential and assess tolerability. Social perceptual ability, cue-induced craving, and approach bias for alcohol and appetitive imagery were quantified after intranasal oxytocin and placebo administration to 32 nontreatment-seeking individuals with alcohol abuse in a double-blind, crossover study. Because attachment style can moderate the effects of oxytocin, we also explored whether attachment style moderated oxytocin's effects on our behavioral measures. Oxytocin significantly improved recognition of easier items on a social perception task, but had no significant group-level effect on cue-induced craving. However, oxytocin effects on craving were moderated by attachment anxiety, with oxytocin reducing craving in more anxiously attached individuals and increasing craving in less anxiously attached individuals. Subjects did not display an approach bias to alcohol images on the placebo day, preventing meaningful analysis of this measure. Subjects did display an approach bias to appetitive images on the placebo day, which was significantly reduced by oxytocin administration. No adverse reactions were observed. Intranasal oxytocin has potential to improve social perception, reduce cue-induced alcohol cravings, and reduce appetitive approach bias in subjects with alcohol abuse, and can be safely tolerated in this population. The effects of oxytocin are complex, however, and require further investigation.
Glozah, Franklin N
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951
Franklin N. Glozah
Full Text Available The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
Dornier, Lucien J.; Fauquier, Katharine J.; Field, April R.; Budden, Michael C.
Confronting alcohol abuse is a challenge for most higher education institutions. Each year, students are admitted to hospitals for issues arising from the misuse of alcohol. The deaths of some engaged in alcohol related activities is especially worrisome. Factors such as age and financial standing could impact the likelihood of abuse. So-called…
McGaha, Johnny E.; Leoni, Edward L.
Individuals from substance-abusing family environments have been found to suffer from low self-esteem, depression, anger, and a variety of acting-out behaviors. An investigation of the differences between incarcerated juveniles from substance-abusing families and those from non-substance-abusing families indicates significant differences in family…
Epstein, E E; McCrady, B S
Research suggests that Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT), tailored to treat alcohol problems, produces significant reduction in alcohol consumption and improvement in marital functioning. Having established basic clinical protocols for Alcohol Behavioral Couples Therapy (ABCT) and provided support for their efficacy, clinical researchers around the country continue to develop and study new applications of the basic ABCT treatment models, such as adding relapse prevention or Alcoholics Anonymous components. Recent research supporting the heterogeneity in the population of individuals with alcohol problems has prompted some researchers on ABCT to consider additional adaptations of the treatment models for specific subgroups of alcoholics, and for particular individual and couples characteristics. Adaptation of ABCT to treat new populations such as drug abusers, female alcoholics, and problem drinkers is under investigation. The current article provides an overview of theoretical and clinical aspects of ABCT, and research on efficacy of the basic model and on areas of innovation and adaptation to new populations. Directions for future research on ABCT are suggested.
Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L; Lawless, Adrienne K; Lawrence, Hannah R
Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after behavioral couples treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention through the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers' and fathers' risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lopes Claudia S.
Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.
Claudia S. Lopes
Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.
Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Fang, Lin
This randomized clinical trial examined longitudinal outcomes from an alcohol abuse prevention program aimed at urban youths. Study participants were an ethnically and racially heterogeneous sample of early adolescents, recruited from community-based agencies in greater New York City and its environs. Once they assented to study participation and gained parental permission, youths were divided into three arms: youth intervention delivered by CD-ROM (CD), the same youth intervention plus parent intervention (CD(P)), and control. Once all youths completed baseline measures, those in CD and CD(P) arms received a computerized 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program. Parents of youths in the CD(P) arm received supplemental materials to support and strengthen their children's learning. All youths completed postintervention and annual follow-up measures, and CD- and CD(P)-arm participants received annual booster intervention sessions. Seven years following postintervention testing and relative to control-arm youths, youths in CD and CD(P) arms reported less alcohol use, cigarette use, binge drinking, and peer pressure to drink; fewer drinking friends; greater refusal of alcohol use opportunities; and lower intentions to drink. No differences were observed between CD and CD(P) arms. Study findings lend support to the potential of computerized, skills-based prevention programs to help urban youth reduce their risks for underage drinking. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.
CONCLUSIONS, the level of sexual behavior in cocaine abuses was at the most and in crack abusers was at the least. Also, the level of high risk sexual behavior in ice and cocaine was more than opium, heroin and crack. The level of self harm behavior in crack abuses was more than ice and opium abuses.
Full Text Available Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance Movement: teetotallers came to dominate the movement and created a system for the care of drunkards. This change from a repressive approach to a focus on treatment was accompanied by two differing variants on ‘chivalrous’ masculinity. Nineteenth century campaigners put their idea of masculinity – controlled, militant, protective of women and children – in the service of state politics. The chivalry of the teetotallers was more personal. They showed their solidarity with problematic drinkers by completely abstaining from alcohol and attempted to save drunkards by setting a good example. The battle against King Alcohol became a fight, man to man, in civil society.
McKibbon, D.; Glass, H. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., (Canada)
The impact of drugs and alcohol in the workplace was reviewed. The policies and procedures which are required to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements were discussed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The implementation of a comprehensive drug and alcohol policy was said to be important to demonstrate to employees that the organization is ready to take a proactive and supportive role in addressing this health concern. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policies, procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities.
Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S
Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack; Luke, Carter; Ascione, Frank
Criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 control participants were tracked and compared. Animal abusers were more likely to commit property offenses, drug offenses, and public disorder offenses. Thus, results show an association between animal abuse and a variety of antisocial behavior, but not violence alone. Implications of these findings…
Trezza, V.; Baarendse, P.J.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917
Rationale Social factors influence drug abuse. Conversely, drugs of abuse alter social behavior. This is especially pertinent during post-weaning development, when there are profound changes in the social repertoire, and the sensitivity to the positive and negative effects of drugs of abuse is
Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Mankowski, Eric; Bloom, Tina; Campbell, Jacquelyn
This study builds on the existing knowledge of risk factors for lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) and typologies of IPV abusers by exploring patterns of abusive partners' behaviors among known risk factors for intimate partner femicide (i.e., murder of women) and determines if groups of survivors with similar patterns of abusive behaviors…
Full Text Available Chronic alcohol ingestion increases the risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, a severe form of acute lung injury, characterized by alveolar epithelial and endothelial barrier disruption and intense inflammation. Alcohol abuse is also associated with a higher incidence of sepsis or pneumonia resulting in a higher rate of admittance to intensive care, longer inpatient stays, higher healthcare costs, and a 2–4 times greater mortality rate. Chronic alcohol ingestion induced severe oxidative stress associated with increased ROS generation, depletion of the critical antioxidant glutathione (GSH, and oxidation of the thiol/disulfide redox potential in the alveolar epithelial lining fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Across intracellular and extracellular GSH pools in alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages, chronic alcohol ingestion consistently induced a 40–60 mV oxidation of GSH/GSSG suggesting that the redox potentials of different alveolar GSH pools are in equilibrium. Alcohol-induced GSH depletion or oxidation was associated with impaired functions of alveolar type II cells and alveolar macrophages but could be reversed by restoring GSH pools in the alveolar lining fluid. The aims of this paper are to address the mechanisms for alcohol-induced GSH depletion and oxidation and the subsequent effects in alveolar barrier integrity, modulation of the immune response, and apoptosis.
Mellibruda, Jerzy; Nikodemska, Sabina; Fronczyk, Krzysztof
The results of country-wide research on alcohol and psychoactive substances use among Polish students are presented. The survey was carried out in the year 2000 and included 9446 students from 8 major academic centres in Poland. Negative events linked with the use of alcohol and drugs were discovered - 40% of students (42% of men and 37% of women) during the last two weeks exceeded the limit of dangerous drinking. Large range of harmful consequences of binge drinking has been found - one in three men and one in four women committed acts under the influence of alcohol, which they regretted after. One in four men under influence of alcohol was involved in aggressive fights with peers and one in six has had serious trouble with studying and bad assessments. The scope of drug use was much smaller but also alarming. During the last 30 days 7% of the studied population reported use of marijuana and 1.5% amphetamine. Abuse of alcohol was correlated with use of drugs. This creates a serious risk of cross addiction and shows an important role of alcohol drinking as a gateway to drug use.
Wang, Katie; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Biello, Katie B; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. As part of an online survey conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America, participants (n=19,451) completed measures of childhood sexual abuse history, distress intolerance, and problematic alcohol use (CAGE score>=2). Participants who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse indicated higher levels of distress intolerance, which was in turn associated with greater odds of engaging in problematic alcohol use. A mediation analysis further showed that distress intolerance partially accounted for the significant association between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. These findings provide initial evidence for the role of distress intolerance as a process through which early trauma shapes MSM health later in life. These findings also underscore the potential utility of addressing distress intolerance in alcohol use prevention and intervention efforts that target MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cho, Seung-Bin; Heron, Jon; Aliev, Fazil; Salvatore, Jessica E; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Maughan, Barbara; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M
The co-occurrence of alcohol use and antisocial behavior is well established, but different hypotheses exist regarding the direction of effects between the 2 behaviors. We used longitudinal data to examine the directional relationship between the 2 behaviors across adolescence. A cross-lagged model was applied to longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The sample used in the present study consisted of 4,354 females and 3,984 males. Alcohol use and antisocial behavior were measured with multiple items collected at 12, 13, 15, and 17 years of age. Both alcohol use and antisocial behavior were highly stable, as evidenced by highly significant autoregressive paths. Regarding the cross-lagged paths, neither behavior was predictive of the other during early adolescence (between ages 12 and 13). During mid-to late adolescence (from ages 13 to 17), antisocial behavior was predictive of subsequent alcohol use. Alcohol use was predictive of antisocial behavior in late adolescence (between ages 15 and 17), although this relationship was mainly driven by males and was not significant in the female subgroup. The result generally supported the direction from antisocial behavior to alcohol use, especially during mid- to late adolescence. However, there was also a suggestion that the direction of relationship between the 2 behaviors changes across adolescence. The results highlight the importance of considering developmental stages to understand the directional relationships between the 2 behaviors. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Kezić, Slobodanka; Mihanović, Mate; Žilić-Džeba, Jadranka; Šain, Ivica
The subject of the study is the influence of alcohol abusing father on the clinical picture of PTSD patient. The father plays an important identification role in the psychological development of his son. Therefore it is to be expected that an alcohol abusing father will become a (negative) role model for his son and that he will also later on in stressful situations try to reduce the anxiety and depression by consuming larger quantities of alcoholic drinks. The aim of the study is to find out...
Iakunchykova, Olena P; Andreeva, Tatiana I; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Chislovska, Natalia; Antipkin, Yuri
OBJECTIVE(S): To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents. DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period between 25 December 1992 and 23 J...
Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus “alcohol culture.” Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol a...
Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Paolo Mannelli1, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.Methods: Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093.Results: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815 reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU and 0.3% (n = 150 a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7% and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%. Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years or dependence (2.0 years, and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months or dependence (59 months; the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.Conclusion: Periodic remissions
Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James
Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple-choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements, an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand, and a monetary delay discounting task, measuring intertemporal choice. The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Vaht, Mariliis; Kurrikoff, Triin; Laas, Kariina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus
Oxytocin is an important regulator of social relationships and has been implicated in development of substance use and addiction. We examined the association of a variance in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576 polymorphism) with alcohol use in a population-representative sample, and potential moderation by social functioning. The analysis was carried out on the older birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS), a cohort of initially 15 years old children (original n=593) recalled at ages 18 and 25. In all data collection waves the participants reported the frequency of consuming alcoholic beverages. Psychiatric interview was carried out at age 25 to assess the lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders. Adverse social interactions with teachers, classmates and family members were self-reported at ages 15 and 18. The minor (A) allele frequency was 0.37. Males homozygous for the A allele (suggested to be associated with less efficient oxytocinergic functioning) were more frequent alcohol consumers at ages 15 and 18 and also more likely to have had alcohol abuse or addiction by age 25 compared to male G allele carriers. Alcohol use was not associated with the OXTR genotype in females. Both male and female AA homozygotes who had reported less favourable relations with their teachers at age 15 more likely had alcohol use disorder. OXTR rs53576 polymorphism is associated with alcohol use and prevalence of alcohol use disorders in males, and this may be moderated by inferior interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nair, Julie McCulloh; Nemeth, Lynne S; Sommers, Marilyn; Newman, Susan; Amella, Elaine
Rates and frequencies of alcohol consumption remain unknown among nursing students, and risk and protective factors associated with alcohol misuse are poorly understood. Nursing curricula often lack content on substance use disorders among nurses, which is reported to begin prior to or during college. The aims of the study were to examine nursing students' perceptions of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol behaviors among themselves and their peers and to identify substance use policies and their influence. We used the Photovoice method, which employs participatory action research. Participants were screened for alcohol misuse via AUDIT-C, and thoughts and perceptions were obtained regarding their alcohol consumption behaviors through self-expression and group advocacy. Data were collected from four focus groups that included nine undergraduate nursing students. Data reflected the following key issues: stress, environmental influences, societal acceptance, and availability of alcohol. Participants identified that the following problems place them at risk for alcohol misuse: lack of addiction/alcohol education; nursing program expectations increase stress/anxiety; unhealthy habits, social isolation, and individual influences; peer influence/the college experience; and ineffective and unenforced campus policies. Protective factors included university policies; life experiences; and nursing program policies, responsibilities, peer influences, and perceived reputation. This action research informed a dialogue with colleagues regarding nursing students' stressors and resulting professional ramifications. Recommendations for future work include investigation of expressed social isolation from university peers and its effects on their alcohol consumption behaviors and increase alcohol education with emphasis on adaptive coping strategies in a stressful professional role in Bachelor of Science in Nursing curricula.
Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Schütz, Tanja
BACKGROUND/AIMS: No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse...... and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to measure the concentration of endotoxins in the plasma, as these compounds derive from the intestinal flora and are suspected to contribute to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: The permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400......, Mr 1500, Mr 4000, and Mr 10,000 and endotoxin plasma concentrations were measured in 54 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 19 of them with cirrhosis, and in 30 non-alcoholic healthy controls. RESULTS: Permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400 was found to be unchanged in patients with ALD...
Salama, I I; Kotb, N K; Hemeda, S A; Zaki, F
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice towards HIV/AIDS among alcohol and drug abusers and the effect of health education (HE) on their knowledge and attitudes. Participants were 265 substance abusers, recruited from 8 addiction rehabilitation centers. A base line study preceding HE was done using a questionnaire composed of five sections. Three scores were developed to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge. The base line study indicates that addicts with good knowledge scores > or =75%) regarding modes of transmission were significantly higher among males than females. About 70% of the addicts had negative attitudes towards dealing with HIV/AIDS patients, while 55.5% felt sympathy for them. Eleven percent of the injection drug abusers were sharing needle with others, while 38% of the participating females were previously convicted of prostitution. Logistic analysis showed that high level of education was the best predictive variable for good knowledge scores (> or =75%). Evaluation of the health education program revealed a highly significant increase in the knowledge scores among both males and females compared to the pretest scores. An increase in the percentages of male and female addicts with improved attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients was also noted after HE. So, HE was found to be a successful tool in improving the knowledge and attitudes of substance abusers towards HIV/AIDS.
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R.
Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research…
Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.
Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena
Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.
Diamond, F; Ringenberg, L; MacDonald, D; Barnes, J; Hu, C S; Duckett, G; Sweetland, M; Root, A
To assess the effects of drug and alcohol abuse (DAA) on the physical changes and hormones of puberty in adolescents, 26 males (13 5/12-22 years) enrolled in a drug rehabilitation program were examined. In 22 subjects four timed blood samples were obtained sequentially at 15 minute intervals for measurement of serum concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS). The mean duration of DAA was 3.7 years, with marijuana and alcohol being the most frequently abused substances. The study subjects were compared to a matched control group of non-substance-abusing teenagers. All heights and weights of the DAA subjects fell within two standard deviations of the mean on the Tanner Growth Charts and no statically significant differences in the Tanner stages of sexual maturation were found between the DAA and control groups. The mean (+/- SD) testosterone level of the DAA group (221 +/- 109 ng/dl) was less than half that of the control group (477 +/- 193 ng/dl, p less than 0.001). Mean LH concentration in the DAA group (3.9 +/- 3.0 mIU/ml) was significantly less than that of the control group (10 +/- 4.9 mIU/ml, p less than 0.01). In both the DAA and control populations there was a significant (p less than 0.01) correlation between serum concentrations of LH and testosterone. The mean FSH level of the DAA group (3.3 +/- 1.1 mIU/ml) was significantly less (p less than 0.02) than that of the control group (4.7 +/- 1.9 mIU/ml). To assess the effects of treatment, six boys underwent repeat blood sampling 7-12 months after drug and alcohol withdrawal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C
The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida
Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…
Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course.
Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.
Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N
BACKGROUND: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either...... perioperative administration of dexamethasone, pre-operative smoking or alcohol abuse is, however, uncertain. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of data from the PROXI randomized trial in 1386 patients who underwent emergency or elective laparotomy. We assessed the associations of use of dexamethasone...
Ostrowsky, Michael K
This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…
... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...
Corbin, William R; Gearhardt, Ashley; Fromme, Kim
Individual differences in subjective alcohol effects have been shown to differ by risk status (e.g., family history of alcoholism) and to predict future risk for alcohol-related problems. Presumably, individual differences in both stimulant and sedative responses affect the rewarding value of drinking which, in turn, impacts future drinking behavior. Although plausible, this theoretical model is largely untested. The current study attempted to provide experimental evidence for the impact of subjective alcohol responses on within session drinking behavior. Using a placebo-controlled between-subjects alcohol administration paradigm, experiences and evaluations of stimulant and sedative alcohol effects (after a target dose of 0.06 g%) were assessed as predictors of ad-libitum consumption in the context of anticipatory stress. Analyses indicated that an initial dose of alcohol increased experiences of both stimulation and sedation although stimulant effects were evaluated much more positively. In addition, stimulant effects after a priming dose predicted further consumption, whereas sedative effects did not. At least among moderate to heavy drinking college students, stimulant alcohol effects are more reinforcing and predict within session drinking behavior under social stress. Increased attention should be given to stimulant alcohol effects as a risk factor for excessive consumption in this population. Incorporating information about stimulant alcohol effects in prevention and intervention programs may also be important if additional research supports the current results.
Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A
The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.
Eaton, Erica M; Magill, Molly; Capone, Christy; Cramer, Margaret A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Reavy, Racheal; Borsari, Brian
Colleges continue to experience a high number of referred students because of campus alcohol violations. Subsequently, there has been a trend to use peer-implemented minimal interventions (PMIs), often using motivational interviewing (MI). However, little is known about how PMIs facilitate behavior change. This study aims to examine the mechanisms of behavior change within PMIs and their influence on alcohol reduction among mandated students. Participants (N = 146; mean age = 18.7 years; 67% male; 94% White) were college students who violated campus alcohol policy at a Northeastern liberal arts college who received a 15-minute PMI addressing their alcohol use. The Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (Miller et al., 2003) was used to identify peer counselor behaviors that were MI consistent (MICO), client change talk (CT), and client self-exploration. MICO behaviors were positively associated with CT and self-exploration. Client CT and self-exploration were negatively associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Furthermore, mediational models examining MICO behaviors revealed effects for two paths: (a) from MICO to client CT to reduced alcohol use; and (b) from MICO to client self-exploration to reduced alcohol-related consequences and use. These data support the primary causal chain examining the influence of MICO on in-session client behaviors and related post-session behavior change in PMIs among at-risk students.
Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H
This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H.
A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19, 0.67), as did identifying as a sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46; CI = 0.29, 0.72), and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62; CI = 0.45, 0.83). Positive associations with SAT include: presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37; CI = 2.24, 5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12; CI = 1.22, 3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92; CI = 1.28, 2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40; CI = 1.60, 3.62) drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64; CI = 1.88, 3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08, 2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g. drug dependence) are associated with receipt, non-need factors (e.g. sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. PMID:21700412
Negriff, Sonya; Noll, Jennie G.; Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
This prospective, longitudinal study examined a sample of sexually abused and comparison girls to determine (a) whether there were patterns of behavior that differed between the groups and (b) whether nonverbal behaviors assessed at the initial visit (n = 147; M= 11.11 years; SD = 3.02) might predict sexual attitudes and behaviors at a later point in development (n = 144; M = 18.52 years; SD = 3.52). At the initial assessment, nonverbal behaviors during an interaction with an unknown male interviewer were factor analyzed revealing 3 factors: wary (e.g., pouting), affiliative (e.g., chin resting on hand), and coy (e.g., tongue show). Abused girls scored higher on the coy factor that was related to earlier age at first voluntary intercourse later in development (approximately 7 years later). High scores on the affiliative factor were related to higher sexual permissiveness and less negative attitudes toward sex. Results indicate that sexually abused girls showed early maladaptive patterns in interpersonal interactions, which were subsequently related to risky sexual attitudes and behaviors. PMID:20410025
Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy
Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucas, Gregory M; Gebo, Kelly A; Chaisson, Richard E; Moore, Richard D
To assess the temporal association of changes in substance abuse with antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, HIV-1 RNA suppression, and CD4 cell count changes in patients attending an urban clinic. Prospective cohort study. Six-hundred and ninety-five HIV-1-infected individuals, who completed two or more semi-annual standardized surveys and in whom antiretroviral therapy was indicated, were included in the analysis. Surveys addressed antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol. Substance abuse was defined as active heroin, cocaine, or heavy alcohol use in the 6 months preceding survey. The units of analysis were consecutive pairs of surveys (couplets) in individual participants. Couplets in which participants denied substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets in which participants switched from non-use to substance abuse, and couplets in which participants reported substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets where participants switched from substance abuse to non-use. Switching from non-use to substance abuse was strongly associated with worsening antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, less frequent HIV-1 RNA suppression, and blunted CD4 cell increases, compared to remaining free of substance abuse. Alternatively, switching from substance abuse to non-use was strongly associated with improvements in antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and HIV-1 treatment outcomes, compared to persisting with substance abuse. This longitudinal study highlights the dynamic nature of substance abuse and its temporal association with the effectiveness of HIV-1 treatment in patients attending an inner-city clinic.
Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben; Odgaard, Anders; Vesterby, Annie
Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone strength. It is questionable whether this per se increases fracture risk. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H; Bradshaw, Kelsey; Van Hasselt, Vincent B; Cross, Chad L; Urgelles, Jessica; Romero, Valerie; Hill, Heather H; Allen, Daniel N
Approximately 50% of child protective service (CPS) referrals abuse drugs; yet, existing treatment studies in this population have been limited to case examinations. Therefore, a family-based behavioral therapy was evaluated in mothers referred from CPS for child neglect and drug abuse utilizing a controlled experimental design. Seventy-two mothers evidencing drug abuse or dependence and child neglect were randomly assigned to family behavior therapy (FBT) or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 10 months postrandomization. As hypothesized, intent-to-treat repeated measures analyses revealed mothers referred for child neglect not due to their children being exposed to illicit drugs demonstrated better outcomes in child maltreatment potential from baseline to 6- and 10-month postrandomization assessments when assigned to FBT, as compared with TAU mothers and FBT mothers who were referred due to child drug exposure. Similar results occurred for hard drug use from baseline to 6 and 10 months postrandomization. However, TAU mothers referred due to child drug exposure were also found to decrease their hard drug use more than TAU mothers of non-drug-exposed children and FBT mothers of drug-exposed children at 6 and 10 months postrandomization. Although effect sizes for mothers assigned to FBT were slightly larger for marijuana use than TAU (medium vs. large), these differences were not statistically significant. Specific to secondary outcomes, mothers in FBT, relative to TAU, increased time employed from baseline to 6 and 10 months postrandomization. Mothers in FBT, compared to TAU, also decreased HIV risk from baseline to 6 months postrandomization. There were no differences in outcome between FBT and TAU for number of days children were in CPS custody and alcohol intoxication, although FBT mothers demonstrated marginal decreases (p = .058) in incarceration from baseline to 6 months postrandomization relative to TAU mothers
Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekoviç, M.
Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents’ drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which