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Sample records for behaviorally measured audiograms

  1. Audiograms of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeling, Lise; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The audiograms of fifty-seven musicians from four Danish symphony orchestras were determined. The fifty-seven persons (26 females and 31 males) were in the age range from 22 to 65 years. The subjects were interviewed and participated voluntarily in the investigation.Measurements of sound level were...... performed during rehearsal and during concerts in the four orchestras with a sound level meter placed in various instrument groups. At the same time a noise dose meter was used to evaluate the dose perceived by specific orchestra members.The average audiogram showed a decrease at higher frequencies similar...... that musicians cannot be expected to get pronounced hearing losses from playing in a symphony orchestra. It should be noted, though, that the data material is limited, and that the subjects have not been selected in a systematical or representative way....

  2. Psychophysical and electrophysiological aerial audiograms of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulsow, Jason; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    A within-subject comparison of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and psychophysical measurements of aerial hearing sensitivity was conducted with an individual of the largest otariid species, the Steller sea lion. Psychophysical methods were used to obtain an unmasked aerial audiogram at 13 frequencies, spanning a range of 0.125-34 kHz. The subject had a hearing range (frequencies audible at 60 dB(rms) re 20 microPa) of about 0.250-30 kHz, and a region of best hearing sensitivity from 5-14.1 kHz. The psychophysical aerial audiogram of this Steller sea lion was remarkably similar to aerial audiograms previously obtained for California sea lions and northern fur seals, suggesting that the otariid pinnipeds form a functional hearing group. ASSR thresholds, measured at frequencies of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 32 kHz, were elevated relative to corresponding psychophysical thresholds, ranging from +1 dB at 20 kHz, to +31 dB at 1 kHz. The ASSR audiogram accurately predicted the subject's high-frequency cutoff, and provided a reasonable estimate of hearing sensitivity at frequencies above 2 kHz. In testing situations where psychophysical methods are not possible, ASSR methods may provide an objective and efficient estimate of behavioral hearing sensitivity in otariid pinnipeds.

  3. How can the audiogram be more useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert V

    2016-03-10

    The Canadian Hearing and Auditory Research Translation (CHART) group is a newly formed taskforce to develop collaborative research initiatives. Initial discussions centered on diagnostic improvements for middle ear disease, auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, tinnitus and presbycusis. Central to these discussions was the widely held view that the standard audiogram and its interpretation is inadequate to for describing many forms of hearing problems that we now recognize. This letter is designed to create awareness and to seek feedback from hearing healthcare professionals on their experience regarding the adequacy (or otherwise) of the audiogram in its present form.

  4. Underwater audiogram of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J; Chun, N; Au, W; Pugh, K

    1988-09-01

    Underwater audiograms are available for only a few odontocete species. A false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) was trained at Sea Life Park in Oahu, Hawaii for an underwater hearing test using a go/no-go response paradigm. Over a 6-month period, auditory thresholds from 2-115 kHz were measured using an up/down staircase psychometric technique. The resulting audiogram showed hearing sensitivities below 64 kHz similar to those of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Above 64 kHz, this Pseudorca had a rapid decrease in sensitivity of about 150 dB per octave. A similar decrease in sensitivity occurs at 32 kHz in the killer whale, at 50 kHz in the Amazon River dolphin, at 120 kHz in the beluga, at 140 kHz in the bottlenosed dolphin, and at 140 kHz in the harbor porpoise. The most sensitive range of hearing was from 16-64 kHz (a range of 10 dB from the maximum sensitivity). This range corresponds with the peak frequency of echolocation pulses recorded from captive Pseudorca.

  5. Audiogram and auditory critical ratios of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Joseph C; Bauer, Gordon B; Reep, Roger L; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Read, Latoshia; Mann, David A

    2012-05-01

    Manatees inhabit turbid, shallow-water environments and have been shown to have poor visual acuity. Previous studies on hearing have demonstrated that manatees possess good hearing and sound localization abilities. The goals of this research were to determine the hearing abilities of two captive subjects and measure critical ratios to understand the capacity of manatees to detect tonal signals, such as manatee vocalizations, in the presence of noise. This study was also undertaken to better understand individual variability, which has been encountered during behavioral research with manatees. Two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were tested in a go/no-go paradigm using a modified staircase method, with incorporated 'catch' trials at a 1:1 ratio, to assess their ability to detect single-frequency tonal stimuli. The behavioral audiograms indicated that the manatees' auditory frequency detection for tonal stimuli ranged from 0.25 to 90.5 kHz, with peak sensitivity extending from 8 to 32 kHz. Critical ratios, thresholds for tone detection in the presence of background masking noise, were determined with one-octave wide noise bands, 7-12 dB (spectrum level) above the thresholds determined for the audiogram under quiet conditions. Manatees appear to have quite low critical ratios, especially at 8 kHz, where the ratio was 18.3 dB for one manatee. This suggests that manatee hearing is sensitive in the presence of background noise and that they may have relatively narrow filters in the tested frequency range.

  6. Increased intensity discrimination thresholds in tinnitus subjects with a normal audiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Hots, J.; Verhey, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent auditory brain stem response measurements in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms indicate the presence of hidden hearing loss that manifests as reduced neural output from the cochlea at high sound intensities, and results from mice suggest a link to deafferentation of auditory nerve...... fibers. As deafferentation would lead to deficits in hearing performance, the present study investigates whether tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds show impairment in intensity discrimination compared to an audiometrically matched control group. Intensity discrimination thresholds were...... significantly increased in the tinnitus frequency range, consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber deafferentation is associated with tinnitus....

  7. A Descriptive Study of the Audiograms and Hearing Aid Prescription Papers of Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Gourabi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current investigation we gathered information about the hearing thresholds, types of hearing loss, types of tinnitus, and also the prescribed tinnitus maskers for the veterans. We were aimed at determining the percentage of tinnitus, audiogram shape and its relationship with tinnitus, and the percentages of veterans using tinnitus maskers. The needed information was prepared by studying the audiograms and file of the patients. The results of the investigation have been prepared here in details.

  8. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self...

  9. Neuroscientific Measures of Covert Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In radical behaviorism, the difference between overt and covert responses does not depend on properties of the behavior but on the sensitivity of the measurement tools employed by the experimenter. Current neuroscientific research utilizes technologies that allow measurement of variables that are undetected by the tools typically used by behavior…

  10. Issues and Challenges in Sedentary Behavior Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsoo; Rowe, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown the negative impact of sedentary behavior on health, including cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease-related morbidity, and mortality. Accurate measurement of sedentary behavior is thus important to plan effective interventions and to inform public health messages. This article (a) provides an overview of the…

  11. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  12. A Method for Designing FIR Filters with Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic Used for Modeling Human Audiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZOPOS, E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative method for designing FIR filters that implement arbitrary magnitude characteristics, defined by the user through a set of frequency-magnitude points (frequency samples. The proposed method is based on the non-uniform frequency sampling algorithm. For each iteration a new set of frequency samples is generated, by processing the set used in the previous run; this implies changing the samples location around the previous frequency values and adjusting their magnitude through interpolation. If necessary, additional samples can be introduced, as well. After each iteration the magnitude characteristic of the resulting filter is determined by using the non-uniform DFT and compared with the required one; if the errors are larger than the acceptable levels (set by the user a new iteration is run; the length of the resulting filter and the values of its coefficients are also taken into consideration when deciding a re-run. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method a tool for designing FIR filters that match human audiograms was implemented in LabVIEW. It was shown that the resulting filters have smaller coefficients than the standard one, and can also have lower order, while the errors remain relatively small.

  13. Measuring the Behavioral Component of Financial Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Corazzini, Luca; Costola, Michele

    We study the evolution of the behavioral component of the financial market by estimating a Bayesian mixture model in which two types of investors coexist: one rational, with standard subjective expected utility theory (SEUT) preferences, and one behavioral, endowed with an S-shaped utility function....... We perform our analysis by using monthly data on the constituents of the S&P 500 index from January 1962 to April 2012. We assume that agents take investment decisions by ranking the alternative assets according to their performance measures. A tuning parameter blending the rational...... and the behavioral choices can be estimated by using a criterion function. The estimated parameter can be interpreted as an endogenous market sentiment index. This is confirmed by a number of checks controlling for the correlation of our endogenous index with measures of (implied) financial volatility, market...

  14. 突发性聋的疗效与听力曲线图的关系%The relationship between the initial audiogram pattern and prognosis for cases with sudden deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 盛迎涛; 张小云

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨突发性聋疗效与听力曲线图之间的关系。方法对328例(340耳)突发性聋病例进行回顾性分析,探讨其治疗前听力曲线图与预后的相关性。结果所有病例治疗前听力曲线图可以分为上升、山型、下降、凹陷、平坦和全聋型,统计各型与疗效的相关性。340耳总有效率为65%,各听力曲线图型疗效从高到低分别为上升型(92.1%)、山型(84.4%)、下降型(45.3%)、凹陷型(72.5%)、平坦型(80.6%)、全聋型(31.0%),疗效组间差异有统计学意义(χ2=104.67, P<0.001)。结论突发性聋患者治疗前听力曲线图与疗效相关,以上升型和山型疗效最好,下降型、全聋型最差。%Objective To investigate the association of initial audiogram pattern with therapeutic effect for cases with sudden deafness. Method A retrospective study was carried out among 328 patients (340 ears) with sudden deafness, treated in our Hospital. Careful analysis was made to explore the correlation of initial audiogram pattern with therapeutic effect at last. Result The audiograms measured before treatment in this group of cases could be divided into six patterns, i.e. upward sloping pattern, peak pattern, downward sloping pattern, concave pattern, flat pattern and total deafness pattern, and their effective rates were (92.1%), (84.4%), (45.3%), (72.5%), (80.6%) and (31%) respectively, with very obviously statistical significance among them (χ2=104.67,P<0.001), while the total effective rate was 65% for these 340 ears with sudden deafness. Conclusion The therapeutic effect is correlated with the initial audiogram pattern measured before treatment for patients with sudden deafness, with the best prognosis for those with audiograms in upward sloping or peak patterns and worst for ones with audiograms in downward sloping or total deafness.

  15. Audiogram of a Stranded Blainville’s Beaked Whale (Mesoplodon Densirostris) Measured using Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    shark bites (Fig. 6). 53 Photo identification and satellite tagging have provided some information about habitat use and 54 site fidelity in...McSweeney, D., J. and Andrews. R., D. 481 (2009). "Movements of satellite-tagged Blainville’s beaked whales off the island of Hawai’i." Endang . 482

  16. Measuring In-Air and Underwater Hearing in Seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological methods were used to measure the in-air hearing of 10 species of seabirds. There are currently no measures of the underwater hearing abilities of diving birds. In preparation for constructing a behavioral audiogram both in-air and underwater hearing, several species of diving ducks were raised. Because there is a considerable amount of literature on bird hearing in air, the technical setup and training methods were modeled on similar studies, with modifications to address the nature of the underwater sound field and the difficulty of the task for the birds.

  17. Development of a Behavioral Performance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabus Klotzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the fifties, several measures have been developed in order to measure the performance of investments or choices involving uncertain outcomes. Much of these measures are based on Expected Utility Theory, but since the nineties a number of measures have been proposed based on Non-Expected Utility Theory. Among the Theories of Non-Expected Utility highlights Prospect Theory, which is the foundation of Behavioral Finance. Based on this theory this study proposes a new performance measure in which are embedded loss aversion along with the likelihood of distortions in the choice of alternatives. A hypothetical example is presented in which various performance measures, including the new measure are compared. The results showed that the ordering of the assets varied depending on the performance measure adopted. According to what was expected, the new performance measure clearly has captured the distortion of probabilities and loss aversion of the decision maker, ie, those assets with the greatest negative deviations from the target were those who had the worst performance.

  18. Behavioral measures of anxiety during opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasing, K; Wang, A; Schlussman, S

    1996-10-01

    Heightened anxiety is a major component of the withdrawal syndromes associated with ethanol and sedative hypnotic medications. Because of similarities between the opiate and sedative-hypnotic withdrawal syndromes as well as data implicating heightened noradrenergic tone with opiate withdrawal, we investigated changes in anxiety measures identified by plus-maze and social interaction testing during opiate withdrawal. Because Sprague Dawley rats had very low levels of entry into plus-maze open arms, further studies were conducted using the Long-Evans strain. Long-Evans rats received continuous infusions of morphine sulfate at 44 mg/kg per day delivered by osmotic pump over 7 days while control animals received inert implants. During the first 3 days of withdrawal, the number and time of entries into open and closed arms of a plus-maze was recorded. Both social and aggressive behaviors were scored durings pairings of groups of two socially naive animals. Body weight was significantly reduced in morphine-treated animals prior to and during withdrawal. Both the number of entries into open plus-maze arms and the time spent in open areas increased over the 3 days of testing. However, no difference in plus-maze activity was detected between morphine-treated and control subjects. On the third day of withdrawal, social interaction time was greater in pairs of withdrawn and control subjects compared to pairs of two control subjects. In conclusion, behavioral measures of anxiety are not increased during opiate withdrawal.

  19. Relationships between neuropsychological measures of executive function and behavioral measures of ADHD symptoms and comorbid behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, Solveig; Bouma, Anke; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between executive functions (EFs), as measured by neuropsychological tests, and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid behavior, as rated by parents and teachers. As intelligence and language ability a

  20. Measurement of Behavioral Evolution in Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A curious aspect of bacterial behavior under stress is the induction of filamentation: the anomalous growth of certain bacteria in which cells continue to elongate but do not divide into progeny. We show that E.coli under the influence of the genotoxic antibiotic ciprofloxacin have robust filamentous growth, which provides individual bacteria a mesoscopic niche for evolution until resistant progeny can bud off and propagate. Hence, filamentation is a form of genomic amplification where even a single, isolated bacteria can have access to multiple genomes. We propose a model that predicts that the first arrival time of the normal sized progeny should follow a Gompertz distribution with the mean first arrival time proportional to the elongation rate of filament. These predictions agree with our experimental measurements. Finally, we suggest bacterial filament growth and budding has many similarities to tumor growth and metastasis and can serve as a simpler model to study those complicated processes. Sponsored by the NCI/NIH Physical Sciences Oncology Centers

  1. Innovative Software Tools Measure Behavioral Alertness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To monitor astronaut behavioral alertness in space, Johnson Space Center awarded Philadelphia-based Pulsar Informatics Inc. SBIR funding to develop software to be used onboard the International Space Station. Now used by the government and private companies, the technology has increased revenues for the firm by an average of 75 percent every year.

  2. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  3. Behavioral System Feedback Measurement Failure: Sweeping Quality under the Rug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalic, Maria T.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral Systems rely on valid measurement systems to manage processes and feedback and to deliver contingencies. An examination of measurement system components designed to track customer service quality of furniture delivery drivers revealed the measurement system failed to capture information it was designed to measure. A reason for this…

  4. Measuring behavioral outcomes in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation: AN AACVPR STATEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, David; Graham, Helen; Vitcenda, Mark; Peno-Green, Laura; Kramer, Valerie; Corbisiero, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Outcome measurement in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation is required for optimal assessment of program quality, effectiveness of treatments, and evaluation of patient progress. Recent position statements from the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Thoracic Society, and American College of Chest Physicians have provided state-of-the-art information on the importance of assessing performance and outcome measures for optimal program effectiveness. Such measures are also required for AACVPR program certification. To meet current standards of practice, the AACVPR developed an Outcomes Matrix that includes 4 domains: Health, Clinical, Behavioral, and Service. Although the Clinical and Health domains have been most commonly used in outcome reporting (eg, 6-minute walk test, quality-of-life survey scores), behavioral measures have received less attention, primarily because they have been perceived as being more difficult to measure and quantify over time. This statement describes 5 common behavioral outcome measures: smoking cessation, medication use, supplemental oxygen use, exercise habits, and nutritional behaviors. Sample questions and calculations for each of these behavioral measures are also provided. By using these measures at program entry and completion, cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation practitioners can effectively track and document behavioral changes over time for physicians, third-party insurance providers, or hospital administrators and thus demonstrate the effectiveness of exercise and educational interventions on patient overall health and well-being.

  5. Measuring nonlinear behavior in time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-12-01

    Stationary Test is an important test in detect the time series behavior since financial and economic data series always have missing data, structural change as well as jumps or breaks in the data set. Moreover, stationary test is able to transform the nonlinear time series variable to become stationary by taking difference-stationary process or trend-stationary process. Two different types of hypothesis testing of stationary tests that are Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test are examine in this paper to describe the properties of the time series variables in financial model. Besides, Least Square method is used in Augmented Dickey-Fuller test to detect the changes of the series and Lagrange multiplier is used in Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin test to examine the properties of oil price, gold price and Malaysia stock market. Moreover, Quandt-Andrews, Bai-Perron and Chow tests are also use to detect the existence of break in the data series. The monthly index data are ranging from December 1989 until May 2012. Result is shown that these three series exhibit nonlinear properties but are able to transform to stationary series after taking first difference process.

  6. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  7. Measurement of motivations for and against sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Cooper, M Lynne; Lee, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    A multidimensional measure assessing distinct motivations for and against sex was shown to be reliable, valid, and configurally invariant among incoming first-year college students. Three Motivations Against Sex Questionnaire subscales were developed to measure motivations against sexual behavior (Values, Health, Not Ready) to complement and extend a set of Sexual Motivations Scale-Revised subscales assessing motivations for sexual behavior (Intimacy, Enhancement, Coping). Participants were surveyed the summer prior to college (N = 1,653; 58.4% female). Exploratory factor analysis on a random one quarter of respondents supported the hypothesized factors. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good overall fit to the data and configural invariance across gender and ethnicity and across lifetime sexual experience. Motivations were associated with lifetime oral and penetrative sexual behaviors. This combined measure may be used for identifying motivations, predicting behaviors, and tailoring motivational interventions for sexual health among adolescents and young adults.

  8. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  9. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method...

  10. A Brief Measure of Children's Behavior Problems: The Behavior Rating Index for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffman, Arlene R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of the Behavior Rating Index for Children (BRIC), a 13-item summated category partition scale that provides a prothetic measure of children's behavior problems. Evaluation of the BRIC with 600 referred and nonreferred children suggested adequate reliability and validity. (JAC)

  11. Development, reliability, and validity testing of the Ethical Behavior Test: a measure for nurses' ethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M

    1997-01-01

    The need for reliable and valid measures for ethical behavior of nurses has encouraged the authors to develop a new instrument to measure students' ethical behavior in daily nursing dilemmas. Characteristic of the instrument presented is the inclusion of two fundamental components of ethical behavior: (1) ethical reasoning (and the resulting decision), and (2) the actual implementation of the ethical decision. As for many instruments, Kohlberg's theory of moral development has been used as the conceptual framework. However, Kohlberg's abstract justice orientation was refined by a care perspective and representative nursing dilemmas were used to make the instrument conceptually more appropriate for measuring nurses' ethical behavior. The analysis of the psychometric properties of the instrument has provided several relevant indications for the reliability and validity of the ethical reasoning and implementation scores. The revealed inconsistencies in the Ethical Behavior Test could be satisfactorily interpreted in terms of Kohlberg's theory and related empirical research findings, supporting the reliability of the ethical behavior scores. The content validity rests upon the careful development of the instrument resulting in an optimal mix of dilemmas, arguments and care situations to reveal nurses' ethical behavior and in a substantial degree of correspondence between the concept and operationalization. The congruency between the patterns of ethical behavior and Kohlberg's theoretical insights about ethical reasoning and practice support the construct validity of the instrument.

  12. Non-classical Measurement Theory: a Framework for Behavioral Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Danilov, V I

    2006-01-01

    Instances of non-commutativity are pervasive in human behavior. In this paper, we suggest that psychological properties such as attitudes, values, preferences and beliefs may be suitably described in terms of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. We expose the foundations of non-classical measurement theory building on a simple notion of orthospace and ortholattice (logic). Two axioms are formulated and the characteristic state-property duality is derived. A last axiom concerned with the impact of measurements on the state takes us with a leap toward the Hilbert space model of Quantum Mechanics. An application to behavioral sciences is proposed. First, we suggest an interpretation of the axioms and basic properties for human behavior. Then we explore an application to decision theory in an example of preference reversal. We conclude by formulating basic ingredients of a theory of actualized preferences based in non-classical measurement theory.

  13. Measuring Hearing in Wild Beluga Whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, T Aran; Castellote, Manuel; Quakenbush, Lori; Hobbs, Roderick; Goertz, Caroline; Gaglione, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We measured the hearing abilities of seven wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) during a collection-and-release experiment in Bristol Bay, AK. Here we summarize the methods and initial data from one animal and discuss the implications of this experiment. Audiograms were collected from 4 to 150 kHz. The animal with the lowest threshold heard best at 80 kHz and demonstrated overall good hearing from 22 to 110 kHz. The robustness of the methodology and data suggest that the auditory evoked potential audiograms can be incorporated into future collection-and-release health assessments. Such methods may provide high-quality results for multiple animals, facilitating population-level audiograms and hearing measures in new species.

  14. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  15. Sensible organizations: technology and methodology for automatically measuring organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin Olguin, Daniel; Waber, Benjamin N; Kim, Taemie; Mohan, Akshay; Ara, Koji; Pentland, Alex

    2009-02-01

    We present the design, implementation, and deployment of a wearable computing platform for measuring and analyzing human behavior in organizational settings. We propose the use of wearable electronic badges capable of automatically measuring the amount of face-to-face interaction, conversational time, physical proximity to other people, and physical activity levels in order to capture individual and collective patterns of behavior. Our goal is to be able to understand how patterns of behavior shape individuals and organizations. By using on-body sensors in large groups of people for extended periods of time in naturalistic settings, we have been able to identify, measure, and quantify social interactions, group behavior, and organizational dynamics. We deployed this wearable computing platform in a group of 22 employees working in a real organization over a period of one month. Using these automatic measurements, we were able to predict employees' self-assessments of job satisfaction and their own perceptions of group interaction quality by combining data collected with our platform and e-mail communication data. In particular, the total amount of communication was predictive of both of these assessments, and betweenness in the social network exhibited a high negative correlation with group interaction satisfaction. We also found that physical proximity and e-mail exchange had a negative correlation of r = -0.55 (p 0.01), which has far-reaching implications for past and future research on social networks.

  16. Anthropometric and Behavioral Measures Related to Mindfulness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey; Melanson, Kathleen; Blissmer, Bryan; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether mindfulness is associated with physical and behavioral measures in first semester college students. Participants: Male and female first year college students (n = 75) from the University of Rhode Island. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were assessed and online questionnaires…

  17. Predicting health behaviors with an experimental measure of risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa R; Mellor, Jennifer M

    2008-09-01

    We conduct a large-scale economics experiment paired with a survey to examine the association between individual risk preference and health-related behaviors among adults aged 18-87 years. Risk preference is measured by the lottery choice experiment designed by Holt and Laury [Holt, C.A., Laury, S.K., 2002. Risk aversion and incentive effects. The American Economic Review 92(5), 1644-1655]. Controlling for subject demographic and economic characteristics, we find that risk aversion is negatively and significantly associated with cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, being overweight or obese, and seat belt non-use. In additional specifications, we find that risk aversion is negatively and significantly associated with the likelihood a subject engaged in any of five risky behaviors and the number of risky behaviors reported.

  18. Population-Level Quality Measures for Behavioral Screening and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard L; Smith, Mindy A

    2016-07-01

    Delivered routinely in general health care settings, smoking, alcohol, depression, and obesity screening and intervention (behavioral screening and intervention [BSI]) could substantially improve population health and reduce health care costs. Yet BSI is seldom delivered in an evidence-based manner. This article assesses the adequacy of quality measures for BSI. Online searches of the National Quality Forum's Quality Positioning System and the National Clearinghouse for Quality Measures databases were conducted using the keywords smoking, tobacco, alcohol, depression, and obesity The types and focuses of each measure were classified, and differences between the metrics and evidence-based practice were identified. Most measures indicate whether BSI components are delivered, not how well. Clinicians can perform well on most metrics without delivering evidence-based services. More rigorous quality measures are needed. A new kind of measure is proposed, whereby separate terms representing the reach and effectiveness of key BSI components are multiplied to produce a single indicator of population-level impact for each behavioral topic.

  19. A novel behavioral assay for measuring cold sensation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Brenner

    Full Text Available Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia.

  20. Issues Related to Measuring and Interpreting Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by…

  1. Measuring Performance and Effectiveness in Irregular Warfare: Preventing Dysfunctional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    behavior, it will also support operational commanders in diagnosing problems, making critical decisions, fostering learning, adjusting strategies , and...the area where Netflix continues to dominate…Blockbuster is doomed.” 11 While bottom line figures such as monthly earnings are important, unless...how to adapt and manage its metrics to better support its strategy . The reality of a measurement failure has grave consequences for the military

  2. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Carlson

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  3. Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechacek, T F; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Mittelmark, M B; Johnson, C A; Shutz, J M

    1984-03-01

    The initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents is a health problem which has been the subject of discussion and study for many years. The evaluation of strategies to deter the adoption of smoking has long been hampered by the problems of measuring adolescent smoking behavior. Recently, interest has increased in biochemical measures of smoking under the assumption that they are more objective measures. The validity of this assumption is addressed for several ages of adolescents. This paper presents saliva thiocyanate levels, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and smoking self-reports from a sample of 2200 junior and senior high-school students. Interrelationships among the biochemical and behavioral measures are strong among the total population, ranging from 0.48 to 0.95 (Pearson r) but are much weaker at the younger age levels. Normative levels of carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate are presented by age (11-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). These data indicate that habitual smoking appears to develop in a gradual fashion and that several years may pass between initial experimentation and adult levels of smoking. Younger students consistently display lower levels of thiocyanate and carbon monoxide than older students of the same self-reported levels of smoking, suggesting that inhalation patterns may vary as a function of age or years smoking.

  4. Measuring the complex behavior of the SO2 oxidation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The two step reversible chemical reaction involving five chemical species is investigated. The quasi equilibrium manifold (QEM and spectral quasi equilibrium manifold (SQEM are used for initial approximation to simplify the mechanisms, which we want to utilize in order to investigate the behavior of the desired species. They show a meaningful picture, but for maximum clarity, the investigation method of invariant grid (MIG is employed. These methods simplify the complex chemical kinetics and deduce low dimensional manifold (LDM from the high dimensional mechanism. The coverage of the species near equilibrium point is investigated and then we shall discuss moving along the equilibrium of ODEs. The steady state behavior is observed and the Lyapunov function is utilized to study the stability of ODEs. Graphical results are used to describe the physical aspects of measurements.

  5. Measuring Staff Behavior towards Clients with ID and Challenging Behavior: Further Psychometric Evaluation of the Staff-Client Interactive Behavior Inventory (SCIBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Arno P. A. M.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Hendriks, Lex H. C.; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Staff-Client Interactive Behavior Inventory (SCIBI) was developed, measuring both interpersonal and intrapersonal staff behavior in response to challenging behavior in clients with ID. The aim of the two studies presented here was first to confirm the factor structure and internal consistency of the SCIBI and second to demonstrate…

  6. Differentiated cell behavior: a multiscale approach using measure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Annachiara; Scianna, Marco; Tosin, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the derivation of a collective model of cell populations out of an individual-based description of the underlying physical particle system. By looking at the spatial distribution of cells in terms of time-evolving measures, rather than at individual cell paths, we obtain an ensemble representation stemming from the phenomenological behavior of the single component cells. In particular, as a key advantage of our approach, the scale of representation of the system, i.e., microscopic/discrete vs. macroscopic/continuous, can be chosen a posteriori according only to the spatial structure given to the aforesaid measures. The paper focuses in particular on the use of different scales based on the specific functions performed by cells. A two-population hybrid system is considered, where cells with a specialized/differentiated phenotype are treated as a discrete population of point masses while unspecialized/undifferentiated cell aggregates are represented by a continuous approximation. Numerical simulations and analytical investigations emphasize the role of some biologically relevant parameters in determining the specific evolution of such a hybrid cell system.

  7. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Preschool Teachers' Attributions for Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lauren M.; Williford, Amanda P.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the quality of teacher attributions for child disruptive behavior using a new measure, the Preschool Teaching Attributions measure. A sample of 153 early childhood teachers and 432 children participated. All teachers completed the behavior attributions measure, as well as measures regarding demographics,…

  8. Development and Validation of a Musical Behavior Measure for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gina Jisun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…

  9. Aggregation Operators Review - Mathematical Properties and Behavioral Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. La Red Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem that humans must face very often is that of having to add, melt or synthesize information, that is, combine together a series of data from various sources to reach a certain conclusion or make a certain decision. This involves the use of one or more aggregation operators capable to provide a collective preference relation. These operators must be chosen according to specific criteria taking into account the characteristic properties of each operator. Some conditions to be taken into account to identify them are the following: axiomatic strength, empirical setting, adaptability, numerical efficiency, compensation and compensation range, added behavior and scale level required of the membership functions. It is possible to establish a general list of possible mathematical properties whose verification might be desirable in certain cases: boundary conditions, continuity, not decreasing monotony, symmetry, idempotence, associativity, bisymmetry, self-distributivity, compensation, homogeneity, translativity, stability, ϕ-comparability, sensitivity and locally internal functions. For analyze the attitudinal character of the aggregation operator the following measures are studied: disjunction degree (orness, dispersion, balance and divergence. In this paper, a review of these issues is presented.

  10. Developing a Measure of Virtual Community Citizenship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luman Yong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the kinds of behaviors that constitute virtual community citizenship behaviors (VCCB and tests three factors that may influence community members’ willingness to engage in VCCB. More specifically, the authors propose a multi-dimensional VCCB construct (altruism, civic virtue, consciousness, courtesy, and sportsmanship and three antecedents of VCCB (affective commitment, structural embeddedness and membership tenure. Four dimensions including altruism, civic virtue, courtesy and loyalty emerged as a result of behavioral examples collection from SMEs using critical incident technique and a VCCB survey with 19 Likert type items reflecting the behavioral examples within each dimension was created. Data was collected from an online discussion forum (The Grad Cafe to address the research questions of this study. Results indicate that affective commitment was a significant predictor of the virtual community citizenship behaviors. A research agenda for studying VCCB is presented.

  11. Behavior of cloud base height from ceilometer measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Surós, Montse; Calbó Angrill, Josep; González Gutiérrez, Josep Abel; Martin-Vide, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of clouds in the climate, and the difficulty in determining their behavior and their contribution to climate change, there is a need for improvement of methods for automatic and continuous description of cloud characteristics. Ceilometers constitute a priori a reliable instrumental method for sounding the atmosphere and describing cloudiness, specifically cloud base height (CBH), cloud cover, and even cloud vertical structure. In the present study, the behavior of CBH at ...

  12. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  13. Complexity multiscale asynchrony measure and behavior for interacting financial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Niu, Hongli

    2016-08-01

    A stochastic financial price process is proposed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamical system, in an attempt to study the nonlinear behaviors of real asset markets. The viruses spreading process in a finite-range multitype system is used to imitate the interacting behaviors of diverse investment attitudes in a financial market, and the empirical research on descriptive statistics and autocorrelation behaviors of return time series is performed for different values of propagation rates. Then the multiscale entropy analysis is adopted to study several different shuffled return series, including the original return series, the corresponding reversal series, the random shuffled series, the volatility shuffled series and the Zipf-type shuffled series. Furthermore, we propose and compare the multiscale cross-sample entropy and its modification algorithm called composite multiscale cross-sample entropy. We apply them to study the asynchrony of pairs of time series under different time scales.

  14. Measuring Customer Behavior with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Albu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a neural network model for human emotion and gesture classification. We demonstrate that the proposed architecture represents an effective tool for real-time processing of customer's behavior for distributed on-land systems, such as information kiosks, automated cashiers and ATMs. The proposed approach combines most recent biometric techniques with the neural network approach for real-time emotion and behavioral analysis. In the series of experiments, emotions of human subjects were recorded, recognized, and analyzed to give statistical feedback of the overall emotions of a number of targets within a certain time frame. The result of the study allows automatic tracking of user’s behavior based on a limited set of observations.

  15. Symbolic dynamic filtering and language measure for behavior identification of mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapragada, Goutham; Ray, Asok; Jin, Xin

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a procedure for behavior identification of mobile robots, which requires limited or no domain knowledge of the underlying process. While the features of robot behavior are extracted by symbolic dynamic filtering of the observed time series, the behavior patterns are classified based on language measure theory. The behavior identification procedure has been experimentally validated on a networked robotic test bed by comparison with commonly used tools, namely, principal component analysis for feature extraction and Bayesian risk analysis for pattern classification.

  16. Measuring Bystander Attitudes and Behavior to Prevent Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…

  17. Measuring Boundary-Spanning Behaviors in Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Jordan, Jenny W.; Mull, Casey D.; Valentine, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement professionals and partners serve as, work with, study, and build the capacity of boundary spanners. To augment knowledge about these functions, the Weerts-Sandmann Boundary Spanning Conceptual Framework (2010) has been operationalized through a survey instrument to examine community engagement boundary-spanning behaviors by…

  18. Measuring and adapting behavior during product interaction to influence affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, M.B.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Keyson, D.V.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes, the way in which we interact with products implicitly communicates how we feel. Based on previous studies on how emotions can be detected and communicated via product interaction, we discuss how an interactive product could influence affect by responding and changing behaviors expressing

  19. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    In order to assess human movement patterns and behaviors in public spaces we present a method using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) technology, combined with the analytical virtues of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to track people in urban streets and plazas. The method enables...

  20. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior: Proposition of a Measurement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lara Marcondes Machado de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of a scale that can identify customers that are more prone to behave in a dysfunctional manner. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior can negatively influence the organization profits, since this kind of consumer can generate monetary losses, such as fixing damaged pr operty. Several hypotheses are proposed based on consumer characteristics that could foster dysfunctional behavior. For this, we used an hybrid methodology, combining Churchill’s (1979 with C - OAR - SE (2002. In order to develop the scale, scenarios with dy sfunctional behaviors where constructed. Respondents were asked to rate the appropriateness of each behavior and answers a group of questions based on the hypothesis developed. The data was collected over the Internet (Amazon Turk and the statistical meth ods used for the scale development were cluster and discriminant analysis. The results showed evidence that it is possible to distinguish consumers through a discriminant function using interpersonal influence, such as aggressiveness, self - exposure, moral flexibility and machiavellianism; and personality aspects, such as dissatisfaction and acceptance.

  1. The Convergent Validities of Two Measures of Dating Behaviors Related to Risk for Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbecher, Kimberly Hanson

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the convergent validities of two measures of dating behaviors related to risk for sexual victimization, the Dating Self-Protection Against Rape Scale (DSPARS) and the Dating Behavior Survey (DBS). Three hundred seventy-seven women responded to measures assessing self-protective dating…

  2. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  3. The consequences of different strategies for measuring tax evasion behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of tax strategy on tax evasion in province of Zanjan, Iran. The study selects two randomly selected populations of 100 people from Tax organization and the people who file income tax with revenue agency. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale to study the effects of five variables namely; promote tax culture, lack of belief in tax payment consequences, filing false tax statement, tax exemption and general culture community as independent variables on tax evasion behavior. Using regression technique, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between tax evasion and independent variables.

  4. THM Model Validation: Integrated Assessment of Measured and Predicted Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Wagoner, J; Wagner, R; Vogt, T

    2001-10-10

    This paper presents results of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) simulations of two field-scale tests that are part of the thermal testing program being conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The two tests analyzed are the Drift-Scale Test (DST) which is sited in an alcove of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the Large Block Test (LBT) which is sited at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Both of these tests were designed to investigate coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) behavior in a fractured, densely welded ash-flow tuff. The geomechanical response of the rock mass forming the DST and the LBT is analyzed using a coupled THM model. A coupled model for analysis of the DST and LBT has been formulated by linking the 3DEC distinct element code for thermal-mechanical analysis and the NUFT finite element code for thermal-hydrologic analysis. The TH model (NUFT) computes temperatures at preselected times using a model that extends from the surface to the water table. The temperatures computed by NUFT are input to 3DEC, which then computes stresses and deformations. The distinct element method was chosen to permit the inclusion of discrete fractures and explicit modeling of fracture deformations. Shear deformations and normal mode opening of fractures are expected to increase fracture permeability and thereby alter thermal hydrologic behavior in these tests. We have collected fracture data for both the DST and the LBT and have used these data in the formulation of the model of the test. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation, along with comparison of simulated and observed deformations at selected locations within the tests.

  5. Dogmatic behavior among students: testing a new measure of dogmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemeyer, Bob

    2002-12-01

    The study tested the validity of a new measure of dogmatism by examining university students' evaluations of the Bible. Those who believed that every word in the Bible came directly from God and that the Bible is free of any error, contradiction, or inconsistency scored much higher on this dogmatism measure than students who thought otherwise. Such "true believers" then read the 4 highly varying Gospel accounts of the resurrection of Jesus. The most dogmatic of them still insisted there were no contradictions or inconsistencies in the Bible. The less dogmatic acknowledged that contradictions and inconsistencies exist. These results reinforce those of 4 earlier studies that indicated that the new measure of dogmatism has empirical validity.

  6. Behavioral similarity measurement based on image processing for robots that use imitative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpin B., Dante G.; Martinez S., Fernando; Jacinto G., Edwar

    2017-02-01

    In the field of the artificial societies, particularly those are based on memetics, imitative behavior is essential for the development of cultural evolution. Applying this concept for robotics, through imitative learning, a robot can acquire behavioral patterns from another robot. Assuming that the learning process must have an instructor and, at least, an apprentice, the fact to obtain a quantitative measurement for their behavioral similarity, would be potentially useful, especially in artificial social systems focused on cultural evolution. In this paper the motor behavior of both kinds of robots, for two simple tasks, is represented by 2D binary images, which are processed in order to measure their behavioral similarity. The results shown here were obtained comparing some similarity measurement methods for binary images.

  7. Evaluating Curriculum-Based Measurement from a Behavioral Assessment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Roof, Claire M.; Klubnick, Cynthia; Carfolite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement Reading (CBM-R) is an assessment procedure used to evaluate students' relative performance compared to peers and to evaluate their growth in reading. Within the response to intervention (RtI) model, CBM-R data are plotted in time series fashion as a means modeling individual students' response to varying levels of…

  8. Self-Control and Impulsivity in Children: Multiple Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, L. B.; Michels, Jennifer L.; Carapella, R. K.; Conway, Patrick; Chelonis, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the relationship between laboratory measures of self-control and delay of gratification in children and explored several other factors that may influence self-control. In the self-control paradigm, 30 four-year-old children repeatedly chose between three reinforcers received after a delay and one reinforcer…

  9. Grazing Behavior of Heifers Measured by Handheld GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess how previous grazing experience affects animal movement on pasture. Portable GPS units were used to monitor movements of 32 Holstein (n=21) and Holstein-Jersey (n=11) yearlings. Total distance walked was measured and analyzed as a randomized complete block e...

  10. Comparison of human face matching behavior and computational image similarity measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WenFeng; LIU ChangHong; LANDER Karen; FU XiaoLan

    2009-01-01

    Computational similarity measures have been evaluated in a variety of ways, but few of the validated computational measures are based on a high-level, cognitive criterion of objective similarity. In this paper, we evaluate two popular objective similarity measures by comparing them with face matching performance In human observers. The results suggest that these measures are still limited in predicting human behavior, especially In rejection behavior, but objective measure taking advantage of global and local face characteristics may improve the prediction. It is also suggested that human may set different criterions for "hit" and "rejection" and this may provide implications for biologically-inspired computational systems.

  11. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  12. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  13. The Valued Living Questionnaire: Defining and Measuring Valued Action within a Behavioral Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly G.; Sandoz, Emily K.; Kitchens, Jennifer; Roberts, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A number of cognitive-behavior therapies now strongly emphasize particular behavioral processes as mediators of clinical change specific to that therapy. This shift in emphasis calls for the development of measures sensitive to changes in the therapies' processes. Among these is acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), which posits valued living…

  14. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  15. Pain threshold - measure of pain sensitivity or social behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modić-Stanke Koraljka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to examine the effect of the experimenter’s social status and its interaction with participant’s gender on pressure pain threshold. Both male and female students participated in the study (N = 96 and were evenly assigned into two groups which differed only in the professional status of the experimenter who was a professor (higher status in one group and a student (lower status in the other. The factorial ANOVA revealed statistically significant and large main effects of the experimenter’s status and the participants’ gender, indicating higher pain thresholds in male participants and in the higher status experimenter group. Although both males and females had higher pain thresholds when measured by a higher status experimenter, a statistically significant interaction revealed that status affected male participants more so than females. The obtained results are probably due to social behaviour, emphasizing relevance of the experimenter’s and participants’ characteristics in pain measurement.

  16. A Framework for the Measurement of Simulated Behavior Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    takes professional soccer team recordings to aid Robocup team tactics development, measuring success through goal tracking [5]. With interest in...Cloning for Simulator Validation”. Ubbo Visser, Fernando Ribeiro, Takeshi Ohashi, and Frank Dellaert (editors), RoboCup 2007: Robot Soccer World Cup...XI, volume 5001 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 329–336. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008. URL http://dx.doi.org/10. 1007/978-3-540-68847-1_32

  17. Toward a theory of distinct types of "impulsive" behaviors: A meta-analysis of self-report and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leigh; Markon, Kristian E; Clark, Lee Anna

    2014-03-01

    Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these scales comprise 3 distinct factors, each of which aligns with a broad, higher order personality factor-Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality/Sensation Seeking. Moreover, Disinhibition versus Constraint/Conscientiousness comprise 2 correlated but distinct subfactors: Disinhibition versus Constraint and Conscientiousness/Will versus Resourcelessness. We also review laboratory tasks that purport to measure a construct similar to trait impulsivity. A meta-analytic principal-components factor analysis demonstrated that these tasks constitute 4 factors (Inattention, Inhibition, Impulsive Decision-Making, and Shifting). Although relations between these 2 measurement models are consistently low to very low, relations between both trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks and daily-life impulsive behaviors are moderate. That is, both independently predict problematic daily-life impulsive behaviors, such as substance use, gambling, and delinquency; their joint use has incremental predictive power over the use of either type of measure alone and furthers our understanding of these important, problematic behaviors. Future use of confirmatory methods should help to ascertain with greater precision the number of and relations between impulsivity

  18. Thermographic measurement of thermal bridges in buildings under dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; De Carli, M.

    2016-05-01

    The accurate knowledge of the thermal performance could reduce significantly the impact of buildings on global energy consumption. Infrared thermography is widely recognized as one of the key technologies for building surveys, thanks to its ability to acquire at a glance thermal images of the building envelope. However, a spot measurement could be misleading when the building is under dynamic thermal conditions. In this case data should be acquired for hours or days, depending on the thermal properties of the walls. Long term thermographic monitoring are possible but imply strong challenges from a practical standpoint. This work investigates the possibilities and limitations of spot thermographic surveys coupled with contact probes, that are able to acquire continuously the thermal signal for days, to investigate the thermal bridges of a building. The goal is the estimation of the reliability and accuracy of the measurement under realistic environmental conditions. Firstly, numerical simulations are performed to determine the reference value of an experimental case. Then a long term thermographic survey is performed and integrated with the contact probe measurement, assessing the feasibility of the method.

  19. Measures of Consumer Satisfaction in Social Welfare and Behavioral Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark W.; Wu, Shiyou

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. Based on a systematic review of research reports published between 2003 and 2013, we identify 58 consumer satisfaction measures. On average, these measures have acceptable…

  20. Measurement and modification of the EEG and related behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Electrophysiological changes in the sensorimotor pathways were found to accompany the effect of rhythmic EEG patterns in the sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, several striking behavioral changes were seen, including in particular an enhancement of sleep and an elevation of seizure threshold to epileptogenic agents. This raised the possibility that human seizure disorders might be influenced therapeutically by similar training. Our objective in human EEG feedback training became not only the facilitation of normal rhythmic patterns, but also the suppression of abnormal activity, thus requiring complex contingencies directed to the normalization of the sensorimotor EEG. To achieve this, a multicomponent frequency analysis was developed to extract and separate normal and abnormal elements of the EEG signal. Each of these elements was transduced to a specific component of a visual display system, and these were combined through logic circuits to present the subject with a symbolic display. Variable criteria provided for the gradual shaping of EEG elements towards the desired normal pattern. Some 50-70% of patients with poorly controlled seizure disorders experienced therapeutic benefits from this approach in our laboratory, and subsequently in many others. A more recent application of this approach to the modification of human brain function in our lab has been directed to the dichotomous problems of task overload and underload in the contemporary aviation environment. At least 70% of all aviation accidents have been attributed to the impact of these kinds of problems on crew performance. The use of EEG in this context has required many technical innovations and the application of the latest advances in EEG signal analysis. Our first goal has been the identification of relevant EEG characteristics. Additionally, we have developed a portable recording and analysis system for application in this context. Findings from laboratory and in-flight studies suggest that we

  1. Behavioral Measures of Monaural Temporal Fine Structure Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    125:3412-3422, 2009). However, spectral cues arising from detectable excitation pattern shifts or audible combination tones might supplement TFS cues in this H/I-discrimination task. The present study further assessed the importance of the role of TFS, in contrast to that of temporal envelope...... characterizing hearing impairment. Estimating the acuity of monaural TFS processing in humans however remains a challenge. One suggested measure is based on the ability of listeners to detect a pitch shift between harmonic (H) and inharmonic (I) complex tones with unresolved components (e.g. Moore et al., JASA...... and spectral resolution, for the low pitch evoked by high-frequency complex tones. The aim was to estimate the efficiency of monaural TFS cues as a function of the stimulus center frequency Fc and its ratio N to the stimulus envelope repetition rate. A pitch-matching paradigm was used, such that changes...

  2. An automated behavioral measure of mind wandering during computerized reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Myrthe; Bixler, Robert; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2017-02-08

    Mind wandering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in which attention shifts from task-related to task-unrelated thoughts. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest in mind wandering, but research has been stymied by a lack of objective measures, leading to a near-exclusive reliance on self-reports. We addressed this issue by developing an eye-gaze-based, machine-learned model of mind wandering during computerized reading. Data were collected in a study in which 132 participants reported self-caught mind wandering while reading excerpts from a book on a computer screen. A remote Tobii TX300 or T60 eyetracker recorded their gaze during reading. The data were used to train supervised classification models to discriminate between mind wandering and normal reading in a manner that would generalize to new participants. We found that at the point of maximal agreement between the model-based and self-reported mind-wandering means (smallest difference between the group-level means: M model = .310, M self = .319), the participant-level mind-wandering proportional distributions were similar and were significantly correlated (r = .400). The model-based estimates were internally consistent (r = .751) and predicted text comprehension more strongly than did self-reported mind wandering (r model = -.374, r self = -.208). Our results also indicate that a robust strategy of probabilistically predicting mind wandering in cases with poor or missing gaze data led to improved performance on all metrics, as compared to simply discarding these data. Our findings demonstrate that an automated objective measure might be available for laboratory studies of mind wandering during reading, providing an appealing alternative or complement to self-reports.

  3. On intrinsic time measure in the modeling of cyclic behavior of a Nitinol cubic block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroiu, Veturia; Florinel Ionescu, Marius; Sireteanu, Tudor; Ioan, Rodica; Munteanu, Ligia

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the cyclic behavior of a superelastic-plastic nitinol cubic block is described by using the Bouc-Wen model coupled to an intrinsic time measure other than clock time, which governs the behavior of the materials. As a consequence, the thermodynamic admissibility of the Bouc-Wen model is provided by the endochronic theory of plasticity. The role of the intrinsic time measure is described by capturing the stiffness and strength degradation and the opposite phenomena. Such behavior is due to the permanent-strain addition of residual martensite and alterations in the properties of the texture during phase transformation.

  4. Empirical research on evolutionary behavior of covert network with preference measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Duoyong; Bai, Guanghan

    2017-04-01

    A key ingredient of studying the topological evolution of covert network is the individual behaviors which generate the evolutionary dynamics of covert organizational network. In this paper, we proposed an improved preference measurement method and used it to analyze three evolutionary behaviors of a real covert network, namely node addition, node deletion and link formation. Simulation experiment demonstrated that the improved method is robust on the small organizational network. The empirical study showed the specific pattern of evolutionary behaviors by offering direct quantitative support from preferential measurement. The measured property is then extended from degree to multiple node properties. The results indicate that the preferences of different behaviors follow different distributions with linear or nonlinear tendency across the process according to the type of node property. We conclude that the general scale-free network model is not suitable to model the evolutionary process of covert network.

  5. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.

  6. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-09-10

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight.

  7. Improving Measures via Examining the Behavior of Distractors in Multiple-Choice Tests: Assessment and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to illustrate, using an example from a national assessment, the value from analyzing the behavior of distractors in measures that engage the multiple-choice format. A secondary purpose of the present article was to illustrate four remedial actions that can potentially improve the measurement of the…

  8. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  9. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  10. The agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Bennetts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N= 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N=218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity to (1 examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2 to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the

  11. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  12. Validity of behavioral measures as proxies for HIV-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rick S; Morisky, Donald E; Harrison, Lana; Mark, Hayley D

    2014-08-15

    Over the last 30 years, expectations for the quality, validity, and objectivity of the outcome measures used to assess the impact of behavior change interventions related to HIV have steadily increased. At this point (mid-2014 at this writing), biologic evidence or biomarkers of the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a target population is clearly preferable to self-reports of behavior. This kind of evidence is, however, much more expensive to collect than participants' reports of behavior change (eg, increased condom use, reduced substance use or abstinence from substance use, and high levels of medication adherence). In addition, although potentially less subject to reporting bias, biomarkers and biologic outcomes have their own flaws. In this article, we review the literature on the validity of self-reports of outcomes most relevant to HIV behavior change interventions, sexual behavior (ever having had sex and condom use), substance use, and medication adherence. We note the extent to which they may be adequate outcome measures without biologic data, and the conditions under which they may be most likely to be sufficient. We also argue, like many others, that where possible, both self-report and biologic measures should be collected.

  13. Population dynamics under selection and mutation: Long-time behavior for differential equations in measure spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleh, Azmy S.; Cleveland, John; Thieme, Horst R.

    2016-07-01

    We study the long-time behavior of solutions to a measure-valued selection-mutation model that we formulated in [14]. We establish permanence results for the full model, and we study the limiting behavior even when there is more than one strategy of a given fitness; a case that arises in applications. We show that for the pure selection case the solution of the dynamical system converges to a Dirac measure centered at the fittest strategy class provided that the support of the initial measure contains a fittest strategy; thus we term this Dirac measure an Asymptotically Stable Strategy. We also show that when the strategy space is discrete, the selection-mutation model with small mutation has a locally asymptotically stable equilibrium that attracts all initial conditions that are positive at the fittest strategy.

  14. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Millner

    Full Text Available Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide.

  15. Measurement of absolute auditory thresholds in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski, Michael S; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-07-01

    The common marmoset is a small, arboreal, New World primate that has emerged as a promising non-human model system in auditory neuroscience. A complete understanding of the neuroethology of auditory processing in marmosets will include behavioral work examining how sounds are perceived by these animals. However, there have been few studies of the marmoset's hearing and perceptual abilities and the audiogram of this species has not been measured using modern psychophysical methods. The present experiment pairs psychophysics with an operant conditioning technique to examine perception of pure tone stimuli by marmosets using an active behavioral paradigm. Subjects were trained to lick at a feeding tube when they detected a sound. Correct responses provided access to a food reward. Pure tones of varying intensities were presented to subjects using the method of constant stimuli. Behavioral thresholds were calculated for each animal based on hit rate--threshold was defined by the tone intensity that the animal correctly identified 50% of the time. Results show that marmoset hearing is comparable to that of other New World monkeys, with a hearing range extending from about 125 Hz up to 36 kHz and a sensitivity peak around 7 kHz.

  16. Fractionating impulsivity: contrasting effects of central 5-HT depletion on different measures of impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Theobald, David E H; Robbins, Trevor W

    2004-07-01

    Reducing levels of 5-HT in the central nervous system has been associated with increases in impulsive behavior. However, the impulsivity construct describes a wide range of behaviors, including the inability to withhold a response, intolerance to delay of reward and perseveration of a nonrewarded response. Although these behaviors are generally studied using instrumental paradigms, impulsivity may also be reflected in simple Pavlovian tasks such as autoshaping and conditioned activity. This experiment aimed to characterize further the effects of central 5-HT depletion and to investigate whether different behavioral measures of impulsivity are inter-related, thus validating the construct. Rats received intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of vehicle (n=10) or the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (n=12) which depleted forebrain 5-HT levels by about 90%. Lesioned animals showed significant increases in the speed and number of responses made in autoshaping, increased premature responding on a simple visual attentional task, enhanced expression of locomotor activity conditioned to food presentation, yet no change in impulsive choice was observed, as measured by a delay-discounting paradigm. Significant positive correlations were found between responses made in autoshaping and the level of conditioned activity, indicating a possible common basis for these behaviors, yet no correlations were found between other behavioral measures. These data strengthen and extend the hypothesis that 5-HT depletion increases certain types of impulsive responding. However, not all measures of impulsivity appear to be uniformly affected by 5-HT depletion, or correlate with each other, supporting the suggestion that impulsivity is not a unitary construct.

  17. Research and Teaching: A New Tool for Measuring Student Behavioral Engagement in Large University Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Erin S.; Harris, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed a classroom observation protocol for quantitatively measuring student engagement in large university classes. The Behavioral Engagement Related to instruction (BERI) protocol can be used to provide timely feedback to instructors as to how they can improve student engagement in their classrooms.

  18. Sensitivity to Change of Objectively-Derived Measures of Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville; Healy, Genevieve N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity to change of measures of sedentary behavior derived from body worn sensors in different intervention designs. Results from two intervention studies: "Stand up for Your Health" (pre-post home-based study with older adults not in paid employment) and "Stand Up Comcare"…

  19. Development of an Instrument to Measure Self-Reported Leadership Behaviors of Nurse Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Colette; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The development of a questionnaire for measuring self-reported leadership behaviors in nurse practitioners at the advanced clinical level and designed to examine the relationships of other variables such as educational level is described, along with the use of pilot test results in a graduate nursing curriculum. (MSE)

  20. Introducing a short measure of shared servant leadership impacting team performance through team behavioral integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sousa (Milton); D. van Dierendonck (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to coll

  1. An Exploratory Investigation of the Counseling Competencies Scale: A Measure of Counseling Skills, Dispositions, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Witta, E. Lea

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Counseling Competencies Scale (CCS; University of Central Florida Counselor Education Faculty, 2009), an instrument designed to assess trainee competencies as measured in their counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. There was strong internal consistency for the 4-factor model for…

  2. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in American and Portuguese Public Schools: Measuring the Construct across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Michael F.; da Costa Neves, Paula Maria Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) have been studied in both private and public sector organizations in countries around the globe. The purpose of this study is to compare the perceptions of the OCB construct between American and Portuguese public secondary school teachers and test an operational measure of the construct for…

  3. Ethical Issues in Sociometric Testing: Impact of Sociometric Measures on Interaction Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayvren, Maureen; Hymel, Shelley

    1984-01-01

    Examines the immediate and long term effects of sociometric testing on preschool children's peer interactions. Positive and negative nomination as well as rating-scale sociometric measures were administered individually to children from two preschool classrooms, and behavioral observations of peer interactions were conducted before, after, and…

  4. The Modified Hole Board - Measuring Behavior, Cognition and Social Interaction in Mice and Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labots, Maaike; Van Lith, Hein A.; Ohl, Frauke; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes the modified hole board (mHB), which combines features from a traditional hole board and open field and is designed to measure multiple dimensions of unconditioned behavior in small laboratory mammals (e.g., mice, rats, tree shrews and small primates). This paradigm is a valu

  5. Interrelating Behavioral Measures of Distress Tolerance with Self-Reported Experiential Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Heather M; Haaga, David A F

    2011-03-01

    Experiential avoidance and distress intolerance play a central role in novel behavior therapies, yet they appear to overlap considerably the REBT concept of low frustration tolerance. Using baseline data from 100 adult cigarette smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation therapies, the present study evaluated the convergent validity of common questionnaire measures of experiential avoidance (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire; AAQ; Hayes et al. 2004, and Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale: AIS; Gifford et al. 2004) and behavioral measures of distress tolerance (computerized Mirror Tracing Persistence Task: MTPT-C: Strong et al. 2003; computerized Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task; PASAT-C; Lejuez et al. 2003). The distress tolerance measures correlated significantly (r = .29) with one another. However, the questionnaire measures of experiential avoidance did not correlate with each other, nor with the behavioral measures. Further research is needed on the validity of measuring experiential avoidance by self-report and of the overlap versus distinctiveness of seemingly similar constructs such as experiential avoidance, distress tolerance, and frustration tolerance.

  6. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships.

  7. Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: Posture, gaze, and pupil dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHepach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children’s behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children’s social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children’s internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye-tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children’s behavior.

  8. Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: posture, gaze, and pupil dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children's behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children's social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children's internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

  9. Predicting the Impact of Measures Against P2P Networks on the Transient Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Shwartz, Adam; Xu, Yuedong

    2010-01-01

    The paper has two objectives. The first is to study rigorously the transient behavior of some P2P networks where information is replicated and disseminated according to an epidemic type dynamics. The second is to use the insight gained in order to predict how efficient are measures taken against peer to peer networks. We first study a model which extends a classical epidemic model to characterize the peer to peer swarms in the presence of free riding peers. We then study a second model that a peer initiates a contact with another peer chosen randomly. In both cases, the network is shown to have a phase transition: a small change in the parameters causes a large change in the behavior of the network. We show in particular how the phase transition affects measures that content provider networks may take against P2P networks that distribute non-authorized music or books, and what is the efficiency of counter-measures.

  10. Examining Convergence of Retrospective and Ecological Momentary Assessment Measures of Negative Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Data gathered via retrospective forms of assessment are subject to various recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative approach involving repeated momentary assessments within a participant's natural environment, thus reducing recall biases and improving ecological validity. EMA has been used in numerous prior studies examining various constructs of theoretical relevance to eating disorders. Method This investigation includes data from three previously published studies with distinct clinical samples: (a) women with anorexia nervosa (N=118), (b) women with bulimia nervosa (N=133), and (c) obese men and women (N=50; 9 with current binge eating disorder). Each study assessed negative affective states and eating disorder behaviors using traditional retrospective assessments and EMA. Spearman rho correlations were used to evaluate the concordance of retrospective versus EMA measures of affective and/or behavioral constructs in each sample. Bland-Altman plots were also used to further evaluate concordance in the assessment of eating disorder behaviors. Results There was moderate to strong concordance for the measures of negative affective states across all three studies. Moderate to strong concordance was also found for the measures of binge eating and exercise frequency. The strongest evidence of concordance across measurement approaches was found for purging behaviors. Discussion Overall, these preliminary findings support the convergence of retrospective and EMA assessments of both negative affective states and various eating disorder behaviors. Given the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these assessment approaches, the specific questions being studied in future empirical studies should inform decisions regarding selection of the most appropriate method. PMID:25195932

  11. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  12. Sex Differences in Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Disinhibition Predicting Marijuana Use Across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Julia W.; Collado, Anahi; Shadur, Julia M.; Lejuez, Carl W.; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition has been consistently linked to substance use across development. Recent research suggests, however, that these relations may be influenced by both sex and measurement approach. The current study examined the moderating effect of sex on the association between behavioral and self-report measures of disinhibition and marijuana use across adolescence. Participants were 115 boys and 89 girls initially evaluated at grade 8 using a laboratory behavioral assessment and self-report questionnaires of disinhibitory variables. Marijuana use was measured annually from grades 9 through 12. Results suggest that boys and girls did not differ on either self-reported or behaviorally assessed levels of disinhibition, and that disinhibition measured using both approaches was associated with increases in marijuana use over time. There was a significant interaction between sex and disinhibition, suggesting that boys (but not girls) who self-reported elevations in disinhibition evidenced greater increases in marijuana use. The current findings add to a growing literature supporting the importance of using multiple methods to assess disinhibition and highlight the critical role of biological sex in understanding these relations. PMID:26237324

  13. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral response following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Hoorn, van M.K.; Faassen, E.J.; Dam, van J.W.; Murk, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous

  14. Cluster-based statistics for brain connectivity in correlation with behavioral measures.

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    Cheol E Han

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical approaches have successfully revealed abnormality in brain connectivity, in particular, for contrasting patients from healthy controls. Besides the group comparison analysis, a correlational study is also challenging. In studies with patients, for example, finding brain connections that indeed deepen specific symptoms is interesting. The correlational study is also beneficial since it does not require controls, which are often difficult to find, especially for old-age patients with cognitive impairment where controls could also have cognitive deficits due to normal ageing. However, one of the major difficulties in such correlational studies is too conservative multiple comparison correction. In this paper, we propose a novel method for identifying brain connections that are correlated with a specific cognitive behavior by employing cluster-based statistics, which is less conservative than other methods, such as Bonferroni correction, false discovery rate procedure, and extreme statistics. Our method is based on the insight that multiple brain connections, rather than a single connection, are responsible for abnormal behaviors. Given brain connectivity data, we first compute a partial correlation coefficient between every edge and the behavioral measure. Then we group together neighboring connections with strong correlation into clusters and calculate their maximum sizes. This procedure is repeated for randomly permuted assignments of behavioral measures. Significance levels of the identified sub-networks are estimated from the null distribution of the cluster sizes. This method is independent of network construction methods: either structural or functional network can be used in association with any behavioral measures. We further demonstrated the efficacy of our method using patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment. We identified sub-networks that are correlated with the disease severity by exploiting diffusion

  15. Measuring the Prevalence of Problematic Respondent Behaviors among MTurk, Campus, and Community Participants.

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    Elizabeth A Necka

    Full Text Available The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide. We compare an MTurk, campus, and community sample to measure how frequently participants report engaging in problematic respondent behaviors. We report evidence that suggests that participants from all samples engage in problematic respondent behaviors with comparable rates. Because statistical power is influenced by factors beyond sample size, including data integrity, methodological controls must be refined to better identify and diminish the frequency of participant engagement in problematic respondent behaviors.

  16. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference.

  17. Measurements and Modeling of the Nonlinear Behavior of a Guitar Pickup at Low Frequencies †

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    Antonin Novak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the physical behavior of electric guitars is still not very widespread in the scientific literature. In particular, the physical models describing a nonlinear behavior of pickups still requires some refinements. The study presented in this paper is focused on nonlinear modeling of the pickups. Two main issues are raised. First, is the currently most used nonlinear model (a Hammerstein model sufficient for the complex nonlinear behavior of the pickup? In other words, would a more complex model, such as a Generalized Hammerstein that can deal better with the nonlinear memory, yield better results? The second troublesome issue is how to measure the nonlinear behavior of a pickup correctly. A specific experimental set-up allowing for driving the pickup in a controlled way (string displacement perpendicular to the pickup and to separate the nonlinear model of the pickup from other nonlinearities in the measurement chain is proposed. Thanks to this experimental set-up, a Generalized Hammerstein model of the pickup is estimated for frequency range 15–500 Hz and the results are compared with a simple Hammerstein model. A comparison with experimental results shows that both models succeed in describing the pickup when used in realistic conditions.

  18. Problems with measuring peripheral oxytocin: can the data on oxytocin and human behavior be trusted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael E; Churchland, Patricia Smith; Mendez, Armando J

    2013-09-01

    Research on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of oxytocin (OT), as well as on its possible therapeutic applications, has intensified in the past decade. Accurate determination of peripheral OT levels is essential to reach meaningful conclusions and to motivate, support and inform clinical interventions. Different, but concordant, methods for measuring plasma OT have been developed over the past four decades, but since 2004 several commercially available methods have been favored in research with humans. Evaluation of these methods reveals that they lack reliability when used on unextracted samples of human fluids, and that they tag molecules in addition to OT, yielding estimates that are wildly discrepant with an extensive body of earlier findings that were obtained using methods that are well validated, but more laborious. An accurate, specific, and readily available method for measuring OT that can be adopted as the standard in the field is urgently needed for advances in our understanding of OT's roles in cognition and behavior.

  19. Similar Processes Despite Divergent Behavior in Two Commonly Used Measures of Risky Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    BISHARA, ANTHONY J.; PLESKAC, TIMOTHY J.; FRIDBERG, DANIEL J.; YECHIAM, ELDAD; LUCAS, JESOLYN; BUSEMEYER, JEROME R.; FINN, PETER R.; STOUT, JULIE C.

    2011-01-01

    Performance on complex decision-making tasks may depend on a multitude of processes. Two such tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), are of particular interest because they are associated with real world risky behavior, including illegal drug use. We used cognitive models to disentangle underlying processes in both tasks. Whereas behavioral measures from the IGT and BART were uncorrelated, cognitive models revealed two reliable cross-task associations. Results suggest that the tasks similarly measure loss aversion and decision-consistency processes, but not necessarily the same learning process. Additionally, substance-using individuals (and especially stimulant users) performed worse on the IGT than healthy controls did, and this pattern could be explained by reduced decision consistency. PMID:21836771

  20. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership.

  1. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  2. Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Clare K; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C Barr

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) offers a unique method for eliciting state-variable fluctuations in body satisfaction and associated behaviors by allowing near-perfect control over environmental factors. Greater variability in momentary body satisfaction is associated with more problematic eating behavior and cognitive styles predictive of eating disorders. The field currently lacks a model for understanding environmental variables and everyday events that tend to influence fluctuations in state body satisfaction. This study proposes a model of state-level body satisfaction and presents a method for measuring changes as they occur. We aim to investigate body comparison, selective attention and body checking behaviors in relation to self-report levels of state body satisfaction. We additionally assess interpersonal correlates of state body satisfaction using VR to measure personal distance between subjects and avatars of varying body sizes. 80 female college students with varying levels of weight and shape concerns will be exposed to five virtual environments designed to elicit varying levels of body dissatisfaction: (a) an empty room; (b) an empty beach; (c) a beach populated with avatars; (d) an empty party scene; (e) a party scene populated with avatars. Self-report body satisfaction was measured immediately following each exposure. A tracking system automatically tracked subjects' head orientation and body translation to measure visual gaze and personal space behavior relative to each virtual human within the environment. Data collection is currently underway and expected to be completed by May 2013. Preliminary data and development of the VR model for state-variable assessment will be presented.

  3. A Step toward Construction, Validity and Reliability of Measurement Scale for Students’ Deviant Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Aliverdinia

    2015-09-01

    identity, distinctive behavioral patterns, ideal-seeking, curiosities, interactions, and subcultures of students in experiencing living with one another which they share upon entering the university. When it comes to school and university students, deviant behaviors could be consumption of any drugs and addictive substance, vandalism, robbery, sexual perversion and so on. Multiple studies have been conducted on identification of the factors behind emergence and development of deviant behaviors among samples of school and university students in local and international research which undoubtedly point to significance of investigating this matter. Considering the extensiveness of the issue, lack of precision instruments for measuring deviant behaviors shows a gap ignored in the previous research, such that one could claim that in none of the studies carried out in Iran, constructing measurement tools and scales for deviant behaviors and their normalization have not yet been taken into account by the researchers dealing with this area. Of course, each of the tools available for measuring deviant behaviors in different countries have specific features and characteristics and their goals, target population and construction underlying theories are completely different. At the same time, the most important issue is constructing a tool based on definition(s and instances of deviant behaviors according to the intended context. Another important point is designing and constructing such tools on the base of recent theories of measurement. Since the issue of measuring deviant behaviors and constructing its measurement tools and scales have not seriously considered in Iran thus far, and in view of dire need of the society and various organizations, particularly the Ministry of Science and National Youth Organization, presence of scientific measurement tools which are in agreement with the cultural structure of Iran is demanded more than ever. Therefore, developing the relevant tests

  4. Thermal image analysis of plastic deformation and fracture behavior by a thermo-video measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Nagatomo, Nobuaki

    2016-12-01

    The visualization of the plastic region and the measurement of its size are necessary and indispensable to evaluate the deformation and fracture behavior of a material. In order to evaluate the plastic deformation and fracture behavior in a structural member with some flaws, the authors paid attention to the surface temperature which is generated by plastic strain energy. The visualization of the plastic deformation was developed by analyzing the relationship between the extension of the plastic deformation range and the surface temperature distribution, which was obtained by an infrared thermo-video system. Furthermore, FEM elasto-plastic analysis was carried out with the experiment, and the effectiveness of this non-contact measurement system of the plastic deformation and fracture process by a thermography system was discussed. The evaluation method using an infrared imaging device proposed in this research has a feature which does not exist in the current evaluation method, i.e. the heat distribution on the surface of the material has been measured widely by noncontact at 2D at high speed. The new measuring technique proposed here can measure the macroscopic plastic deformation distribution on the material surface widely and precisely as a 2D image, and at high speed, by calculation from the heat generation and the heat propagation distribution.

  5. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  6. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Behavior in Transonic Compressor Rotors with LES and PIV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Voges, Melanie; Mueller, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, unsteady flow behavior in a modern transonic axial compressor rotor is studied in detail with large eddy simulation (LES) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow field near the blade tip in an axial transonic compressor rotor near the stall and peak-efficiency conditions. Flow interaction between the tip leakage vortex and the passage shock is inherently unsteady in a transonic compressor. Casing-mounted unsteady pressure transducers have been widely applied to investigate steady and unsteady flow behavior near the casing. Although many aspects of flow have been revealed, flow structures below the casing cannot be studied with casing-mounted pressure transducers. In the present study, unsteady velocity fields are measured with a PIV system and the measured unsteady flow fields are compared with LES simulations. The currently applied PIV measurements indicate that the flow near the tip region is not steady even at the design condition. This self-induced unsteadiness increases significantly as the compressor rotor operates near the stall condition. Measured data from PIV show that the tip clearance vortex oscillates substantially near stall. The calculated unsteady characteristics of the flow from LES agree well with the PIV measurements. Calculated unsteady flow fields show that the formation of the tip clearance vortex is intermittent and the concept of vortex breakdown from steady flow analysis does not seem to apply in the current flow field. Fluid with low momentum near the pressure side of the blade close to the leading edge periodically spills over into the adjacent blade passage. The present study indicates that stall inception is heavily dependent on unsteady behavior of the flow field near the leading edge of the blade tip section for the present transonic compressor rotor.

  7. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  8. Exploring behaviors of stochastic differential equation models of biological systems using change of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Sumit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE are often used to model the stochastic dynamics of biological systems. Unfortunately, rare but biologically interesting behaviors (e.g., oncogenesis can be difficult to observe in stochastic models. Consequently, the analysis of behaviors of SDE models using numerical simulations can be challenging. We introduce a method for solving the following problem: given a SDE model and a high-level behavioral specification about the dynamics of the model, algorithmically decide whether the model satisfies the specification. While there are a number of techniques for addressing this problem for discrete-state stochastic models, the analysis of SDE and other continuous-state models has received less attention. Our proposed solution uses a combination of Bayesian sequential hypothesis testing, non-identically distributed samples, and Girsanov's theorem for change of measures to examine rare behaviors. We use our algorithm to analyze two SDE models of tumor dynamics. Our use of non-identically distributed samples sampling contributes to the state of the art in statistical verification and model checking of stochastic models by providing an effective means for exposing rare events in SDEs, while retaining the ability to compute bounds on the probability that those events occur.

  9. Exploring behaviors of stochastic differential equation models of biological systems using change of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sumit Kumar; Langmead, Christopher James

    2012-04-12

    Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) are often used to model the stochastic dynamics of biological systems. Unfortunately, rare but biologically interesting behaviors (e.g., oncogenesis) can be difficult to observe in stochastic models. Consequently, the analysis of behaviors of SDE models using numerical simulations can be challenging. We introduce a method for solving the following problem: given a SDE model and a high-level behavioral specification about the dynamics of the model, algorithmically decide whether the model satisfies the specification. While there are a number of techniques for addressing this problem for discrete-state stochastic models, the analysis of SDE and other continuous-state models has received less attention. Our proposed solution uses a combination of Bayesian sequential hypothesis testing, non-identically distributed samples, and Girsanov's theorem for change of measures to examine rare behaviors. We use our algorithm to analyze two SDE models of tumor dynamics. Our use of non-identically distributed samples sampling contributes to the state of the art in statistical verification and model checking of stochastic models by providing an effective means for exposing rare events in SDEs, while retaining the ability to compute bounds on the probability that those events occur.

  10. A Procedure to Measure the in-Situ Hygrothermal Behavior of Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Antoine Chabriac

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rammed earth is a sustainable material with low embodied energy. However, its development as a building material requires a better evaluation of its moisture-thermal buffering abilities and its mechanical behavior. Both of these properties are known to strongly depend on the amount of water contained in wall pores and its evolution. Thus the aim of this paper is to present a procedure to measure this key parameter in rammed earth or cob walls by using two types of probes operating on the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR principle. A calibration procedure for the probes requiring solely four parameters is described. This calibration procedure is then used to monitor the hygrothermal behavior of a rammed earth wall (1.5 m × 1 m × 0.5 m, instrumented by six probes during its manufacture, and submitted to insulated, natural convection and forced convection conditions. These measurements underline the robustness of the calibration procedure over a large range of water content, even if the wall is submitted to quite important temperature variations. They also emphasize the importance of gravity on water content heterogeneity when the saturation is high, as well as the role of liquid-to-vapor phase change on the thermal behavior.

  11. Global state measures of the dentate gyrus gene expression system predict antidepressant-sensitive behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Samuels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs such as fluoxetine are the most common form of medication treatment for major depression. However, approximately 50% of depressed patients fail to achieve an effective treatment response. Understanding how gene expression systems respond to treatments may be critical for understanding antidepressant resistance. METHODS: We take a novel approach to this problem by demonstrating that the gene expression system of the dentate gyrus responds to fluoxetine (FLX, a commonly used antidepressant medication, in a stereotyped-manner involving changes in the expression levels of thousands of genes. The aggregate behavior of this large-scale systemic response was quantified with principal components analysis (PCA yielding a single quantitative measure of the global gene expression system state. RESULTS: Quantitative measures of system state were highly correlated with variability in levels of antidepressant-sensitive behaviors in a mouse model of depression treated with fluoxetine. Analysis of dorsal and ventral dentate samples in the same mice indicated that system state co-varied across these regions despite their reported functional differences. Aggregate measures of gene expression system state were very robust and remained unchanged when different microarray data processing algorithms were used and even when completely different sets of gene expression levels were used for their calculation. CONCLUSIONS: System state measures provide a robust method to quantify and relate global gene expression system state variability to behavior and treatment. State variability also suggests that the diversity of reported changes in gene expression levels in response to treatments such as fluoxetine may represent different perspectives on unified but noisy global gene expression system state level responses. Studying regulation of gene expression systems at the state level may be useful in guiding new

  12. Feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows as measured by time-lapse photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilatos, R; Wangsness, P J

    1980-03-01

    Evaluation of feeding behavior of ad libitum-fed lactating dairy cows by time-lapse photography revealed 68% of the total feeding activity occurred between the daylight hours of 0600 and 1800. Cows consumed an average of 12.1 meals/day, each 20.9 min in duration. Only 58% of the total defined meal time actually was spent eating, or 253.6 min/cow per day. Estimated meal size and rate of eating, as well as total daily time spent eating, were greater for cows as compared to animals with lower energy demand. Certain feeding characteristics, such as meal frequency and duration, were variable among animals, suggesting that these behaviors may be characteristics of individual cows. Results by time-lapse photography compared well with direct measurement by weigh-cell apparatus.

  13. Thermal behavior of a high power generator exciter bridge measured by optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Werner K.; Bortolotti, Fernando; de Morais Sousa, Kleiton; Kalinowski, Hypolito José; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents temperature measurements taken at a 3-phase thyristor rectifier bridge in a synchronous generator using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors applied directly on the thyristors upper surface. The results show the thermal behavior of the thyristors during the generator's start-up-phase and the period of time after the synchronization, with regulating operations as reaction to different load conditions. The temperature analysis is supported by current, voltage and power values of the hydroelectric power plant monitoring system. The trend of curves describes the typical behavior of thyristors which is proven with a four term transient thermal model. The different heat effect a thyristor experiences inside the switching-cabinet are also discussed.

  14. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity.

  15. Development and evaluation of social cognitive measures related to adolescent dietary behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewar Deborah L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to develop and evaluate the reliability and factorial validity, of social-cognitive measures related to adolescent healthy eating behaviors. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, intentions (proximal goals, situation (perceived environment, social support, behavioral strategies, outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered with a two week test-retest among secondary school students (n = 173, age = 13.72 ± 1.24. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices including: chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI, goodness-of-fit index (GFI, and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA. Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha. Results The reliability and factorial validity of each scale is supported: fit indices suggest each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable-to-good (α=0.65−0.79; rank order repeatability was strong (ICC = 0.81−0.89. Conclusions and implications Results support the reliability and factorial validity of social cognitive scales relating to healthy eating behaviors among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for identifying potential social cognitive correlates of adolescent dietary behavior, mediators of dietary behavior change and validity testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.

  16. Enhancing the ecological validity of the Beads Task as a behavioral measure of intolerance of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Ryan J; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Reuman, Lillian; Blakey, Shannon M

    2016-06-01

    To broaden the measurement of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) beyond self-report methods, recent research has examined the Beads Task as a behavioral measure of IU. In the present study, we enhanced this task to increase its ecological validity by maximizing decisional uncertainty and the importance of a correct response. Undergraduate participants (n=102) completed the Beads Task with instructions that they would complete the Cold Pressor Task (CPT) if they answered incorrectly. As hypothesized, baseline CPT endurance time and self-reported pain level were weakly associated with later Beads Task distress during the decision-making process. Furthermore, in vivo Beads Task distress was associated with self-report inhibitory IU, which measures avoidance and paralysis in the face of uncertainty, but not with prospective IU, perfectionism, or general psychological distress after making statistical adjustments for multiple comparisons. Comparisons to previous work using the Beads Task, clinical implications, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  17. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  18. An inexpensive, scalable behavioral assay for measuring ethanol sedation sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Simran; Kollah, Arnavaz P; Lewellyn, Lara; Chan, Robin F; Grotewiel, Mike

    2015-04-15

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious health challenge. Despite a large hereditary component to AUD, few genes have been unambiguously implicated in their etiology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful model for exploring molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying alcohol-related behaviors and therefore holds great promise for identifying and understanding the function of genes that influence AUD. The use of the Drosophila model for these types of studies depends on the availability of assays that reliably measure behavioral responses to ethanol. This report describes an assay suitable for assessing ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in flies. Ethanol sensitivity measured in this assay is influenced by the volume and concentration of ethanol used, a variety of previously reported genetic manipulations, and also the length of time the flies are housed without food immediately prior to testing. In contrast, ethanol sensitivity measured in this assay is not affected by the vigor of fly handling, sex of the flies, and supplementation of growth medium with antibiotics or live yeast. Three different methods for quantitating ethanol sensitivity are described, all leading to essentially indistinguishable ethanol sensitivity results. The scalable nature of this assay, combined with its overall simplicity to set-up and relatively low expense, make it suitable for small and large scale genetic analysis of ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila.

  19. Salicylate induced tinnitus: behavioral measures and neural activity in auditory cortex of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lobarinas, Edward; Zhang, Liyan; Turner, Jeremy; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard; Sun, Wei

    2007-04-01

    Neurophysiological studies of salicylate-induced tinnitus have generally been carried out under anesthesia, a condition that abolishes the perception of tinnitus and depresses neural activity. To overcome these limitations, measurement of salicylate induced tinnitus were obtained from rats using schedule induced polydipsia avoidance conditioning (SIPAC) and gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS). Both behavioral measures indicated that tinnitus was present after treatment with 150 and 250 mg/kg of salicylate; measurements with GPIAS indicated that the pitch of the tinnitus was near 16 kHz. Chronically implanted microwire electrode arrays were used to monitor the local field potentials and spontaneous discharge rate from multiunit clusters in the auditory cortex of awake rats before and after treatment with 150 mg/kg of salicylate. The amplitude of the local field potential elicited with 60 dB SPL tone bursts increased significantly 2h after salicylate treatment particularly at 16-20 kHz; frequencies associated with the tinnitus pitch. Field potential amplitudes had largely recovered 1-2 days post-salicylate when behavioral results showed that tinnitus was absent. The mean spontaneous spike recorded from the same multiunit cluster pre- and post-salicylate decreased from 22 spikes/s before treatment to 14 spikes/s 2h post-salicylate and recovered 1 day post-treatment. These preliminary physiology data suggest that salicylate induced tinnitus is associated with sound evoked hyperactivity in auditory cortex and spontaneous hypoactivity.

  20. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  1. Behavioral and social sciences at the National Institutes of Health: Methods, measures, and data infrastructures as a scientific priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its strategic plan for 2017-2021. This plan focuses on three equally important strategic priorities: 1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, 2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and 3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on scientific priority two and future directions in measurement science, technology, data infrastructure, behavioral ontologies, and big data methods and analytics that have the potential to transform the behavioral and social sciences into more cumulative, data rich sciences that more efficiently build on prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. The development of the crime scene behavior risk measure for sexual offense recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Klaus-Peter; Biedermann, Jürgen; Lehmann, Robert J B; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska

    2014-12-01

    The inclusion of crime scene behavior in actuarial risk assessment so far is insufficient, unsystematic, and neglecting factors theoretically relevant to sexual recidivism. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to develop a brief actuarial risk scale based on crime scene characteristics. The development sample consisted of data (police databases, paper records, and the National Conviction Registry) from 955 male sexual offenders (77% German citizens, 20% foreign nationals, mean age = 35 years, convicted for sexual abuse and/or sexual violence). Further, the independent cross-validation-sample consisted of data from 77 sexual offenders. The 7 items that are comprised by the Crime Scene Behavior Risk (CBR) measure showed high predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism with little variation between the development (c index = .72) and the replication sample (c index = .74). Further, the CBR was found to provide significant incremental validity and improve the predictive accuracy of the Static-99R risk assessment tool. Given the predictive and incremental validity of the CBR it is suggested that sexual offender risk assessment can be improved by utilizing crime scene behavior. The CBR is currently being used in addition to the Static-99R by the State Office of Criminal Investigations in Berlin to prioritize released sexual offenders for police supervision.

  3. Children's Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashler, Samantha R.

    2017-01-01

    Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children's observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  4. Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kaur Sekhon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children’s observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  5. Sexual function in depressed men. Assessment by self-report, behavioral, and nocturnal penile tumescence measures before and after treatment with cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, E A; Thase, M E; Reynolds, C F; Frank, E; Jennings, J R; Garamoni, G L; Fasiczka, A L; Kupfer, D J

    1993-01-01

    Clinicians have long associated depression with alterations in sexual function, predominantly loss of sexual interest. In a longitudinal study measuring self-report, behavioral, and nocturnal penile tumescence variables before and after treatment with cognitive behavior therapy in an unmedicated sample of 40 outpatient depressed men, we found, contrary to expectation, that sexual activity per se was not reduced during the depressed state. Rather, loss of sexual interest appeared to be related to the cognitive set of depression, ie, loss of sexual satisfaction that then improved with remission from depression. Depressed men were heterogeneous, however, with respect to sexual behavior, eg, an anxious and more chronically depressed subgroup of men who did not have remissions with cognitive behavior therapy reported increased sexual interest and sexual activity. Also, contrary to expectation, nocturnal penile tumescence abnormalities in depressed men did not reverse when measured in early remission, nor did nocturnal penile tumescence measures correlate significantly with behavioral measures of sexual function. Nocturnal penile tumescence alterations in depression may thus be similar to other persistent electroencephalographic sleep abnormalities seen in depressed patients in remission, in being more trait-like than statelike.

  6. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Relationship to Behavioral and Self-Rating Measures of Impulsivity and Self-Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Closkey, Michael S.; Look, Amy E.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Pajoumand, Golnaz; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using self-report measures has shown an association between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and impulsive tendencies. However, self-injurers have not been shown to be different from comparison groups on laboratory tasks putatively assessing impulsive behavior. One explanation for these contradictory findings is that…

  7. Measurements of Bauschinger effect and transient behavior of a quenched and partitioned advanced high strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Shun-lai, E-mail: shawn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Sun, Li [Manufacturing Process Research, General Motors China Science Lab, No. 56, Jinwan Road, Shanghai (China); Niu, Chao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the needs for new advanced high strength steels (AHSS) with high ductility and strength have rapidly increased to achieve the targets of more fuel-efficient and safer vehicles in automotive industry. However, several undesirable phenomena are experimentally observed during the forming of such materials, particularly with complex loading and large plastic deformation. Springback is one of the most important problems that should be compensated in sheet metal forming process. In this paper, we investigated the hardening behavior of a Q and P (quench and partitioning) steel designated by QP980CR, which is a new third generation advance high strength steel, from the Baosteel Group Corp. in Shanghai, China. The uni-axial tensile and cyclic simple shear tests were conducted. The uni-axial tensile tests were performed on the specimens at 0°, 45° and 90° to rolling direction (RD). The flow stress and transverse strain evolution were obtained in view of the digital image correlation (DIC) measurement. The plastic anisotropy was optimized from the uni-axial tensile tests and thereafter incorporated into the simulations of cyclic simple shear tests. The cyclic simple shear tests were conducted with three prestrains to measure the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and permanent softening, and to determine the material parameters of the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model.

  8. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral responses following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriks, Merijn; van Hoorn, Melissa K; Faassen, Elisabeth J; van Dam, Joost W; Murk, Albertinka J

    2006-05-10

    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous recording and integration of different types of movement over time. Basic tadpole behavior was studied under standard ambient temperature and colder conditions. At lower temperatures the time spent on low frequency behavior such as swimming and ventilation decreased, while at higher frequency movements associated with subtle tail tip oscillations it increased. Changes in behavior were also studied during the process of metamorphosis when both the morphology and physiology of tadpoles change. In the course of metamorphosis the tadpoles decreased the time spent on swimming and increased tail tip oscillations, especially in the period shortly before and during metamorphic climax. Additional experiments were performed to investigate whether the MFB could be used to quantify behavioral effects of exposure to a toxic compound. A 48 h exposure to a sublethal concentration of 1.25 microg L(-1) triphenyltin (TPT) significantly increased low frequency behavior, whereas 5 microg L(-1) TPT significantly reduced this type of behavior while the number of periods of total inactivity increased. One week after transferring the animals to clean water, registered behavior of tadpoles in the highest TPT group (5 microg L(-1)) was normal again for this developmental stage. The results show that the MFB can be used as a new tool for automated registration of sublethal toxic effects on tadpole behavior including recovery.

  9. Low frequency and low temperature behavior of ZnO-based varistor by ac impedance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abdullah, K.; Bui, A.; Loubiere, A.

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports on an original work on the study of the behavior of ZnO-based varistor by ac impedance measurements. The measurements of complex impedance response to small ac signals applied to samples have been achieved in the frequency range 10-3-7×106 Hz and a temperature range -196-145 °C. In the temperature range below -120±10 °C, a complete semicircular relaxation phenomenon has been observed, which is in good agreement with the Debye model. In the temperature range above -120±10 °C, the appearance of the depression angle θ may arise from the heterogeneity of the barriers of the ceramic varistor. A Cole-Cole distribution function of the relaxation time constants was used to characterize the response of the ceramic device as a function of temperature. No observable influence in the response was introduced by either the space charge or the electrode. Using the leakage resistance measurements from the complex plane, two values of the activation energies were observed; 0.36±0.02 eV and 0.01±0.001 eV. Similarly, the boundary layer equivalent capacitance measurements detect two other energy levels: 0.06±0.005 eV and about 0 eV.

  10. Cortical maturation in children with cochlear implants: Correlation between electrophysiological and behavioral measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Magliaro, Fernanda C. L.; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2017-01-01

    Central auditory pathway maturation in children depends on auditory sensory stimulation. The objective of the present study was to monitor the cortical maturation of children with cochlear implants using electrophysiological and auditory skills measurements. The study was longitudinal and consisted of 30 subjects, 15 (8 girls and 7 boys) of whom had a cochlear implant, with a mean age at activation time of 36.4 months (minimum, 17 months; maximum, 66 months), and 15 of whom were normal-hearing children who were matched based on gender and chronological age. The auditory and speech skills of the children with cochlear implants were evaluated using GASP, IT-MAIS and MUSS measures. Both groups underwent electrophysiological evaluation using long-latency auditory evoked potentials. Each child was evaluated at three and nine months after cochlear implant activation, with the same time interval adopted for the hearing children. The results showed improvements in auditory and speech skills as measured by IT-MAIS and MUSS. Similarly, the long-latency auditory evoked potential evaluation revealed a decrease in P1 component latency; however, the latency remained significantly longer than that of the hearing children, even after nine months of cochlear implant use. It was observed that a shorter P1 latency corresponded to more evident development of auditory skills. Regarding auditory behavior, it was observed that children who could master the auditory skill of discrimination showed better results in other evaluations, both behavioral and electrophysiological, than those who had mastered only the speech-detection skill. Therefore, cochlear implant auditory stimulation facilitated auditory pathway maturation, which decreased the latency of the P1 component and advanced the development of auditory and speech skills. The analysis of the long-latency auditory evoked potentials revealed that the P1 component was an important biomarker of auditory development during the

  11. The Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT: a behavioral measure of protective risk management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G Essex

    Full Text Available Prior methods used to assess individual differences related to risk have not focused on an important component of risk management: how willing individuals are to pay for or take actions to insure what they already have. It is not clear whether this type of protective risk management taps into the same individual differences as does risk taking propensity measured by existing risk taking tasks. We developed a novel task to assess protective risk management, the Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT, which is modeled after the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART. In the BAIT, individuals are forced to decide how much money they are willing to pay in order to insure a specific fraction of their prior winnings given changing but imprecise levels of risk of monetary loss. Participants completed the BART and BAIT for real monetary rewards, and completed six self report questionnaires. The amount of insurance purchased on the BAIT was positively correlated with scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and on the Checking scale of the revised Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Conversely, the amount of insurance purchased was negatively correlated with scores on the Domain Specific Risk Taking Questionnaire, and on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI. Furthermore, relationships between insurance purchased and these scales remained significant after controlling for the BART in linear regression analyses, and the BART was only a significant predictor for measures on one scale--the PPI. Our results reveal that behavior on the BAIT taps into a number of individual differences that are not related to behavior on another measure of risk taking. We propose that the BAIT may provide a useful complement to the BART in the assessment of risk management style.

  12. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fuzhong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. Methods In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. Results 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Conclusion Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to

  13. SCALE DEVELOPMENT FOR MEASURING AND PREDICTING ADOLESCENTS' LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arribas Galarraga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents' physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127 and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198, selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items' time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context

  14. The Behavioral Neuroscience of Motivation: An Overview of Concepts, Measures, and Translational Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Motivation, defined as the energizing of behavior in pursuit of a goal, is a fundamental element of our interaction with the world and with each other. All animals share motivation to obtain their basic needs, including food, water, sex and social interaction. Meeting these needs is a requirement for survival, but in all cases the goals must be met in appropriate quantities and at appropriate times. Therefore motivational drive must be modulated as a function of both internal states as well as external environmental conditions. The regulation of motivated behaviors is achieved by the coordinated action of molecules (peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc), acting within specific circuits that integrate multiple signals in order for complex decisions to be made. In the past few decades, there has been a great deal of research on the biology and psychology of motivation. This work includes the investigation of specific aspects of motived behavior using multiple levels of analyses, which allows for the identification of the underpinning neurobiological mechanisms that support relevant psychological processes. In this chapter we provide an overview to the volume "The Behavioural Neuroscience of Motivation". The volume includes succinct summaries of; The neurobiology of components of healthy motivational drive, neural measures and correlates of motivation in humans and other animals as well as information on disorders in which abnormal motivation plays a major role. Deficits in motivation occur in a number of psychiatric disorders, affecting a large population, and severe disturbance of motivation can be devastating. Therefore, we also include a section on the development of treatments for disorders of motivation. It is hoped that the collection of reviews in the volume will expose scientists to a breadth of ideas from several different subdisciplines, thereby inspiring new directions of research that may increase our understanding of motivational regulation and

  15. Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Ning; Jiang, Aimin

    2015-01-07

    The goal of animal movement analysis is to understand how organisms explore and exploit complex and varying environments. Animals usually exhibit varied and complicated movements, from apparently deterministic behaviours to highly random behaviours. It has been a common method to assess movement efficiency and foraging strategies by means of quantifying and analyzing movement trajectories. Here we introduce a tortuosity entropy (TorEn), a simple measure for quantifying the behavioral change in animal movement data. In our approach, the differences between pairwise successive track points are transformed into symbolic sequences, then we map these symbols into a group of pattern vectors and calculate the information entropy of pattern vectors. We test the algorithm on both simulated trajectories and real trajectories to show that it can accurately identify not only the mixed segments in simulated data, but also the different phases in real movement data. Tortuosity entropy can be easily applied to arbitrary real-world data, whether deterministic or stochastic, stationary or non-stationary. It could be a promising tool to reveal behavioral mechanism in movement data.

  16. Measuring errors and violations on the road: a bifactor modeling approach to the Driver Behavior Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Roman, Gabriela D; McKenna, Frank P; Barker, Edward; Poulter, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is a self-report measure of driving behavior that has been widely used over more than 20 years. Despite this wealth of evidence a number of questions remain, including understanding the correlation between its violations and errors sub-components, identifying how these components are related to crash involvement, and testing whether a DBQ based on a reduced number of items can be effective. We address these issues using a bifactor modeling approach to data drawn from the UK Cohort II longitudinal study of novice drivers. This dataset provides observations on 12,012 drivers with DBQ data collected at .5, 1, 2 and 3 years after passing their test. A bifactor model, including a general factor onto which all items loaded, and specific factors for ordinary violations, aggressive violations, slips and errors fitted the data better than correlated factors and second-order factor structures. A model based on only 12 items replicated this structure and produced factor scores that were highly correlated with the full model. The ordinary violations and general factor were significant independent predictors of crash involvement at 6 months after starting independent driving. The discussion considers the role of the general and specific factors in crash involvement.

  17. Evaluation of the dynamic behavior of a Pelton runner based on strain gauge measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Reiner; Probst, Christian

    2016-11-01

    A reliable mechanical design of Pelton runners is very important in the layout of new installations and modernizations. Especially in horizontal machines, where the housing is not embedded into concrete, a rupture of a runner bucket can have severe consequences. Even if a crack in the runner is detected on time, the outage time that follows the malfunction of the runner is shortening the return of investment. It is a fact that stresses caused by the runner rotation and the jet forces are superposed by high frequent dynamic stresses. In case of resonance it even can be the dominating effect that is limiting the lifetime of a runner. Therefore a clear understanding of the dynamic mechanisms is essential for a safe runner design. This paper describes the evaluation of the dynamic behavior of a Pelton runner installed in a model turbine based on strain gauge measurements. Equipped with strain gauges at the root area of the buckets, the time responses of the strains under the influence of various operational parameters were measured. As a result basic theories for the jet bucket excitation were verified and the influence of the water mass was detected by evaluating the frequency shift in case of resonance. Furthermore, the influence of the individual bucket masses onto the dynamic behaviour for different mode shapes got measured.

  18. Large time behavior for solutions of nonlinear parabolic problems with sign-changing measure data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Petitta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $Omegasubseteq mathbb{R}^N$ a bounded open set, $Ngeq 2$, and let $p>1$; in this paper we study the asymptotic behavior with respect to the time variable $t$ of the entropy solution of nonlinear parabolic problems whose model is $$displaylines{ u_{t}(x,t-Delta_{p} u(x,t=mu quad hbox{in } Omegaimes(0,infty,cr u(x,0=u_{0}(x quad hbox{in } Omega, }$$ where $u_0 in L^{1}(Omega$, and $muin mathcal{M}_{0}(Q$ is a measure with bounded variation over $Q=Omegaimes(0,infty$ which does not charge the sets of zero $p$-capacity; moreover we consider $mu$ that does not depend on time. In particular, we prove that solutions of such problems converge to stationary solutions.

  19. Measuring Coping Behavior in Liver Transplant Candidates: A Psychometric Analysis of the Brief COPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyal, Nicole; Fernandez, Anne C; Ng, Reuben; Fehon, Dwain C

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplant candidates must cope with significant physiological and psychological challenges. The Brief COPE is a frequently used measure of coping behavior; however, knowledge of the scale's factor structure and construct validity is limited with regard to liver transplant candidates. This study assessed the validity of the Brief COPE in 120 liver transplant candidates using exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 6-factor solution, only 2 of which were consistent with the original scale assignments. Construct validity of the 6 Brief COPE scales yielded in this study was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Brief COPE is valid, reliable, and can be meaningfully interpreted in liver transplant patients. Future research should confirm this factor structure and examine its predictive validity prior to widespread use among liver transplant patients. Suggestions are presented for enhancing the care of transplant candidates by promoting the use of adaptive coping mechanisms to manage distress.

  20. Fitting Procedures for Novel Gene-by-Measured Environment Interaction Models in Behavior Genetic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Rathouz, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    For quantitative behavior genetic (e.g., twin) studies, Purcell proposed a novel model for testing gene-by-measured environment (GxM) interactions while accounting for gene-by-environment correlation. Rathouz et al. expanded this model into a broader class of non-linear biometric models for quantifying and testing such interactions. In this work, we propose a novel factorization of the likelihood for this class of models, and adopt numerical integration techniques to achieve model estimation, especially for those without close-form likelihood. The validity of our procedures is established through numerical simulation studies. The new procedures are illustrated in a twin study analysis of the moderating effect of birth weight on the genetic influences on childhood anxiety. A second example is given in an online appendix. Both the extant GxM models and the new non-linear models critically assume normality of all structural components, which implies continuous, but not normal, manifest response variables.

  1. Optical measurement on dynamic buckling behavior of stiffened composite panels under in-plane shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhenkun; Bai, Ruixiang; Tao, Wang; Wei, Xiao; Leng, Ruijiao

    2016-12-01

    The buckling behavior and failure mode of a composite panel stiffened by I-shaped stringers under in-plane shear is studied using digital fringe projection profilometry. The basic principles of the dynamic phase-shifting technique, multi-frequency phase-unwrapping technique and inverse-phase technique for nonlinear error compensation are introduced. Multi-frequency fringe projection profilometry was used to monitor and measure the change in the morphology of a discontinuous surface of the stiffened composite panel during in-plane shearing. Meanwhile, the strain history of multiple points on the skin was obtained using strain rosettes. The buckling mode and deflection of the panel at different moments were analyzed and compared with those obtained using the finite element method. The experimental results validated the FEM analysis.

  2. Measuring Stress-dependent Fluid Flow Behavior in Fractured Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Da; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    Maintaining long-term storage of CO2 is one of the most important factors for selecting the site for a geological CO2 storage project. Nevertheless, it is important to be prepared for possible leakage due to leaking wells or leakage pathways through the seal of a storage reservoir. This research project is motivated by the need to understand unexpected CO2 leakage. The goal of this research is to investigate stress-dependent fracture permeability and relative permeability of CO2/brine systems. Laboratory measurements of fracture permeability and fracture apertures have been made as a function of effective stress. The phenomenon that permeability decreases with effective pressure increase is observed. Due to deformation of the fracture surface during periods with high effective stress, hysteretic behavior of fractured rock permeability is also observed in core flood experiments. A series of experiments are conducted to investigate permeability hysteresis. A single saw-cut fracture is created in the rock sample to simplify the problem and to focus on the fracture itself. Permeability is measured using a high pressure core flood apparatus with X-Ray CT scanning to measure the fracture aperture distributions. Two permeability data sets, including a high permeability fractured Berea Sandstone and a low permeability fractured Israeli Zenifim Formation sandstone, show clear hysteretic behavior in both permeability and fracture aperture in repeated cycles of compression and decompression. Due to closure of the fracture aperture, when a fractured rock is compressed axially, the permeability has an exponential decline with effective pressure, as expected from stress-dependent permeability theory. When the fractured rock is decompressed afterwards, permeability increases, but not along the compression pathway and never returns to the original value. Depending on the nature of the fracture and host rock, permeability can decrease from a factor of 2 to 40. After one or more

  3. Behavioral, Brain Imaging and Genomic Measures to Predict Functional Outcomes Post - Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; DeDios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Goel, R.; Seidler, R. D.; Oddsson, L.; Zanello, S.; Clarke, T.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Reschke, M.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. These alterations may disrupt crewmembers' ability to perform mission critical functional tasks requiring ambulation, manual control and gaze stability. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. For such an approach to succeed, we must develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to foresee, before actual spaceflight, which crewmembers are likely to experience the greatest challenges to their adaptive capacities. The goals of this project are to identify and characterize this set of predictive measures. Our approach includes: 1) behavioral tests to assess sensory bias and adaptability quantified using both strategic and plastic-adaptive responses; 2) imaging to determine individual brain morphological and functional features, using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging, resting state functional connectivity MRI, and sensorimotor adaptation task-related functional brain activation; and 3) assessment of genotypic markers of genetic polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyl transferase, dopamine receptor D2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes and genetic polymorphisms of alpha2-adrenergic receptors that play a role in the neural pathways underlying sensorimotor adaptation. We anticipate that these predictive measures will be significantly correlated with individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability after long-duration spaceflight and exposure to an analog bed rest environment. We will be conducting a

  4. Deception detection with behavioral, autonomic, and neural measures: Conceptual and methodological considerations that warrant modesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Gamer, Matthias; Merckelbach, Harald; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2016-05-01

    The detection of deception has attracted increased attention among psychological researchers, legal scholars, and ethicists during the last decade. Much of this has been driven by the possibility of using neuroimaging techniques for lie detection. Yet, neuroimaging studies addressing deception detection are clouded by lack of conceptual clarity and a host of methodological problems that are not unique to neuroimaging. We review the various research paradigms and the dependent measures that have been adopted to study deception and its detection. In doing so, we differentiate between basic research designed to shed light on the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying deceptive behavior and applied research aimed at detecting lies. We also stress the distinction between paradigms attempting to detect deception directly and those attempting to establish involvement by detecting crime-related knowledge, and discuss the methodological difficulties and threats to validity associated with each paradigm. Our conclusion is that the main challenge of future research is to find paradigms that can isolate cognitive factors associated with deception, rather than the discovery of a unique (brain) correlate of lying. We argue that the Comparison Question Test currently applied in many countries has weak scientific validity, which cannot be remedied by using neuroimaging measures. Other paradigms are promising, but the absence of data from ecologically valid studies poses a challenge for legal admissibility of their outcomes.

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.

  6. Temperature-driven oxidation behavior on pure iron surface investigated by time-resolved EXAFS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doh, S.J.; Lee, J.M.; Je, J.H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Noh, D.Y. [K-JIST, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The surface-front oxidation mechanism of iron was investigated by time-resolved, glancing-angle Fe K-edge fluorescence EXAFS measurements at various oxidation temperatures of 200--700 C. The glancing angle was chosen according to the depth of the oxide layer, roughly 1,500--2,000 {angstrom}. The oxidation behavior under rapid heating (up to 600 C within 10 minutes) was compared with the slowly heated oxidation process using the Quick-EXAFS measurements. In the slowly heated process, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was the dominating phase at a relatively low temperature (300--400 C) initially. However, at a relatively high temperature (above 600 C), the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeO crystalline phases are gradually enriched as the successive oxidation process involving intrusive oxygen proceeded. Remarkably under a prolonged heat treatment above 600 C, the stable FeO phase that exists in a deep-lying interface structure and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase eventually dominates the thick front-surface structure. In a quickly heated process, however, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase is less dominating, which is contradictory to the commonly accepted oxidation models. The EXAFS results are discussed in conjunction with the x-ray diffraction features under the same heat treatment conditions.

  7. A New Measurement of the Spectral Lag of Gamma-Ray Bursts and its Implications for Spectral Evolution Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lang; Wang, Fu-Ri; Wu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Ye-Hao; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Bang-Yao; Xi, Bao-Jia; Wang, Xue; Feng, Huan-Xue; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a systematical study of the spectral lag properties of 50 single-pulsed Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by Fermi/GBM. By dividing the light curves into multiple consecutive energy channels we provide a new measurement of the spectral lag which is independent on energy channel selections. We perform a detailed statistical study of our new measurements. We find two similar universal correlations by investigating the correlations between the photon arrival time versus energy and pulse width versus energy, respectively. We also study the spectral evolution behaviors of the GRB pulses and most of them follow neither "hard-to-soft" (HTS) nor "hardness-intensity tracking" (HIT) trends. We find that a GRB pulse with negligible spectral lag would appear to have an HIT behavior and a GRB pulse with significant spectral lag would appear to have an HTS behavior. The HTS might not be a genuinely true behavior.

  8. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work.

  9. Treatment Fidelity: Special Educators' Perceptions of Measures Used to Monitor the Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires empirically based interventions to be used when treating chronic problem behaviors. The fundamental part of behavior modification is the ability to demonstrate that behavior change occurred due to the intervention. This can only be accomplished when the intervention is…

  10. How to measure integrity violations. Towards a validated typology of unethical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasthuizen, K.M.; Huberts, L.W.J.C.; Heres, L.

    2011-01-01

    To develop governance that is both effective and ethical, scholars study the causes and effects of unethical behavior as well as the policies and systems that thwart such behavior. However, there is much inconsistency and incoherence in the demarcation of different types of unethical behaviors. To e

  11. A week-long meditation retreat decouples behavioral measures of the alerting and executive attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James C; Wallace, B Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE EXAMINED THE INFLUENCE OF MEDITATION ON THREE FUNCTIONALLY DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF ATTENTION: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying

  12. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  13. Carrier behavior of HgTe under high pressure revealed by Hall effect measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡廷静; 崔晓岩; 李雪飞; 王婧姝; 吕秀梅; 王棱升; 杨景海; 高春晓

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the carrier behavior of HgTe under high pressures up to 23 GPa using in situ Hall effect measurements. As the phase transitions from zinc blende to cinnabar, then to rock salt, and finally to Cmcm occur, all the parameters change discontinuously. The conductivity variation under compression is described by the carrier parameters. For the zinc blende phase, both the decrease of carrier concentration and the increase of mobility indicate the overlapped valence band and conduction band separates with pressure. Pressure causes an increase in the hole concentration of HgTe in the cinnabar phase, which leads to the carrier-type inversion and the lowest mobility at 5.6 GPa. In the phase transition process from zinc blende to rock salt, Te atoms are the major ones in atomic movements in the pressure regions of 1.0–1.5 GPa and 1.8–3.1 GPa, whereas Hg atoms are the major ones in the pressure regions of 1.5–1.8 GPa and 3.1–7.7 GPa. The polar optical scattering of the rock salt phase decreases with pressure.

  14. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  15. Measurement invariance of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire across samples of young drivers from Finland and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Markus; Fearghal, O'Brien; Lajunen, Timo; Gormley, Michael; Summala, Heikki

    2015-05-01

    This article investigates the factor structure of the 27-item Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) in two samples of young drivers (18-25 years of age); one from Finland and the other from Ireland. We compare the two-, three-, and four-factor solutions using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and show that the four-factor model (with the latent variables rule violations, aggressive violations, slips and lapses) fits the data from the two countries best. Next, we compare the fit of this model across samples by the means of a measurement invariance analysis in the CFA framework. The analysis shows that the four-factor model fails to fit both samples equally well. This is mainly because the socially-oriented latent variables (rule violations and aggressive violations) are different in nature in the two samples. The cognitively-oriented latent variables (slips and lapses) are, however, similar across countries and the mean values of slips can be compared using latent variable models. However, the common practice of calculating sum scores to represent the four latent DBQ variables and comparing them across subgroups of respondents is unfounded, at least when comparing young respondents from Finland and Ireland.

  16. A Step toward Construction, Validity and Reliability of Measurement Scale for Students’ Deviant Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Aliverdinia; Erfan Younesi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction   During the last few decades, all studies carried out on social deviances have encountered some ambiguity in defining deviant behavior. Generally speaking, deviant behavior refers to all acts and attitudes which are in contrast to the expectations of individuals, groups and institutions and are in conflict with the moral principles and common rules of the society, and therefore face legal hindrances or ethical and social disapproval. In addition, such behavior is considered to b...

  17. Measurement of high turbidity water behavior by ADCP at Izena Caldera in Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, S.; Arai, R.; Yamazaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal processes associated with spreading centers of plate-tectonics form hydrothermal activities and the resulted seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits. Given that the SMS deposits found in the western Pacific have been considered to be potential sources of gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead, there is a strong possibility that they will be mined near future. In order to take measures against environmental impacts during the mining of SMS deposits, it is important to measure components of hydrothermal origin with high temporal and spatial resolution on site, and to understand the mass circulation and transfer systems around the mining area. The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is effective tool for measurement of current field in water column in general. In addition, it is also useful for detection of turbidity profile in the water column simultaneously, applying an acoustic propagation model to the data. Izena Caldera, which is 3 km in short, 6 km in long axes and is generically from1,600 m to 1,700 m in depth, is located at the northwest of Okinawa Island. There both attractive SMS deposits and active hydrothermal vent systems have been confirmed. Because of the active vent systems and a bowl-like geographical structure, a quite unique mass circulation and transfer background condition is expected in Izena Caldera. The mining operation will add plenty of suspended materials into the background condition. For a primary understanding of the background condition, the authors analyzed the ADCP data and found two high-turbidity water zones in Izena Caldera and their behavior relationships with the current structure. The vertical downward current affects one of the high-turbidity zones around 1,220 m in depth. The current velocity against north-south direction and east-west direction affects the other high-turbidity zone 1,550 m in depth. Also the zones are recognized the higher synchronization with the lumi-solar diurnal tide, about 24 hours. The

  18. Physiological measures of neurotoxicity of diazinon and malathion to larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their correlation with behavioral measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, S.L.; Jones, S.B.; Brewer, S.K.; Little, E.E.

    2000-01-01

    Relations between neurotoxicants and changes in physiological parameters and behavior were investigated in larval rainbow trout (RBT; Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to sublethal concentrations of two organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Fish were exposed to diazinon and malathion in static-renewal experiments. After exposures for 24, 96, or 96 h, followed by 48 h of recovery, individual RBT were videotaped to assess locomotory behaviors. Brain tissue from the same fish was assayed for the physiological endpoints, cholinesterase (ChE) activity, muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MChR) number (B(max)), and MChR affinity (K(D)). Cholinesterase activity decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of both diazinon and malathion and differed significantly among exposure durations, with 24- and 96-h means less than 48-h recovery means. Decreases in B(max) with OP concentration were not significant for either chemical, and K(D) was unaffected. Changes in swimming speed and distance were significantly correlated with changes in ChE activity for both chemicals; rate of turning was significantly correlated with ChE activity in malathion exposures. These results suggest that correlations between physiological and behavioral changes previously seen in mammals also occur in fish.

  19. To total amount of activity. And beyond: Perspectives on measuring physical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs, and outcome parameters of physical behavior. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity and active lifestyle vs. sedentary behavior and sedentary lifestyle; Amount of phys

  20. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure, pl

  1. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

  2. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  3. Music and language expertise influence the categorization of speech and musical sounds: behavioral and electrophysiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Klein, Carina; Kühnis, Jürg; Liem, Franziskus; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we used high-density EEG to evaluate whether speech and music expertise has an influence on the categorization of expertise-related and unrelated sounds. With this purpose in mind, we compared the categorization of speech, music, and neutral sounds between professional musicians, simultaneous interpreters (SIs), and controls in response to morphed speech-noise, music-noise, and speech-music continua. Our hypothesis was that music and language expertise will strengthen the memory representations of prototypical sounds, which act as a perceptual magnet for morphed variants. This means that the prototype would "attract" variants. This so-called magnet effect should be manifested by an increased assignment of morphed items to the trained category, by a reduced maximal slope of the psychometric function, as well as by differential event-related brain responses reflecting memory comparison processes (i.e., N400 and P600 responses). As a main result, we provide first evidence for a domain-specific behavioral bias of musicians and SIs toward the trained categories, namely music and speech. In addition, SIs showed a bias toward musical items, indicating that interpreting training has a generic influence on the cognitive representation of spectrotemporal signals with similar acoustic properties to speech sounds. Notably, EEG measurements revealed clear distinct N400 and P600 responses to both prototypical and ambiguous items between the three groups at anterior, central, and posterior scalp sites. These differential N400 and P600 responses represent synchronous activity occurring across widely distributed brain networks, and indicate a dynamical recruitment of memory processes that vary as a function of training and expertise.

  4. Computer Vision Tools for Low-Cost and Noninvasive Measurement of Autism-Related Behaviors in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of developmental disorders is key to child outcome, allowing interventions to be initiated which promote development and improve prognosis. Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that behavioral signs can be observed late in the first year of life. Many of these studies involve extensive frame-by-frame video observation and analysis of a child's natural behavior. Although nonintrusive, these methods are extremely time-intensive and require a high level of observer training; thus, they are burdensome for clinical and large population research purposes. This work is a first milestone in a long-term project on non-invasive early observation of children in order to aid in risk detection and research of neurodevelopmental disorders. We focus on providing low-cost computer vision tools to measure and identify ASD behavioral signs based on components of the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI. In particular, we develop algorithms to measure responses to general ASD risk assessment tasks and activities outlined by the AOSI which assess visual attention by tracking facial features. We show results, including comparisons with expert and nonexpert clinicians, which demonstrate that the proposed computer vision tools can capture critical behavioral observations and potentially augment the clinician's behavioral observations obtained from real in-clinic assessments.

  5. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa K. Alimoglu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods: Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2 with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6 and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4 with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL sessions (~7 hours with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48. Results: Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87 and 80.6% (κ=0.71, respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types.

  6. Measuring determinants of implementation behavior: Psychometric properties of a questionnaire based on the theoretical domains framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Dusseldorp, E.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Crone, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To be able to design effective strategies to improve healthcare professionals' implementation behaviors, a valid and reliable questionnaire is needed to assess potential implementation determinants. The present study describes the development of the Determinants of Implementation Behavio

  7. Complexities of measuring perfectionism: three popular perfectionism measures and their relations with eating disturbances and health behaviors in a female college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C; Ivezaj, Valentina; Downey, Christina A; Kashima, Yuri; Morady, Aviva R

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between three popular measures of perfectionism [the Eating Disorders Inventory - Perfectionism scale (EDI-P), the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS)] and measures of eating disturbances and health behaviors, in a sample of 248 female college students. Results indicated that the adaptiveness or maladaptiveness of certain perfectionism dimensions should still be questioned. Also, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (from the MPS) were consistently found to be the most important predictors of both eating disturbances and health behaviors. Surprisingly, scores on the EDI-P were not found to be significant predictors of eating disturbances when FMPS and MPS scores were included in regression analyses. Implications of the present findings are discussed.

  8. An assessment of the aversive nature of an animal management procedure (clipping) using behavioral and physiological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Billett, Ellen

    2013-06-13

    Animal management often involves procedures that, while unlikely to cause physical pain, still cause aversive responses. The domestic horse (Equus caballus) regularly has excessive hair clipped off to facilitate its use as a riding/driving animal and this procedure causes adverse behavioral responses in some animals. The aim of this study was to compare behavioral and physiological measures to assess the aversive effect of this procedure. Ten horses were selected on the basis of being either compliant (C: n=5) or non-compliant (NC: n=5) during this procedure. The horses were subjected to a sham clipping procedure (SC: where the blades had been removed from the clippers) for a period of ten minutes. Measures were taken pre, during and post SC (-10min to +30min) and mean values calculated for ALL horses and for C and NC separately. Behavioral activity was scored (scale 1-5) by twenty students from video footage in (phase/group-blind scoring). Heart rate (HR), salivary cortisol and eye temperature were monitored throughout the procedure. The NC horses were found to be significantly more behaviorally active/less relaxed throughout the trial than C horses (pphysiological responses indicated that ALL horses found the procedure aversive. Eye temperature could be used as an objective and immediate measure of how an animal is responding to a specific situation in order to evaluate management procedures and adapt them where appropriate to reduce the negative impact on animal health and welfare.

  9. Evaluation of data loggers, sampling intervals, and editing techniques for measuring the lying behavior of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, D N; Winckler, C; Tucker, C B

    2010-11-01

    Lying behavior in dairy cattle can provide insight into how cows interact with their environment. Although lying behavior is a useful indicator of cow comfort, it can be time consuming to measure. In response to these time constraints, using data loggers to automate behavioral recording has become increasingly common. We tested the accuracy of the Onset Pendant G data logger (Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA) for measuring lying behavior in dairy cattle (n=24 cows; 12 in each of 2 experiments). Cows wore the logger on the lateral (experiment 1) or medial (experiment 2) side of the hind leg above the metatarsophalangeal joint. Loggers recorded behavior at 4 sampling intervals (6, 30, 60, and 300 s) for at least 1.5 d. Data were smoothed using 3 editing methods to examine the effects of short, potentially erroneous readings. For this purpose, Microsoft Excel macros (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) converted readings (i.e., lying events bordered by standing or vice versa) occurring singly or in consecutive runs of ≤2 or ≤6. Behavior was simultaneously recorded with digital video equipment. The logger accurately measured lying and standing. For example, predictability, sensitivity, and specificity were >99% using 30-s sampling and the single-event filter compared with continuously scored video recordings. The 6- and 30-s sampling intervals were comparable for all aspects of lying behavior when short events were filtered from the data set. Estimates of lying time generated from the 300-s interval unfiltered regimen were positively related (R(2) ≥ 0.99) to estimates of lying time from video, but this sampling regimen overestimated the number of lying bouts. This is likely because short standing and lying bouts were missed (12 and 34% of lying and standing bouts were <300 s in experiment 1 and 2, respectively). In summary, the data logger accurately measured all aspects of lying behavior when the sampling interval was ≤30 s and when short readings of lying and

  10. To total amount of activity….. and beyond: perspectives on measuring physical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Johannes B J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs, and outcome parameters of physical behavior. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity and active lifestyle vs. sedentary behavior and sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture and movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioral context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behavior vs. physiological response. Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided by data reduction procedures are discussed: Distribution of length of bouts; Variability in bout length; Time window; Intensity and intensity threshold. The overview indicates that physical behavior is a multi-dimensional construct, and it stresses the importance and relevance of constructs and parameters other than total amount of physical activity. It is concluded that the challenge for the future will be to determine which parameters are most relevant, valid and responsive. This is a matter for physical behavior researchers to consider, that is critical to multi-disciplinary collaboration.

  11. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  12. Press CRTT to measure aggressive behavior: the unstandardized use of the competitive reaction time task in aggression research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Malte; Mohseni, M Rohangis; Breuer, Johannes; Scharkow, Michael; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-06-01

    The competitive reaction time task (CRTT) is the measure of aggressive behavior most commonly used in laboratory research. However, the test has been criticized for issues in standardization because there are many different test procedures and at least 13 variants to calculate a score for aggressive behavior. We compared the different published analyses of the CRTT using data from 3 different studies to scrutinize whether it would yield the same results. The comparisons revealed large differences in significance levels and effect sizes between analysis procedures, suggesting that the unstandardized use and analysis of the CRTT have substantial impacts on the results obtained, as well as their interpretations. Based on the outcome of our comparisons, we provide suggestions on how to address some of the issues associated with the CRTT, as well as a guideline for researchers studying aggressive behavior in the laboratory.

  13. Smoking identities and behavior: evidence of discrepancies, issues for measurement and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S Lee; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Myers, John A

    2010-06-01

    Although researchers and health care practitioners tend to use standard categories to classify smokers and nonsmokers, recent research suggests that individual smokers may use a variety of self-definitions regarding their smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking identity and smoking behavior among college students, specifically, the relationship between self-identifying as a smoker, nonsmoker, occasional smoker, or social smoker and number of days smoked in the past month. Data were obtained during a campuswide health assessment of randomly selected full-time students (N = 741). Results indicate discrepancy between smoking identity and cigarette use. Twenty percent of students who smoked in the past 30 days self-identified as nonsmokers. Such discrepancies have implications for data collection in research as well as on questionnaires and in health care interviews. Failure to understand actual smoking behavior may increase the risk that individuals will not receive effective smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  14. Measuring and managing the economic impact of disruptive behaviors in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors have been shown to have a significant negative impact on staff relationships, team collaboration, communication flow, and patient outcomes of care. They can be a major factor in contributing to the occurrence of adverse events that compromise quality care and patient safety and can put the patient and organization at increased risk. Whereas organizations generally are not reticent to make system enhancements designed to improve patient safety, they are more reluctant to address human factor issues such as disruptive behaviors for a variety of reasons. This article presents a 10-step process for addressing both the economic and quality impact of disruptive behaviors in an attempt to stimulate a call to action.

  15. An investigation of the generalizability and dependability of direct behavior rating single item scales (DBR-SIS) to measure academic engagement and disruptive behavior of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafouleas, Sandra M; Briesch, Amy M; Riley-Tillman, T Chris; Christ, Theodore J; Black, Anne C; Kilgus, Stephen P

    2010-06-01

    A total of 4 raters, including 2 teachers and 2 research assistants, used Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales (DBR-SIS) to measure the academic engagement and disruptive behavior of 7 middle school students across multiple occasions. Generalizability study results for the full model revealed modest to large magnitudes of variance associated with persons (students), occasions of measurement (day), and associated interactions. However, an unexpectedly low proportion of the variance in DBR data was attributable to the facet of rater, as well as a negligible variance component for the facet of rating occasion nested within day (10-min interval within a class period). Results of a reduced model and subsequent decision studies specific to individual rater and rater type (research assistant and teacher) suggested degree of reliability-like estimates differed substantially depending on rater. Overall, findings supported previous recommendations that in the absence of estimates of rater reliability and firm recommendations regarding rater training, ratings obtained from DBR-SIS, and subsequent analyses, be conducted within rater. Additionally, results suggested that when selecting a teacher rater, the person most likely to substantially interact with target students during the specified observation period may be the best choice.

  16. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estate M Sokhadze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on rTMS will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. Methods: The current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in 2 groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group [WTL]. We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched wait-list group. We used 18 sessions of 1Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched ASD subjects. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity and decreased stereotypic behaviors. Following rTMS we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the fronto-central ERPs to non-targets in the TMS group. These ERP changes along with increased centro-parietal ERPs to targets are indicative of more efficient processing of information post-TMS. Another finding was increased magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN during commission errors. We calculated normative post-error reaction time (RT slowing response in both groups and found that rTMS was accompanied by post-error RT slowing and higher accuracy of responses, whereas the WTL group kept on showing typical for ASD post-error RT speeding and had higher error rate. Conclusion: Results from our study indicate that rTMS improves executive functioning in ASD as evidenced by normalization of ERP responses and behavioral reactions during executive function test, and also by improvements in clinical behavioral evaluations.

  17. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used (N = 5,536. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = −0.01; 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.004; P < 0.001, but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.0003; 95% CI: −0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37, was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥487.5 min/day level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.02; 95% CI: −0.03 to −0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769. The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  18. Optogenetics in Mice Performing a Visual Discrimination Task: Measurement and Suppression of Retinal Activation and the Resulting Behavioral Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, Bethanny; Denman, Daniel; Valley, Matthew; Ollerenshaw, Douglas; Williams, Derric; Groblewski, Peter; Reid, Clay; Olsen, Shawn; Blanche, Timothy; Waters, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques are used widely to perturb and interrogate neural circuits in behaving animals, but illumination can have additional effects, such as the activation of endogenous opsins in the retina. We found that illumination, delivered deep into the brain via an optical fiber, evoked a behavioral artifact in mice performing a visually guided discrimination task. Compared with blue (473 nm) and yellow (589 nm) illumination, red (640 nm) illumination evoked a greater behavioral artifact and more activity in the retina, the latter measured with electrical recordings. In the mouse, the sensitivity of retinal opsins declines steeply with wavelength across the visible spectrum, but propagation of light through brain tissue increases with wavelength. Our results suggest that poor retinal sensitivity to red light was overcome by relatively robust propagation of red light through brain tissue and stronger illumination of the retina by red than by blue or yellow light. Light adaptation of the retina, via an external source of illumination, suppressed retinal activation and the behavioral artifact without otherwise impacting behavioral performance. In summary, long wavelength optogenetic stimuli are particularly prone to evoke behavioral artifacts via activation of retinal opsins in the mouse, but light adaptation of the retina can provide a simple and effective mitigation of the artifact.

  19. DPOAE measurements in comparison to audiometric measurements in hemodialyzed patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evis Bendo; Margarita Resuli; Spiros Metaxas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early detection of the damage of cochlear activity by using distortion product otoacustic emissions (DPOAE) (DP-gram) comparing to the results of the impedance audiometry. Methods: We examined 53 patients including 43 hemodialyzed patients, and 10 controls. First it was applied a tympanometry, and then in normal results we applied impedance audiometry and DPOAE (DP-gram). Results: We found sensorineural hearing loss in 67% of audiometric results of the hemodialyzed patients and there was a decrease of the DPOAE amplitude in 77% of hemodialyzed patients. In the control group there was one patient (10%) with neurosensorial in high frequencies hearing loss in both measurements with audiometry and DPOAE. Conclusions: There is a sensorineural hearing loss observed in most of the patients with chronic renal failure. DPOAE audiogram shows lower amplitudes than impedance audiometry and it can be used for the early detection of cochlear damage.

  20. Managing What We Can Measure: Quantifying the Susceptibility of Automated Scoring Systems to Gaming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derrick; Heilman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    As methods for automated scoring of constructed-response items become more widely adopted in state assessments, and are used in more consequential operational configurations, it is critical that their susceptibility to gaming behavior be investigated and managed. This article provides a review of research relevant to how construct-irrelevant…

  1. Spontaneous behavior in noise and silence : a possible new measure to assess tinnitus in Guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, Amarins N; Agterberg, Martijn J H; van Dijk, Pim

    2014-01-01

    This study describes two experiments that were conducted in search for a behavioral paradigm to test for tinnitus in guinea pigs. Conditioning paradigms are available to determine the presence of tinnitus in animals and are based on the assumption that tinnitus impairs their ability to detect silent

  2. Spontaneous behavior in noise and silence: a possible new measure to assess tinnitus in Guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, A.N.; Agterberg, M.J.H.; Dijk, P. van

    2014-01-01

    This study describes two experiments that were conducted in search for a behavioral paradigm to test for tinnitus in guinea pigs. Conditioning paradigms are available to determine the presence of tinnitus in animals and are based on the assumption that tinnitus impairs their ability to detect silent

  3. delta 1-Tetrahydrocannabinol-induced circling behavior in rats : a possible measure of psychotomimetic activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nir, I; Veldhuis, H D; van Ree, J M

    1984-01-01

    Relatively high dosages of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) markedly suppressed almost all normally occurring behavioral elements in rats as observed in both a small and a large open field. This effect persisted following repeated treatment and testing for 3 consecutive days. The psychotro

  4. Challenging parenting behavior from infancy to toddlerhood: Etiology, measurement, and differences between fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Majdandžić; W. de Vente; S.M. Bögels

    2015-01-01

    Based on evidence that fathers show more challenging and physical play than mothers, it has been theorized that fathers have a different parenting role, more focused at stimulating exploration and taking chances. Challenging parenting behavior (CPB) may foster confidence and buffer against anxiety d

  5. SCOOP: A Measurement and Database of Student Online Search Behavior and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    The ability to access and process massive amounts of online information is required in many learning situations. In order to develop a better understanding of student online search process especially in academic contexts, an online tool (SCOOP) is developed for tracking mouse behavior on the web to build a more extensive account of student web…

  6. Development of an Instrument To Measure Cultural Attitudes and Behaviors Affecting Vocational Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Virginia C.; Berven, Norman L.

    2002-01-01

    The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational Attitudes Questionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…

  7. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  8. Measurement and Associations of Pregnancy Risk Factors with Genetic Influences, Postnatal Environmental Influences, and Toddler Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Hajal, Nastassia; Leve, Leslie D.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Mayes, Linda C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the unique contributions of perinatal risk and genetic and environmental influences on child behavior using data from 561 domestic US adoption triads (birth mothers, adopted child, and adoptive parents). Findings show distinct patterns of associations among genetic (birth mother psychopathology), prenatal (six maternal…

  9. Screening High School Students for Eating Disorders: Validity of Brief Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items…

  10. Observer Error when Measuring Safety-Related Behavior: Momentary Time Sampling versus Whole-Interval Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Skourides, Andreas; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    Interval recording procedures are used by persons who collect data through observation to estimate the cumulative occurrence and nonoccurrence of behavior/events. Although interval recording procedures can increase the efficiency of observational data collection, they can also induce error from the observer. In the present study, 50 observers were…

  11. Challenging parenting behavior from infancy to toddlerhood: Etiology, measurement, and differences between fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdandžić, M.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on evidence that fathers show more challenging and physical play than mothers, it has been theorized that fathers have a different parenting role, more focused at stimulating exploration and taking chances. Challenging parenting behavior (CPB) may foster confidence and buffer against anxiety d

  12. Behavioral Observation Scales for Measuring Children's Distress: The Effects of Increased Methodological Rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of increased methodological rigor on the validity of the Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress and on findings concerning whether children habituate to painful procedures. Data were scored with and without refinements. Results indicated that children do habituate but that refinements had little effect on validity. (BH)

  13. Resistance to Temptation and Moral Judgment: Behavioral Correlates of Kohlberg's Measure of Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Edward A.; And Others

    This study was designed to assess and compare the roles of intelligence and moral judgment in relation to patterns of behavior in temptation situations. Six Resistance to Temptation (RTT) tasks were administered to 106 sixth grade students. One year later, four Kohlberg Moral Judgment (MJ) tasks were administered to 100 of the same subjects. IQ…

  14. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  15. Do online assessed self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity-related constructs predict onset of substance use in adolescents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Tim; Larsen, Helle; Peeters, Margot; Boendermaker, Wouter; Vollebergh, Wilma; Wiers, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To prospectively predict the onset of use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana among Dutch adolescents, using behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity-related facets. Specifically, we investigated whether behavioral measures of impulsivity predicted the onset of subst

  16. Koppitz scoring system as a measure of Bender-Gestalt performance in behaviorally and emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, S K; Simpson, R G

    1995-01-01

    Data are presented to assess the use of the Koppitz scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt Test in a sample (N = 87) of behaviorally and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Results suggested that age was modestly related to Koppitz Developmental scores, an indication that visual-motor skills continue to develop beyond age 11. Scores were related to spatial perception skills as measured on the WISC-R. Gender, primary psychiatric diagnosis, educational tests, and MMPI scores were not related to Bender performance. Findings are discussed in terms of a need for additional research into the utility of the Bender as a measure of visual-motor skills in adolescents.

  17. Correlating Flight Behavior and Radar Measurements for Species Based Classification of Bird Radar Echoes for Wind Energy Site Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, S. P.; Frasier, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the fastest-growing segments of the world energy market, offering a clean and abundant source of electricity. However, wind energy facilities can have detrimental effects on wildlife, especially birds and bats. Monitoring systems based on marine navigation radar are often used to quantify migration near potential wind sites, but the ability to reliably distinguish between bats and different varieties of birds has not been practically achieved. This classification capability would enable wind site selection that protects more vulnerable species, such as bats and raptors. Flight behavior, such as wing beat frequency, changes in speed, or changes in orientation, are known to vary by species [1]. The ability to extract these properties from radar data could ultimately enable a species based classification scheme. In this work, we analyze the relationship between radar measurements and bird flight behavior in echoes from avifauna. During the 2014 fall migration season, the UMass dual polarized weather radar was used to collect low elevation observations of migrating birds as they traversed through a fixed antenna beam. The radar was run during the night time, in clear-air conditions. Data was coherently integrated, and detections of biological targets exceeding an SNR threshold were extracted. Detections without some dominant frequency content (i.e. clear periodicity, potentially the wing beat frequency) were removed from the sample in order to isolate observations suspected to contain a single species or bird. For the remaining detections, measurements including the polarimetric products and the Doppler spectrum were extracted at each time step over the duration of the observation. The periodic and time changing nature of some of these different measurements was found to have a strong correlation with flight behavior (i.e. flapping vs. gliding behavior). Assumptions about flight behavior and orientation were corroborated through scattering

  18. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Sears, Lonnie L.; Opris, Ioan; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on low frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. In addition we proposed that rTMS will improve cortical excitation/inhibition ratio and result in changes manifested in event-related potential (ERP) recorded during cognitive tests. Materials and Methods: Along with traditional clinical behavioral evaluations the current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in two groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group). We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched WTL group. We used 18 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched subjects with ASD tested twice. Both TMS and WTL groups were assessed at the baseline and after completion of 18 weekly sessions of rTMS (or wait period) using clinical behavioral questionnaires and during performance on visual oddball task with Kanizsa illusory figures. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and decreased stereotypic behaviors on the Repetitive Behavior Scale (RBS-R). Following rTMS course we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the frontal and fronto-central N100, N200 and P300 (P3a) ERPs to non-targets in active TMS treatment group. TMS resulted in increase of P2d (P2a to targets minus P2a to non-targets) amplitude. These ERP

  19. Novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T; Nikolic-Djoric, Emilija; Arsenic, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    We have proposed novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis. We have considered background of the Kolmogorov complexity and also we have discussed meaning of the physical as well as other complexities. To get better insights into the complexity of complex systems and time series analysis we have introduced the three novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity: (i) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum highest value and (iii) the overall Kolmogorov complexity. The characteristics of these measures have been tested using a generalized logistic equation. Finally, the proposed measures have been applied on different time series originating from: the model output (the biochemical substance exchange in a multi-cell system), four different geophysical phenomena (dynamics of: river flow, long term precipitation, indoor 222Rn concentration and UV radiation dose) and economy (stock prices dynamics). Re...

  20. Modeling non-harmonic behavior of materials from experimental inelastic neutron scattering and thermal expansion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; Delaire, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. We illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound \\text{FeSi} over a wide range of temperature. Results agree well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.

  1. A Reliability Assessment of Participant Observational Measures of Leader Behavior in Natural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    significant increases in accuracy. Such practice exercises stem from the modeling principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1977). Using videotaped...categories, and the trainees used the instru- ment to record the behaviors they observed. By following the principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1976...Management, 1979, 2, 85-102. Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. Barrow, J.C. Worker performance and task

  2. Measurement of inkjet first-drop behavior using a high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kye-Si; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Choi, Moohyun

    2016-03-01

    Drop-on-demand inkjet printing has been used as a manufacturing tool for printed electronics, and it has several advantages since a droplet of an exact amount can be deposited on an exact location. Such technology requires positioning the inkjet head on the printing location without jetting, so a jetting pause (non-jetting) idle time is required. Nevertheless, the behavior of the first few drops after the non-jetting pause time is well known to be possibly different from that which occurs in the steady state. The abnormal behavior of the first few drops may result in serious problems regarding printing quality. Therefore, a proper evaluation of a first-droplet failure has become important for the inkjet industry. To this end, in this study, we propose the use of a high-speed camera to evaluate first-drop dissimilarity. For this purpose, the image acquisition frame rate was determined to be an integer multiple of the jetting frequency, and in this manner, we can directly compare the droplet locations of each drop in order to characterize the first-drop behavior. Finally, we evaluate the effect of a sub-driving voltage during the non-jetting pause time to effectively suppress the first-drop dissimilarity.

  3. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence.

  4. Extraction of primitive representation from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force to generate physically consistent imitated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Yuka; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Morimoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an imitation learning framework to generate physically consistent behaviors by estimating the ground reaction force from captured human behaviors. In the proposed framework, we first extract behavioral primitives, which are represented by linear dynamical models, from captured human movements and measured ground reaction force by using the Gaussian mixture of linear dynamical models. Therefore, our method has small dependence on classification criteria defined by an experimenter. By switching primitives with different combinations while estimating the ground reaction force, different physically consistent behaviors can be generated. We apply the proposed method to a four-link robot model to generate squat motion sequences. The four-link robot model successfully generated the squat movements by using our imitation learning framework. To show generalization performance, we also apply the proposed method to robot models that have different torso weights and lengths from a human demonstrator and evaluate the control performances. In addition, we show that the robot model is able to recognize and imitate demonstrator movements even when the observed movements are deviated from the movements that are used to construct the primitives. For further evaluation in higher-dimensional state space, we apply the proposed method to a seven-link robot model. The seven-link robot model was able to generate squat-and-sway motions by using the proposed framework.

  5. Experimental Study on Anisotropic Strength and Deformation Behavior of a Coal Measure Shale under Room Dried and Water Saturated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of anisotropic strength and deformation behavior of coal measure shale. The effect of two factors (i.e., anisotropy and water content on shale strength and deformation behavior was studied. A series of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were conducted on both room dried and water saturated samples for different lamination angles. The test results indicate that (1 the compressive strength, cohesion, internal friction angle, tangent Young’s modulus, and axial strain corresponding to the peak and residual strengths of room dried specimens exhibit anisotropic behavior that strongly depends on the orientation angle (β; (2 in comparison to the room dried samples, the compressive strength and Young’s modulus as well as the anisotropy are all reduced for water saturated specimens; and (3 the failure mechanism of the samples can be summarized into two categories: sliding along lamination and shearing of rock material, with the type occurring in a particular situation depending strongly on the lamination orientation angles with respect to the major principal stress. According to the findings, it is strongly recommended that the effect of anisotropy and water content on the strength and deformation behavior of the rock must be considered in ground control designs.

  6. Mouse testing methods in psychoneuroimmunology: an overview of how to measure sickness, depressive/anxietal, cognitive, and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jason M; Blevins, Neil A; Baynard, Tracy; Freund, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) aims to uncover the processes and consequences of nervous, immune, and endocrine system relationships. Behavior is a consequence of such interactions and manifests from a complex interweave of factors including immune-to-neural and neural-to-immune communication. Often the signaling molecules involved during a particular episode of neuroimmune activation are not known but behavioral response provides evidence that bioactives such as neurotransmitters and cytokines are perturbed. Immunobehavioral phenotyping is a first-line approach when examining the neuroimmune system and its reaction to immune stimulation or suppression. Behavioral response is significantly more sensitive than direct measurement of a single specific bioactive and can quickly and efficiently rule in or out relevance of a particular immune challenge or therapeutic to neuroimmunity. Classically, immunobehavioral research was focused on sickness symptoms related to bacterial infection but neuroimmune activation is now a recognized complication of diseases and disorders ranging from cancer to diabesity. Immunobehaviors include lethargy, loss of appetite, and disinterest in social activity and the surrounding environment. In addition, neuroimmune activation can precipitate feelings of depression and anxiety while negatively impacting cognitive function and physical activity. Provided is a detailed overview of behavioral tests frequently used to examine neuroimmune activation in mice with a special emphasis on preexperimental conditions that can confound or prevent successful immunobehavioral experimentation.

  7. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = - 0.01; 95% CI: - 0.01 to - 0.004; P HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.02; 95% CI: - 0.03 to - 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  8. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  9. THE HUMAN BEHAVIOR RATING SCALE-BRIEF: A TOOL TO MEASURE 21ST CENTURY SKILLS OF K-12 LEARNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Currently there is a call for brief concise measurements to appraise relevant 21st century college readiness skills in K-12 learners. This study employed K-12 teachers' ratings for over 3,000 students for an existing 91-item rating scale, the Human Behavior Rating Scale, that measured the 21st century skills of persistence, curiosity, externalizing affect, internalizing affect, and cognition. Teachers' ratings for K-12 learners were used to develop a brief, concise, and manageable 30-item tool, the Human Behavior Rating Scale-Brief. Results yielded high internal consistency coefficients and inter-item correlations. The items were not biased with regard to student sex or race, and were supported through confirmatory factor analyses. In addition, when teachers' ratings were compared with students' academic and behavioral performance data, moderate to strong relationships were revealed. This study provided an essential first step in the development of a psychometrically sound, manageable, and brief tool to appraise 21st century skills in K-12 learners.

  10. Comparison of waste prevention behaviors among three Japanese megacity regions in the context of local measures and socio-demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Kiyo H; Bortoleto, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    Waste prevention behaviors (WPBs) should be investigated separately from recycling behaviors and analyzed in the context of local policies and measures. Previous studies on WPBs have been mainly conducted in the USA and Europe (mainly in the UK), and studies in Japan have remained very limited to date. Moreover, the effects of socio-demographic factors have been rarely described correctly based on appropriate large sampling. In this study, we conducted an on-line questionnaire survey and obtained 8000 respondents in three megacity regions (Tokyo, Osaka, and Aichi) in Japan. Among these three regions, Osaka respondents showed significantly lower practice rates in nine of 18 WPBs. Particularly in My-bag behavior, the charging of plastic shopping bags strongly affects the practice rate. As shown in the results, local policies and measures affect WPBs. Based on the practice rates, latent four factors were extracted by factor analysis. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender and age significantly affect WPB factors before local policy effects.

  11. Testing the Multidimensionality in Teacher Interpersonal Behavior: Validating the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction Using the Rasch Measurement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W; Lang, Quek Choon

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of 1235 students of their form teachers' interpersonal behaviors across 40 classrooms in 24 Singaporean secondary schools. The 32-item Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) survey was administered to obtain the initial quantitative data of teacher behaviors perceived by the students in these classrooms. The eight scales of QTI are: Leadership, Helping/Friendly, Understanding, Student Responsibility/ Freedom, Uncertain, Dissatisfied, Admonishing, and Strict. The Rasch measurement model was used to estimate students' traits with respect to each subscale, and then to examine its proposed multidimensional structure. Findings demonstrate overall good fit of the responses with the Rasch model for each subscale. Findings also support the hypothesized relationships among the eight dimensions proposed for the QTI.

  12. Evaluating Experiential Learning in Organizational Behavior: Taking Measure of Student Perception Regarding Group Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Helm-Stevens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to determine undergraduate student perceptions in the areas of group experience within the context of an undergraduate organizational behavior business class community service assignment. College students, as part of an in-class service-learning project, were assigned to teach business related curriculum to at-risk high school students. Approach: Students, enrolled in the required senior level business course, were then assessed in the following areas: service learning experience and group experience. A multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to undergraduate students in an organizational and administrative behavior class and analyzed for correlations and relationships. The survey was administered in week eleven of a traditional semester and in the last week of the community service project. The survey was comprised of seven questions relating to group experience and one based on the impact of the community service project itself. Results: Significant findings revealed a positive correlation between the group experience and the feelings toward the project. In addition, multiple linear regressions suggested a positive and significant prediction. Conclusion: From the findings, implications for the development of experiential learning projects for use in the college classroom will be discussed. When paired with the results of previous research, the findings of this research can be very useful in developing group based service learning projects at the undergraduate level. Based upon the importance of service learning as an experiential teaching style, it is critical to understand how to better use this vehicle for discovery.

  13. Measurements of soil temperature for monitoring of the soil water behavior in an embankment slope during periodic rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M.; Takakura, S.; Ishizawa, T.; Sakai, N.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most common causes of slope disaster (e.g. landslide, slope failure and debris flow) is heavy rainfall. Distributions of soil moisture and soil suction stress are changed by rain water infiltration. Monitoring of soil water behavior is crucial for prediction of the slope disaster. This study focuses on soil temperatures of a slope as a detector for monitoring soil water behavior. Soil temperature is varied by soil water condition, this is, infiltrating water transports thermal energy downward and thermal property of soil is shifted by containing of soil water. The purpose of this study is to detect the changes in soil water behavior caused by infiltration of rainfalls using measurement of soil temperature. For this purpose, we had carried out the measurements of soil temperature during various rainfalls (Yoshioka et al., 2013). In addition, we measured soil temperature and soil water content at several depths in a slope of an experimental embankment during various intensities of periodic and/or continuous rainfalls. In this presentation, we represent the details of the experiments and the results. Experiments were performed using the experimental embankment at NIED in Japan, which is about 7.3 meters tall and 27 meters wide. The embankment is located in a large-scale rainfall simulator. This facility is about 73 meters long, 48 meters wide and 20 meters tall. We measured soil temperature and volumetric water contents in the slope of the embankment, meteorological condition and rain water temperature. The rainfall intensities were 30, 60, 90 and 120 mm/h. The artificial rainfalls were carried out 10th, 17th, 24th, 31st, May and 10th, 11th, 12th June, 2013. As the results, soil temperature at many points in all experimental days rose caused by rainfalls, but the temperature at some points didn't change. We had two forms of soil temperature changes; one was a steep rise and the other was a gradual rise. In the case of periodic rainfall, soil temperature at

  14. Application of Ultrasonic Attenuation Measurements in the Studies on Macromolecular Conformational Behaviors--Phase Behavior of the Aqueous Solution of Poly(vinyl methyl ether) Sensitive to Temperature and the Modification of the Behavior by Using Poly(ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Gong-Zheng(王公正); FANG,Yu(房喻); SHANG,Zhi-Yuan(尚志远); ZHANG,Ying(张颖); HU,Dao-Dao(胡道道)

    2004-01-01

    The phase behavior of the aqueous solution of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) sensitive to temperature and the modification of the behavior by using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been studied by ultrasonic attenuation measurements and fluorescence probe techniques. It has been observed that PVME solution is transparent at room temperature and becomes turbid upon heating. The solution turns clear again as soon as the temperature is decreased to room temperature. The heating and cooling process can be repeated for many times. The phase behavior of the solution sensitive to temperature is attributed to the conformational changes of the polymer. PVME may adopt an open coil conformation at room temperature. With this conformation, the polymer is well miscible with the solvent, water, and thereby the system is a real solution. The polymer may adopt a compact coil conformation when the temperature is higher than a specific value, which is called the LCST (the lower critical solution temperature) of PVME. In this case, the polymer tangles to each other and forms various aggregates, which can scatter incident light and ultrasonic waves greatly, resulting in the phase separation. Introduction of PAA decreases the temperature sensitivity of the phase behavior of the polymer. The nature of the inhibition is attributed to the complexation of PAA with PVME and the strong hydrophilicity of PAA. Results from fluorescence probe studies are in accordance with those from ultrasonic attenuation measurements, indicating again that the ultrasonic attenuation method can be successfully used for the qualitative studies of polymer conformations and complexation between polymers.

  15. Assessing the high frequency behavior of non-polarizable electrodes for spectral induced polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsamad, Feras; Florsch, Nicolas; Schmutz, Myriam; Camerlynck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    During the last decades, the usage of spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements in hydrogeology and detecting environmental problems has been extensively increased. However, the physical mechanisms which are responsible for the induced polarization response over the usual frequency range (typically 1 mHz to 10-20 kHz) require better understanding. The phase shift observed at high frequencies is sometimes attributed to the so-called Maxwell-Wagner polarization which takes place when charges cross an interface. However, SIP measurements of tap water show a phase shift at frequencies higher than 1 kHz, where no Maxwell-Wagner polarization may occur. In this paper, we enlighten the possible origin of this phase shift and deduce its likely relationship with the types of the measuring electrodes. SIP Laboratory measurements of tap water using different types of measuring electrodes (polarizable and non-polarizable electrodes) are carried out to detect the origin of the phase shift at high frequencies and the influence of the measuring electrodes types on the observed complex resistivity. Sodium chloride is used to change the conductivity of the medium in order to quantify the solution conductivity role. The results of these measurements are clearly showing the impact of the measuring electrodes type on the measured phase spectrum while the influence on the amplitude spectrum is negligible. The phenomenon appearing on the phase spectrum at high frequency (> 1 kHz) whatever the electrode type is, the phase shows an increase compared to the theoretical response, and the discrepancy (at least in absolute value) increases with frequency, but it is less severe when medium conductivity is larger. Additionally, the frequency corner is shifted upward in frequency. The dependence of this phenomenon on the conductivity and the measuring electrodes type (electrode-electrolyte interface) seems to be due to some dielectric effects (as an electrical double layer of small

  16. Exploring Different Order Decision Behaviors with Bullwhip Effect and Service Level Measures in Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since decision makers’ bounded rationality would impact supply chain performance, it is necessary to explore how the individual decisions work in the supply chain. This paper investigates bullwhip effect variation and service level tendency while the decisions are made by different decision makers. Based on the existing study results, the paper establishes a system dynamics model of supply chain conforming to modern supply chain characters. In the model, two adjustment parameters are adopted to describe individual differences in decision makers. The simulation result demonstrates that the behavioral adjustment with different extent results in different supply chain performance. The impact of two parameters is very different. The decision makers should try to avoid the overadjustment to the scarcity of supply from their upstream member.

  17. A comparison between theoretical prediction and experimental measurement of the dynamic behavior of spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Forrester, B. David; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    A comparison was made between computer model predictions of gear dynamics behavior and experimental results. The experimental data were derived from the NASA gear noise rig, which was used to record dynamic tooth loads and vibration. The experimental results were compared with predictions from the DSTO Aeronautical Research Laboratory's gear dynamics code for a matrix of 28 load speed points. At high torque the peak dynamic load predictions agree with the experimental results with an average error of 5 percent in the speed range 800 to 6000 rpm. Tooth separation (or bounce), which was observed in the experimental data for light torque, high speed conditions, was simulated by the computer model. The model was also successful in simulating the degree of load sharing between gear teeth in the multiple tooth contact region.

  18. Transport measurements of negative refractive behavior in ballistic graphene hetero junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Park, Geon-Hyoung; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the electronic current refraction at p-n junctions (PNJs) in ballistic monolayer graphene. Given a peculiar band structure of the graphene, the transmission of electrons through a PNJ is predicted to be similar to the optical refraction at the boundary of metamaterials with negative refractive index. In consequence, electrons waves injected at a point in one side of a junction can be refocused into a single point in the other side of the junction, which demonstrates Veselago lensing for the electrons. By adopting high-yield dry-transfer technique, we fabricated fully ballistic graphene devices encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitrides with a local top gate. We will present the signatures of negative refractive transport behavior of electrons in PNJs and also discuss about the electronic current focusing in p-n-p heterojunctions in terms of Veselago lensing.

  19. Spontaneous behavior in noise and silence: a possible new measure to assess tinnitus in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeringa, Amarins N; Agterberg, Martijn J H; van Dijk, Pim

    2014-01-01

    This study describes two experiments that were conducted in search for a behavioral paradigm to test for tinnitus in guinea pigs. Conditioning paradigms are available to determine the presence of tinnitus in animals and are based on the assumption that tinnitus impairs their ability to detect silent intervals in continuous noise. Guinea pigs have not been subjected to these paradigms yet; therefore, we investigated whether guinea pigs could be conditioned in the two-way shuttle-box paradigm to respond to silent intervals in noise. Even though guinea pigs could be trained relatively easy to respond to the presence of a noise interval, training guinea pigs to silent intervals in noise was unsuccessful. Instead, it appeared that they became immobile when the continuous stimulus was suddenly stopped. This was confirmed by the next experiment, in which we subjected guinea pigs to alternating intervals of noise and silence with a random duration between 30 and 120 s. Indeed, guinea pigs were significantly longer immobile during silence compared to during noise. By interpreting immobility as a signature of perceiving silence, we hypothesized that the presence of tinnitus would reduce immobility in silence. Therefore, we unilaterally exposed one group of guinea pigs to an 11-kHz tone of 124 dB sound pressure level for 1 h. A subset of the exposed animals was significantly more active in silence, but also more active in noise, as compared to the control group. The increased mobility during silent intervals might represent tinnitus. However, the increased mobility in noise of this group implies that the observed behavior could have derived from, e.g., an overall increase in activity. Therefore, conducting validation experiments is very important before implementing this method as a new screening tool for tinnitus. Follow-up experiments are discussed to further elucidate the origin of the increased mobility in both silence and noise.

  20. Spontaneous behavior in noise and silence: a possible new measure to assess tinnitus in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarins Nieske Heeringa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two experiments that were conducted in search for a behavioral paradigm to test for tinnitus in guinea pigs. Conditioning paradigms are available to determine the presence of tinnitus in animals and are based on the assumption that tinnitus impairs their ability to detect silent intervals in continuous noise. Guinea pigs have not been subjected to these paradigms yet, therefore we investigated whether guinea pigs could be conditioned in the two-way shuttle box paradigm to respond to silent intervals in noise. Even though guinea pigs could be trained relatively easy to respond to the presence of a noise interval, training guinea pigs to silent intervals in noise was unsuccessful. Instead, it appeared that they became immobile when the continuous stimulus was suddenly stopped. This was confirmed by the next experiment, in which we subjected guinea pigs to alternating intervals of noise and silence with a random duration between 30 – 120 s. Indeed, guinea pigs were significantly longer immobile during silence compared to during noise. By interpreting immobility as a signature of perceiving silence, we hypothesized that the presence of tinnitus would reduce immobility in silence. Therefore, we unilaterally exposed one group of guinea pigs to an 11-kHz tone of 124 dB SPL for 1 hour. A subset of the exposed animals was significantly more active in silence, but also more active in noise, as compared to the control group. The increased mobility during silent intervals might represent tinnitus. However, the increased mobility in noise of this group implies that the observed behavior could have derived from e.g. an overall increase in activity. Therefore, conducting validation experiments is very important before implementing this method as a new screening tool for tinnitus. Follow-up experiments are discussed to further elucidate the origin of the increased mobility in both silence and noise.

  1. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol Behavior and Climatic Effects by Analysis of SAGE 2 and Other Space, Air, and Ground Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, John M.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the research performed under NASA Ames Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-991, which covered the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1999. Previously, an interim technical report (Technical Report No. 1, 20 March 1998) summarized the work completed during the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1998. The objective of the proposed research was to advance our understanding of atmospheric aerosol behavior, aerosol-induced climatic effects, and the remote measurement and retrieval capabilities of spaceborne sensors such as SAGE II by combining and comparing data from these instruments and from airborne and ground-based instruments.

  2. Comment on "Should we reframe how we think about physical activity and sedentary behavior measurement? Validity and reliability reconsidered".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, Caroline B; Mokkink, L B; Hidding, L M; Altenburg, T M; van Poppel, M N; Chinapaw, M J M

    2016-06-10

    With great interest we read the article by Kelly et al. on the measurement of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) (Kelly P et al. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13:(1) 32, 2016). We appreciate the invitation of the authors to provide feedback on their ideas and we take this opportunity to contribute to the discussion. Our main proposition is that this field can learn much from the field of quality of life research and the methodology developed for validating quality of life questionnaires.

  3. Measures of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation System Sensitivity as Predictors of Big Five Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Križanić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, Gray (1987 described three hypothetical biological brain systems, assumed to represent underpinnings of the stable patterns of experience and behaviour. Most research has been devoted to studying behavioural inhibition system (BIS and behavioural activation system (BAS, which have shown relatively stable associations with neuroticism and extroversion, respectively. BIS/BAS scale (Carver & White, 1994 is one of the most frequently used instruments for measuring these constructs. The questionnaire contains one scale of BIS sensitivity that captures reactions to appearance or anticipation of punishment, and three subscales of BAS sensitivity which are aimed to assess distinct but related constructs: BAS – Drive, that relate to persistence in achieving desired goals; BAS - Fun seeking, that relates to desire for new rewarding experiences and indicates person's readiness to engage in potentially rewarding situation, and BAS – Reward sensitivity, that measures positive reactions to appearance or anticipation of reward.The aim of the current study was to explore to what extent individual differences in personality traits can be predicted based on measures of BIS and BAS sensitivity. In this paper we analysed the data of 284 female students, that completed translated and adapted Croatian version of BIS/BAS scales, as well as International Personality Item Pool (IPIP 50 which measures the Big-Five personality domains. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of Croatian version of BIS/BAS scale was comparable to the original instrument. Results of the regression analysis revealed that BIS scale was a significant predictor of emotional instability, while BAS subscales showed different patterns of relationships with measured personality traits. These results indicate the importance of measuring distinct aspects of BAS sensitivity.

  4. Delineating Personality Traits in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations across Measures, Temperament, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Kushner, Shauna C.; De Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation addressed several questions in the burgeoning area of child personality assessment. Specifically, the present study examined overlapping and nonoverlapping variance in two prominent measures of child personality assessment, followed by tests of convergent and divergent validity with child temperament and psychopathology.…

  5. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  6. Extended Axiomatic Conjoint Measurement: A Solution to a Methodological Problem in Studying Fertility-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Carol A.; McClelland, Gary H.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology is developed based on axiomatic conjoint measurement to accompany a fertility decision-making model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated via an application to a study of contraceptive choice (N=100 male and female family-planning clinic clients). Finally, the validity of the model is evaluated. (TJH)

  7. The Slicing Theory of Quantum Measurement: Derivation of Transient Many Worlds Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafin C.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An emergent theory of quantum measurement arises directly b y considering the partic- ular subset of many body wavefunctions that can be associate d with classical condensed matter and its interaction with delocalized wavefunctions . This transfers questions of the “strangeness” of quantum mechanics from the wavefuncti on to the macroscopic ma- terial itself. An e ff ectively many-worlds picture of measurement results for lo ng times and induces a natural arrow of time. The challenging part is t hen justifying why our macroscopic world is dominated by such far-from-eigenstat e matter. Condensing cold mesoscopic clusters provide a pathway to a partitioning of a highly correlated many body wavefunction to long lasting islands composed of class ical-like bodies widely separated in Fock space. Low mass rapidly delocalizing matt er that recombines with the solids “slice” the system into a set of nearby yet very wea kly interacting subsystems weighted according to the Born statistics and yields a kind o f many worlds picture but with the possibility of revived phase interference on itera tive particle desorption, delo- calization and readsorption. A proliferation of low energy photons competes with such a possibility. Causality problems associated with correla ted quantum measurement are resolved and conserved quantities are preserved for the ove rall many body function de- spite their failure in each observer’s bifurcating “slice- path”. The necessity of such a state for a two state logic and reliable discrete state machi ne suggests that later stages of the universe’s evolution will destroy the physical underpi nnings required for conscious- ness and the arrow of time even without heat-death or atomic d estruction. Some exotic possibilities outside the domain of usual quantum measurem ent are considered such as measurement with delocalized devices and revival of inform ation from past measure- ments.

  8. Auditory Cortical Maturation in a Child with Cochlear Implant: Analysis of Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally assess the behavioral and electrophysiological hearing changes of a girl inserted in a CI program, who had bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss and underwent surgery of cochlear implantation with electrode activation at 21 months of age. She was evaluated using the P1 component of Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (LLAEP); speech perception tests of the Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure (GASP); Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS); and Meaningful Use of Speech Scales (MUSS). The study was conducted prior to activation and after three, nine, and 18 months of cochlear implant activation. The results of the LLAEP were compared with data from a hearing child matched by gender and chronological age. The results of the LLAEP of the child with cochlear implant showed gradual decrease in latency of the P1 component after auditory stimulation (172 ms–134 ms). In the GASP, IT-MAIS, and MUSS, gradual development of listening skills and oral language was observed. The values of the LLAEP of the hearing child were expected for chronological age (132 ms–128 ms). The use of different clinical instruments allow a better understanding of the auditory habilitation and rehabilitation process via CI. PMID:26881163

  9. Weaver mutant mice exhibit long-term learning deficits under several measures of instrumental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Adam; Arsenault, Matthew L; Austin, David P; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2007-12-01

    Homozygous weaver mutant mice (wv/wv) exhibit symptoms that parallel Parkinson's disease, including motor deficits and the destruction of dopaminergic neurons as well as degeneration in the cerebellum and hippocampus. To develop a more complete behavioral profile of these organisms, groups of wv/wv, wv/+ mice and C57BL/6 mice were observed on a within-subjects basis under a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement, a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-of-responding schedule, and a discrimination task in which a saccharin solution and tap water were concurrently available from two food cups. Under both reinforcement schedules, the wv/wv mice responded as frequently as the comparison subjects, but they responded in a manner that was inappropriate to the contingencies. Rather than respond with increasing frequency as the upcoming reinforcer became temporally proximate, wv/wv mice responded with decreasing probability as a function of the time since the previous reinforcer. Under the discrimination task, the wv/wv mice, unlike the controls, obtained saccharin over tap water at the level of chance. The findings suggest that weaver mutant mice express learning deficits similar to those found in other dopamine-deficient organisms.

  10. Videos Influence Behavior Change Measures for Voice and Speech in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Lisa M; Graetzer, Simone; Huh, Jina

    2015-10-01

    The majority of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience voice and speech difficulties at some point over the course of the disease. Voice therapy has been found to help improve voice and speech in individuals with PD, but the majority of these individuals do not enroll in voice therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether watching short videos about voice symptoms and treatment in Parkinson's disease influences readiness to change, stages of change, and self-efficacy in individuals with PD. Eight individuals with PD participated in the study. Fifteen videos were chosen, three representing each of the five stages of change. We chose videos from YouTube that represented variety in speakers, content, and genre. We found that readiness to change significantly increased after watching videos, suggesting that watching videos helped these individuals move closer to actively improving their voice and speech. In addition, five of the eight participants showed forward movement in stages of change. Finally, self-efficacy demonstrated a positive trend following video watching. Overall, our results demonstrate that watching videos available on the internet can influence individuals with Parkinson's disease in changing vocal behavior. Implications for future wireless health applications are described.

  11. Auditory Cortical Maturation in a Child with Cochlear Implant: Analysis of Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Aparecida Fagundes Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to longitudinally assess the behavioral and electrophysiological hearing changes of a girl inserted in a CI program, who had bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss and underwent surgery of cochlear implantation with electrode activation at 21 months of age. She was evaluated using the P1 component of Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (LLAEP; speech perception tests of the Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure (GASP; Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS; and Meaningful Use of Speech Scales (MUSS. The study was conducted prior to activation and after three, nine, and 18 months of cochlear implant activation. The results of the LLAEP were compared with data from a hearing child matched by gender and chronological age. The results of the LLAEP of the child with cochlear implant showed gradual decrease in latency of the P1 component after auditory stimulation (172 ms–134 ms. In the GASP, IT-MAIS, and MUSS, gradual development of listening skills and oral language was observed. The values of the LLAEP of the hearing child were expected for chronological age (132 ms–128 ms. The use of different clinical instruments allow a better understanding of the auditory habilitation and rehabilitation process via CI.

  12. Development and Measurement through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale (YASB): An Assessment of Relational Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…

  13. Introducing a short measure of shared servant leadership impacting team performance through team behavioral integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton eSousa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioural integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of two weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1 shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioural integration, (2 information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3 the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership.

  14. Measuring the dynamic compression and release behavior of rocks and grouts associated with HYDROPLUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    Gas-gun impact tests were performed on twelve rocks and rock simulants pertinent to the HYDROPLUS nuclear yield measurement program: A variety of tuffs, rhyolites, carbonates, grouts, an epoxy-alumina mixture and quartzite permafrost samples recovered in an apparently preserved frozen state from northern Canada. The present report presents results for all of these materials except for the carbonates. Two classes of impact techniques were employed for measuring equation-of-state properties for these materials. Both use velocity interferometry diagnostics. One, employing a sample-in-projectile geometry, provides high-precision Hugoniot data and continuous release trajectories for dry or water-saturated materials. The majority of the experiments were performed with this geometry. The other, employing a sample-in-target geometry, provides loading path and Hugoniot data as well as limited release data. Uncertainties in the results have been estimated by analyzing the effects of errors in observables and ancillary material properties.

  15. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Milton eSousa; Dirk evan Dierendonck

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioural integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of two weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 team...

  16. Analysis of classical guitars' vibrational behavior based on scanning laser vibrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Marzena

    2012-06-01

    One of the main goals in musical acoustics research is to link measurable, physical properties of a musical instrument with subjective assessments of its tone quality. The aim of the research discussed in this paper was to observe the structural vibrations of different class classical guitars in relation to their quality. This work focuses on mid-low-and low-class classical (nylon-stringed) guitars. The main source of guitar body vibrations come from top and back plate vibrations therefore these were the objects of structural mode measurements and analysis. Sixteen classical guitars have been investigated, nine with cedar and seven with spruce top plate. Structural modes of top and back plates have been measured with the aid of a scanning laser vibrometer and the instruments were excited with a chirp signal transferred by bone vibrator. The issues related to excitor selection have been discussed. Correlation and descriptive statistics of top and back plates measurement results have been investigated in relation to guitar quality. The frequency range of 300 Hz to 5 kHz as well as selected narrowed frequency bands have been analyzed for cedar and spruce guitars. Furthermore, the influence of top plate wood type on vibration characteristics have been observed on three pairs of guitars. The instruments were of the same model but different top plate material. Determination and visualization of both guitar plates' modal patterns in relation to frequency are a significant attainment of the research. Scanning laser vibrometer measurements allow particular mode observation and therefore mode identification, as opposed to sound pressure response measurements. When correlating vibration characteristics of top and back plates it appears that Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient is not a parameter that associates with guitar quality. However, for best instruments with cedar top, top-back correlation coefficient has relatively greater value in 1-2 kHz band and lower in

  17. Size distribution of retrovirally marked lineages matches prediction from population measurements of cell cycle behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Hayes, Nancy L.; Takahashi, Takao; Caviness, Verne S Jr; Nowakowski, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate neuron production in the developing mouse neocortex were examined by using a retroviral lineage marking method to determine the sizes of the lineages remaining in the proliferating population of the ventricular zone during the period of neuron production. The distribution of clade sizes obtained experimentally in four different injection-survival paradigms (E11-E13, E11-E14, E11-E15, and E12-E15) from a total of over 500 labeled lineages was compared with that obtained from three models in which the average behavior of the proliferating population [i.e., the proportion of cells remaining in the proliferative population (P) vs. that exiting the proliferative population (Q)] was quantitatively related to lineage size distribution. In model 1, different proportions of asymmetric, symmetric terminal, and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions coexisted during the entire developmental period. In model 2, the developmental period was divided into two epochs: During the first, asymmetric and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions occurred, but, during the second, asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions occurred. In model 3, the shifts in P and Q are accounted for by changes in the proportions of the two types of symmetric cell divisions without the inclusion of any asymmetric cell divisions. The results obtained from the retroviral experiments were well accounted for by model 1 but not by model 2 or 3. These findings demonstrate that: 1) asymmetric and both types of symmetric cell divisions coexist during the entire period of neurogenesis in the mouse, 2) neuron production is regulated in the proliferative population by the independent decisions of the two daughter cells to reenter S phase, and 3) neurons are produced by both asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions. In addition, the findings mean that cell death and/or tangential movements of cells in the proliferative population occur at only a low rate and that there are no

  18. Abnormal Austenite-Ferrite Transformation Behaviors of Fe-Si:Dilatometric Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-chang; ZHANG Zhe-ping; ZHAO Kai; LI Bao-yin

    2004-01-01

    The isochronal γ→α transformation of Fe-1Si alloy was measured by high-resolution dilatometry. According to the variation of the ferrite formation rate, an abnormal γ→α phase transformation was recognized, while normal reaction,i.e. one peak continuous reaction, was also detected. The occurrence the one or the other type of γ→α transformation strongly depends on the grain size: the transformation type changes from abnormal to normal with decreasing grain size. In the abnormal transformation process the first stage of the transformation corresponds to the first peaks in the transformation rate, which are not thermally activated.

  19. χ(3) measurement and optical power limiting behavior of manganese doped lithium tetraborate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandoss, R.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Vinitha, G.

    2015-02-01

    Manganese doped Li2B4O7 nano crystallites were prepared by chemical method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV and fluorescence spectra. FESEM reveals that the particles are coagulated and the particle size is in the range of 50-107 nm. Bands appear at 682-769 cm-1corresponds to the bending of B-O linkage in borate network. Nonradiative energy transfer process is observed from fluorescence spectrum. UV-Vis studies show the samples are completely transparent in the visible region and having absorption peaks (234 and 276 nm) in UV regime. The measured second harmonic generation values are 0.9 times KDP. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index, n2 (10-8 cm2/W), nonlinear absorption, β (10-2 cm/W) and nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) (10-5 esu) are estimated using a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW).

  20. Electrochemical behavior and conductivity measurements of electropolymerized selenophene-based copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakhras Fadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical copolymerization of selenophene and thiophene was performed at a constant electrode potential. The obtained homopolymer films and copolymers were studied and characterized with cyclic voltammetry and conductivity measurements, from which conductivity values around 13.35 S · cm-1 were determined. The influence of the applied electropolymerization potential and the monomer feed ratio of selenophene and thiophene on the copolymers properties was investigated. The obtained copolymers showed good stability of the redox activity in an acetonitrile-based electrolyte solution. At higher polymerization potentials and at higher concentrations of thiophene in the feed, more thiophene units were incorporated into the copolymer chain. The conductivities of the copolymers were between those of homopolymers, implying that oxidation of both monomers was possible and the copolymer chains might accordingly be composed of both selenophene and thiophene units.

  1. χ(3) Measurement and optical power limiting behavior of manganese doped lithium tetraborate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandoss, R; Dhanuskodi, S; Vinitha, G

    2015-02-05

    Manganese doped Li2B4O7 nano crystallites were prepared by chemical method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV and fluorescence spectra. FESEM reveals that the particles are coagulated and the particle size is in the range of 50-107 nm. Bands appear at 682-769 cm(-1) corresponds to the bending of B-O linkage in borate network. Nonradiative energy transfer process is observed from fluorescence spectrum. UV-Vis studies show the samples are completely transparent in the visible region and having absorption peaks (234 and 276 nm) in UV regime. The measured second harmonic generation values are 0.9 times KDP. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index, n2 (10(-8) cm(2)/W), nonlinear absorption, β (10(-2) cm/W) and nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) (10(-5) esu) are estimated using a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW).

  2. Measuring consumers' information acquisition and decision behavior with the computer-based information-display-matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The former judgement that the process-tracing method information-display-matrix (IDM) lacks external validity should be questioned in the light of technical advances and changing consumer behaviour. The new research environment offers possibilities for a close-to-realistic refinement and further...... development of the method: starting points are choice of location, increased relevance of choice, individual adjustment of task structure, simplified navigation and realistic layout. Used in multi-measurement-approaches, the IDM can provide detailed background information about consumer information behaviour...... prior to decisions reached in interviews or choice experiments. The contribution introduces to the method and its´ development, use and (dis-)advantages. Results of a survey illustrate the options for analysis and indicate that consumer behaviour in the IDM, compared to face-to-face-interviews, is less...

  3. Experimental measurements of thermal properties for Mexican building materials to simulate thermal behavior to save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez-Galan, Jesus; Almanza, Rafael; Rodriguez, Neftali [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    One of the main factors that determine the reliability of building's thermal design is the values of thermal and heat transfer properties used during this process. In order to optimizing such thermal design process, there is little information available of the most utilized building materials in Mexico; hence, some measurements were carried out. We present thermal conductivity experimental results for: red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete. Furthermore, experimental data of convective heat transfer coefficients are reported on: red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete walls. Kondratyev methodology was used for thermal conductivity estimations. Kondratyev methodology is based on the cooling off of bodies in regular state analysis. Thermal conductivity values were: red brick k{sub L} = 0.906 W/mC, tepetate k{sub T} = 0.648 W/mC, adobe k{sub A} = 0.570 W/mC, and concrete k{sub C} = 1.918 W/mC. Red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete test walls of 0.46 x 0.56 and 0.06 m thick, were manufactured, as well as a prototype of testing for mounting the walls, in order to evaluate their convective heat transfer coefficients. Measurements were carried out at the Institute of Engineering-UNAM Wind-Tunnel, for an air velocities interval of 2-10 m/s. Reported values for convective coefficients fluctuate on 16-134 W/m{sup 2}2 C, depending on material and position wall, as well as air velocity. (orig.)

  4. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  5. Effects of Video Game Training on Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures of Attention and Memory: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloisa; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Ponce de Leon, Laura; de Ceballos, Maria L; Reales Avilés, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Neuroplasticity-based approaches seem to offer promising ways of maintaining cognitive health in older adults and postponing the onset of cognitive decline symptoms. Although previous research suggests that training can produce transfer effects, this study was designed to overcome some limitations of previous studies by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of training expectations. Objective The main objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the effects of a randomized computer-based intervention consisting of training older adults with nonaction video games on brain and cognitive functions that decline with age, including attention and spatial working memory, using behavioral measures and electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials [ERPs]) just after training and after a 6-month no-contact period; (2) to explore whether motivation, engagement, or expectations might account for possible training-related improvements; and (3) to examine whether inflammatory mechanisms assessed with noninvasive measurement of C-reactive protein in saliva impair cognitive training-induced effects. A better understanding of these mechanisms could elucidate pathways that could be targeted in the future by either behavioral or neuropsychological interventions. Methods A single-blinded randomized controlled trial with an experimental group and an active control group, pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up repeated measures design is used in this study. A total of 75 cognitively healthy older adults were randomly distributed into experimental and active control groups. Participants in the experimental group received 16 1-hour training sessions with cognitive nonaction video games selected from Lumosity, a commercial brain training package. The active control group received the same number of training sessions with The Sims and SimCity, a simulation strategy game. Results We have recruited participants, have conducted the training protocol

  6. Prospective Measurement of Daily Health Behaviors: Modeling Temporal Patterns in Missing Data, Sexual Behavior, and Substance Use in an Online Daily Diary Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Daily diary and other intensive longitudinal methods are increasingly being used to investigate fluctuations in psychological and behavioral processes. To inform the development of this methodology, we sought to explore predictors of and patterns in diary compliance and behavioral reports. We used multilevel modeling to analyze data from an online daily diary study of 371 gay and bisexual men focused on sexual behavior and substance use. We found that greater education and older age as well as lower frequency of substance use were associated with higher compliance. Using polynomial and trigonometric functions, we found evidence for circaseptan patterns in compliance, sexual behavior, and substance use, as well as linear declines in compliance and behavior over time. The results suggest potential sources of non-random patterns of missing data and suggest that trigonometric terms provide a similar but more parsimonious investigation of circaseptan rhythms than do third-order polynomial terms.

  7. Phase behavior of hard-core lattice gases: A fundamental measure approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Luis; Cuesta, José A.

    2003-11-01

    We use an extension of fundamental measure theory to lattice hard-core fluids to study the phase diagram of two different systems. First, two-dimensional parallel hard squares with edge-length σ=2 in a simple square lattice. This system is equivalent to the lattice gas with first and second neighbor exclusion in the same lattice, and has the peculiarity that its close packing is degenerated (the system orders in sliding columns). A comparison with other theories is discussed. Second, a three-dimensional binary mixture of parallel hard cubes with σL=6 and σS=2. Previous simulations of this model only focused on fluid phases. Thanks to the simplicity introduced by the discrete nature of the lattice we have been able to map out the complete phase diagram (both uniform and nonuniform phases) through a free minimization of the free energy functional, so the structure of the ordered phases is obtained as a result. A zoo of entropy-driven phase transitions is found: one-, two- and three-dimensional positional ordering, as well as fluid-ordered phase and solid-solid demixings.

  8. Electrical Resistance and Acoustic Emission Measurements for Monitoring the Structural Behavior of CFRP Laminate

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Wei

    2015-07-12

    Electrical resistance and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are jointly used to monitor the degradation in CFRP laminates subjected to tensile tests. The objective of this thesis is to perform a synergertic analysis between a passive and an active methods to better access how these perform when used for Structural Health Moni- toring (SHM). Laminates with three different stacking sequences: [0]4, [02/902]s and [+45/ − 45]2s are subjected to monotonic and cyclic tensile tests. In each laminate, we carefully investigate which mechanisms of degradation can or cannot be detect- ed by each technique. It is shown that most often, that acoustic emission signals start before any electrical detection is possible. This is is explained based on the redundance of the electrical network that makes it less sensitive to localized damages. Based on in depth study of AE signals clustering, a new classification is proposed to recognize the different damage mechanims based on only two parameters: the RA (rise time/amplitude) and the duration of the signal.

  9. Functional data analytic approach of modeling ECG T-wave shape to measure cardiovascular behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yingchun; 10.1214/09-AOAS273

    2010-01-01

    The T-wave of an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the ventricular repolarization that is critical in restoration of the heart muscle to a pre-contractile state prior to the next beat. Alterations in the T-wave reflect various cardiac conditions; and links between abnormal (prolonged) ventricular repolarization and malignant arrhythmias have been documented. Cardiac safety testing prior to approval of any new drug currently relies on two points of the ECG waveform: onset of the Q-wave and termination of the T-wave; and only a few beats are measured. Using functional data analysis, a statistical approach extracts a common shape for each subject (reference curve) from a sequence of beats, and then models the deviation of each curve in the sequence from that reference curve as a four-dimensional vector. The representation can be used to distinguish differences between beats or to model shape changes in a subject's T-wave over time. This model provides physically interpretable parameters characterizing T-wave sh...

  10. Behavioral, Brain Imaging and Genomic Measures to Predict Functional Outcomes Post-Bed Rest and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Goel, R.; Oddsson, L.; Kreutzberg, G.; Zanello, S.; Clark, T. K.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Seidler, R. D.; Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. These alterations may disrupt crewmembers' ability to perform mission critical functional tasks requiring ambulation, manual control and gaze stability. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts are affected will improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. For such an approach to succeed, we must develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to foresee, before actual spaceflight, which crewmembers are likely to experience greater challenges to their adaptive capacities. The goals of this project are to identify and characterize this set of predictive measures. Our approach includes: 1) behavioral tests to assess sensory bias and adaptability quantified using both strategic and plastic-adaptive responses; 2) imaging to determine individual brain morphological and functional features, using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging, resting state functional connectivity MRI, and sensorimotor adaptation task-related functional brain activation; and 3) assessment of genetic polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyl transferase, dopamine receptor D2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes and genetic polymorphisms of alpha2-adrenergic receptors that play a role in the neural pathways underlying sensorimotor adaptation. We anticipate that these predictive measures will be significantly correlated with individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability after long-duration spaceflight and exposure to an analog bed rest environment. We will be conducting a retrospective study, leveraging

  11. Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI, to quantify the hygienic safety of a household’s defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured to 100 (all defecation safely captured. We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine.

  12. Relationship of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with food intake, anthropometric measurements and eating behaviors in male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafigh Ghaderpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and constipation can affect the quality of life and various factors play a role in these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental factors related to these problems among Iranian male university students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 186 male students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Rome Criteria III (to identify gastrointestinal disorders, Dutch eating behavior, food pattern brief instrument and international physical activity questionnaires were completed by all participants moreover, their anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The results showed a significant difference in weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio in the students suffering from constipation compared with the healthy ones. The students with constipation had more significant milk intake and those with IBS had less intake of vegetables. No significant differences were observed in the eating behavior of students with constipation and IBS, and the healthy ones. Conclusions: Weight and other anthropometric indices could be considered as factors related to constipation. According to the results, an appropriate and balanced intake of different food groups with emphasis on vegetables, milk and dairy products could be recommended. Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, Constipation, Diet, Anthropometry

  13. Epidemiologic studies of behavioral health following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: limited impact or limited ability to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Judith L; Pemberton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Two large-scale epidemiologic federal surveys conducted in the Gulf Coast following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and intended to measure its impact on mental disorders and substance use found less dramatic results than had been anticipated. However, several smaller-scale studies conducted shortly after the spill did find increases in the prevalence of certain psychological problems among individuals surveyed. Previous federal studies conducted following two disasters-the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita-found few statistically significant changes in behavioral disorders in the wake of those events, except for individuals displaced from their homes by Katrina for 2 weeks or more. In this commentary, the authors discuss questions raised by these mixed results regarding the limitations of such studies, the behavioral health impact of the Deepwater Horizon spill compared to disasters causing more widespread loss of life and destruction of property, and the ways in which data collection following disasters might be improved to benefit public health planners.

  14. Advances in sport concussion assessment: from behavioral to brain imaging measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemberg, Dave; Henry, Luke C; Macciocchi, Steve N; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Broglio, Steven P

    2009-12-01

    Given that the incidence of sports-related concussion is considered to have reached epidemic proportions, in the past 15 years we have witnessed an explosion of research in this field. The purpose of the current review is to compare the results provided by the different assessment tools used in the scientific literature in order to gain a better understanding of the sequelae and recovery following a concussion. Until recently, the bulk of the has literature focused on the immediate outcome in the hours and days post-injury as a means to plan the safest return-to-play strategy. This has led to the development of several assessment batteries that are relatively easy and rapid to administer and that allow for multiple testing sessions. The main conclusion derived from that literature is that cognitive symptoms tend to resolve within 1 week. However, accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive testing should be viewed as one of several complementary tools necessary for a comprehensive assessment of concussion. Including an objective measure of postural stability increases the sensitivity of the return-to-play decision-making process and minimizes the consequences of mitigating factors (e.g., practice effects and motivation) on neuropsychological test results. This is consistent with findings that symptom severity, neuropsychological function, and postural stability do not appear to be related or affected to the same degree after a concussion. Furthermore, recent evidence from brain imaging, including event-related potentials and functional and metabolic imaging, suggest abnormalities in the electrical responses, metabolic balance, and oxygen consumption of neurons that persist several months after the incident. We explain this apparent discrepancy in recovery by suggesting an initial and rapid phase of functional recovery driven by compensatory mechanisms and brain plasticity, which is followed by a prolonged neuronal recovery period during which subtle deficits in

  15. Mechanical behavior analysis of a submerged fixed point anchoring system for a hydroacoustic signature measuring sensor for divers and ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamnoiu, G.; Radu, O.; Surdu, G.; Roşca, V.; Damian, R.; Pascu, C.; Curcă, E.; Rădulescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper has as its main objectives the presentation and the analysis of the numerical analysis results for the study of a fixed point anchoring system for a hydroacoustic sensor when measuring the hydroacoustic signature of divers and ships in real sea conditions. The study of the mechanical behavior of this system has as main objectives the optimization of the shape and weight of the anchorage ballast for the metallic structure while considering the necessity to maintain the sensor in a fixed point and the analysis of the sensor movements and the influences on the measurements caused by the sea current streams. The study was focused on the 3D model of metallic structure design; numerical modeling of the water flow around the sensor anchoring structure using volume of fluid analysis and the analysis of the forces and displacements using FEM when needed for the study. In this paper we have used data for the sea motion dynamics and in particular the velocity of the sea current streams as determined by experimental measurements that have been conducted for the western area of the Black Sea.

  16. Phase Behavior of Aqueous NA-K-MG-CA-CI-NO3 Mixtures: Isopiestic Measurements and Thermodynamic Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. Gruszkiewiez; D.A. Palmer; R.D. Springer; P. Wang; A. Anderko

    2006-09-14

    A comprehensive model has been established for calculating thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aqueous systems containing the Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions. The thermodynamic framework is based on a previously developed model for mixed-solvent electrolyte solutions. The framework has been designed to reproduce the properties of salt solutions at temperatures ranging from the freezing point to 300 C and concentrations ranging from infinite dilution to the fused salt limit. The model has been parameterized using a combination of an extensive literature database and new isopiestic measurements for thirteen salt mixtures at 140 C. The measurements have been performed using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) previously designed gravimetric isopiestic apparatus, which makes it possible to detect solid phase precipitation. Water activities are reported for mixtures with a fixed ratio of salts as a function of the total apparent salt mole fraction. The isopiestic measurements reported here simultaneously reflect two fundamental properties of the system, i.e., the activity of water as a function of solution concentration and the occurrence of solid-liquid transitions. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the new isopiestic data as well as literature data for binary, ternary and higher-order subsystems. Because of its high accuracy in calculating vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria, the model is suitable for studying deliquescence behavior of multicomponent salt systems.

  17. Can Hospital Competition Really Affect Hospital Behavior or Not? An Empirical Study of Different Competition Measures Comparison in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Tung, Yu-Chi; Wei, Chung-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Different approaches to measure the hospital competition index might lead to inconsistent results of the effects of hospital competition on innovation adoption. The purpose of this study is to adopt a different approach to define market area and measure the level of competition to examine whether hospital competition has a positive effect on hospital behavior, taking quality indicator projects participation as an example. A total of 238 hospitals located in Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung were recruited in this study. Competition index was used as the independent variable, and participation lists of Taiwan Clinical Performance Indicator and Taiwan Healthcare Indicator Series in 2012 were used as dependent variables. All data used in this study were retrieved from the 2012 national hospital profiles and the participation list of the 2 quality indicator projects in 2012; these profiles are issued by the Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare annually. Geopolitical boundaries and 4 kinds of fixed radiuses were used to define market area. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and hospital density were used to measure the level of competition. A total of 12 competition indices were produced in this study by employing the geographic information system, while max-rescaled R(2) was used to evaluate and compare the models on goodness of fit. The results show that the effects of hospital competition on quality indicator projects participation were varied, which mean different indicators for market competition might reveal different conclusions. Furthermore, this study also found the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index at 5-km radius was the optimum competition index.

  18. Measurement of the dynamic behavior of thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels and their phase transition temperatures measured using reflectometric interference spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fuminori [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Akiyama, Yoshikatsu, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@twmu.ac.jp, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Jun [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan); Ninomiya, Hidetaka [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Kanazawa, Hideko [Keio University, Faculty of Pharmacy (Japan); Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces prepared by modifying tissue-culture polystyrene with nanoscale poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) hydrogels are widely used as intelligent surfaces for the fabrication of various cell sheets that change with temperature. In this work, the characteristics of nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogels were phenomenologically elucidated on the basis of time-dependent surface evaluations under conditions of changing temperature. Because the dynamic characteristics of the nanoscale hydrogel did not exhibit good performance, the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel was analyzed by monitoring its temperature-dependent dynamic swelling/deswelling changes using reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) on an instrument equipped with a microfluidic system. RIfS measurements under ambient atmosphere provided the precise physical thickness of the dry PIPAAm hydrogel (6.7 nm), which agreed with the atomic force microscopy results (6.6 nm). Simulations of the reflectance spectra revealed that changes in the wavelength of the minimum reflectance (Δλ) were attributable to the changes in the refractive index of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel induced by a temperature-dependent volume phase transition. The temperature-dependent Δλ change was used to monitor the swelling/deswelling behavior of the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel. In addition, the phase transition temperature of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel under aqueous conditions was also determined to be the inflection point of the plot of the change in Δλ as a function of temperature. The dynamic behavior of a thin PIPAAm hydrogel chemically deposited on a surface was readily analyzed using a new analytical system with RIfS and microfluidic devices.

  19. (Project 13-5292) Correlating thermal and mechanical coupling based multiphysics behavior of nuclear materials through in-situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Irradiations and post characterization experiments were performed first on Zr samples. This step will help understand the effect of the 2.5% alloying elements on the behavior of Zircaloy-4 (PWR cladding material) when compared to pure Zr. Irradiation flux measurements and sample temperature calibrations were performed at different energies prior to the irradiation experiments. Irradiations were performed with two different energy regimes1: non-displacment energies and displacement energies. Time was also dedicated to optimize transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation conditions via electropolishing technique. This step is crucial to prepare TEM samples for the in-situ TEM/irradiation experiments (Year 2). In addition, Zircaloy-4 samples are being prepared for irradiation, and a setup is built by one of our collaborators (Dr. Mert Efe) to prepare ultrafine (UF) and nanocrystalline (NC) Zircaloy-4 samples for comparison with the commercial Zircaloy-4 samples.

  20. Evaluation of physiological and behavioral measures in relation to dental anxiety during sequential dental visits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a special variety of fear, experienced in anticipation of threatening stimuli. While some research workers have said that the response of a child improves with the number of visits, many have felt otherwise. The present study is yet another effort to find the patterns of anxiety in children during sequential dental visits. The main aim was to determine the physiological and behavioral variations during sequential dental visits and its impact on age and sex. The study was conducted at the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai to evaluate the physiological and behavioural measures of stress and anxiety in children. One hundred and fifteen children, between four and eleven years of age who reported for dental treatment were selected for the study.

  1. Measuring laves phase particle size and thermodynamic calculating its growth and coarsening behavior in P92 steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Bing-Yin; Zhou, Rong-Can; Fan, Chang-Xin;

    2010-01-01

    ) images in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The smaller Laves phase particle size results in higher creep strength and longer creep exposure time at the same conditions. DICTRA software was used to model the growth and coarsening behavior of Laves phase in the three P92 steels. Good agreements were......The growth of Laves phase particles in three kinds of P92 steels were investigated. Laves phase particles can be easily separated and distinguished from the matrix and other particles by atom number contrast using comparisons of the backscatter electrons (BSE) images and the secondary electrons (SE...... attained between measurements in SEM and modeling by DICTRA. Ostwald ripening should be used for the coarsening calculation of Laves phase in P92 steels for time longer than 20000 h and 50000 h at 650°C and 600°C, respectively. © 2010 Chin. Soc. for Elec. Eng....

  2. A Behavioral Measure of Costly Helping: Replicating and Extending the Association with Callous Unemotional Traits in Male Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Sakai

    Full Text Available Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue.The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game.All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1 money taken for self (p = 0.02; (2 money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03; and, (3 costly helping (p = 0.047. Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005. Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation.The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.

  3. Lexical Decision with Left, Right and Center Visual Field Presentation: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Regular Readers by Means of Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differences in processing between regular and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different visual field presentations (left, right, and center). The research utilized behavioral measures that provide information on accuracy and reaction time and electro-physiological measures that permit the examination of brain…

  4. The Relationship Between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Performance on State Accountability Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Marin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.

  5. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

  6. Mechanistic differences in permeation behavior of supersaturated and solubilized solutions of carbamazepine revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Sekine, Shuichi; Horie, Toshiharu; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2012-11-05

    A solid dispersion (SPD) of carbamazepine (CBZ) with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) was prepared by the spray drying method. The apparent solubility (37 °C, pH 7.4) of CBZ observed with the SPD was over 3 times higher than the solubility of unprocessed CBZ. The supersaturated solution was stable for 7 days. A higher concentration of CBZ in aqueous medium was also achieved by mixing with Poloxamer 407 (P407), a solubilizing agent. From permeation studies of CBZ using Caco-2 monolayers and dialysis membranes, we observed improved CBZ permeation across the membrane in the supersaturated solution of CBZ/HPMC-AS SPD. On the contrary, the CBZ-solubilized P407 solution exhibited poor permeation by CBZ. The chemical shifts of CBZ on the (1)H NMR spectrum from CBZ/HPMC-AS SPD solution were not altered significantly by coexistence with HPMC-AS. In contrast, an upfield shift of CBZ was observed in the CBZ/P407 solution. The spin-lattice relaxation time (T(1)) over spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)) indicated that the mobility of CBZ in the HPMC-AS solution was much lower than that in water. Meanwhile, the mobility of CBZ in P407 solution was significantly higher than that in water. NMR data indicate that CBZ does not strongly interact with HPMC-AS. CBZ mobility was suppressed due to self-association and microviscosity around CBZ, which do not affect permeation behavior. Most of the CBZ molecules in the CBZ/P407 solution were solubilized in the hydrophobic core of P407, and a few were free to permeate the membrane. The molecular state of CBZ, as evaluated by NMR measurements, directly correlated with permeation behavior.

  7. Validation and Comparison of Accelerometers Worn on the Hip, Thigh, and Wrists for Measuring Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H.K. Montoye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence suggests that physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB exert independent effects on health. Therefore, measurement methods that can accurately assess both constructs are needed. Objective: To compare the accuracy of accelerometers placed on the hip, thigh, and wrists, coupled with machine learning models, for measurement of PA intensity category (SB, light-intensity PA [LPA], and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA [MVPA] and breaks in SB. Methods: Forty young adults (21 female; age 22.0 ± 4.2 years participated in a 90-minute semi-structured protocol, performing 13 activities (three sedentary, 10 non-sedentary for 3–10 minutes each. Participants chose activity order, duration, and intensity. Direct observation (DO was used as a criterion measure of PA intensity category, and transitions from SB to a non-sedentary activity were breaks in SB. Participants wore four accelerometers (right hip, right thigh, and both wrists, and a machine learning model was created for each accelerometer to predict PA intensity category. Sensitivity and specificity for PA intensity category classification were calculated and compared across accelerometers using repeated measures analysis of variance, and the number of breaks in SB was compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Sensitivity and specificity values for the thigh-worn accelerometer were higher than for wrist- or hip-worn accelerometers, > 99% for all PA intensity categories. Sensitivity and specificity for the hip-worn accelerometer were 87–95% and 93–97%. The left wrist-worn accelerometer had sensitivities and specificities of > 97% for SB and LPA and 91–95% for MVPA, whereas the right wrist-worn accelerometer had sensitivities and specificities of 93–99% for SB and LPA but 67–84% for MVPA. The thigh-worn accelerometer had high accuracy for breaks in SB; all other accelerometers overestimated breaks in SB. Conclusion: Coupled with

  8. Measurements of apex seal behavior in a rotary engine using four displacement sensors; Rotary engine no apex seal kyodo. Yon`i sensor ni yoru sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, K. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-25

    Behavior measurements of an apex seal of three-piece slanted horizontal split type were made, using an overhanging eccentric shaft-type single-rotor engine equipped with a multichannel packaged slip ring. To analyze the behavior, a computer plotting program was developed, by means of which the sequences of the configuration of top and bottom parts in the slot at given eccentric shaft angles were plotted on the trochoidal curves from the measured displacement data. The measurement results revealed the details of the behavior. Under high working chamber pressure, the top part of the leading apex seal is flush with the leading side of the slot, while that of the trailing apex seal is considerably tilted with respect to the trailing edge of the slot. 8 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  10. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive-proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy-bold) or coping style (reactive-proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive-reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short sampling

  11. Volatilization behavior of Cd and Zn based on continuous emission measurement of flue gas from laboratory-scale coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Falcoz, Q; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G; Zheng, C Z

    2010-06-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals generated by coal-fired power stations presents a serious threat to the environment. The volatilization behavior of two representative metals (Cd and Zn), and the influence of temperature were investigated during coal combustion. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) method was developed to continuously measure the heavy metal concentrations quantitatively in flue gas under combustion conditions in order to track the metal release process. This continuous heavy metal analysis system was implemented by coupling it to two types of high temperature reactors: a bubbling fluidized bed reactor and a fixed bed reactor with diameter of 0.1 m and 0.08 m respectively. For the two metals considered in this study (Cd and Zn), the experimental setup was successfully used to continuously monitor the metal vaporization process during coal combustion independent of reactor design, and at different temperatures. Cd is more easily vaporized than Zn during coal combustion. Temperature significantly influences the metal vaporization process. In general, the higher the temperature, the higher the metal vaporization, although the vaporization is not proportional to temperature. In addition to the experimental study, a thermodynamic calculation was carried out to simulate the heavy metal speciation during coal combustion process. The theoretical volatilization tendency is consistent with the experiment. The thermodynamic calculation identified the formation of binary oxides retarding heavy metal vaporization.

  12. An examination of the structure of self-report psychopathy measures and their relations with general traits and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, L Alana; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R

    2011-07-01

    Self-report assessment of psychopathy is plagued by inconsistencies among the relations of the various psychopathy factors. We examined the factor structure of 3 prominent self-report measures of psychopathy-the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-III (SRP-III; Williams, Paulhus, & Hare, 2007), the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995), and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-R (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). A coherent 4-factor structure resulted from conducting an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the psychopathy subscales along with the domains from the five-factor model. Two of these factors were consistent with traditional conceptualizations of a 2-factor structure of psychopathy (i.e., Factor 1, which loaded negatively with Agreeableness; Factor 2, which loaded negatively with Conscientiousness), while 2 additional factors emerged, 1 of which emphasized low Neuroticism and 1 of which emphasized traits related to novelty/reward-seeking and dominance-related personality traits (high Extraversion). We also investigated the relations of these factors with a variety of externalizing behaviors (EB). The psychopathy scales indicative of interpersonal antagonism (i.e., Factor 1) were most consistently and strongly related to EB. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of a trait-based perspective in the assessment of psychopathy.

  13. Measuring patient satisfaction with postpartum teaching methods used by nurses within the interaction model of client health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Debra L; Bear, Mary; Davidson, Nangela S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between new mothers' interaction with nurses using different teaching methods to provide postpartum discharge teaching and their satisfaction with nursing care. Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior (IMCHB) provided the framework for this study. This study used a quasi-experimental posttest design with two groups to examine patient satisfaction with different teaching methods used by nurses to provide postpartum education. The Modified Client Satisfaction Tool measured satisfaction with discharge teaching. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square, Kendall's tau, and Mann-Whitney U tests. The data showed high satisfaction scores for new mothers receiving both methods of discharge teaching, indicating that new mothers who received the traditional method of discharge instruction provided by nurses were just as satisfied as those who received the demonstration/return demonstration method of discharge instructions provided by nurses. Providing individualized care, based on the expressed needs of the patient, was demonstrated in this study to result in high satisfaction with nursing care using both methods of providing postpartum discharge teaching.

  14. A New Measure of the Perceived Influence of Sexually Explicit Online Media on the Sexual Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research.

  15. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  16. Correlates of Rapid-Guessing Behavior in Low-Stakes Testing: Implications for Test Development and Measurement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Steven L.; Pastor, Dena A.; Kong, Xiaojing J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that rapid-guessing behavior can degrade the validity of test scores from low-stakes proficiency tests. This study examined, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling, examinee and item characteristics for predicting rapid-guessing behavior. Several item characteristics were found significant; items with more text…

  17. The co-occurrence of self-observed norm-conforming behavior, reduction of zero observations and remaining measurement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Norm-violating behavior is characterized by clear social norms which prescribe the non-occurrence of that behavior. From the theoretical framework of Allport it is derived that specifically norm-conformation is consistent, while violating norms is expected to be inconsistent and more circumstantial.

  18. Using Analogue Functional Analysis to Measure Variations in Problem Behavior Rate and Function after Psychotropic Medication Changes: A Clinical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Nelson, Samantha M.; Kuhle, Jennifer L.; Dierks, Abigail M.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are often prescribed psychotropic medication to treat behaviors such as aggression and self-injury. Evaluation of these medications is often based on caregiver report or changes in frequency of behavior. The purpose of this research was to characterize the rate and function of problem…

  19. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  20. Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jane U.; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Methods: Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior…

  1. Flowing afterglow: construction of an apparatus, measurement of rate constants, and consideration of the diffusive behavior of charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Nakamura, Hirone; Tamura, Takaaki (Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.); Fujii, Toshihiro

    1984-06-01

    A flowing afterglow apparatus was constructed and the operation of the afterglow system including data analysis was tested by measuring the rate constants for the reactions N/sup +/ + NO, N/sub 2//sup +/ + NO, He/sup +/ + N/sub 2/, and SF/sub 6/ + e; the results were 5.8 x 10/sup -10/, 3.9 x 10/sup -10/, 1.20 x 10/sup -9/, and 2.1 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 3/s/sup -1/ respectively. In the measurements an extraction voltage for ion sampling was not applied to the nose cone in order not to introduce an electric field into the reaction region. A ''non-ambipolar'' model developed by us was used for the data analysis of the ion/molecule reactions. For the data analysis of the electron attachment, a typical curve fit mehtod to the product ion signal was used. However, no theoretical curves fit the experimental points. This disagreement is attributed to a change of the ion-sampling efficiency through the nose-cone aperture arising from a change of the electron-dominated plasma to a negative-ion-dominated plasma with an increasing flow rate of SF/sub 6/. Nevertheless, the attachment rate could be determined by fitting the theoretical and experimantal curves in the limited region of the SF/sub 6/ flow rate where the negative-ion-dominated plasma is established at the sampling aperture. All the rate constants obtained here agree reasonably well with literature values. Next, errors in the positive ion/molecule reaction rate constants, which would occur if the diffusion coefficients of the ions and neutrals each have a + 10 % error were calculated for the flow model to be -0.4 and +1.2 % respectively, demonstrating that these parameters are not important in the analysis of data. This insensitivity explains why the nose-cone voltage applied in a typical flowing afterglow operation has not caused a significant error in the published rate constants although it disturbs the ion diffusive behavior.

  2. Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on distinct measures of impulsive behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, Tommy; Janssen, Mieke; Schepers, Inga; González-Cuevas, Gustavo; Vries, de Taco; Schoffelmeer, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Pathological impulsivity is a prominent feature in several psychiatric disorders, but detailed understanding of the specific neuronal processes underlying impulsive behavior is as yet lacking. Objectives As recent findings have suggested involvement of the brain cannabinoid syste

  3. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS.

  4. Study on college students' network-based learning behavior and control measures%大学生网络学习行为及其控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德成

    2011-01-01

    分析了大学生网络学习行为的类型、特点,并从移动网络、宿舍网络、网络机房三个层面,对影响大学生网络学习行为的不良因素有针对性地提出控制措施.%This paper analyzes the types and characteristics of college students' network-based learning behavior, and proposes control measures aiming at the negative factors affecting college students ' network-based learning behavior at three levels: mobile network, dormitory network and network equipment room.

  5. Direct investigations on strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolutions in amorphous poly(lactic acid) with SAXS and WAXS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Wenyang;

    2016-01-01

    in strain-induced crystallization behavior of amorphous PLA within 70-90 degrees C can be attributed to the competition between chain orientation caused by stretching and chain relaxation. It was proposed that the strain-induced mesocrystal/crystal and the lamellae are formed from the mesophase originally......Strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolution of amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stretched within 70-90 degrees C were investigated via in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements as well as differential...

  6. m-Chlorophenylpiperazine challenge in borderline personality disorder: relationship of neuroendocrine response, behavioral response, and clinical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D J; Hollander, E; DeCaria, C M; Simeon, D; Cohen, L; Aronowitz, B

    1996-09-15

    We have previously found that a subgroup of patients with impulsive personality disorders respond to m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) administration with a distinctive spacy/high behavioral reaction and with increased cortisol responses. In this report we analyzed the relationship between behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to m-CPP in an enlarged sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also assessed the association of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses with clinical symptoms and with m-CPP blood levels. We found that in BPD patients the presence of a spacy/high behavioral response was significantly associated with increased prolactin and cortisol responses to m-CPP. In BPD patients increased m-CPP levels were significantly associated with neuroendocrine hypersensitivity and with a spacy/high behavioral response, while in controls increased m-CPP levels were not significantly associated with neuroendocrine hypersensitivity but were significantly associated with dysphoric behavioral responses. Taken together with previous work on m-CPP in obsessive-compulsive disorder, these results are partially consistent with the hypothesis that compulsive and impulsive symptoms fall at opposite ends of a phenomenologic and neurobiologic spectrum.

  7. 计划行为理论相关变量测量研究%Study on the Method of Variables Measurement in the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the methods of literature review,this paper makes a deep analysis on the perspective of measuring correlated variables in the Theory of Planned Behavior,structure of the dimensions and measurement scale.It can be concluded that emotion and cognitive beliefs are important dimensions of measuring attitude to behavior and also choosing reference groups and detailing regulatory variables are the main methods of measuring subjective norms.Finally,Perceived Behavioral Control can be divided into two dimensions: self-efficacy and facilitating conditions.%基于文献综述法,对计划行为理论相关变量测量的视角、维度构成及测量量表进行深入分析,研究发现:情感与认知信念是行为态度测量的重要维度;选择参考群体及细化规范变量是主观规范进行测量的主要方法;行为控制认知测量可划分为自我效能与便利条件两个测量维度。

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviors related to dengue vector breeding control measures among adults in communities of Vientiane, capital of the Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayavong, Chanthalay; Chompikul, Jiraporn; Wongsawass, Somsak; Rattanapan, Cheerwit

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviors (KAP) of adults in relation to dengue vector control measures in the communities of Vientiane, the capital of the Lao PDR. A total of 207 respondents were actively participating in this cross-sectional descriptive study in 2011. Representatives of households were interviewed face-to-face by six trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. KAP reliabilities of 0.89, 0.91 and 0.95 were reported in the pilot sample of 30 cases. The associations between each independent variable and prevention behavior were tested with chi-square tests. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the factors that were significantly associated with preventive behavior while controlling for the other variables. The results revealed that 51.69% of the respondents had a high level of knowledge. More than 94% of the respondents knew that dengue fever is a dangerous communicable disease and that dengue fever is transmitted from person to person via mosquitoes. More than half (56.52%) of the participants had positive attitudes toward vector control measures, and 52.17% exhibited a high level of preventive behavior in terms of dengue vector control measures. Preventive behaviors were significantly associated with information provided from sources that included health personnel (p = 0.038) and heads of villages (p=0.031) and with knowledge levels (p < 0.001). This study suggests that proactive health education through appropriated mass media and community clean-up campaigns should strengthen and encourage community participation, particularly in terms of addressing mosquito larvae in overlooked places, such as the participants' own homes, for example, in flower vases and ant traps.

  9. Development and Initial Validation of a Measure to Assess Factors Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; MacKay, Leslie D.; Hume, Amanda E.; Doolittle, Jennifer; Vincent, Claudia G.; Horner, Robert H.; Ervin, Ruth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability of effective practices in schools is a critical area for research in any domain. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the validity and reliability of a recently developed research instrument designed to evaluate schools' capacity to sustain school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) efforts at the universal…

  10. Measurement and Analysis of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Generalized Problematic Internet Use among Mexican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Villa-George, Fabiola I.; Calvete, Esther

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) and to examine the cognitive-behavioral theoretical model of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1491 Mexican adolescents (47.6% female, mean age = 14.51). Results showed that the GPIUS2 has adequate construct…

  11. Measuring Homework Compliance in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression. Review, Preliminary Findings, and Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Scott T.; Lawrence, P. Scott; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance placed on completion of extra-session homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a review of the available literature suggests there is much about the nature of homework compliance that remains to be empirically evaluated. This is especially true among youth receiving CBT. The present study begins to address how best to…

  12. Stability of Child Behavioral Style in the First 30 Months of Life: Single Timepoint and Aggregated Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Dickstein, Susan; Schiller, Masha; Hayden, Lisa; Seifer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the stability of temperament over time. Observers and mothers rated child behavior at eight timepoints across three assessment waves (8, 15, and 30 months of age). Internal consistency reliability of aggregates of the eight observer reports and eight mother reports were high. When considering single timepoint…

  13. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  14. An exploration of how to define and measure the evolution of behavior, learning, memory and mind across the full phylogenetic tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, E M; Eisenstein, D L; Sarma, J S M

    2016-01-01

    There are probably few terms in evolutionary studies regarding neuroscience issues that are used more frequently than 'behavior', 'learning', 'memory', and 'mind'. Yet there are probably as many different meanings of these terms as there are users of them. Further, investigators in such studies, while recognizing the full phylogenetic spectrum of life and the evolution of these phenomena, rarely go beyond mammals and other vertebrates in their investigations; invertebrates are sometimes included. What is rarely taken into consideration, though, is that to fully understand the evolution and significance for survival of these phenomena across phylogeny, it is essential that they be measured and compared in the same units of measurement across the full phylogenetic spectrum from aneural bacteria and protozoa to humans. This paper explores how these terms are generally used as well as how they might be operationally defined and measured to facilitate uniform examination and comparisons across the full phylogenetic spectrum of life. This paper has 2 goals: (1) to provide models for measuring the evolution of 'behavior' and its changes across the full phylogenetic spectrum, and (2) to explain why 'mind phenomena' cannot be measured scientifically at the present time.

  15. Hypolocomotion, asymmetrically directed behaviors (licking, lifting, flinching, and shaking and dynamic weight bearing (gait changes are not measures of neuropathic pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schorscher-Petcu Ara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous (non-evoked pain is a major clinical symptom of neuropathic syndromes, one that is understudied in basic pain research for practical reasons and because of a lack of consensus over precisely which behaviors reflect spontaneous pain in laboratory animals. It is commonly asserted that rodents experiencing pain in a hind limb exhibit hypolocomotion and decreased rearing, engage in both reflexive and organized limb directed behaviors, and avoid supporting their body weight on the affected side. Furthermore, it is assumed that the extent of these positive or negative behaviors can be used as a dependent measure of spontaneous chronic pain severity in such animals. In the present study, we tested these assumptions via blinded, systematic observation of digital video of mice with nerve injuries (chronic constriction or spared nerve injury, and automated assessment of locomotor behavior using photocell detection and dynamic weight bearing (i.e., gait using the CatWalk® system. Results We found no deficits in locomotor activity or rearing associated with neuropathic injury. The frequency of asymmetric (ipsilaterally directed behaviors were too rare to be seriously considered as representing spontaneous pain, and in any case did not statistically exceed what was blindly observed on the contralateral hind paw and in control (sham operated and unoperated mice. Changes in dynamic weight bearing, on the other hand, were robust and ipsilateral after spared nerve injury (but not chronic constriction injury. However, we observed timing, pharmacological, and genetic dissociation of mechanical allodynia and gait alterations. Conclusions We conclude that spontaneous neuropathic pain in mice cannot be assessed using any of these measures, and thus caution is warranted in making such assertions.

  16. WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND? MEASURING SELF-PROMOTIONAL AND ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIORS ON FACEBOOK AMONG TERTIARY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave E. Marcial

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social media revolutionized the power of collaboration and networking. If overused and misused, it provides negative impacts among users. This paper presents the prevalence of self-promotional behaviors on Facebook among students in a university in the Philippines. A total of 106 college students were randomly selected as respondents of the study. An adapted survey questionnaire was used during analysis. The results show that the respondents promote their selves on Facebook every semester. Specifically, the result shows that the respondents update their status, post photographs of their selves and change profile pictures once a month. On the other hand, the respondents update their profile information, tag pictures of their selves and upload “selfie” pictures every semester. It is concluded that the students sometimes possess behaviors that tend to be tied to narcissism on Facebook.

  17. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E

    2016-08-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the mobile Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID-5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic.

  18. Particle motion measured at an operational wind turbine in relation to hearing sensitivity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigray, Peter; Andersson, Mathias H

    2011-07-01

    The effect of sound pressure on the hearing of fish has been extensively investigated in laboratory studies as well as in field trials in contrast to particle motion where few studies have been carried out. To improve this dearth of knowledge, an instrument for measuring particle motion was developed and used in a field trial. The particle motion is measured using a neutrally buoyant sphere, which co-oscillates with the fluid motion. The unit was deployed in close vicinity to a wind turbine foundation at Utgrunden wind farm in the Baltic Sea. Measurements of particle motion were undertaken at different distances from the turbine as well as at varying wind speeds. Levels of particle motion were compared to audiograms for cod (Gadus morhua L.) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.).

  19. Deformation behavior of lead zirconate titanate ceramics under uniaxial compression measured by the digital image correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Carter, Emma; Kamlah, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The deformation behavior of lead zirconate titanate bulk ceramic specimen under uniaxial compression was monitored by the digital image correlation method and the homogeneity of the deformation was discussed. Combined with using a Sawyer-Tower circuit, the depolarization curve was also obtained. Because of the friction at both the top and bottom surfaces of the lead zirconate titanate ceramic specimen, the distribution of deformation under large uniaxial compressive stresses usually shows a barrel shape. By focusing on correspondingly selected regions of interest and calculating the values of strain components there, the barreling behavior was proved. This barreling behavior is due to elastic strains, in the first place, while the remnant strains are less affected by this phenomenon. All these findings are the experimental justifications for the selection of an aspect ratio of 3:1 for our specimens, where only the central cubic region of a specimen represents the desired purely uniaxial stress state. Only from this region, true uniaxial stress-strain results can be obtained to develop constitutive models.

  20. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context.

  1. Master singular behavior from correlation length measurements for seven one-component fluids near their gas-liquid critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabos, Yves; Palencia, Fabien; Lecoutre, Carole; Erkey, Can; Le Neindre, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    We present the master (i.e., unique) behavior of the correlation length, as a function of the thermal field along the critical isochore, asymptotically close to the gas-liquid critical point of xenon, krypton, argon, helium-3, sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide, and heavy water. It is remarkable that this unicity extends to the correction-to-scaling terms. The critical parameter set, which contains all the needed information to reveal the master behavior, is composed of four thermodynamic coordinates of the critical point and one adjustable parameter which accounts for quantum effects in the helium-3 case. We use a scale dilatation method applied to the relevant physical variables of the one-component fluid subclass, in analogy with the basic hypothesis of the renormalization theory. This master behavior for the correlation length satisfies hyperscaling. We finally estimate the thermal field extent where the critical crossover of the singular thermodynamic and correlation functions deviates from the theoretical crossover function obtained from field theory.

  2. A multidimensional measure of sexual orientation, use of psychoactive substances, and depression: results of a national survey on sexual behavior in france.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomond, Brigitte; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Michaels, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a large national representative survey on sexual behavior in France (Contexte de la Sexualité en France), this study analyzed the relationship between a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation and psychoactive substance use and depression. The survey was conducted in 2006 by telephone with a random sample of the continental French speaking population between the ages of 18 and 69 years. The sample used for this analysis consisted of the 4,400 men and 5,472 women who were sexually active. A sexual orientation measure was constructed by combining information on three dimensions of sexual orientation: attraction, sexual behavior, and self-definition. Five mutually exclusive groups were defined for men and women: those with only heterosexual behavior were divided in two groups whether or not they declared any same-sex attraction; those with any same-sex partners were divided into three categories derived from their self-definition (heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual). The consumption of alcohol and cannabis, which was higher in the non-exclusively heterosexual groups, was more closely associated with homosexual self-identification for women than for men. Self-defined bisexuals (both male and female) followed by gay men and lesbians had the highest risk of chronic or recent depression. Self-defined heterosexuals who had same-sex partners or attraction had levels of risk between exclusive heterosexuals and self-identified homosexuals and bisexuals. The use of a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation demonstrated variation in substance use and mental health between non-heterosexual subgroups defined in terms of behavior, attraction, and identity.

  3. Measuring the impact of an interprofessional multimedia learning resource on Japanese nurses and nursing students using the Theory of Planned Behavior Medication Safety Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mieko; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Lapkin, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Interprofessional communication and teamwork are essential for medication safety; however, limited educational opportunities for health professionals and students to develop these skills exist in Japan. This study evaluated the impact of an interprofessional multimedia learning resource on registered nurses' and nursing students' intention to practice in a manner promoting medication safety. Using a quasi-experimental design, Japanese registered nurses and nursing students (n = 203) were allocated to an experimental (n = 109) or control group (n = 94). Behavioral intentions of medication safety and the predictor variables of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms were measured using a Japanese version of the Theory of Planned Behavior Medication Safety Questionnaire. Registered nurses in the experimental group demonstrated a greater intention to collaborate and practice in a manner that enhanced medication safety, evidenced by higher scores than the control group on all predictor variables. The results demonstrate the potential for interprofessional multimedia learning resources to positively impact the behaviors of Japanese registered nurses in relation to safe medication practices. Further research in other contexts and with other cohorts is warranted.

  4. Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Theory-Based Determinants of Monitoring Obesogenic Behaviors of Pre-Schoolers among Hispanic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Branscum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions are greatly needed for obesity prevention, and planning for such strategies should include community participation. The study’s purpose was to develop and validate a theory-based instrument with low-income, Hispanic mothers of preschoolers, to assess theory-based determinants of maternal monitoring of child’s consumption of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Nine focus groups with mothers were conducted to determine nutrition-related behaviors that mothers found as most obesogenic for their children. Next, behaviors were operationally defined and rated for importance and changeability. Two behaviors were selected for investigation (fruits and vegetable and SSB. Twenty semi-structured interviews with mothers were conducted next to develop culturally appropriate items for the instrument. Afterwards, face and content validity were established using a panel of six experts. Finally, the instrument was tested with a sample of 238 mothers. Psychometric properties evaluated included construct validity (using the maximum likelihood extraction method of factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha. Results suggested that all scales on the instrument were valid and reliable, except for the autonomy scales. Researchers and community planners working with Hispanic families can use this instrument to measure theory-based determinants of parenting behaviors related to preschoolers’ consumption of fruits and vegetables, and SSB.

  5. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traina SB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shana B Traina,1 Susan D Mathias,2 Hilary H Colwell,2 Ross D Crosby,2–4 Charles Abraham5 1Patient-Reported Outcomes, Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Health Outcomes Solutions, Winter Park, FL, USA; 3Biomedical Statistics & Methodology, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 5Psychology Applied to Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK Background: This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q, which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods: The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36, section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results: In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes

  6. Postsurgical food and water consumption, fecal corticosterone metabolites, and behavior assessment as noninvasive measures of pain in vasectomized BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of pain and stress is a common challenge when working with laboratory mice. The aim of the current study was to identify noninvasive parameters to assess the severity and duration of possible pain and stress after vasectomy in BALB/c mice. Mice underwent isoflurane anesthesia...... with or without vasectomy. Body weight, food and water intake, and fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were measured 3 d before and 3 d after the procedure. Behavior was recorded 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after the procedure. Food and water consumption and defecation were reduced postoperatively in the vasectomized......-related behaviors, but not FCM, may be useful as noninvasive parameters to assess postoperative pain and stress in vasectomized mice....

  7. Understanding different efficiency droop behaviors in InGaN-based near-UV, blue and green light-emitting diodes through differential carrier lifetime measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lai; Wang, Jiaxing; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi; Sun, Changzheng; Han, Yanjun; Xiong, Bing; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency droop effect under high injection in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) strongly depends on wavelength, which is still not well understood. In this paper, through differential carrier lifetime measurements on commercialized near-UV, blue, and green LEDs, their different efficiency droop behaviors are attributed to different carrier lifetimes, which are prolonged as wavelength increases. This relationship between carrier lifetime and indium composition of InGaN quantum well is believed owing to the polarization-induced quantum confinement Stark effect. Long carrier lifetime not only increases the probability of carrier leakage, but also results in high carrier concentration in quantum well. In other words, under the same current density, the carrier concentration in active region in near-UV LED is the lowest while that in green one is the highest. If considering the efficiency droop depending on carrier concentration, the behaviors of LEDs with different wavelengths do not show any abnormality. ...

  8. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  9. Piglet behavior as a measure of vitality and its influence on piglet survival and growth during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muns, R; Manzanilla, E G; Sol, C; Manteca, X; Gasa, J

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a vitality scoring method, based on piglet behavior and relate it to piglet growth and survival. From 21 sows (Sus scrofa), 287 piglets were used. After farrowing (d 0), piglets were weighed and tested for 4 behavioral parameters in a circular enclosure (55 cm diam.): movement capacity (M), udder stimulation (U), number of completed circles around the enclosure (NCC), and screaming (Sc). Piglets were weighed again on d 1, 2, 3, and 17. Piglet rectal temperature (RT) was recorded on d 0, 1, 2, and 3. Farrowing information of the sow was also recorded. Multiple regression analyses for survival and BW gain at weaning as dependent variables were performed. Piglet BW gain at weaning was influenced by BW at birth (P piglets born alive per sow (P Piglet survival during lactation was influenced by BW at birth (P = 0.015), UNCC parameter (P = 0.026), and RT on d 3 (P = 0.085). The sum of U and NCC parameters, in combination with BW at birth and information of the sow, might be useful to predict piglet growth survival during lactation, thus becoming a useful tool to improve piglet management during the first days of lactation. In conclusion, UNCC parameter seems to be an easy and useful way to assess piglet vitality for both scientific and commercial purposes.

  10. Measurement and Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Emphasis on Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Dale S.; Thomas, J. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB—i.e. activities involving low energy expenditure and a sitting/reclining posture) may each have significant implications for weight loss and other bariatric surgery outcomes. While early studies suggested that patients typically comply with clinical recommendations to adopt habitual PA, these data were based on retrospective questionnaires. Conversely, recent studies incorporating mobile health (mHealth) technologies (e.g., objective monitors), which assess PA and SB in real-time and in the natural environment, show that most patients are inactive and highly sedentary preoperatively, and only make modest changes in these behaviors postoperatively. In addition to using mHealth technologies for obtaining accurate and detailed information on PA and SB, they are increasingly being employed to intervene on patients’ PA and SB and/or evaluate intervention outcomes. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider the benefits of using mHealth technology when studying and treating PA and SB in bariatric surgery patients. PMID:26331982

  11. Direct measurements of IPTG enable analysis of the induction behavior of E. coli in high cell density cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Castané Alfred

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E. coli lac operon and its components have been studied for decades, and lac-derived systems are widely used for recombinant protein production. However, lac operon dynamics and induction behavior remain the paradigm of gene regulation. Recently, an HPLC-MS-based method to quantify IPTG in the medium and inside the biomass has been established, and this tool may be useful to uncover the lack of knowledge and allow optimization of biotechnological processes. Results The results obtained from the study of IPTG distribution profiles in fed-batch, high cell density cultures allowed discrimination between two different depletion patterns of an inducer from the medium to the biomass in E. coli-expressing rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA. Moreover, we could demonstrate that active transport mediates the uptake of this gratuitous inducer. Additionally, we could study the induction behaviors of this expression system by taking into account the biomass concentration at the induction time. Conclusions In the bistable range, partial induction occurred, which led to intermediate levels of RhuA activity. There was a direct relationship between the initial inducer concentrations and the initial inducer transport rate together with the specific activity. A majority of the inducer remains in the medium to reach equilibrium with the intracellular level. The intracellular inducer accumulation was a further evidence of bistability of the lac operon.

  12. Mechanical behavior of colonic anastomosis in experimental settings as a measure of wound repair and tissue integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos A Ekmektzoglou; Georgios C Zografos; Stavros K Kourkoulis; Ismene A Dontas; Panagiotis K Giannopoulos; Katerina A Marinou; Maria V Poulakou; Despina N Perrea

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the mechanical properties of anastomotic colonic tissue in experimental settings and therefore give a measure of wound healing.METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were used as experimental models of anastomotic tissue integrity. On the 5th post-operative day, the tensile strength was measured by application of an axial force, providing a quantitative measure of anastomotic dehiscence and leakage.RESULTS: Diagrams of the load as a function of the time [P = P (t)] and of the displacement also as a function of time [△s = △s (t)] were recorded for each test,permitting the design of the load versus the displacement diagram and thus providing significant data about the critical values of anastomotic failure. Quantitative data were obtained concerning the anastomotic strength of both control specimens (healthy rats), as well as specimens from non-healthy rats for comparison.CONCLUSION: This experimental model provides an excellent method of measuring anastomotic strength.Despite the relative small number of specimens used,this method provides an accurate way of measuring wound repair. More experimental measurements need to be performed to correlate emerging tensile strength values to anastomotic failure.

  13. The magnetic behavior of the intermetallic compound NdMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} studied by magnetization and hyperfine interactions measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch-Santos, B., E-mail: brianna@usp.br; Carbonari, A. W.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Saxena, R. N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Freitas, R. S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic behavior of the intermetallic compound NdMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} was investigated by bulk magnetization measurements and measurements of hyperfine interactions using perturbed γ–γ angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. Magnetization measurements indicate the presence of four magnetic transitions associated with the Mn and Nd magnetic sublattices. At high temperatures, magnetic measurements show a change in the slope of the magnetization due to an antiferromagnetic transition around T{sub N} ∼ 425 K and a well defined ferromagnetic transition at T{sub C} ∼ 320 K. Moreover, at ∼210 K a peak is observed in the magnetization curve, which is assigned to the reorientation of the Mn spin, and at ∼25 K an increase in the magnetic moment is also observed, which is ascribed to the ordering of Nd ions. PAC measurements using {sup 140}La({sup 140}Ce) and {sup 111}In({sup 111}Cd) probe nuclei allowed the determination of the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) at Nd and Mn sites, respectively. PAC results with {sup 111}Cd probe nuclei at Mn sites show that the dependence of B{sub hf} with temperature follows the expected behavior for the host magnetization associated with the magnetic ordering of Mn ions. From these results, the antiferromagnetic transition followed by a ferromagnetic ordering is clearly observed. PAC results with {sup 140}Ce probe nuclei at Nd sites, however, showed a strong deviation from the Brillouin function, which is attributed to the Ce 4f-electron contribution to B{sub hf}.

  14. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy Todd

    2014-09-01

    The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food-craving and measures of hyperphagia behavior in participants with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gabriela L; Poje, Albert B; Perissinotti, Iago; Marcondes, Bianca F; Villamar, Mauricio F; Manzardo, Ann M; Luque, Laura; LePage, Jean F; Stafford, Diane; Fregni, Felipe; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities and insatiable appetite with compulsive eating leading to severe obesity with detrimental health consequences. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate decision-making and cue-induced food craving in healthy adults. We conducted a pilot double blind, sham-controlled, multicenter study of tDCS modulation of food drive and craving in 10 adult PWS participants, 11 adult obese (OB) and 11 adult healthy-weight control (HWC) subjects. PWS and OB subjects received five consecutive daily sessions of active or sham tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while HWC received a single sham and active tDCS in a crossover design. Standardized psychometric instruments assessed food craving, drive and hyperphagia by self-report and caregiver assessment over 30 days. Robust baseline differences were observed in severity scores for the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Dykens Hyperphagia Questionnaire (DHQ) for PWS compared to HWC while obese participants were more similar to HWC. Active tDCS stimulation in PWS was associated with a significant change from baseline in TFEQ Disinhibition (Factor II) (Ƶ = 1.9, P food drive and behaviors impacting hyperphagia in PWS. Transcranial direct current stimulation may represent a straight-forward, low risk and low cost method to improve care, management and quality of life in PWS.

  16. Proton flux effects and prediction on the free radicals behavior of polyimide in vacuum using EPR measurements in ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengyue; Wu, Yiyong; Xiao, Jingdong; Yu, Sui; Yi, Zhong; Shen, Zicai; Wang, Li; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Irradiation flux is an important parameter to the material irradiation damage investigation, for space material irradiation damage evaluation and the accelerated ground-based test, the irradiation flux effects cannot be ignored. In this paper, the polyimide was set as the research object, the irradiation flux effect and mechanism are investigated by the means of electron paramagnetic resonance test, and based on the free radical dynamic analysis, the dynamics mode of free radical population in vacumm can be established as a function of irradiation time (or proton irradiation flux). The results show that the free radical anneal process in vacuum follows the exponential mode, and the characteristic time constant τradical-vacuum is about 1.9 h. Furthermore, a simplified method is proposed with the investigation of the free radical behavior of the irradiated surface modification polyimide (TiO2/PI), and the characteristic time constant τbulk is 1.9 h, which is almost the same to the value of τradical-vacuum.

  17. Focused ultrasonic beam behavior at a stress-free boundary and applicability for measuring nonlinear parameter in a reflection mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we employ a focused beam theory to modify the phase reversal at the stress-free boundary, and consequently enhance the second harmonic generation during its back-propagation toward the initial source position. We first confirmed this concept through experiment by using a spherically focused beam at the water-air interface, and measuring the reflected second harmonic and comparing with a planar wave reflected from the same stress-free or a rigid boundary. In order to test the feasibility of this idea for measuring the nonlinearity parameter of solids in a reflection mode, a focused nonlinear ultrasonic beam is modeled for focusing at and reflection from a stress-free boundary. A nonlinearity parameter expression is then defined together with diffraction and attenuation corrections.

  18. Measurement of large deformation of nylon cord-rubber composite and effects of perpendicular loads on its stress-strain behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丰发; 杜星文; 于增信

    2003-01-01

    Effects of transverse loads on longitudinal stress-strain behaviors and longitudinal constant tensile loads on transverse stress-strain behaviors of single ply of nylon cord-rubber composite are studied respectively under biaxial tensile condition with cruciform specimen. Effects of transverse constant tensile load on longitudinal tensile mechanical properties are indistinctive compared with corresponding uniaxial longitudinal tensile mechanical properties. It can be relative to larger difference between longitudinal and transverse mechanical properties. Its dominating failure mode is typical fiber-dominated mode; However, Experiment results indicate that transverse mechanical properties of nylon cord-rubber composite with longitudinal constant tensile loads are distinct from its uniaxial transverse tensile mechanical properties. It can be attribute to action of longitudinal tension that makes material rigidify in the direction perpendicular to fiber, Mode of failure is representative of matrix-dominated failure. For the measurement of large deformation up to 50 percent, a special CCD imaging method is employed in the experimental investigation that makes measurement of large deformations more precise.

  19. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaojin [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

  20. Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A; Coskunpinar, Ayca

    2011-08-01

    There has been little empirical evidence examining the overlap in nomothetic span for self-report measures and construct representation for behavioral lab tasks in most psychological constructs. Using the personality trait of impulsivity as an example, the authors completed a meta-analysis of 27 published research studies examining the relationship between these methods. In general, although there is a statistically significant relationship between multidimensional self-report and lab task impulsivity (r = 0.097), practically, the relationship is small. Examining relationships among unidimensional impulsivity self-report and lab task conceptualizations indicated very little overlap in self-report and behavioral lab task constructs. Significant relationships were found between lack of perseverance and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.099); between lack of planning and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.106), delay response (r = 0.134), and distortions in elapsed time (r = 0.104); between negative urgency and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.106); and between sensation seeking and delay response (r = 0.131). Researchers should take care to specify which particular unidimensional constructs are operationalized with not only impulsivity, but with all traits. If self-report and lab task conceptualizations measure disparate aspects of impulsivity, we, as a field, should not expect large conceptual overlap between these methods.

  1. [Perceived or BMI-measured overweight and weight control behaviors in undergraduate adolescents from Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos Alejandro; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Montaño Espinoza, Rosa; Hidalgo-San Martín, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate associations between weight control behaviors and overweight measured by BMI, overweight perception or inaccurate weight perception. 492 undergraduate adolescents from 17 to 19 years old participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire on line was applied and weight and height were measured. Statistical analysis included weighted kappa and multivariate logistic regression. The concordance between weight perception and that evaluated by BMI was 78.7%, weight kappa = 0.62. Adolescents who perceived overweight tried to lose weight, exercised and ate less food more frequently than those who were overweight evaluated by BMI. A quarter tried to lose weight eventhough they did not perceive or were actually overweight. The odds of trying to lose weight were higher in men and women who perceived overweight (OR = 18.7, CI 95% 6.3-55.3 and OR = 10.4, IC 95% 4.5-24.2, respectively) andwomen who overestimated overweight (OR = 6.0, CI 95% 2.8-12.7). The odds of tying to lose weight when weight was underestimated were less in men (OR = 0.03, CI 95% 0.01-0.12) and women (OR = 0.19, IC 95% 0.05-0.70). In conclusion the behavior of trying to lose weight was better explained among adolescents of both genders who perceived overweight and among girls who overestimated it.

  2. The Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Motivation for Health Improvement on Anthropometric Measurements in High Risk Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    mg/dL], waist >40 inches for men or waist >35 inches for women, smoking, aerobic exercise less than twice a week, and who may be at risk for...K. R., Søgaard, J., & Sørensen, T. I. (2008). Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of health care costs. PLoS One , 1-7. Hollon...MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH RISK INDIVIDUALS THESIS Aimee Tjelmeland Kirchner, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCA/ENV/12-M02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR

  3. A social work study on measuring the effects of social cognitive consultation on welfare receivers' entrepreneurship attitudes and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Khatoon Mansourzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important responsibilities of welfare receivers in all communities is to find a job. In many cases, people are encouraged to act as entrepreneurs and create jobs and opportunities. In this study, we perform an empirical study among 280 welfare receivers to measure the effects of social cognitive consultation on changing receivers' entrepreneurship attitudes. The study uses Bandura's social cognitive questionnaire and select 30 volunteers who receive the lowest marks in this survey and they are divided into two groups. The study provides a consultation among them for eight consecutive sessions of two hour-period and the results indicate that the consultation can change both welfare receivers' perception and their attitude, significantly.

  4. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability are, the majority of the time, placed in monolithic groups such as 'normal' and 'dyslexic' (e.g. Araújo et al., 2012) and analyzed only at the group level. This is likely done due to methodological concerns - such as low sample size or a lack of statistical power - that can make it difficult to perform analysis at the individual level. Here, we collected ERPs and behavior from > 100 children in grades pre-K-7, as they read unconnected text silently to themselves. This large sample, combined with the statistical power of the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (LMER) technique, enables us to address individual differences in ERP component effects due to reading ability at an unprecedented level of detail. Results indicate that it is possible to predict reading-related report card scores from ERP component amplitudes - especially that of the N250, a component pertaining to sublexical processing (including phonological decoding). Results also reveal relationships between behavioral measures of reading ability and ERP component effects that have previously been elusive, such as the relationship between vocabulary and N400 mean amplitude (cf. Henderson et al., 2011). We conclude that it is possible to meaningfully examine reading-related ERP effects at the single subject level in developing readers, and that this type of analysis can provide novel insights into both behavior and scholastic achievement.

  5. Beyond FIRO-B--three new theory-derived measures--Element B: behavior, Element F: feelings, Element S: self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, W

    1992-06-01

    Although the FIRO-B instrument has been used widely for a large number of purposes, it was not designed as a general purpose instrument. Several years ago, after revising the FIRO theory underlying the instrument based on over 20 years' experience with the instrument and related activities, the author revised the FIRO-B extensively, so extensively it was given a new name, Element B. The new instrument is much stronger both theoretically and psychometrically while at the same time retaining the simplicity and shortness of the original. In addition, two new instruments based on the same theory were designed, developed, and tested. They measure feelings (Element F) and self-concept (Element S). All three instruments have, over the past 10 years, been used primarily as training instruments. When given in conjunction with other methods, they have been used for improving self-awareness, teamwork, morale, and productivity in such organizations as Procter & Gamble, AT&T, NASA, Amdahl Corporation, the Swedish Army, and about 100 companies in Japan. Included is a comment on scales anchored both logically, using methods such as facet design and unidimensional scaling, and empirically, such as the "big five."

  6. Convergence of conventional and behavior-based measures: Towards a multimethod approach in the assessment of vocational interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENÉ T. PROYER

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different techniques for the assessment of vocational interests. In an empirical study (n = 264 a questionnaire, a nonverbal test, several objective personality tests, and a semi-projective test were applied in one single session in a computerized setting. All tests enable the assessment of vocational interests with regard to the theory of vocational interests by Holland (1997. Results showed that highest correlations to a Holland-type questionnaire were found for the questionnaire and the nonverbal test. In general, the objective personality tests were less homogenous and showed lower correlations to questionnaires. Nevertheless, all different measures showed potential for the assessment of vocational interests. Improvements in the test material and scoring methods of the newly constructed tests are discussed and a model for the combined use of different assessment methods is presented. Future research directions and a discussion on the role of a multimethod assessment strategy in practice are given.

  7. Behavioral manifestations of audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing loss revealed by measures of binaural detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay. Binaural detection thresholds were consistently found to be elevated for listeners whose absolute thresholds at 4 kHz exceeded 7.5 dB HL. No such elevations were observed in conditions having no binaural cues available to aid detection (i.e., "monaural" conditions). Partitioning and analyses of the data revealed that those elevated thresholds (1) were more attributable to hearing level than to age and (2) result from increased levels of internal noise. The data suggest that listeners whose high-frequency monaural hearing status would be classified audiometrically as being normal or "slight loss" may exhibit substantial and perceptually meaningful losses of binaural processing.

  8. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-08

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  9. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Scheier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  10. Sports as a preventive measure of at-risk behavior among urban youth: a presentation of the “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulmatycki Lesław

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to present an original project titled “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”, designed to reinforce positive behavior and create a sense of community among urban youth. It evolved together with the subsequent phases of an urban health promotion program that began in 1994 in Wrocław, Poland. However, the basis of this model was in creating a health promotion initiative that included elements of the Mandala model of health, an ecological model, and the ‘Your Neighborhood’s Coach’ health promotion and at-risk prevention program, begun in 2003 by the Sports Department of the City of Wrocław and continued to this day. This type of initiative was designed to include measures typical of a prevention program while also promoting an active lifestyle through constructive leisure activities. Its guiding philosophy was the ‘get involved’ rather than ‘dissuade from’ approach, which has found popularity in programs of a similar nature across the world. The presented “Multifactorial Environmental Model” is addressed to active counselors, coaches, psychologists, health promotion figureheads, and policymakers whose goal is to reduce negative and anti-social behavior in today’s youth. It should also find value among the pedagogical community of physical education institutions, as the presented work may serve as a source of experience when deciding on any significant changes in the education of future physical education teachers, coaches, and recreation instructors working with adolescents.

  11. The impacts of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Galvao-de Almeida

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional neuroimaging techniques represent fundamental tools in the context of translational research integrating neurobiology, psychopathology, neuropsychology, and therapeutics. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT has proven its efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders and may be useful in phobias. The literature has shown that feelings and behaviors are mediated by specific brain circuits, and changes in patterns of interaction should be associated with cerebral alterations. Based on these concepts, a systematic review was conducted aiming to evaluate the impact of CBT on phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including studies published between January 1980 and April 2012. Studies written in English, Spanish or Portuguese evaluating changes in the pattern of functional neuroimaging before and after CBT in patients with phobic disorders were included. Results: The initial search strategy retrieved 45 studies. Six of these studies met all inclusion criteria. Significant deactivations in the amygdala, insula, thalamus and hippocampus, as well as activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, were observed after CBT in phobic patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: In spite of their technical limitations, neuroimaging techniques provide neurobiological support for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of phobic disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  12. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  13. Development of self-report scales measuring collaborative vs. directive support: Assessing beliefs and behaviors in carers of adults with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Geller, Josie; Iyar, Megumi

    2016-12-01

    Collaboration is more acceptable and likely to produce favorable outcomes when providing care to individuals with eating disorders compared to directive care. We developed two self-report instruments that assess the extent to which carers (e.g., family, friends) of individuals with eating disorders provide collaborative vs. directive support (Support Behaviors Scale; SBH) and the extent to which carers believe that such approaches are helpful (Support Beliefs Scale; SBL). Participants were mothers, fathers, partners, friends and siblings (N=141) of eating disorder patients in hospital or residential treatment. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test measurement models comprising collaborative and directive approaches identified in previous research. A 19-item three-factor model exhibited best fit for each scale and included three distinct caregiving approaches: two that were collaborative (encouraging, concerned), and one that was directive. The scales exhibited acceptable internal consistency. Reported caregiving behaviors (SBH) were correlated with beliefs about caregiving (SBL). The scales can be used to assess caregiving stance and outcomes for interventions aimed at promoting collaboration in carers.

  14. Density, destinations or both? A comparison of measures of walkability in relation to transportation behaviors, obesity and diabetes in Toronto, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Glazier

    Full Text Available The design of suburban communities encourages car dependency and discourages walking, characteristics that have been implicated in the rise of obesity. Walkability measures have been developed to capture these features of urban built environments. Our objective was to examine the individual and combined associations of residential density and the presence of walkable destinations, two of the most commonly used and potentially modifiable components of walkability measures, with transportation, overweight, obesity, and diabetes. We examined associations between a previously published walkability measure and transportation behaviors and health outcomes in Toronto, Canada, a city of 2.6 million people in 2011. Data sources included the Canada census, a transportation survey, a national health survey and a validated administrative diabetes database. We depicted interactions between residential density and the availability of walkable destinations graphically and examined them statistically using general linear modeling. Individuals living in more walkable areas were more than twice as likely to walk, bicycle or use public transit and were significantly less likely to drive or own a vehicle compared with those living in less walkable areas. Individuals in less walkable areas were up to one-third more likely to be obese or to have diabetes. Residential density and the availability of walkable destinations were each significantly associated with transportation and health outcomes. The combination of high levels of both measures was associated with the highest levels of walking or bicycling (p<0.0001 and public transit use (p<0.0026 and the lowest levels of automobile trips (p<0.0001, and diabetes prevalence (p<0.0001. We conclude that both residential density and the availability of walkable destinations are good measures of urban walkability and can be recommended for use by policy-makers, planners and public health officials. In our setting, the

  15. The importance of measurement precision and behavioral homologies in evaluating the behavioral consequences of fetal-ethanol exposure: commentary on Williams and colleagues ("Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The recent study by Willams and colleagues utilized a novel robotic virtual reality measurement system to measure sensory-motor processing deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). This system and the precise quantitation of distinct constituent behavioral processes may hold considerable utility and importance for the study of FASD-related motor deficits, their neural bases, and translational research efforts using homologous behavioral approaches in animal and human studies..

  16. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33 and Asian (n = 23 elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  17. Measurement and analysis of air-conditioning-usage behavior in apartments%住宅空调行为状况的实测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简毅文; 李清瑞; 刘建

    2013-01-01

    以北京市区6户住宅为研究对象,基于对夏季室内温湿度参数的连续测试及相关问卷调查,从空调开启、关闭及运行时间三个方面对住宅空调行为进行了分析,并比较了不同作息状态下的空调行为.研究表明,由于室内环境及人的生理和心理因素的共同作用,住宅空调的开启、关闭行为与室内环境尤其室温之间或许并不存在严格的单一控制关系,并不是室温超过29℃就一定开启空调,或一定要将室温降低到26℃才关闭空调;住宅空调的开启或关闭行为及上述行为持续的时间取决于人体的热感觉及其对室内热湿环境的期望状况.%Taking six apartments in Beijing as examples, based on the continuous measurement of indoor air temperature and humidity and the relevant questionnaires investigation, discusses air-conditioning-usage behavior from the three aspects of open, close and running time, and compares air-conditioning-usage behavior in different activity and rest conditions. The results show that there may not exist a strict single control relation between the open or close behavior of air conditioners and the indoor environment conditions especially indoor temperature, and that occupants may not necessarily turn on air conditioners even when indoor air temperature rises over 29 ℃ and turn off air conditioners when room temperatures drops under 26 ℃ due to the coaction of indoor environment and physical and psychological components,- air-conditioning-usage behavior will depend on occupants' thermal sensation and the expectation for the indoor thermal and humid environment.

  18. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  19. Relationship between viral load and behavioral measures of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children living with human immunodeficiency virus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio A. Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined antiretroviral therapy adherence in Latin American children. Standardized behavioral measures were applied to a large cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru to assess adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy doses during the three days prior to study visits, assess timing of last missed dose, and evaluate the ability of the adherence measures to predict viral suppression. Time trends in adherence were modeled using a generalized estimating equations approach to account for possible correlations in outcomes measured repeatedly in the same participants. Associations of adherence with human immunodeficiency virus viral load were examined using linear regression. Mean enrollment age of the 380 participants was 5 years; 57.6% had undetectable' viral load ( 0.3. Last time missed any antiretroviral therapy dose was reported as "never" for 52.0% at enrollment, increasing to 60.7% and 65.9% at the 6- and 12-month visits, respectively (p< 0.001 for test of trend. The proportion with undetectable viral load was higher among those who never missed a dose at enrollment and the 12-month visit (p≤ 0.005, but not at the 6-month visit (p= 0.2. While antiretroviral therapy adherence measures utilized in this study showed some association with viral load for these Latin American children, they may not be adequate for reliably identifying non-adherence and consequently children at risk for viral resistance. Other strategies are needed to improve the evaluation of adherence in this population.

  20. Critical behavior near the Lifshitz point in Sn(2)P(2)(S(1 - x)Se(x))(6) ferroelectric semiconductors from thermal diffusivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, A; Salazar, A; Kohutych, A A; Vysochanskii, Yu M

    2011-01-19

    The thermal diffusivity of the ferroelectric family Sn(2)P(2)(Se(x)S(1 - x))(6) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) has been measured by a high-resolution ac photopyroelectric technique, using single crystals, with the aim of studying the evolution of the ferroelectric transition with Se doping. Its change from second order character to first order while passing the Lifshitz point (x approximately 0.28) has been evaluated, as well as the splitting of the transition at high Se concentrations. The critical behavior of the ferroelectric transition in terms of the different universality classes and their underlying physical dominant effects (tricriticality, long-range dipole interactions, Lifshitz point) has been discussed using thermal diffusivity measurements in the very close vicinity of the critical temperature. This study reveals that for Se concentrations around the Lifshitz point, long-range dipole interactions do not play a significant role and that the critical parameters are close to those predicted for the Lifshitz universality class.

  1. Evaluation of CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers through molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained.

  2. Dimensions and Measurement of Counterproductive Work Behaviors among Knowledge Workers%知识员工反生产行为的结构及测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭贺

    2011-01-01

    Using survey methods, the paper explored the dimensions and measurement of counterproductive work behaviors of knowledge workers through four studies. In sub-study 1, 8 dimensions and 66 sub-categories were induced. In sub-study 2, the knowledge worker counterproductive behaviors questionnaire (KCWBQ) was developed. Hie six dimensions, which included unethical behavior, resisting behavior, loophole seeking, passive obedience, knowledge withholding, and lying behavior were found by EFA. In sub-study 3, the six dimensions model was confirmed by CFA. The internal consistency analysis and prediction-criterion correlation analysis showed that the questionnaire had good reliability and validity. In sub-study 4, results of CFA with a new sample showed that the six-dimension model is rather robust. It not only can be a basic and useful tool for future research, but also has important managerial implications for knowledge-based enterprises.%运用问卷调研方法,通过4项子研究,探讨中国知识员工反生产行为的结构及其测量.子研究1运用归纳法将知识员工反生产行为归纳为8大类、66小类;子研究2编制知识员工反生产行为问卷,并对采集的数据进行探索性因素分析,发现知识员工反生产行为包括失德行为、抵制行为、钻空子行为、消极服从行为、保守知识行为、撒谎行为6个维度;子研究3运用验证性因素分析方法对数据进行分析,发现六因素结构拟合度最佳,内部一致性系数分析以及与效标变量的相关系数分析表明知识员工反生产行为问卷具有良好的信度和效度;子研究4进一步对六因素结构模型的稳定性进行验证.研究结果表明,知识员工反生产行为问卷可以作为未来的基本研究工具,而且对知识型企业也具有参考和借鉴价值.

  3. Exploration of CO2-Philicity of Poly(vinyl acetate-co-alkyl vinyl ether) through Molecular Modeling and Dissolution Behavior Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Pei-Qing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-09-24

    Hydrocarbon CO2-philes are of great interest for use in expanding CO2 applications as a green solvent. In this work, multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both applied to explore CO2-philicity of the poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)-based copolymer. Introduction of a favorable comonomer, i.e., vinyl ethyl ether (VEE), could significantly reduce the polymer-polymer interaction on the premise that the polymer-CO2 interaction was not weakened but enhanced. The ab initio calculated interaction of the model molecules with CO2 demonstrated that the ether group in VEE or VBE was the suitable CO2-philic segment. From the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of polymer/CO2 systems, the interaction energy and Flory-Huggins parameter (χ12) of poly(VAc-alt-VEE)/CO2 supported that poly(VAc-alt-VEE) possessed better CO2-philicity than PVAc. The dissolution behaviors of the synthesized poly(VAc-co-alkyl vinyl ether) copolymers in CO2 showed the best CO2-phile had the VEE content of about 34 mol %. The MD simulations also indicated that the interaction of random poly(VAc-co-VEE) containing about 30 mol % VEE with CO2 was the strongest and the χ12 was the smallest in these polymer/CO2 systems. Not only could the VEE monomer reduce the polymer-polymer interaction, but it could also enhance the polymer-CO2 interaction with an optimized composition. Introducing a suitable comonomer with a certain composition might be a promising strategy to form the synergistic effect of polymer-polymer interaction and polymer-CO2 interaction for screening the hydrocarbon CO2-philes.

  4. 面向Artifact的业务流程行为相似性度量方法%Behavior Similarity Measure Method for Artifact-oriented Business Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海滨; 刘国华; 王颖; 赵丹枫

    2013-01-01

    面向Artifact的业务流程是以数据为中心的业务流程的代表.与传统以过程为中心的业务流程相似,为了更好的对流程模型进行流程检索、流程挖掘等操作,计算流程间的相似性或距离是一个关键的问题.给出一种面向Artifact的业务流程行为相似性度量方法.首先,通过测量流程模型之间关键Artifact的相似性来评估流程处理的核心业务数据的相似度.其次,根据关键Artifact生命周期特性,测量任务执行路径中任务依赖关系的相似性.最后,测量生命周期中关键Artifact属性赋值序列的相似性.理论和实例分析表明,该方法是一个有效的相似性度量方法.%Artifact-oriented business process is the representative of data-centric business process. Similar with traditional control-centric business process, it is a critical issue to determine the similarity or the distance between two processes which would enable a better operation of the Artifact-oriented business model, such as process retrieval, process mining, etc. A novel behavior similarity measure method for Artifact-oriented business process is proposed. Firstly, this method computes the similarity of business core data in the process by measuring the similarity of key Artifact. Secondly, it measures the task dependence relation in the task executing paths according to the lifecycle characteristic of key Artifact. Finally, it measures the similarity of key Artifact attribute assignment sequence in the task executing path. Theoretical and instantiation analysis also demonstrate the validity of this method.

  5. Can text messages reach the parts other process measures cannot reach: an evaluation of a behavior change intervention delivered by mobile phone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Irvine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is essential in developing, piloting and evaluating complex interventions. This often involves observation of intervention delivery and interviews with study participants. Mobile telephone interventions involve no face to face contact, making conventional process evaluation difficult. This study assesses the utility of novel techniques for process evaluation involving no face to face contact. METHODS: Text messages were delivered to 34 disadvantaged men as part of a feasibility study of a brief alcohol intervention. Process evaluation focused on delivery of the text messages and responses received from study participants. The computerized delivery system captured data on receipt of the messages. The text messages, delivered over 28 days, included nine which asked questions. Responses to these questions served as one technique for process evaluation by ascertaining the nature of engagement with the study and with steps on the causal chain to behavior change. RESULTS: A total of 646 SMS text messages were sent to participants. Of these, 613 messages (95% were recorded as delivered to participants' telephones. 88% of participants responded to messages that asked questions. There was little attenuation in responses to the questions across the intervention period. Content analysis of the responses revealed that participants engaged with text messages, thought deeply about their content and provided carefully considered personal responses to the questions. CONCLUSIONS: Socially disadvantaged men, a hard to reach population, engaged in a meaningful way over a sustained period with an interactive intervention delivered by text message. The novel process measures used in the study are unobtrusive, low cost and collect real-time data on all participants. They assessed the fidelity of delivery of the intervention and monitored retention in the study. They measured levels of engagement and identified participants' reactions to

  6. Parental report of infant sleep behavior by electronic versus paper-and-pencil diaries, and their relationship to actigraphic sleep measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Silvana; Hemmi, Mirja H; Wilhelm, Frank H; Barr, Ronald G; Schneider, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    Reliable, valid and cost-effective methods for the assessment of infant sleep and sleep problems are of major importance. In this study, the first aim was to assess the agreement of an electronic diary as well as a paper diary with actigraphy for measuring infant sleep patterns in a community sample. The second aim was to assess the feasibility and acceptance of, and compliance with, the electronic diary and the paper diary. Ninety parents reported infant sleep behavior in a paper diary in their home environments for a total of 6 days, 95 in an electronic diary, within two consecutive weeks while actigraphic data were obtained simultaneously. We found moderate to good agreement between electronic diaries and actigraphy (r = 0.41-0.65, P actigraphy (r = 0.47-0.70, P actigraphy for sleep percentage over 24 h (electronic diaries and actigraphy: 54.1 ± 0.7%, 52.5 ± 0.7%, P actigraphy: 55.1 ± 0.5%, 52.2 ± 0.6%, P actigraphy: 27.3 ± 0.9%, 23.5 ± 1.2%, P actigraphy: 27.3 ± 0.8%, 23.2 ± 1.0%, P sleep was recorded on actigraphy than on either diary. In conclusion, the electronic diary and the paper diary are valid and well-accepted methods for the assessment of infant sleep. Parents preferred the electronic diary but, conversely, they were less compliant in completing it.

  7. Delayed Methylene Blue Improves Lesion Volume, Multi-Parametric Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements, and Behavioral Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley Watts, Lora; Long, Justin Alexander; Boggs, Robert Cole; Manga, Hemanth; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of death and disability in both civilian and military populations worldwide. There is a critical need for the development of neuroprotective agents that can circumvent damage and provide functional recovery. We previously showed that methylene blue (MB), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-grandfathered drug with energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties, given 1 and 3 h post-TBI, had neuroprotective effects in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the neuroprotection of delayed MB treatment (24 h postinjury) post-TBI as measured by lesion volume and functional outcomes. Comparisons were made with vehicle and acute MB treatment. Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral studies were performed at 1 and 3 h and 2, 7, and 14 days after an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. We found that delaying MB treatment 24 h postinjury still minimized lesion volume and functional deficits, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The data further support the potential for MB as a neuroprotective treatment, especially when medical teatment is not readily available. MB has an excellent safety profile and is clinically approved for other indications. MB clinical trials on TBI can thus be readily explored.

  8. Investigation of electron behavior in Nano-TiO2 photocatalysis by using in situ open-circuit voltage and photoconductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshun; Wang, Xuelei; Wen, Liping; Zhao, Xiujian

    2013-08-05

    The in situ open-circuit voltages (Voc ) and the in situ photoconductivities have been measured to study electron behavior in photocatalysis and its effect on the photocatalytic oxidation of methanol. It was observed that electron injection to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2 under light illumination during photocatalysis includes two sources: from the valence band (VB) of TiO2 and from the methanol molecule. The electron injection from methanol to TiO2 is slower than that directly from the VB, which indicates that the adsorption mode of methanol on the TiO2 surface can change between dark and illuminated states. The electron injection from methanol to the CB of TiO2 leads to the upshift of the Fermi level of electrons in TiO2 , which is the thermodynamic driving force of photocatalytic oxidation. It was also found that the charge state of nano-TiO2 is continuously changing during photocatalysis as electrons are injected from methanol to TiO2 . Combined with the apparent Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, the relation between photocatalytic kinetics and electrons in the TiO2 CB was developed and verified experimentally. The photocatalytic rate constant is the variation of the Fermi level with time, based on which a new method was developed to calculate the photocatalytic kinetic rate constant by monitoring the change of Voc with time during photocatalysis.

  9. Short communication: Relationship between competitive success during displacements at an overstocked feed bunk and measures of physiology and behavior in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzzey, J M; Grant, R J; Overton, T R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how behavioral and physiological parameters are affected based on a cow's level of success at displacing others at an overstocked feed bunk. Forty Holstein nonlactating, late-gestation dairy cattle were housed in an overstocked pen [5 stalls/10 cows and 0.34 m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] in groups of 10 (4 heifers and 6 multiparous cows) for 14 d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostanes) were measured in blood and feces sampled every 2d. A glucose tolerance test and an ACTH challenge were conducted on all cows on d 13 and 14, respectively to further explore the effects of competitive success on energy metabolism and stress physiology. Feeding behavior and displacements at the FB were recorded between d 7 to 10 of the observation period. A competition index (CInd) was calculated for each cow by dividing the number of times the cow displaced another at the FB by the total number of displacements the cow was involved in, either as an actor or reactor. Cows were then divided into 3 subgroups based on their CInd: high success (HS: CInd ≥0.6), medium success (0.4 ≤ CInd <0.6), and low success (LS: CInd <0.4). Heifers accounted for 7, 36, and 79% of the total number of animals in the HS (n=15), medium success (n=11), and LS (n=14) groups, respectively. No differences were observed in daily feeding time, total number of displacements, and time to approach the FB following fresh feed delivery between the 3 CInd groups; however, cows in the LS group had greater daily nonesterified fatty acid and 11,17-dioxoandrostane concentrations relative to cows in the HS group. No differences existed in cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test between CInd categories. During the glucose tolerance test, glucose response curves were the same between all 3 CInd categories; however, the peak insulin response of LS cows was 130 μIU/mL greater than the peak HS response

  10. Space allowance influences individually housed Holstein bull calf innate immune measures and standing behaviors after castration at 3 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Ballou, M A; Fowler, A L; Luo, Y; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2017-03-01

    Dairy calves in the Southwest regions of the United States are typically raised individually in wooden hutches with 1.23 m(2) of space. The objective of the study was to determine if increased space allowance in wooden hutches influences measures of innate immunity and behaviors of Holstein bull calves pre- and postcastration. Calves were randomly assigned at 4 d of age to conventional (CONV; 1.23 m(2) of space; n = 18), moderate (MOD; 1.85 m(2) space; n = 17), or maximized space allowance (MAX; 3.71 m(2) space; n = 19) in hutches. Calves were surgically castrated at 24 d of age. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected at -1, +1, +5, and +12 d of castration. Accelerometer loggers (n = 16 calves per treatment) were used from -3 to +5 d of castration to assess standing behaviors. All calves decreased total standing duration the day of castration versus precastration. Overall, MAX spent the most time in the stand position postcastration versus CONV and MOD. Within treatments, MOD and MAX had increased plasma cortisol 1 d postcastration versus precastration. A treatment × time tendency was observed for cortisol at 12 d postcastration; MAX had the least circulating cortisol. A treatment × time tendency for circulating haptoglobin (Hp) was observed and Hp was greatest among CONV 1 d pre- and 12 d postcastration. Compared with precastration, CONV had increased Hp at 1, 5, and 12 d, whereas MOD had increased Hp at 5 d, and Hp remained similar within MAX. A treatment × time tendency for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood was observed; at 1 d postcastration, MOD had the most TNF-α, whereas MAX had the least. Within MAX, calves had increased TNF-α from precastration to 5 d postcastration. A treatment × time interaction was observed for whole blood bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (WB anti-E). The CONV tended to have the greatest WB anti-E at d -1, but at d 1 and 5 postcastration, CONV had the least WB

  11. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  12. 护理人员健康相关行为的现状及对策%Current situation and measures of health related behaviors of nursing staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 马亚娜

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解上海市某三甲医院外科护理人员健康相关行为的现状为制定相关预防控制提供参考。方法采用健康促进生活方式量表,一般资料调查问卷和自制健康危险行为因素调查问卷对目标人群共216例进行问卷调查。结果护理人员健康促进生活方式综合得分为(140.46±20.15)分,总条目平均得分为(2.76±0.40)分,良好以上所占比率为62.07%。生活方式健康者共126例(62.07%),生活方式不健康者共77例(37.93%)。危害健康的行为主要包括饮酒、不定时进食、缺乏体育锻炼、超重或肥胖、健康知识知晓不达标、吸烟等。其中在不定时进食、缺乏体育锻炼和超重、肥胖三个行为方面,生活方式不健康人群所占的比率显著高于生活方式健康人群,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论应加强对护理人员的健康教育,在危害健康行为如不定时进食、缺乏体育锻炼和肥胖、超重等方面需要积极纠正,倡导健康的生活行为方式。%Objective To understand the status of nursing safety-related behavior of nurses in a hospital of Shanghai, and provide the basis and reference for taking relevant preventive measures. Methods A general information questionnaire and self-designed questionnaire were used to survey a total of 216 people by health-promoting lifestyle profile.Results The comprehensive score of health promoting lifestyle of nursing staff was (140.46±20.15), and the good rate was 62.07%. A total of 126 persons (62.07%) were healthy and 77 persons (37.93%) were not healthy. Harmful healthy behaviors include drinking, irregular eating, lack of physical exercise, overweight or obesity, lack of health knowledge awareness, smoking, etc. The ratio of people living in a harmful healthy lifestyle was significantly higher than that of people living in a healthy lifestyle in the irregular eating, lack of physical exercise, overweight

  13. Short-Term Predictive Validity of Demographic, Affective, Personal, and Cognitive Variables in Relation to Two Criterion Measures of Cheating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antion, David L.; Michael, William B.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of 148 community college students regarding cheating behaviors on a final multiple-choice test did not lend support for the association of personality constructs with cheating behaviors except for the anxiety construct. Self-reported grade point average and test score were negatively related to cheating. (Author/PN)

  14. The Effects of Institutional Culture on Study Strategies of Hispanic Students as Measured by the "Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio": The Spanish Version of the "Study Behavior Inventory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; Sandiford, Janice R.

    The study behaviors of Spanish-speaking students at a large two-year public college in the United States were studied using the Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ECI) (L. Bliss, D. Vinay, and F. Koenigner), the Spanish version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (C. Weinstein, 1987). Behaviors of these students were compared with…

  15. Measuring Children's Perceptions of Parental Involvement in Conjoint Behavioral Consultation: Factor Structure and Reliability of the "Parental Support for Learning Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Maria; Markel, Clarisa; Midgett, Jonathan D.; Ryan, Bruce A.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Practitioners of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation rely on several sources of information to assist in planning and evaluation of consultation efforts. Parental involvement in the home is an important aspect in Conjoint Behavioral Consultation, yet there are few questionnaires available to practitioners to assess this important construct,…

  16. Hearing ability in Danish symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeling, Lise; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    equipment placed in various instrument groups. The average audiogram showed a decrease at higher frequencies similar to an age-related hearing loss. Each audiogram was corrected for the age of the person by means of the median from ISO 7029 and the average audiogram from these age-corrected individual...... audiograms showed no signs of hearing loss. The audiograms were also compared to the expected audiograms from ISO 1999, which takes account of the number of years at work, the number of playing hours per week, and the average sound level in the orchestra for the instrument group. In almost all cases...... the measured audiograms looked better than the predictions from ISO 1999. It may be concluded from this investigation that musicians cannot be expected to get pronounced audiometric hearing losses from playing in a symphony orchestra. It should be noted, though, that the data material is limited...

  17. Effective Measures for Reducing Academic Misconduct Behavior by Editor' s Controlling%科技论文中学术不端行为的编辑控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强

    2011-01-01

    以"论文抄袭"为主的学术不端行为在近几年愈演愈烈,科技期刊是发布科学研究成果的主要平台,自然成为学术不端行为及其控制工作的焦点.作为科技成果传播活动"守门人"的科技期刊编辑,在规范学术道德方面有义不各辞的责任.加强科技期刊编辑出版单位的工作管理、提高编辑自律意识、帮助作者准确界定抄袭行为、严格执行专家审稿制度、参考使用不端文献检测系统等现代技术手段,是科技期刊编辑在学术不端行为控制实践操作层面上的有效手段.%Plagiarizing paper has been one of typical academic misconduct at present. Scientific journals, working as one of major media for distributing scientific achievements should play an important role in academic misconduct controlling.Editors, as doorkeeper of science communication are under an obligation to construct academic moral. Based on these views, editors can take some practical measures to reduce academic misconduct behavior effectively, i. e. enhancing internal management of publisher, improving editors' professional awareness, helping the writer to identify plagiarizing, insisting on reviewing system by peer experts and referring to some technical device.

  18. On book loss and interfering measures of college students′ bad behavior%论图书丢失与大学生不良行为的干预策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜桂平

    2011-01-01

    从高校图书馆图书丢失的10种不良行为出发,着重分析了造成图书丢失的原因,提出了有效阻止大学生不良行为发生的措施。%This paper discussed and analyzed the cause of missing rate of library collection in university library according to the 10 bad behavior of losing book,and put forward the measures and innovating thinking to prevent the college students′bad behavior.

  19. Dimensions of Impulsivity:Discussion Based on the Measures of Personality and Behavior%冲动性的维度:基于人格和行为的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐四华

    2014-01-01

    The study uses two widely personality measures (I7 and SSS) and four laboratory-task measures of impulsive behavior (Go/No-Go task, Delay-Discounting task, Iowa Gambling task and Balloon Analogue Risk tasks) to assess impulsivity. Strong correlations (r=0.69, p<0.01) were found between the different subscales of the self-report measures. However, the correlations between the behavioral measures and the self-report measures were weak. The four behavior tasks mentioned above measured respectively three independent dimensions of impulsivity including behavioral disinhibition, delay discounting and impulsive decision making.%研究采用感觉寻求量表及艾森克人格冲动性分量表和行为抑制任务、延迟折扣任务、爱荷华赌牌任务、仿真气球冒险任务等四种行为任务探究冲动性的维度。结果发现,感觉寻求量表和艾森克人格冲动性分量表有显著相关(r=0.69,p<0.01),量表和各种行为分数之间的相关不显著;四种行为任务分别测量了冲动性的行为抑制、延迟折扣和冒险决策三个不同维度。

  20. Analysis of Autopilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Feay, Mike; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot's expectations for behavior of autopilot avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. These "automation surprises" have been attributed to differences between the pilot's model of the behavior of the avionics and the actual behavior encoded in the avionics software. A formal technique is described for the analysis and measurement of the behavior of the cruise pitch modes of a modern Autopilot. The analysis characterizes the behavior of the Autopilot as situation-action rules. The behavior of the cruise pitch mode logic for a contemporary modern Autopilot was found to include 177 rules, including Level Change (23), Vertical Speed (16), Altitude Capture (50), and Altitude Hold (88). These rules are determined based on the values of 62 inputs. Analysis of the rule-based model also shed light on the factors cited in the literature as contributors to "automation surprises."

  1. Validación de un instrumento para medir competencias conductuales en personas VIH positivas Validation of an instrument to measure behavioral competencies in HIV+ persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña-López

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudiar la confiabilidad y validez de un instrumento que mide competencias conductuales en personas que viven con VIH/sida. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, efectuado en los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 2002 en la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México. En él se manejó un instrumento que consta de 24 reactivos y fue aplicado a una muestra de 60 personas VIH positivas que reciben atención en dos instituciones del sector salud, México. Se emplearon los siguientes procedimientos estadísticos: para la discriminación de los reactivos se utilizó la prueba t; para la validez de constructo se efectuó un análisis de su estructura factorial, mientras que para la confiabilidad se recurrió al estadístico alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: Excepto dos reactivos, el resto discriminó correctamente; el análisis factorial arrojó tres factores, que en su conjunto explican 47.99% de la varianza, y un índice conformado por dos reactivos; finalmente, la encuesta en su conjunto alcanzó un alfa de Cronbach de 0.856. CONCLUSIONES: Este instrumento tiene las ventajas de ser claro, con una buena discriminación de los reactivos y de poseer validez de constructo.OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure behavioral competences in HIV/AIDS-infected persons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December 2002 in Hermosillo, Sonora State, Mexico. An instrument consisting of 24 items was applied to 60 HIV-positive subjects who received health care through two Mexican Ministry of Health institutions. Statistical analysis consisted of Student s t test for item discrimination and Cronbach s alpha for testing construct reliability. RESULTS: All but two items were able to discriminate correctly; factorial analysis resulted in three factors that jointly accounted for 48% of the variance. Finally a two-item index was obtained. The survey as a whole attained a

  2. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Slater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters.

  3. A low cost setup for behavioral audiometry in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziridis, Konstantin; Ahlf, Sönke; Schulze, Holger

    2012-10-16

    In auditory animal research it is crucial to have precise information about basic hearing parameters of the animal subjects that are involved in the experiments. Such parameters may be physiological response characteristics of the auditory pathway, e.g. via brainstem audiometry (BERA). But these methods allow only indirect and uncertain extrapolations about the auditory percept that corresponds to these physiological parameters. To assess the perceptual level of hearing, behavioral methods have to be used. A potential problem with the use of behavioral methods for the description of perception in animal models is the fact that most of these methods involve some kind of learning paradigm before the subjects can be behaviorally tested, e.g. animals may have to learn to press a lever in response to a sound. As these learning paradigms change perception itself (1,2) they consequently will influence any result about perception obtained with these methods and therefore have to be interpreted with caution. Exceptions are paradigms that make use of reflex responses, because here no learning paradigms have to be carried out prior to perceptual testing. One such reflex response is the acoustic startle response (ASR) that can highly reproducibly be elicited with unexpected loud sounds in naïve animals. This ASR in turn can be influenced by preceding sounds depending on the perceptibility of this preceding stimulus: Sounds well above hearing threshold will completely inhibit the amplitude of the ASR; sounds close to threshold will only slightly inhibit the ASR. This phenomenon is called pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) (3,4), and the amount of PPI on the ASR gradually depends on the perceptibility of the pre-pulse. PPI of the ASR is therefore well suited to determine behavioral audiograms in naïve, non-trained animals, to determine hearing impairments or even to detect possible subjective tinnitus percepts in these animals. In this paper we demonstrate the use of this method in a

  4. The Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT): Measuring Avoidance in High-, Mid-, and Low-Spider-Fearful Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Andy; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    One hundred twenty female participants, with varying levels of spider fear were asked to complete an automated 8-step perceived-threat behavioral approach test (PT-BAT). The steps involved asking the participants if they were willing to put their hand into a number of opaque jars with an incrementally increasing risk of contact with a spider (none…

  5. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  6. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  7. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  8. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  9. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  10. Stochastic Behavior of Phase Synchronization Index and Cross-Frequency Couplings in Epileptogenic Zones during Interictal Periods Measured with Scalp dEEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Ceon; Holmes, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The stochastic behavior of the phase synchronization index (SI) and cross-frequency couplings on different days during a hospital stay of three epileptic patients was studied for non-invasive localization of the epileptogenic areas from high density, 256-channel, scalp EEG (dEEG) recordings. The study was performed with short-duration (0-180 s), seizure-free, epileptiform-free, and spike-free interictal dEEG data on different days of three subjects. The seizure areas were localized with subdural recordings with an 8 × 8 macro-electrode grid array and strip electrodes. The study was performed in theta (3-7 Hz), alpha (7-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), and low gamma (30-50 Hz) bands. A detrended fluctuation analysis was used to find the long range temporal correlations in the SI that reveals the stochastic behavior of the SI in a given time period. The phase synchronization was computed after taking Hilbert transform of the EEG data. Contour plots were constructed with 20 s time-frames using a montage of the layout of 256 electrode positions. It was found that the stochastic behavior of the SI was higher in epileptogenic areas and in nearby areas on different days for each subject. The low gamma band was found to be the best to localize the epileptic sites. Also, a stable higher pattern of SI emerged after 60-120 s in the epileptogenic areas. The cross-frequency couplings of SI in theta-gamma, beta-gamma, and alpha-gamma bands were decreased and spatial patterns were fragmented in epileptogenic areas. Combinations of an increase in the stochastic behavior of the SI and decrease in cross-frequency couplings are potential markers to assist in localizing epileptogenic areas. These findings suggest that it is possible to localize the epileptogenic areas non-invasively from a short-duration (∼180 s), seizure-free and spike-free interictal scalp dEEG recordings.

  11. Measures on Preventing Cheating Behavior in College Tests from the Perspective of Game Theory%博弈论视角下大学生考试舞弊行为的防范策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤自军

    2015-01-01

    防范考试舞弊行为一直是高校学风建设及教学管理的重要环节。目前,对考试舞弊行为适用最严厉的处罚是各高校普遍采用的方式。大学生考试舞弊“混合策略”博弈模型说明,这种对舞弊行为一次性适用最严厉处罚的方式实际上并不能达到有效防范舞弊的效果,且有可能给高校带来司法风险。正确的做法是根据舞弊轻重程度给予相应的处罚。模型分析还为高校有效防范学生考试舞弊行为提供了更多的有效解决途径。%Preventing cheating behavior in college tests is always a key point in the process of educa-tion management in universities.Currently,the universities often apply the most serious punishment on this kind of behavior.The game model of mixed strategies indicates that the most serious punish-ment is not the effective measure actually for prevention cheating behavior in college tests.Moreover it may cause judicial risks to the universities.The correct way is to establish a whole system of pun-ishment in accordance with the serious extent of cheating behavior.In addition,the model also gives more suggestions on how to prevent the cheating behavior in tests.

  12. Effects of contingent and non-contingent cocaine on drug-seeking behavior measured using a second-order schedule of cocaine reinforcement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, A; Arroyo, M; Everitt, B J

    1999-06-01

    Rats were trained to respond with intravenous cocaine as the reinforcer under a fixed interval 15-min schedule, during which conditioned stimuli paired with cocaine were presented contingent on completion of a fixed ratio of 10 responses (i.e., second-order schedule of reinforcement). The effects of contingent and noncontingent cocaine were investigated. The results show that pretreatment with noncontingent (i.e., experimenter-administered) cocaine led to a satiation-like effect that was reflected in decreased numbers of responses and a tendency for an increased latency to initiate responding when the doses of cocaine administered were similar to or higher than the training/maintenance dose of cocaine. By contrast, noncontingent administration of cocaine doses lower than the training/maintenance dose, and response-contingent cocaine administration, led to increased drug-seeking behavior, as reflected in increased numbers of responses. The present data indicate that at least two factors determine whether administration of cocaine would lead to drug-seeking behavior: whether the cocaine administration is contingent or noncontingent, and the relative magnitude of the cocaine dose administered in relation to the training/maintenance dose of cocaine.

  13. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  14. Trust Measuring Model Based on Social Factors of Users and their Behavior%基于用户及其行为社会属性的信任测度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆悠; 华泽; 盛浩; 奚雪峰

    2013-01-01

    Trust measure is the basis of trust mechanism. Now the trust mechanism is facing the threat that malicious users manipulate the reputation. The trust measure model based on the social factors of users and their behavior expands the traditional trust mechanism. It describes and analyses the characters of malicious users and their behavior by the social factor,which reflects the essential of user and behavior. This model also adds the audit process in order to correct the reputation under the attack,so it can guarantee the credibility of trust measure in distributed Environment. Simulation experiments show that this model can effectively react to the reputation manipulation attack by the malicious users.%信任测度是信任机制的核心和基础,现有的信任机制面临着恶意用户操纵信誉的安全威胁.基于用户及其行为社会属性的信任测度模型对传统的信任机制进行了扩充,引入用户及其行为所映射的本质特性即社会属性来描述和分析恶意用户及其行为的特征,在信任测度过程中增加信誉评审过程来修正对信任测度的攻击,从而保证了分布式环境中的信任测度的可信性.模拟实验表明,该信任测度模型能有效地应对恶意用户对信誉的操纵攻击.

  15. On the determination of missing boundary data for solids with nonlinear material behaviors, using displacement fields measured on a part of their boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Stéphane; Baranger, Thouraya N.

    2016-12-01

    The paper is devoted to the derivation of a numerical method for expanding available mechanical fields (stress vector and displacements) on a part of the boundary of a solid into its interior and up to unreachable parts of its boundary (with possibly internal surfaces). This expansion enables various identification or inverse problems to be solved in mechanics. The method is based on the solution of a nonlinear elliptic Cauchy problem because the mechanical behavior of the solid is considered as nonlinear (hyperelastic or elastoplastic medium). Advantage is taken of the assumption of convexity of the potentials used for modeling the constitutive equation, encompassing previous work by the authors for linear elastic solids, in order to derive an appropriate error functional. Two illustrations are given in order to evaluate the overall efficiency of the proposed method within the framework of small strains and isothermal transformation.

  16. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  17. The RD parent empowerment program creates measurable change in the behaviors of low-income families and children: an intervention description and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Rosa K; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Carter, Betty Jean; Medrow, Lisa; Stern, Emily; Brown, Katie

    2014-12-01

    Dietary and physical activity habits are developed early in life and are influenced by family environments. We describe and evaluate an intervention for low-income families to encourage healthy habits. The RD Parent Empowerment Program (http://www.eatright.org/programs/kidseatright/activities/content.aspx?id=6442477891) consists of four workshops centered on the 8 Habits of Healthy Children and Families (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation). Registered dietitian nutritionists conduct the workshops in school and community settings using a structured leader guide and tailor the communication and interactive activities to the audience. Participants are parents of young children. Our goals were to use a phenomenologic approach to elicit participant feedback, determine whether participants in the RD Parent Empowerment Program made healthier choices for their families after attending the workshops, and identify which elements of the program participants believed contributed most to its success. The evaluation design used a pragmatic, mixed-methods approach utilizing postintervention focus groups and pre-post intervention scores on the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) survey. All workshop attendees aged 18 years or older were eligible to participate in the evaluation. One hundred twenty-three parents participated in the intervention across seven sites. Focus group results were analyzed using thematic analysis methods to match themes to the main intervention goals. t Tests were used to compare pre- and postintervention FNPA scores and demographic characteristics pooled across sites. FNPA scores significantly improved from pre- to postintervention by a mean of 4.3 FNPA points (6.5%; P<0.01). Focus group participants reported behavior changes as a result of the program and identified the site leaders as integral to the program's success, triangulating the results. The RD Parent Empowerment Program generates meaningful self-reported behavior change in

  18. Dynamic behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley icefield system during a surge, and other measurements of Alaskan glaciers with ERS SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Craig S.; Fatland, Dennis R.; Voronina, Vera A.; Ahlnaes, Kristina; Troshina, Elena N.

    1997-01-01

    ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was employed for the measurement of the dynamics of the Bagley icefield during a major surge in 1993-1994, the measurement of ice velocities on the Malaspina piedmont glacier during a quiescent phase between surges, and for mapping the snow lines and the position of the terminus of Nabesna glacier on Mount Wrangell (a 4317 m andesitic shield volcano) in the heavily glacierized Saint Elias and Wrangell Mountains of Alaska. An overview and summary of results is given. The methods used include interferometry, cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR imagery.

  19. Teleological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1992-11-01

    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.

  20. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  1. Developing a Measure of Behavior Change in a Program to Help Low-Income Parents Prevent Unhealthful Weight Gain in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L.; Lent, Megan; Lu, Angela H.; Sequeira, Joran; Dollahite, Jamie S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a brief measure of changes in eating, active play, and parenting practices after an intervention to help parents shape children's choices and home environments. Design: Sequential phases of development and testing: expert panel review, cognitive testing interviews, field testing, test-retest study, and assessment of…

  2. A New Measure for Assessing the Physical Activity Behaviors of Persons with Disabilities and Chronic Health Conditions: The Physical Activity and Disability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, James H.; Riley, Barth B.; Rubin, Stephen S.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS), which measures physical activity for people with disabilities and chronic health conditions. Cross-sectional and pre-post designs were employed with 103 people who had disabilities and chronic health conditions. Results supported the PADS' reliability and…

  3. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  4. Implicit versus explicit measures of self-concept of self-control and their differential predictive power for spontaneous trait-relevant behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Krakau, Andrej; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and implic

  5. Implicit versus explicit measures of insufficient self-concept of self-control and their differential predictive power for spontaneous trait-relevant behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J.C.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Krakau, Andrej; Jong, de Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and implici

  6. Implicit versus explicit measures of self-concept of self-control and their differential predictive power for spontaneous trait-relevant behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Krakau, Andrej; de Jong, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and implic

  7. Understanding Psychopathy through an Evaluation of Interpersonal Behavior: Testing the Factor Structure of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy in a Large Sample of Jail Detainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Kosson, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Interpersonal characteristics are core features of the psychopathy construct which have a unique pattern of correlations with a variety of external correlates. To improve the assessment of interpersonal traits, the current study evaluated the internal structure of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P) through exploratory and confirmatory…

  8. Investigation of the Effects of Solution Temperature on the Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic Low-Nickel Stainless Steels in Citric Acid using Impedance and Polarization Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulimbayan Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels may be classified according to alloy microstructure – ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardening grades. Among these, austenitic grade has the largest contribution to market due to the alloy’s numerous industrial and domestic applications. In this study, the corrosion behavior of low-Nickel stainless steel in citric acid was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization techniques and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. The corrosion current density which is directly related to corrosion rate was extracted from the generated anodic polarization curve. Increasing the temperature of the citric acid resulted to increased corrosion current densities indicating higher corrosion rates at initial corrosion condition. EIS was performed to generate Nyquist plots whose shape and size depicts the corrosion mechanism and corrosion resistance of the alloy in citric acid, respectively. All the generated Nyquist plots have depressed semi-circle shapes implying that corrosion process takes place with charge-transfer as the rate-determining step. Based from the extracted values of polarization resistance (Rp, the temperature of the solution has negative correlation with the corrosion resistance of the studied alloy.

  9. An Approach for Measuring the Sorptive Behavior of Odorants Using a Multifunction Thermal Desorber Unit: Preliminary Tests on Reduced Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Woo Joo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sorptive behavior of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC was investigated using a combination of thermal desorber (TD unit and gas chromatography (GC. To examine the sorptive properties of RSC on textile materials, two types of experiments were conducted under experimental conditions favorable for sorptive processes. In all the experiments, gaseous standards of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were supplied to initiate the adsorption processes on textile pieces. The textile pieces were then forced to release those adsorbed RSC under a fixed condition. It was found that the extent of adsorption, if evaluated quantitatively, occurred at approximately 1/1000 to 1/100 of the level of RSC standards supplied originally to induce adsorption. It also indicated that RSC adsorption was affected very sensitively by the initial exposure durations to induce RSC adsorption with an exponential decrease in relative recovery (RR values with increasing exposure time. The relative sorptive patterns, when compared between different RSCs, were affected most sensitively by such factors as molecular weight and/or physical contact conditions.

  10. Volovik effect and Fermi-liquid behavior in the s -wave superconductor CaPd2As2: 75As NMR-NQR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q.-P.; Wiecki, P.; Anand, V. K.; Sangeetha, N. S.; Lee, Y.; Johnston, D. C.; Furukawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the collapsed-tetragonal CaPd2As2 superconductor (SC) with a transition temperature of 1.27 K have been investigated by 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements. The temperature (T ) dependence of the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1 /T1) and the Knight shifts indicate the absence of magnetic correlations in the normal state. In the SC state, 1 /T1 measured by 75As NQR shows a clear Hebel-Slichter (HS) peak just below Tc and decreases exponentially at lower T , confirming a conventional s -wave SC. In addition, the Volovik effect, also known as the Doppler shift effect, has been clearly evidenced by the observation of the suppression of the HS peak with applied magnetic field.

  11. High-pressure viscosity behavior of x 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)+(1-x) triethylene glycol dimethylether (TriEGDME) mixtures: Measurements and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Baylaucq, A.; Cisneros, Sergio;

    2006-01-01

    In this work new dynamic viscosity measurements for binary mixtures containing a refrigerant (HFC-134a, CF3CH2F) and a lubricant (TriEGDME, CH3O(CH2OCH2)(3)CH3) are reported. The measurements were carried out at temperatures between 293.15 and 373.15 K and pressures from 10 to 100 MPa, for two mo...... with a physical and theoretical background, such as the hard-sphere scheme, the free-volume model, and the friction theory....... for this binary system have been used to test the ability of several viscosity models having different origins and theoretical backgrounds. The considered models range from simple mixing rules, through empirical correlations, such as the self-referencing model and the LBC model, to recent approaches...

  12. Comparison of predicted and measured fission product behavior in the Fort St. Vrain HTGR during the first three cycles of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.L.; Jovanovic, V.; Burnette, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    Fission product release from the reactor core has been predicted by the reference design methods and compared with reactor surveillance measurements and with the results of postirradiation examination (PIE) of spent FSV fuel elements. Overall, the predictive methods have been shown to be conservative: the predicted fission gas release at the end of Cycle 3 is about five times higher than observed. The dominant source of fission gas release is as-manufactured, heavy-metal contamination; in-service failure of the coated fuel particles appears to be negligible which is consistent with the PIE of spent fuel elements removed during the first two refuelings. The predicted releases of fission metals are insignificant compared to the release and subsequent decay of their gaseous precursors which is consistent with plateout probe measurements.

  13. An integrated human factors approach to design and evaluation of the driver workspace and interface: Driver perceptions, behaviors, and objective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung, Gyouhyung

    2008-01-01

    An ergonomic driver workspace and interface design is essential to ensure a healthier and comfortable driving experience in terms of driver perceptions, postures, and interface pressures. Developing more effective methods for driver-side interior design and evaluation, hence, requires thorough investigation of: 1) which perceptual responses are more relevant to ensuring ergonomic quality of a design, 2) the interrelationships among perceptual responses and objective measures, and 3) whether ...

  14. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  15. Old/new differences in direct and indirect memory tests using pictures and words in within- and cross-form conditions: event-related potential and behavioral measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, V A; Friedman, D

    1997-06-01

    Indirect measures of repetition priming are more sensitive to changes in surface features than are direct measures of memory. This dissociation may reflect differences in the extent to which the two tasks rely on form-specific processes, or on the activation of different memory systems. To assess this, subjects at study made semantic discriminations to a mixed list of pictures and words. At test, half the concepts were repeated in the surface form presented at study while half were repeated in the other surface form. Subjects in the indirect test continued making the same discrimination, whereas those in the direct test performed a yes/no recognition task. For both tasks, significant old/new within-form differences were found for event-related potential (ERP) and reaction time (RT) measures. Cross-form old/new differences were reliable only for the word-picture condition in the direct task and only for the ERP indices. These data suggest that both direct and indirect memory tasks are influenced by form-specific as well as form-non-specific processing, and that neither the transfer-appropriate processing nor memory systems approaches can completely account for this pattern of results.

  16. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  17. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  18. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  19. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...

  20. Measurement of Sedentary Behavior and its Association with Depression in College Students%高职生久坐行为测量及其与抑郁水平关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶孙岳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To Prolong sedentary behavior in college students such as computer using,pla-ying games and sitting with playing mobile phone has been put more and more attention by students affaire office.And the well validity of measures was necessary for evaluating the level of sedentary behavior and its effects on health.The study explored the reliability and validity of college students'sedentary behavior questionnaire and analyzed the correlation with depression.Methods: This study analyzed above ques-tions through opened or structured questionnaires survey,data processing and statistical analysis.Results:The duration of sedentary behavior from open access questionnaire, self -developed questionnaire and IPAQ-short version were 412.58 minutes/day,549.92 minutes/day and 466.99 minutes/day,respec-tively.Besides, the significant relationship was observed between sedentary behavior and interpersonal communication factor of depression(r=0.306,P<0.05).Conclusion: It's fairly consistent in different sedentary behavior measures,and sedentary behavior is associated with depression in college students.%目的:高职生过长的久坐行为如电脑前看视频、玩游戏、坐着玩手机等已经成为高校学生工作不可忽视的课题。较可靠的测量工具是评估久坐行为水平及其对健康的危害的前提。方法:本研究主要采用开放式问卷测量、结构式问卷调查以及数据处理与分析等方法,初步考察了某一高职院校学生久坐行为自编问卷的信效度及其与抑郁及各因子的关联性。结果:开放式调查、久坐行为自编问卷与国际体力活动问卷久坐行为条目所测的平均时间分别为412.58分钟/天、549.92分钟/天和466.99分钟/天;同时,久坐行为与抑郁量表人际因子的简单相关系数有统计学意义(r=0.306,P<0.05)。结论:高职生久坐行为自编问卷具有较好的可靠性,他们的久坐行为时间普遍过长

  1. Analysis of the behavior and 2D modeling of ferrite inductors with E geometry: comparison with 3D model and real measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleite J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose and validate by experiment a practical method to compute by simulations the inductance of a ferrite inductor as a function of the current intensity level from the linear to the saturation regions. Our method combines the use of 2D Finite Element Analysis with experimental measurements taken in a laboratory environment. We also present and analyze results of the convergence and computational cost of the 2D and 3D simulations showing the reduction of computational cost when we chose the 2D simulation.

  2. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Bingemer, Heinz; Budke, Carsten; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, Anja; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Ebert, Martin; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kandler, Kondrad; Kiselev, Alexei; Koop, Thomas; Leisner, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar; Nillius, Bjorn; Peckhaus, Andreas; Rose, Diana; Weinbruch, Stephan; Wex, Heike; Boose, Yvonne; DeMott, Paul J.; Hader, John D.; Hill, Thomas; Kanji, Zamin; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Levin, Ezra; McCluskey, Christina; Murakami, Masataka; Murray, Benjamin J.; Niedermeier, Dennis; Petters, Markus D.; O' Sullivan, Daniel; Saito, Atsushi; Schill, Gregory; Tajiri, Takuya; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Welti, Andre; Whale, Thomas; Wright, Timothy; Yamashita, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism 3 through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing 4 number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion 5 freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an 6 inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used 7 different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining 8 challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how 9 the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with 10 these techniques. 11 Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an 12 illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust 13 particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN 14 measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, 15 temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were 16 involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the 17 test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed 18 water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The 19 resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation 20 active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide 21 temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. 22 Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-23 dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~-24 26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was

  3. Influence of aqueous electrolytes on the wetting behavior of hydrophobic solid polymers-low-rate dynamic liquid/fluid contact angle measurements using axisymmetric drop shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Petra B; Rauwolf, Cordula; Yudin, Olexandr; Grundke, Karina

    2002-07-01

    The interaction of inorganic ions with low-energy hydrophobic surfaces was examined using model systems of solid polymers without ionizable functional surface groups in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Low-rate dynamic contact angle measurements with captive bubbles in conjunction with axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) were performed to study the influence of electrolyte ions (in the aqueous test solutions) on the wettability of the polymers. When various types of ions were used, no significant change in advancing and receding contact angles was observed. The contact angle hysteresis was small. The zeta potential of the model polymers in aqueous electrolyte solutions was determined from streaming potential measurements. The variation of the zeta potential at different pH levels indicates preferential adsorption of hydroxyl ions at this interface. However, the presence of electrolytes at the interface between water and the different model polymers did not influence the macroscopic contact angle. The results may suggest the absence of any specific interaction between the ions and the solid polymer, as this should result in changes of hydrophobicity. Similar to the air/water interface, the composition and the potential of the polymer/water interface are obviously determined predominantly by the aqueous phase with only slight influence from the solid phase.

  4. A neural measure of behavioral engagement: task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in the precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan Ray

    2010-01-15

    Brain imaging has provided a useful tool to examine the neural processes underlying human cognition. A critical question is whether and how task engagement influences the observed regional brain activations. Here we highlighted this issue and derived a neural measure of task engagement from the task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the precuneus. Using independent component analysis, we identified brain regions in the default circuit - including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - showing greater activation during resting as compared to task residuals in 33 individuals. Time series correlations with the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region showed that connectivity with the precuneus was significantly stronger during resting as compared to task residuals. We hypothesized that if the task-residual BOLD activity in the precuneus reflects engagement, it should account for a certain amount of variance in task-related regional brain activation. In an additional experiment of 59 individuals performing a stop signal task, we observed that the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the precuneus but not the mPFC accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in prefrontal activation related to attentional monitoring and response inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that task-residual fALFF in the precuneus may be a potential indicator of task engagement. This measurement may serve as a useful covariate in identifying motivation-independent neural processes that underlie the pathogenesis of a psychiatric or neurological condition.

  5. Ferromagnetic critical behavior in U(Co1-xFex)Al (0 ≤x ≤0.02 ) studied by 59Co nuclear quadrupole resonance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, K.; Hattori, T.; Ishida, K.; Kimura, N.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate physical properties around a ferromagnetic (FM) quantum transition point and a tricritical point (TCP) in the itinerant-electron metamagnetic compound UCoAl, we have performed the 59Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement for the Fe-substituted U(Co1-xFex)Al(x =0 ,0.5 ,1 ,and2 %) in zero external magnetic field. The Fe concentration dependence of 59Co -NQR spectra at low temperatures indicates that the first-order FM transition occurs at least above x =1 % . The magnetic fluctuations along the c axis detected by the nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate 1 /T2 exhibit an anomaly at Tmax˜20 K and enhance with increasing x . These results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and indicate the presence of prominent critical fluctuations at the TCP in this system.

  6. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  7. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  8. Study on influence factor and control measures for unsafe behavior of construction workers%建筑工人不安全行为影响因子分析及控制措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居婕; 杨高升; 杨鹏

    2013-01-01

    To control the unsafe behaviorof construction workers so as to reduce safety accidents ,the main factors that influence unsafe behavior of construction workers must be found , and the control measures must be put forward corresponding .13 impact factors were extracted from the different unsafe behaviors , on this basis, the direct influ-ence matrix was obtained by interviewing , and the method of DEMATEL was applied to calculate the influence de-gree, reason degree, and center degree of each factor .It showed that the following factors:safety attitude,safety skills,safety cognitive , and safety training are more important than the others and the leaders ’ attention has great influence on unsafe behavior of construction workers .Personal factor is the main factor of satety behavior workers , the environment factor and management factor influence the safety behavior by influencing personal factor .At last, in allusion to the personal factor , the measures like carrying out safety training , strengthening the management of behavior on field ,strengthening the safety psychological intervention , and improving the recruitment system were put forward .%为有效的控制建筑工人的不安全行为,从而减少事故,须分析出建筑工人不安全行为主要影响因素,并提出针对性控制措施。从各种不安全行为中提取13个影响因子,在此基础上通过访谈和调研获得直接影响矩阵,借助决策试验和评价实验室方法( DEMATEL)计算出每个因子的影响度、原因度和中心度,由此分析出安全态度、安全技能、安全认知和安全培训在影响因素体系中最为重要,领导的重视对建筑工人的不安全行为也有很大影响。结果表明:个人因素是影响工人安全行为的主要因素,环境因素和管理因素通过影响个人因素影响工人的安全行为。最后,针对个人影响因素,提出了合理开展安全培训、加强

  9. Behavioral epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Marsit, Carmen J; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J.; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.; Skuse, David H.; Sweatt, J. David; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, “Behavioral Epigenetics” was held on October 29–30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, devel...

  10. 男男性行为人群艾滋病高危行为干预措施研究综述%Research summary on intervention measures of high risk behaviors among MSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶莹; 廖斌; 李怡; 梁军

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sexwith men (MSM) have gradually become the bridge population of spreading HIV/AIDS. It summarizes the factors of spreading HIV/AIDS in MSM. It reviews the behavior characteristics, knowledge and behavior status, social impact and internet communication of MSM. It puts forward comprehensive measures to strengthen HIV/AIDS knowledge education and sexual behaviour intervention. It is significant for HIV prevention and control.%男男性行为人群逐渐成为艾滋病传播的桥梁人群。笔者对HIV在MSM中流行的原因进行综述,对男男性行为人群的行为特征、知识与行为状况、社会影响、互联网交际等方面进行回顾。并针对MSM高危人群提出加强HIV/AIDS知识的宣传教育及性行为干预等综合措施,对预防控制HIV的传播有重要意义。

  11. 新型触头材料电接触行为测试技术及试验研究%A New Test Equipment for Measuring Electrical Contact Behaviors of Contact Materials and Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任万滨; 薛升俊; 赵杨杨

    2014-01-01

    为研究微机电系统(MEMS)开关的失效机理,设计了一种以压电陶瓷电动机为核心的新型超低速致动形式的触点材料电接触行为测试分析系统。应用该系统对典型触头材料在闭合和分断过程中的接触力特性、滞回特性、接触电压特性和电弧特性进行了初步观测和物理解释。%Surface hardness,contact resistance,adhesion force and electric arc energy are all important parameters that can represent the electrical contact behavior of contact materials used in electrical apparatus.In order to investigate the failure mechanism of MEMS switch,a new test equipment for measuring electrical contact behaviors of contact materials with super slow velocity by introducing piezo motor was designed.The contact force characteristics,hysteretic characteristics,contact voltage characteristics and arc characteristics of typical contact materials under loading and unloading process were observed and discussed.

  12. Fast prediction of the fatigue behavior of short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on heat build-up measurements: application to heterogeneous cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Leonell; Marco, Yann; Le Saux, Vincent; Robert, Gilles; Charrier, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics components for structural applications are usually very complex parts as stiffeners, ribs and thickness variations are used to compensate the quite low material intrinsic stiffness. These complex geometries induce complex local mechanical fields but also complex microstructures due to the injection process. Accounting for these two aspects is crucial for the design in regard to fatigue of these parts, especially for automotive industry. The aim of this paper is to challenge an energetic approach, defined to evaluate quickly the fatigue lifetime, on three different heterogeneous cases: a classic dog-bone sample with a skin-core microstructure and two structural samples representative of the thickness variations observed for industrial components. First, a method to evaluate dissipated energy fields from thermal measurements is described and is applied to the three samples in order to relate the cyclic loading amplitude to the fields of cyclic dissipated energy. Then, a local analysis is detailed in order to link the energy dissipated at the failure location to the fatigue lifetime and to predict the fatigue curve from the thermomechanical response of one single sample. The predictions obtained for the three cases are compared successfully to the Wöhler curves obtained with classic fatigue tests. Finally, a discussion is proposed to compare results for the three samples in terms of dissipation fields and fatigue lifetime. This comparison illustrates that, if the approach is leading to a very relevant diagnosis on each case, the dissipated energy field is not giving a straightforward access to the lifetime cartography as the relation between fatigue failure and dissipated energy seems to be dependent on the local mechanical and microstructural state.

  13. Time-Dependent Deformation at Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Field (Nevada) Measured With Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Modeled with Multiple Working Hypotheses of Coupled Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K. L.; Ali, S. T.; Akerley, J.; Baluyut, E.; Cardiff, M. A.; Davatzes, N. C.; Foxall, W.; Fratta, D.; Kreemer, C.; Mellors, R. J.; Lopeman, J.; Spielman, P.; Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    To measure time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada, we analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014 by five satellite missions, including: ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X. The resulting maps of deformation show an elliptical subsiding area that is ~4 km by ~1.5 km. Its long axis coincides with the strike of the dominant normal-fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, that are probably associated with damaged regions where faults interact via thermal (T), hydrological (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing high-permeability conduits to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We explore first-order models to calculate the time-dependent deformation fields produced by coupled processes, including: thermal contraction of rock (T-M coupling), decline in pore pressure (H-M coupling), and dissolution of minerals over time (H-C-M coupling). These processes are related to the heterogeneity of hydro-geological and material properties at the site. This work is part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" (PoroTomo) http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo.

  14. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  15. Long-term behavior of the Kelvin waves revealed by CHAMP/GPS RO measurements and their effects on the tropopause structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkat Ratnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertical and temporal variations of Kelvin waves and the associated effects on the tropical tropopause were studied using long-term (from May 2001 to October 2005 CHAMP/GPS (CHAllenging Mini satellite Payload/Global Positioning System radio occultation (RO measurements. The periods of these waves were found to be varying in between 10 and 15 days, with vertical wavelengths 5–8 km. These variations clearly show eastward phase propagation in the time-longitude section and eastward phase tilts with height in altitude-longitude, displaying the characteristics of Kelvin waves. The peak variance in the temperature is found over the Indian Ocean and into the western Pacific within the broad region of the equator. Kelvin wave amplitudes were found significantly enhanced in the eastward shear of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and are confined in and around the tropopause during westward phase of QBO, where it extends between 17 and 25 km during the eastward phase of QBO and is damped away above, consistent with earlier reported results. The amplitudes are increasing during the months of Northern Hemisphere winter and sometimes they are highly sporadic in nature. Seasonal and inter-annual variations in the Kelvin wave amplitudes near the tropical tropopause coincide exactly with the tropopause height and temperature, with a sharp tropopause during maximum Kelvin wave activity. A clear annual oscillation, along with a month-to-month coincidence is evident most of the time in both the tropopause height and Kelvin wave activity, with maximum and minimum Kelvin wave amplitudes during the Northern Hemisphere winter and summer, respectively. In addition, a signature of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO in the tropopause structure is also seen in long-term tropopause variations, although the amplitudes are less when compared to the annual oscillation. In the westward phase of QBO (during strong Kelvin wave activity at 20km (in 2001–2002 winter and

  16. 城乡少年儿童的行为问题及防制对策探讨%Discussion of Urban and Rural Children's Behavioral Problems and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective Urban and rural children's behavioral problems are discussed and the prevention countermeasures. Methods Randomly selected from the urban and rural each an ordinary kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, students between the ages of ifve to 15 years old, launches the Conners children behavior questionnaire, effective questionnaire Conners parents and teachers, a total of 998 questionnaires, city 500 samples,498 rural samples. Results The Conners parents questionnaire survey, the rural children's behavioral problems score higher than that of urban children(P<0.05);Conners teacher questionnaire survey, rural children do not pay attention to/passive behavior, hyperactivity index score higher than that of urban children(P<0.05);Contrast differences between urban and rural areas is obvious different age groups(P<0.05), with statistical signiifcance. Conclusion Rural children than urban children's behavior problems, particularly in 12 to 15 years old age group is most obvious, have great inlfuence on the development of mental health of young children. For this,be sure to in-depth analysis of the behavior problems of children, to carry out health education, that is, to take effective prevention measures, to ensure the healthy growth of children's body and mind.%目的:探讨分析城乡少年儿童行为问题及防制对策。方法随机选取市区与农村的普通幼儿园、小学、初中各一所,年龄在5~15岁的学生,展开Conners儿童行为问卷调查,有效的Conners父母问卷以及教师问卷共998份,城市样本500份,农村样本498份。结果Conners父母问卷调查中,农村少年儿童行为问题评分高于市区少年儿童(P<0.05);Conners教师问卷调查中,农村少年儿童的品行问题、注意力/被动行为、多动指数评分高于市区少年儿童(P<0.05),具有统计学意义。结论农村少年儿童存在的行为问题要多于城市少年儿童,特别以13

  17. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  18. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how......During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi...

  19. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...

  20. Interpersonal Behavior and Leader Behavior Characteristics of Business Administration and Educational Administration Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, John J., Jr.; Ramirez, Ernest E.

    This study investigates the relationship between interpersonal behaviors and leader behaviors for present and prospective leaders in business administration and educational administration. Interpersonal behavior characteristics are measured by Schutz' FIRO-B (Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation--Behavior) Scales, while leader behavior…

  1. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  2. Behavior subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Network video cameras, invented in the last decade or so, permit today pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However, due to the vast amounts of visual data that such cameras produce human-operator monitoring is not possible and automatic algorithms are needed. One monitoring task of particular interest is the detection of suspicious behavior, i.e., identification of individuals or objects whose behavior differs from behavior usually observed. Many methods based on object path analysis have been developed to date (motion detection followed by tracking and inferencing) but they are sensitive to motion detection and tracking errors and are also computationally complex. We propose a new surveillance method capable of abnormal behavior detection without explicit estimation of object paths. Our method is based on a simple model of video dynamics. We propose one practical implementation of this general model via temporal aggregation of motion detection labels. Our method requires little processing power and memory, is robust to motion segmentation errors, and general enough to monitor humans, cars or any other moving objects in uncluttered as well as highly-cluttered scenes. Furthermore, on account of its simplicity, our method can provide performance guarantees. It is also robust in harsh environments (jittery cameras, rain/snow/fog).

  3. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  4. Behavioral Measurement in Business, Industry, and Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    Panyan , Rabon , & Broden, 1968) and mental health staff (Iwata, Bailey, • Brown, Foshee, & Alpern, 1976; Pommer & Streedbeck, 1974). Little work has...Enterprises, 1971. Hall, R. V., Panyan , M., Rabon , B., & Broden, M. Instructing beginning teachers in reinforcement procedures which improve classroom control

  5. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-01

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  6. 精神病患者自杀行为临床特征分析及预防措施%Analyses of clinical features of suicidal behaviors of psychosis patients and preventative measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重建; 刘娟

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨精神病患者自杀行为的临床特征,为制定临床预防措施提供依据。方法对30例有自杀行为的精神病患者的临床资料进行回顾分析。结果本组自杀者以抑郁症(60.0%)、精神分裂症(36.7%)居多,自杀行为多发生于凌晨1时-2时(50.0%),自杀前主要表现为焦虑、绝望、痛苦、抑郁等,自杀地点多发生在卫生间、病房、窗户、床头。结论精神病患者自杀行为具有一定的规律性,护理人员应加强安全管理,积极采取综合预防措施,杜绝或减少自杀的发生。%Objective To explore clinical features of suicidal behaviors of psycho-sis patients in order to provide basis for enacting clinical preventative measures . Methods Clinical data of 30 suicide psychosis patients were retrospectively analyzed .Results Farmers made up 76 .7% of the patients ,schizophrenics did 36 .7% ,ones with incomplete suicide did 73 .3% , 50 .0% of patients committed suicide during 1~2 am ,their main manifestations before suicide were anxie-ty ,hopelessness ,distress ,depression and so on ,suicides taken place in toilet ,ward ,window and bedside mainly .Conclusion Suicidal behaviors of psychosis patients have determinate regularity ,safety manage-ments should be enhanced and universal preventative measures actively adopted in order to eliminate or re-duce the developments of suicide .

  7. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  8. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  9. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  10. Behavioral intervention reduces unhealthy eating behaviors in preschool children via a behavior card approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Li-Ping; Han, Juan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; Jin, Run-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Many eating behaviors form in childhood, and some unhealthy behaviors may persist into adulthood and have potential impacts on people's health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral intervention in reducing consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, fried food in preschool children, and changing parents' rewarding behaviors that encourage the consumption of the unhealthy foods. The research was a cluster randomized trial of seven kindergartens, involving 1138 children aged 3-6 years and their parents in Beijing, China. Parents and children allocated to the intervention group received two lectures and printed resources, including behavior cards, educational sheets. Children's behavior cards, applied with behavior-changing techniques, were used to intervene, and monitor behavior changes over time. Children in the control group just followed their usual health education curriculum in kindergartens. Intervention effects on food consumption behaviors were assessed by examining pre- and post-questionnaires. Of the 1138 children screened at baseline, 880 (77.3%) were measured at the end of the intervention period. The intervention lasted from March to June in 2010. The results showed that consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, and fried food was decreased among the intervention group (Pchildren were decreased (P=0.002). From March to June 2010, the frequency of each target behavior in children tended to decrease over the intervention period (Pchildren and reduces the parents' practice of using unhealthy foods as reward.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Employee is a 32-year-old male. The audiometric history for his right ear is shown in decibels below... age correction). Table F-1—Age Correction Values in Decibels for Males Years Audiometric test... Correction Values in Decibels for Females Years Audiometric test frequencies(Hz) 1000 2000 3000 4000 6000...

  12. Early definition of type, degree and audiogram shape in childhood hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, G; Gallus, R; Fetoni, A R; Martina, B M; Muzzi, E; Orzan, E; Bastanza, G

    2016-02-01

    In the context of permanent childhood hearing loss, early audiological diagnosis is a prerequisite for activation of an adequate rehabilitation program to prevent or limit the known effects that auditory deprivation determines on language development and cognitive skills in neonates. Audiological diagnosis consists schematically of three phases: identification of subjects at risk, definition of hearing loss and/or children features, verification of appropriateness of diagnosis itself and a rehabilitation programme. Strategies and methods of audiological diagnosis are well defined and include an integration of data coming from objective methods with clinical and behavioural data. Although the substantial effectiveness of procedures and a general consensus on their use and interpretation have been defined, there are several critical issues concerning the achievement of this objective, which will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  14. Predicting Intended Unethical Behavior of Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    What is the likelihood that students would intend to act unethically in the work environment? The author measured business students' intended behavior for 4 hypothetical unethical situations by investigating the following determinants: belief toward the behavior, subjective norms (i.e., pressure), perceived behavioral control, perceived personal…

  15. High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans - Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0722 TITLE: High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans- Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral ...first project is a randomized clinical trial of 120 veterans identified with high-risk suicidal behavior comparing the efficacy of Dialectical... Behavioral Therapy (DBT) vs. treatment as usual (TAU) on suicidal behavior as a primary outcome measure. A second aim of the project is to examine group

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  17. Assessing type a behavior in 8-year-olds: exploring the overlap between the constructs of type a behavior and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, L; Bohlin, G; Hagekull, B

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to examine, by using behavioral observations, the overlap found between Type A behavior, as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) questionnaire, and measures of hyperactivity in children. The sample consisted of 91 children (46 boys and 45 girls) between the ages of 8 and 9 who were part of a longitudinal study in Uppsala, Sweden. Behavioral observations of Type A behavior and various questionnaire data were used. The behaviorally observed Type A behavior correlated significantly with MYTH Type A behavior, whereas only the MYTH Type A behavior correlated with hyperactivity measured by questionnaires. The results indicated that behavioral observations make it possible to measure Type A behavior as distinct from hyperactivity, implying that the MYTH is too indiscriminate a measure of Type A behavior. This has implications for future measurement and perhaps conceptualization of Type A behavior in children, and thereby also for studying the developmental aspects of Type A behavior.

  18. A Behavioral Index of Career Indecision for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua, Dale R.; Hartman, Bruce W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the development of a behavior-anchored scale to measure career indecision and presents the relationship of the behavioral scale to other career indecision and psychological measures. (Author)

  19. The Application of Non -financial Performance Measure and Its Behavioral Effect: -- A Motivational Approach%非财务绩效评价的使用及行为效应——基于动机视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建梁

    2011-01-01

    The applications of NFPM are influenced by three kinds of context factors - environment, organization, the credibility of performance measure. The firms should integrally considerate those factors and strategically apply NPFM to enhance the employees' intrinsic motivation which then guide the employees' behavior align with the goal of organizations.%非财务绩效评价的使用受多个因素的影响,包括环境因素、组织因素、绩效评价机制自身因素,它影响着雇员在程序公平、组织承诺、心理授权、协作意愿、信任、工作满意等方面的感知,从而作用于雇员的内生动机。企业应综合考虑这三类因素以策略性地引入非财务绩效评价,最有效地激发雇员的内生动机,使得雇员行为与企业目标保持一致。

  20. Logical Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...

  1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  2. Research on Deviant Behaviors and Prevention Measures in the Process of Network Anti-corruption%网络反腐过程中的越轨行为及其防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文华; 黄建新

    2015-01-01

    Undoubtedly, as a new form of anti-corruption, network anti-corruption in China is a strong supplement to the tradi-tional methods and has made tremendous contributions in the process of anti-corruption. However, because of the randomness of network environment, the complexity of anti-corruption, and the lack of norms, the deviant behaviors of subjects, objects, media supervising public opinions and the anti-corruption department have been emerging. It may lead to network violence, impede the investigation of the cases, and even trigger a public crisis of confidence. These problems will do great harm to the development of network anti-corruption and social harmony and stability. Consequently, effective preventive measures against deviant behaviors are urgently in need. We should build a platform between the officials and the public, make the anti-corrup-tion channels more accessible, promote the online real name system, define the deviance in law, strengthen the cooperative su-pervising power of mass media and improve the internal and external institutional supervision.%网络反腐作为一种新兴的反腐形式,是传统反腐渠道的有力补充,在反腐倡廉建设中发挥了重要作用。但由于受网络环境无序性、反腐工作复杂性以及网络反腐规范不足等因素影响,网络反腐主体、客体、舆论监督媒体及反腐部门的越轨行为层出不穷,并可能催生“网络暴力”、阻碍反腐案件查处甚至引发公众信任危机。这对网络反腐的有序发展和社会的和谐稳定产生危害,因此,必须对网络反腐过程中的越轨行为进行有效防范,建立官民互动平台,畅通反腐渠道,推进网络实名制,加强网络越轨行为的法律规范,提升媒体监督合力,促进体制内外监督。

  3. Veterans Health Administration Behavioral Health Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with behavioral health measure data. VHA reports data on a set of core performance measures for Hospital-Based Inpatient Psychiatric Services...

  4. Behavior subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2012-09-01

    Background subtraction has been a driving engine for many computer vision and video analytics tasks. Although its many variants exist, they all share the underlying assumption that photometric scene properties are either static or exhibit temporal stationarity. While this works in many applications, the model fails when one is interested in discovering changes in scene dynamics instead of changes in scene's photometric properties; the detection of unusual pedestrian or motor traffic patterns are but two examples. We propose a new model and computational framework that assume the dynamics of a scene, not its photometry, to be stationary, i.e., a dynamic background serves as the reference for the dynamics of an observed scene. Central to our approach is the concept of an event, which we define as short-term scene dynamics captured over a time window at a specific spatial location in the camera field of view. Unlike in our earlier work, we compute events by time-aggregating vector object descriptors that can combine multiple features, such as object size, direction of movement, speed, etc. We characterize events probabilistically, but use low-memory, low-complexity surrogates in a practical implementation. Using these surrogates amounts to behavior subtraction, a new algorithm for effective and efficient temporal anomaly detection and localization. Behavior subtraction is resilient to spurious background motion, such as due to camera jitter, and is content-blind, i.e., it works equally well on humans, cars, animals, and other objects in both uncluttered and highly cluttered scenes. Clearly, treating video as a collection of events rather than colored pixels opens new possibilities for video analytics.

  5. Desempenho, variáveis fisiológicas e comportamento de bezerros mantidos em diferentes instalações: época chuvosa Performance, physiological and behavioral measurements of dairy calves in different housing systems: rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Noronha Figueiredo Vieira da Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, o conforto térmico e o comportamento de bezerros mestiços Holandês ´ Zebu mantidos em abrigos móveis, sob sombrites ou a céu aberto durante a estação chuvosa do ano (dezembro a abril. Foram utilizados 24 bezerros mestiços do nascimento aos 70 dias de idade, distribuídos em blocos casualizados, nas seguintes instalações: abrigos móveis, telas de polipropileno e a céu aberto. Os animais mantidos a céu aberto apresentaram, à tarde, maior temperatura retal e maior frequência respiratória. Não foi observada influência dos tipos de instalação sobre as variáveis relacionadas ao comportamento, entretanto, os bezerros mantidos em abrigos móveis passaram a maior parte do tempo do lado de fora das instalações. As instalações não afetaram o desempenho dos animais. Nos três tipos de instalação, no período da tarde, os bezerros elevaram a frequência respiratória acima da faixa considerada fisiologicamente normal, o que caracteriza condição de desconforto térmico. Bezerros permanecem a maior parte do tempo do lado de fora dos abrigos móveis, mesmo nos horários de radiação solar mais intensa ou durante as horas de chuva. Bezerros mantidos em abrigos individuais, sob sombrites ou a céu aberto apresentam desempenhos semelhantes.The objective of this trial was to evaluate performance, thermal comfort and behavior of crossbred Holstein x Zebu dairy calves kept in different housing systems during the rainy season (December to April. Twenty-four calves were raised from birth to 70 days of age in one of the following housing systems: hutches; shadecloth; or no shelter. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate measurements were taken twice a day (8:00 AM and 3:00 PM when calves were 1, 4 and 9 weeks old. Respiratory rate was measured counting the number of respiratory movements per minute and rectal temperatures were taken with clinical thermometers. Behavior evaluation was done by visual

  6. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the

  7. 推拉行为工效学测量与评估方法的研究进展%Research Progresses on Ergonomics Assessment and Measurement Methods for Push-pull Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岩; 李东旭

    2011-01-01

    Pushing and pulling (P&P) is a common operating mode of operator's physical works, and plays an important role in evaluation of human behavior health and operation performance. At present, there are many research methods of P&P, and this article is a state-of-art review of the classification of P&P research methods, the various impact factors in P&P program, technical details of internal/external P&P force measurement and evaluation, the limitation of current research methods and the future developments in the ergonomics field.%推拉行为(P&P)是操作者体力工作任务中常见的一种作业方式,在人体行为健康与操作绩效研究与评估中占有重要的地位.研究与评估推拉行为的工效学方法种类很多,本文根据国内外相关领域的研究进展情况,全面地综述了推拉行为研究方法的分类,推拉行为过程中的影响因素及内/外力的测量与评估方法现状,并对当前P&P测量与评估方法中存在的问题及在未来工效学领域中的发展趋向进行了分析.

  8. 重复测试和不同性别对小鼠旷场行为的影响%Repeated Measurement and Sex for the Behavior in Open Field in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超杰; 钟志凤; 俞昌喜

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect on the locomotory activity and anxiety-like behavior of laboratory mice by both factors of repeated measurement and sex.METHODS The total distance traveled ,total mean velocity , total parallel index,the percentage of distance in center zone ,the mean velocity in center zone ,the center zone en-tries,the percentage of time spent in center zone and the parallel index in center zone of the female and male mice for 5 minutes were recorded and analyzed in open field test by animal video tracking analysis system ,once a day for 3 days.RESULTS In the open field test ,the indexes of the total distance traveled ,total mean velocity ,total parallel index ,the percentage of distance in center zone ,the mean velocity in center zone ,the center zone entries ,the percent-age of time spent in center zone and the parallel index in center zone in mice showed the downtrend as the measure -ment numbers were increasing ( P0.05 ).However ,as repeating the tests ,the downtrend of these in male mice were seemly more significant than female mice ,especially in the third time measurement ,in which the mean velocity ( P<0.05 ) and parallel index ( P<0.01 ) in center zone were lower than the ones in female mice ,respectively.CONCLUSION The repeated measurement inferences the locomotory activity and interrupted the anxiety state of mice.Sex of mice does not make the behavior in open field different at the first time ,but the repeated measurement seemly more signifi-cantly affect the locomotory activity of the male mice than the female.%目的:研究重复测试和不同性别两个因素对小鼠在旷场试验中自主行为活动和焦虑行为的影响。方法通过动物视频行为分析系统,分别记录和分析雌雄小鼠5 min内在旷场中的总路程、总体平均速度、总体平行指数、中央区的路程占总路程的比例、中央区的平均速度、中央区进入次数、中央区停留时间占整体测试时间的比例和中

  9. Citation behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Citation frequencies are commonly interpreted as measures of quality or impact. Yet, the true nature of citations and their proper interpretation have been the center of a long, but still unresolved discussion in Bibliometrics. A comparison of 67,578 pairs of studies on the same healthcare topic,...

  10. Citation Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Citation frequencies are commonly interpreted as measures of quality or impact. Yet, the true nature of citations and their proper interpretation have been the center of a long, but still unresolved discussion in Bibliometrics. A comparison of 67,578 pairs of studies on the same healthcare topic,...

  11. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  12. Measuring unrecorded measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzen, M.; Mann, A.

    2016-08-01

    Projective (von Neumann) measurement of an operator (i.e., a dynamical variable) selected from a prescribed set of operators is termed unrecorded measurement (URM) when both the selected operator and the measurement outcome are unknown, i.e., “lost”. Within classical physics a URM is completely inconsequential: the state is unaffected by measurement. Within quantum physics a measurement leaves a mark. The present study provides protocols that allow the retrieval of some of the data lost in a URM. The study is shown as supportive of viewing quantum measurement as made up of both classical-like and pure quantum components.

  13. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social relati

  14. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  15. Strengthening the Role of Self-care Behavior Management Measures and the Severity of TB Patients%强化自我护理管理措施对结核患者行为及病情的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩云

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨强化自我护理管理措施对结核患者行为及病情的影响。方法选择2013年1月-2014年1月期间该结核病医院收治的肺结核患者134例,根据双盲法将其平均分为研究组与对照组,每组各67例。对照组采取常规护理措施,研究组在此基础上强化本组患者的自我护理管理意识。结果研究组遵医行为、复查时间、疾病知晓、合理用药、戒烟戒酒的实施及改善率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。研究组患者痰菌转阴率、病灶吸收率及症状改善率分别为77.61%、77.61%、83.58%,均高于对照组的59.70%、59.70%、61.19%(P<0.05)。结论强化自我护理管理措施不仅对肺结核患者的遵医行为、合理用药、配合全方位健康宣教、良好的日常行为习惯具有积极的促进作用,同时还可以有效提高疾病的恢复效果,改善症状表现。%Objective To investigate self-care management to strengthen measures on the behavior of tuberculosis patients and disease. Methods January 2013- January 2014 period TB patients in our hospital treated 134 cases of tuberculosis, according to a double-blind study were divided into two groups, each group 67 cases. The control group received routine nursing care, the study group to strengthen self-care management awareness in this group of patients on this basis. Results The study group compli-ance behavior, review time, the disease known, rational drug use, smoking and improve the rate of implementation of abstinence was significantly higher (P<0.05). Study patients sputum negative rate, focus absorption rate and symptom improvement rates were 77.61%, 77.61%, 83.58%, were higher than the 59.70%, 59.70%, 61.19%(P<0.05). Conclusion Strengthen self-care management practices not only for tuberculosis patients' compliance to treatment, rational use of drugs, with comprehensive health education, good daily habits have a positive role in promoting, but also can improve the

  16. Sexual behavior problems in preteen children: developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, W N; Davies, W Hobart; Feher, Eleonora; Wright, John

    2003-06-01

    A large sample of 2-12 year old children (N = 2311) was studied to determine the relationship between three sexually intrusive behavior items (SIBs) measured by the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and a range of developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates. The variables studied included age, gender, race, family income, single parent status, maternal education, family sexual behaviors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, social competence of the child, and three scales from the CBCL (Internalizing, Externalizing, and PTSD). Sexual abuse was not the primary predictor of SIB, but a model incorporating family adversity, modeling of coercive behavior, child behavior, and modeling of sexuality predicted a significant amount of variance.

  17. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  18. Information: theory, brain, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D

    2013-11-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified.

  19. INFORMATION: THEORY, BRAIN, AND BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D.; Balsam, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. PMID:24122456

  20. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  1. Hierarchy and predictability in spontaneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Animals perform a complex array of behaviors, from changes in body posture to vocalizations to other dynamic outputs. Far from being a disordered collection of actions, however, there is thought to be an intrinsic structure to the set of behaviors and their temporal organization. This structure has often been hypothesized to be hierarchical, with certain behaviors grouped together into modules that interact with other modules at time scales that are long with respect to that of an individual behavior. There have been few measurements, however, showing that a particular animal's behavioral repertoire is organized hierarchically. This has largely resulted from an inability to measure the entirety of an animal's behavioral repertoire or even to definite precisely what a ``behavior'' is. In this talk, I will apply our novel method for mapping the behavioral space of animals to videos of freely-behaving fruit flies (D. melanogaster), showing that the organisms' behavioral repertoire consists of a hierarchically-organized set of stereotyped behaviors. This hierarchical patterning results in the emergence of long time scales of memory in the system, providing insight into the mechanisms of behavioral control and patterning.

  2. Creativity, personality, and hoarding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dianne M; Hooley, Jill M

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive hoarding is a debilitating illness that is characterized by excessive collection of and failure to discard items, irrespective of their uselessness or hazardousness. Anecdotal evidence suggests that individuals who hoard may be more creative than individuals without hoarding behavior; however, this hypothesis has never been tested empirically. In the present study, we examined the relationship between hoarding symptoms and performance on a series of creativity measures. We also explored the extent to which hoarding symptoms were associated with factors such as personality, impulsivity, distress tolerance, and attitudes about money and the environment. Our findings revealed no significant associations between hoarding behavior and any measure of creativity. Hoarding behavior was also unrelated to attitudes about money or concern about the environment. However, consistent with previous research, hoarding tendencies were correlated with higher levels of neuroticism and impulsivity, as well as with lower levels of conscientiousness and distress tolerance. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  4. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  5. Assessing tolerance for wildlife: Clarifying relations between concepts and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskotter, Jeremy T.; Singh, Ajay; Fulton, David C.; Slagle, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Two parallel lines of inquiry, tolerance for and acceptance of wildlife populations, have arisen in the applied literature on wildlife conservation to assess probability of successfully establishing or increasing populations of controversial species. Neither of these lines is well grounded in social science theory, and diverse measures have been employed to assess tolerance, which inhibits comparability across studies. We empirically tested behavioral measures of tolerance against self-reports of previous policy-relevant behavior and behavioral intentions. Both composite behavioral measures were strongly correlated (r > .70) with two attitudinal measures of tolerance commonly employed in the literature. The strong correlation between attitudinal and behavioral measures suggests existing attitudinal measures represent valid, parsimonious measures of tolerance that may be useful when behavioral measures are too cumbersome or misreporting of behavior is anticipated. Our results demonstrate how behavioral measures of tolerance provide additional, useful information beyond general attitudinal measures.

  6. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  7. Ecological Consumer Behavior – Influencial Factors -

    OpenAIRE

    Oboroceanu (Popa) Anda; Manea Ioana Livia

    2011-01-01

    The study of the consumer behavior is a complex task because it is possible to analyze it from different points of view. So, if we investigate the ecological consumer behavior we realize that it is also difficult to establish the limits that clearly define the profile of a consumer who acts in an environmentally friendly manner. Consequently, the measurement, the conceptual delimitation of this behavior and the identification of the ecological segment in the market are essential aspects for t...

  8. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  9. The role of descriptive norm within the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean Americans' exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo

    2011-08-01

    There are few studies investigating psychosocial mechanisms in Korean Americans' exercise behavior. The present study tested the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean American's exercise behavior and whether the descriptive norm (i.e., perceptions of what others do) improved the predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior. Using a retrospective design and self-report measures, web-survey responses from 198 Korean-American adults were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. The theory of planned behavior constructs accounted for 31% of exercise behavior and 43% of exercise intention. Intention and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of exercise behavior. Although the descriptive norm did not augment the theory of planned behavior, all original constructs--attitude, injunctive norm (a narrow definition of subjective norm), and perceived behavioral control--statistically significantly predicted leisure-time physical activity intention. Future studies should consider random sampling, prospective design, and objective measures of physical activity.

  10. Measures for Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; A.D., Jackson; Lautrup, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    Are some ways of measuring scientific quality better than others? Sune Lehmann, Andrew D. Jackson and Benny E. Lautrup analyse the reliability of commonly used methods for comparing citation records....

  11. Children's Moral Motivation, Sympathy, and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika; Buchmann, Marlis

    2009-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of children's moral motivation and sympathy in prosocial behavior. Study 1 measured other-reported prosocial behavior and self- and other-reported sympathy. Moral motivation was assessed by emotion attributions and moral reasoning following hypothetical transgressions in a representative longitudinal sample of…

  12. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  13. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  14. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogang; CHEN; Dehu; ZHOU; Hui; LIN

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior,company and government policy,it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  15. Creep behavior of microbiotic crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The creep behavior of microbiotic crust at room temperature was revealed by the creep bending tests of cantilever beam under constant-load conditions.The variation in the deflection with time can be depicted well by a standard creep curve.Creep rupture is a fundamental failure mechanism of microbiotic crust due to creep.A simple theory was then applied to describe this new me-chanical behavior.The existence of creep phenomenon brings into question the validity of widely used methods for measuring the strength of microbiotic crust.

  16. Econometric Information Recovery in Behavioral Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Judge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest an approach to recovering behavior-related, preference-choice network information from observational data. We model the process as a self-organized behavior based random exponential network-graph system. To address the unknown nature of the sampling model in recovering behavior related network information, we use the Cressie-Read (CR family of divergence measures and the corresponding information theoretic entropy basis, for estimation, inference, model evaluation, and prediction. Examples are included to clarify how entropy based information theoretic methods are directly applicable to recovering the behavioral network probabilities in this fundamentally underdetermined ill posed inverse recovery problem.

  17. Moral behavior and pro-social behaviors: Does art education create a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Acun Kapıkıran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether art education creates a difference on moral behavior and to determine college students’ moral behaviors through their perceptions of their parents’ pro-social behaviors. The subjects of this study consist of 202 college students (Female: 125, Male: 77.  Moral behavior was measured by using the “Scale of Evaluating Moral Behavior”, which was developed by Hogan (1973 and Blasi (1980. In order to measure pro-social behaviors, the “Scale of Child and Family” was used. This instrument was developed by Lennon and Others in 1987.  The results showed that art education did not create a difference on moral behavior. Moral behavior was found to be significantly related with fathers’ pro-social behaviors and the personal moral character subscale of Scale of Evaluating Moral Behavior was significantly predicted to the subgroups of mothers’ understanding of emotions and fathers’ need of helping. These results were discussed in relation with the literature on moral behavior and the development of pro-social behaviors.

  18. Moral behavior and pro-social behaviors: Does art education create a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Acun Kapıkıran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether art education creates a difference on moral behavior and to determine college students’ moral behaviors through their perceptions of their parents’ pro-social behaviors. The subjects of this study consist of 202 college students (Female: 125, Male: 77. Moral behavior was measured by using the “Scale of Evaluating Moral Behavior”, which was developed by Hogan (1973 and Blasi (1980. In order to measure pro-social behaviors, the “Scale of Child and Family” was used. This instrument was developed by Lennon and Others in 1987. The results showed that art education did not create a difference on moral behavior. Moral behavior was found to be significantly related with fathers’ pro-social behaviors and the personal moral character subscale of Scale of Evaluating Moral Behavior was significantly predicted to the subgroups of mothers’ understanding of emotions and fathers’ need of helping. These results were discussed in relation with the literature on moral behavior and the development of pro-social behaviors.

  19. Measuring Voter Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We present an automated data collection technique called white boxes-or simply wb-technique, which is designed to analyze the voter behavior in polling stations including the measurement of arrival and waiting times and the determination of arrival frequency, to assist the management of polling...

  20. Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.