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Sample records for behavioral weight control

  1. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  2. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  3. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-s...

  4. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

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    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

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    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  6. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

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    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender and Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Weight Perception and Weight Control Behavior in Korean Adults

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    Hee-Kyung Joh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Korea, obesity is more prevalent among men and lower socioeconomic groups. To explain this obesity disparity, we compared weight perception and weight control behavior across gender and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: We analyzed data from 16,260 participants aged 20 years or older in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SES indicators included education and income levels. Weight under-perception was defined when participants considered themselves lighter than their measured BMI status. Either no active or inappropriate weight control (i.e., trying to gain weight in obese individuals was considered to be unhealthy patterns. Multivariate prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regressions. Results: Men had a higher prevalence of weight under-perception (24.5 vs. 11.9% and unhealthy patterns of weight control behavior (57 vs. 40% than women. Low education level was associated with weight under-perception (ptrend = 0.022 in men, ptrend trend trend = 0.047 in men, ptrend Conclusion: Weight perception and weight control behavior significantly varied by gender and SES. Public actions should be directed toward improving perception and behavior of high-risk populations.

  8. Effect of psychological distress on weight concern and weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kabir, Ali; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shokouh, Pedram; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic disorders like coronary artery diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancers, and psychiatric disorders. Stress may contribute to weight gain by disrupting weight concern, and lead to uncontrolled eating behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stress on weight concern and control behaviors in normal weight and obese adults. A total of 9544 subjects were selected by multi-stage random sampling from three provinces in central Iran. Information related to weight concern and control behavior was registered in normal weight and obese participants. Psychological distress was measured by a 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and subjects were divided into high and low stress groups. Logistic regression was used for analysis. The mean age of participants was 38.7 ± 15.5 years and 50% (4772) of them were males. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for age, sex and education of high stress to low stress level for weight concern, weight control behavior and acceptable physical activity behavior was more than 1; but the OR was less than 1 for waist circumference, obesity and healthy diet behavior. Among obese participants, higher levels of stress were associated with lower weight concern with OR, 95%CI: 0.821, (0.682 - 0.988), lower acceptable physical activity with OR = 0.833, 95%CI: (0.624 - 0.912), but higher rates of healthy diet behavior with OR = 1.360, 95% CI: (1.040 - 1.780). Individuals with high stress level have lower weight concern and lower physical activity; therefore, they are prone to weight gain and obesity. It could be concluded that stress management should be considered as a crucial component of obesity prevention and control programs.

  9. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

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    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  10. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

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    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  11. Agreement Between Actual and Perceived Body Weight in Adolescents and Their Weight Control Behaviors

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    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : To investigate the agreements between actual and perceived body weight status among adolescents and to identify the associations of disagreements with their weight control behaviors. Methods : This study used the secondary data of a sample survey (n=13,871 of the Seoul Student Health Examination among middle and high schools in 2010. Agreements between actual (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, according to 2007 Korean National Growth Charts and perceived body weight status (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were examined using Chi-square and Cohen’s kappa agreement, and then multinomial logistic regression including gender, grade, and attempt of weight control or method of weight control was done. Results : Agreements between actual and perceived body weight status were only 45.2%, and disagreements were up to 54.8%, including mild over- (20.4%, severe over- (1.8%, mild under- (29.5%, and severe under-estimation (3.1%. The kappa coefficient of agreement was only 0.19. The odds ratios on severe over-estimated perception were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.22-2.07 in female subjects, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36-2.34 in diet control behaviors, and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.18-2.00 in exercise. The odds ratios on severe under-estimated perception were only 0.40 (95% CI, 0.32–0.50 in female subjects but 5.77 (95% CI, 3.68-9.06 in taking medication. Conclusion : There were associations of body weight control behaviors with disagreements of actual and perceived weight status. Therefore, further study is needed to identify the weight disagreement-related factors and to promote the desired weight control behaviors for adolescents.

  12. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

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    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  13. Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors.

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    Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

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    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  15. Weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors among overweight adolescents in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Shrivastav Radhika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.

  16. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

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    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  17. Weight-related sport motive and girls’ body image, weight control behaviors and self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Woertman, L.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18

  18. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

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    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  19. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestima...

  20. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  1. School-based obesity policy, social capital, and gender differences in weight control behaviors.

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    Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca

    2013-06-01

    We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial for Behavioral Smoking and Weight Control Treatment: Effect of Concurrent Versus Sequential Intervention.

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    Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…

  3. Demographic, Psychological, and Weight-Related Correlates of Weight Control Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    model of bulimia nervosa: Evidence for restrained-eating and affect-regulation mechanisms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology , 15, 340-363...DATE MAR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demographic, Psychological , and Weight-Related...weigh-in/physical fitness testing. Both weight-related factors and psychological factors were associated with increased odds of engaging in weight

  4. Weight control behaviors in overweight/obese U.S. adults with diagnosed hypertension and diabetes

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    Li Chaoyang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major risk factor for development and progression of hypertension and diabetes, which often coexist in obese patients. Losing weight by means of energy restriction and physical activity has been effective in preventing and managing these diseases. However, weight control behaviors among overweight/obese adults with these conditions are poorly understood. Methods Using self-reported data from 143,386 overweight/obese participants (aged ≥ 18 years in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the proportion of overweight/obese adults who tried to lose weight and their weight control strategies by hypertension and/or diabetes status. Results Among all participants, 58% of those with hypertension, 60% of those with diabetes, and 72% of those with both diseases tried to lose weight, significantly higher than the 50% of those with neither condition (Bonferroni corrected P Conclusion The proportion of overweight/obese patients with diagnosed hypertension and/or diabetes who attempted to lose weight remains suboptimal and the weight control strategies varied significantly among these patients.

  5. Gender Orientation and Alcohol-Related Weight Control Behavior among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L.; Barr, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants: Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Method: Weight…

  6. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

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    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.

  7. Effects of manipulating eating frequency during a behavioral weight loss intervention: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

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    Bachman, Jessica L; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-05-01

    Eating frequency has been inversely related to BMI but the impact of eating frequency on weight loss is unclear. This randomized controlled trial pilot study examined the effect of eating frequency on hunger, energy intake, and weight loss during a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants (age: 51.0 ± 9.9 years, BMI: 35.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), 57.8% female, 94.1% white) were randomized to one of two eating frequency prescriptions: Three meal (n = 25): three eating bouts/day; or grazing (n = 26): eat at least 100 kcals every 2-3 h. Both groups attended 20 sessions and had identical dietary (1,200-1,500 kcals/day, frequency than three meal at 6 months (5.8 ± 1.1 eating bouts/day vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 eating bouts/day, P weight loss intervention.

  8. Unhealthy weight control behaviors mediate the association between weight status and weight-specific health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking youth who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M

    2017-03-01

    Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.

  9. Weight misperception and disordered weight control behaviors among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity: Associations and trends, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Vivienne M; Hahn, Samantha L; Sonneville, Kendrin R

    2017-08-01

    To examine prevalence of weight misperception (incongruence between one's perceived weight status and one's actual weight status) and disordered weight control behaviors (DWCBs; unhealthy behaviors aiming to control or modify weight), associations between weight misperception and DWCBs, and temporal trends in prevalence and associations among adolescents with overweight and obesity from 1999 to 2013. Self-reported data from eight biennial cycles (1999-2013) of the cross-sectional national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used in analyses restricted to respondents with overweight/obesity. Data on weight status perception, use of fasting, purging, and diet pills to control weight, sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school were used in multivariate logistic regression models. Among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity, no linear temporal trends were detected for prevalence of weight misperception, fasting, or purging between 1999 and 2013, while a significant linear decrease was observed for prevalence of diet pill use between 1999 and 2013 (b=-0.81, pfasting to control weight among males. No significant changes over time in associations of weight misperception with fasting or purging were observed, though the association between weight misperception and diet pill use weakened somewhat across 1999-2013. In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight misperception appears to be a robust protective factor for DWCBs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The effects of media, self-esteem, and BMI on youth's unhealthy weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Brown, Sarah; Lawless, Casey; Fedele, David; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Janicke, David M

    2016-04-01

    Youth engage in a variety of methods to manage their weight, including unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs). The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with youth's engagement in UWCBs, including media influence, youth's BMI z-score and self-esteem. Participants were 179 youth, aged 10-17, attending a primary care clinic appointment. Youth completed questionnaires assessing frequency of UWCBs, global self-worth, and perception of media influence to lose weight. BMI z-score was calculated based on height and weight measurements obtained from medical charts. The SPSS macro, PROCESS, was used to conduct moderation analyses. Over 40% of youth endorsed using at least one UWCB in the past year. Girls reported using more UWCBs and engaging in UWCBs more frequently than boys. For boys, media influence to lose weight was only related to UWCB frequency for those with a BMI z-score of 1.23 and above. For girls, media influence was only related to UWCB frequency for those with low to average levels of global self-worth. Girls' and boys' use of UWCBs is impacted by different factors. Prevention efforts should consider targeting factors, such as weight status and self-esteem, which are uniquely associated with gender. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  12. Gender comparisons of unhealthy weight-control behaviors among sixth-Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Ata, Rheanna N; Debate, Rita D; Thompson, J Kevin

    2013-01-01

    To examine gender differences in unhealthy weight-control behaviors (UWCB) and identify key psychosocial and demographic correlates of UWCB among sixth-graders. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 146 boys and 153 girls at a middle school. Secondary data analyses included bivariate tests and multivariable logistic regression. Forty-seven percent of participants reported 1 or more UWCB, with no differences by gender (P = .75). Factors common to boys and girls included: lower global self-esteem; lower body-esteem; and greater negative parental modeling among participants who engaged in UWCB compared to those who did not. However, multivariable models revealed gender differences. Among boys, body mass index, negative parental modeling, and global self-esteem retained statistically significant associations with UWCB after controlling for other variables in the model, whereas race and weight-related body-esteem remained significant for girls. This research highlights the need for gender-specific UWCB prevention programs implemented in late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents: Multilevel analysis of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongjoo; Austin, S Bryn; Subramanian, S V; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Franko, Debra L; Rodgers, Rachel F; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills. Sex-stratified four-level multilevel logistic models examined potential predictors of DWCB, including age, body-mass index, puberty, perceived household economic status, parental education, living structure, school type and sex-composition, percentage of students participating in school nutrition programs, and urbanicity. Overall, 6.2% of Korean adolescents (8.9% of girls, 3.7% of boys) exhibited any DWCB. We found significant between-school variation among girls and boys and between-classroom variation among girls. Older age, overweight/obesity, pubertal maturity, high household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), and vocational schooling (vs. general) were positively associated with DWCB among girls and boys. Low household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), higher parental education, and coeducational schooling (vs. single-sex) were positively associated with DWCB among girls only. The findings suggest that DWCB are prevalent among Korean adolescents across age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social contextual factors including school and familial environmental factors, as well as individual characteristics, should be considered when developing effective prevention strategies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: associations with 10-year changes in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Standish, Amber R

    2012-01-01

    Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors are common among adolescents and questions exist regarding their long-term effect on weight status. To examine 10-year longitudinal associations between dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. A diverse population-based sample of middle school and high school adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) was followed up for 10 years. Participants (N = 1,902) completed surveys in 1998-1999 (Project EAT-I), 2003-2004 (Project EAT-II), and 2008-2009 (Project EAT-III). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict 10-year changes in BMI at Time 3, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and Time 1 BMI. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 predicted greater BMI increases at Time 3 in males and females, as compared with no use of these behaviors. For example, females using unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 increased their BMI by 4.63 units as compared with 2.29 units in females not using these behaviors (p meals and reporting eating very little (females and males), use of food substitutes (males), and use of diet pills (females). Findings clearly indicate that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Weight control behaviors in dieting adolescent girls and their relation to body dissatisfaction and obsession with thinness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M Liliana A; Morán, Javier K; Frez, Scarlett H; Lagos, Carola O; Marín, María Paz F; de los Ángeles Pinto B, María; Suzarte, Érika A

    2015-01-01

    Obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction can lead adolescents to follow unsupervised diets, which could result in risky weight control behaviors such as fasting, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives. The aim of the current study is to examine weight control behaviors in dieting adolescents and relate them to body dissatisfaction (BD) and obsession with thinness (OT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 adolescents from Valparaiso public schools to investigate risky weight control behaviors due to BD and OT scales from the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), comparing restrained eaters and non-restrained eaters. A total of 43% adolescents had followed a weight loss diet without medical supervision. The dieters had higher BD and OT values. Moderate to severe food restriction, based on expert judgment, was observed in 29.6%, and differences in the presence and severity of purging behaviors were found between the 2 groups. One third of the adolescents studied followed diets without professional supervision and had higher BD and OT values, as well as risky weight control behaviors. Overweight and obese adolescents followed more restrictive diets and developed riskier weight control behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3) were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI) subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia was

  17. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body

  18. Weight-Control Methods, 3-Year Weight Change, and Eating Behaviors: A Prospective Nationwide Study of Middle-Aged New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Gray, Andrew; Haszard, Jillian; Horwath, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of women's weight-control methods and the influences of dieting on eating behaviors remain unclear. Our aim was to determine the association of various weight-control methods at baseline with weight change to 3 years, and examine the association between baseline weight-control status (trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain or no weight-control attempts) and changes in intuitive eating and binge eating at 3 years. A nationally representative sample of 1,601 New Zealand women (40 to 50 years) was recruited and completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline regarding use of variety of weight-control methods. Information on demographic characteristics, weight, height, food habits, binge eating, and intuitive eating were collected at baseline and 3 years. Linear and logistic regression models examined associations between both weight status and weight-control methods at baseline and weight change to 3 years; and baseline weight-control status and change in intuitive eating from baseline to 3 years and binge eating at 3 years. χ(2) tests were used to cross-sectionally compare food habits across the weight status categories at both baseline and 3 years. Trying to lose weight and the use of weight-control methods at baseline were not associated with change in body weight to 3 years. There were a few differences in the frequency of consumption of high-energy-density foods between those trying to lose or maintain weight and those not attempting weight control. Trying to lose weight at baseline was associated with a 2.0-unit (95% CI 0.7 to 3.4, P=0.003) reduction in intuitive eating scores by 3 years (potential range=21 to 105), and 224% (odds ratio=3.24; 95% CI 1.69 to 6.20; Pfoods. Dieting may reduce women's ability to recognize hunger and satiety cues and place women at increased risk of binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors in sexual minority populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Argenal, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011–2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. Recent findings Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males. Emerging data indicates elevated risk for disordered eating pathology among sexual minorities who are transgender or ethnic minorities. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs may hold promise for sexual minority males. Summary Continued research must examine the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic identities, given emergent data that eating disorder risk may be most prominent among specific subgroups. More research is needed within sexual minorities across the lifespan. There are still a lack of eating disorder treatment and prevention studies for sexual minorities. PMID:28660475

  20. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  1. Preadolescents' and Parents' Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…

  2. Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Rena R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. Methods Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4 were randomized to one of two brief behavioral weight loss interventions: behavioral self-regulation (BSR or adapted standard behavioral treatment (SBT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (10 weeks, and follow-up (20 weeks. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using general linear modeling in SPSS version 14.0. Results Participants in both groups attended an average of 8.7 out of 10 group meetings, and retention rates were 93% and 88% for post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Both groups achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment (BSR = -6.4 kg (4.0; SBT = -6.2 kg (4.5 and follow-up (BSR = -6.6 kg (5.5; SBT = -5.8 kg (5.2, p p = .84. Across groups, there was a positive association between frequency of weighing at follow-up and overall weight change at follow-up (p = .01. Daily weighing was not associated with any adverse changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusion Young adults can be recruited and retained in a behavioral weight loss program tailored to their needs, and significant weight losses can be achieved and maintained through this brief intervention. Future research on the longer-term efficacy of a self-regulation approach using daily self-weighing for weight loss in this age group is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00488228

  3. Eating Habits and Body Weight Control Behaviors of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur CETINKAYA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teen’s health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they don’t make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students don’t have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 98-105

  4. Eating Habits and Body Weight Control Behaviors of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek OZMEN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teen’s health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they don’t make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students don’t have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 98-105

  5. Weight Loss Five Years After Behavioral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Leonard S.; And Others

    The behaviorally-based weight control program conducted by Levitz and Jordan at the University of Pennsylvania and the Institute for Behavioral Education is tailored to patient needs and includes stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, and nutrition education. The success of patients in maintaining the clinically meaningful weight losses…

  6. Hispanic maternal influences on daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors: The role of maternal acculturation, adiposity, and body image disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; McCarley, Kendall; Scherer, Rhonda; Posada, Alexandria

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether maternal adiposity, acculturation, and perceived-ideal body size discrepancy for daughters were associated with daughters' engagement in unhealthy weight control behaviors. A total of 97 Hispanic mother-daughter dyads completed surveys, rated a figure scale, and had their height, weight, and adiposity assessed. Mothers (M age =39.00, SD=6.20 years) selected larger ideal body sizes for their daughters (M age =11.12, SD=1.53 years) than their daughters selected for themselves. Mothers had a smaller difference between their perception of their daughters' body size and ideal body size compared to the difference between their daughters' selection of their perceived and ideal body size. More acculturated mothers and those mothers with larger waist-to-hip ratios were more likely to have daughters who engaged in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These findings highlight the relevant role that maternal acculturation and adiposity may have in influencing daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of unhealthy weight control behaviors: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Eric M; Rose, Jennifer S; Kenney, Lindsay; Rosselli-Navarra, Francine; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study examined the prevalence, clinical correlates, age trends, and stability of unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB; purging and diet pill use) in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to provide similar, comparative analyses for a nationally representative sample of American youth. Methods Data were extracted from the restricted use data files of survey Waves I, II, and III of the National Longitudinal Study of...

  8. Lateral hypothalamic GLP-1 receptors are critical for the control of food reinforcement, ingestive behavior and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ferreras, L; Richard, J E; Noble, E E; Eerola, K; Anderberg, R H; Olandersson, K; Taing, L; Kanoski, S E; Hayes, M R; Skibicka, K P

    2017-09-12

    Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH. Ingestive behavior and metabolic parameters, as well as molecular and efferent targets, of the LH GLP-1R activation were also evaluated. Food motivation was reduced by activation of LH GLP-1R. Conversely, acute pharmacological blockade of LH GLP-1R increased food motivation but only in male rats. GLP-1R activation also induced a robust reduction in food intake and body weight. Chronic knockdown of LH GLP-1R induced by intraparenchymal delivery of an adeno-associated virus-short hairpin RNA construct was sufficient to markedly and persistently elevate ingestive behavior and body weight and ultimately resulted in a doubling of fat mass in males and females. Interestingly, increased food reinforcement was again found only in males. Our data identify the LH GLP-1R as an indispensable element of normal food reinforcement, food intake and body weight regulation. These findings also show, for we believe the first time, that brain GLP-1R manipulation can result in a robust and chronic body weight gain. The broader implications of these findings are that the LH differs between females and males in its ability to control motivated and ingestive behaviors.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.187.

  9. Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Filipa Pimenta, Isabel Leal, João Maroco, Catarina RamosPsychology and Health Research Unit, ISPA – Instituto Universitário, Lisbon, PortugalObjective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women.Methods: Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation, psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression, and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating were assessed at baseline (T1, posttreatment (T2, and 4-month follow-up (T3, for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11 and the control group (n = 10; waiting list were compared.Results: Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ηp2 = 0.404; π = 0.652 and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050;ηp2 = 0.369; π = 0.585; furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ηp2 = 0.304; π = 0.461. At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments.Conclusion: An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful.Keywords: cognitive-behavioral therapy, control group, follow-up, midlife, weight loss, women

  10. Does the incorporation of portion-control strategies in a behavioral program improve weight loss in a 1-year randomized controlled trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Roe, L S; James, B L; Sanchez, C E

    2017-03-01

    Controlling food portion sizes can help reduce energy intake, but the effect of different portion-control methods on weight management is not known. In a 1-year randomized trial, we tested whether the efficacy of a behavioral weight-loss program was improved by incorporating either of the two portion-control strategies instead of standard advice about eating less. The Portion-Control Strategies Trial included 186 women with obesity (81%) or overweight (19%). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three equally intensive behavioral programs, consisting of 19 individual sessions over 12 months. The Standard Advice Group was instructed to eat less food while making healthy choices, the Portion Selection Group was instructed to choose portions based on the energy density using tools such as food scales and the Pre-portioned Foods Group was instructed to structure meals around pre-portioned foods such as single-serving main dishes, for which some vouchers were provided. In an intention-to-treat analysis, a mixed-effects model compared weight loss trajectories across 23 measurements; at month 12, weight was measured for 151 participants (81%). The trajectories showed that the Pre-portioned Foods Group initially lost weight at a greater rate than the other two groups (P=0.021), but subsequently regained weight at a greater rate (P=0.0005). As a result, weight loss did not differ significantly across groups at month 6 (mean±s.e. 5.2±0.4 kg) or month 12 (4.5±0.5 kg). After 1 year, measured weight loss averaged 6% of baseline weight. The frequency of using portion-control strategies initially differed across groups, then declined over time and converged at months 6 and 12. Incorporating instruction on portion-control strategies within a 1-year behavioral program did not lead to a greater weight loss than standard advice. Using pre-portioned foods enhanced early weight loss, but this was not sustained over time. Long-term maintenance of behavioral strategies to

  11. Weight control and behavior rehabilitation in a patient suffering from Prader Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Sberveglieri, Sara; Marrama, Donatella; Landi, Giulia; Ferri, Paola

    2016-04-01

    This study reports a case of Prader Willi syndrome (PWS), a genomic imprinting disease related to chromosome regions 15q11.2-q13 15, which includes hypothalamic dysfunction leading to hyperphagia, obesity, shortness, sleep abnormalities. Our case is extremely severe, in comparison to other PWS cases described in literature, due to the association with severe emotional and psychiatric symptoms: oppositional behaviour, rigidity of thought, skin picking and pathological hoarding. We described the case of a Caucasian male patient suffering from PWS, treated in outpatient care by local Mental Health Centre and supported by Social Service, who was admitted to a residential rehabilitative facility. After a 2-year follow-up, the patient showed a global improvement in symptoms and functioning, as registered by the rating scales administered. At the end of observation period, we also reported an important improvement in weight control, reducing the risk of obesity and related diseases, therefore improving the prognosis of life. This case highlights the need for long-term, individualized and multi-professional treatment in patients suffering from a complex genetic syndrome with both organic and psychological alterations, for which medical care setting and pharmacological treatments are not sufficient. Clinical observation of this case leads us to compare PWS to drug addiction and indirectly endorse the neurophysiological hypothesis that food and drugs stimulate the same brain circuits in the limbic system.

  12. Hunger modulates behavioral disinhibition and attention allocation to food-associated cues in normal-weight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Grosshans, Martin; Herpertz, Stephan; Kiefer, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-12-01

    Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution and weight gain might be modulated by other factors. Thus, hunger might cause food-associated cues to be perceived as more salient and rewarding and might be associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, at present, little is known how hunger interacts with these processes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether hunger modulates response inhibition and attention allocation towards food-associated stimuli in normal-weight controls. A go-/nogo task with food-associated and control words and a visual dot-probe task with food-associated and control pictures were administered to 48 normal-weight participants (mean age 24.5 years, range 19-40; mean BMI 21.6, range 18.5-25.4). Hunger was assessed twofold using a self-reported measure of hunger and a measurement of the blood glucose level. Our results indicated that self-reported hunger affected behavioral response inhibition in the go-/nogo task. Thus, hungry participants committed significantly more commission errors when food-associated stimuli served as distractors compared to when control stimuli were the distractors. This effect was not observed in sated participants. In addition, we found that self-reported hunger was associated with a lower number of omission errors in response to food-associated stimuli indicating a higher salience of these stimuli. Low blood glucose level was not associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, our results indicated that the blood glucose level was associated with an attentional bias towards food-associated cues in the visual dot probe task

  13. Randomized controlled clinical trial of behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement to reduce excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Brannen, Anna; McHugh, Angelica; Hagobian, Todd A; Schaffner, Andrew; Jelalian, Elissa; Hart, Chantelle N; Scholl, Theresa O; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Yin, Elaine; Phipps, Maureen G; Keadle, Sarah; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Behavioral lifestyle interventions during pregnancy can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with normal weight; however, effective interventions to reduce GWG in ethnically diverse women with obesity are lacking. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test whether a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement reduces GWG rate in Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with overweight or obesity relative to enhanced usual care. Participants (n = 257) were recruited in San Luis Obispo, California, and Providence, Rhode Island, between November 2012 and May 2016. Participants were pregnant (mean ± SD: 13.6 ± 1.8 wk of gestation) with overweight or obesity and had a mean age of 30.3 y; 41.6% of participants were Hispanic. Women were randomly assigned within site and by ethnicity to enhanced usual care (n = 128) or to a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement (n = 129). The primary outcome was GWG per week of observation. Secondary outcomes were proportions exceeding Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for total GWG, changes in weight-control behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk factors, and incidence of pregnancy complications. Study retention was 99.6% (256 of 257). The intervention compared with usual care resulted in less mean ± SD weekly GWG (0.33 ± 0.25 compared with 0.39 ± 0.23 kg/wk; P = 0.02) and total GWG (9.4 ± 6.9 compared with 11.2 ± 7.0 kg; P = 0.03) and reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines for total GWG (41.1% compared with 53.9%; P = 0.03). No significant group × time × demographic subgroup (ethnicity, BMI, age, parity, and income) interactions were observed. Among intervention participants, greater meal replacement intake was related to reduced GWG rate (β = -0.07; 95% CI:-0.12, -0.03; P = 0.002). The intervention compared with usual care increased weight-control strategies (P meal replacement significantly reduced GWG in Hispanic

  14. Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors and Suicide Risk among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily R.; Weiler, Robert M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people ages 15-19. Research has established an association across numerous risk factors and suicide, including depression, substance abuse, bullying victimization, and feelings of alienation. However, the connection between disordered eating as manifested in extreme weight-control…

  15. A randomized controlled trial of behavioral weight loss treatment versus combined weight loss/depression treatment among women with comorbid obesity and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Simon, Gregory E; Ludman, Evette J; Ichikawa, Laura E; Operskalski, Belinda H; Arterburn, David; Rohde, Paul; Finch, Emily A; Jeffery, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with clinical depression among women. However, depressed women are often excluded from weight loss trials. This study examined treatment outcomes among women with comorbid obesity and depression. Two hundred three (203) women were randomized to behavioral weight loss (n = 102) or behavioral weight loss combined with cognitive-behavioral depression management (n = 101). Average participant age was 52 years; mean baseline body mass index was 39 kg/m(2). Mean Patient Health Questionnaire and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-20) scores indicated moderate to severe baseline depression. Weight loss and SCL-20 changes did not differ between groups at 6 or 12 months in intent-to-treat analyses (p = 0.26 and 0.55 for weight, p = 0.70 and 0.25 for depressive symptoms). Depressed obese women lost weight and demonstrated improved mood in both treatment programs. Future weight loss trials are encouraged to enroll depressed women.

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  17. Effects of a combined dietary, exercise and behavioral intervention and sympathetic system on body weight maintenance after intended weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Knut; Brachs, Maria; Leupelt, Verena; Schwartzenberg, Reiner Jumpertz-von; Maurer, Lukas; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Ernert, Andrea; Bobbert, Thomas; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim

    2018-01-19

    Lifestyle based weight loss interventions are hampered by long-term inefficacy. Prediction of individuals successfully reducing body weight would be highly desirable. Although sympathetic activity is known to contribute to energy homeostasis, its predictive role in body weight maintenance has not yet been addressed. We investigated, whether weight regain could be modified by a weight maintenance intervention and analyzed the predictive role of weight loss-induced changes of the sympathetic system on long-term weight regain. 156 subjects (age > 18; BMI ≥ 27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a 12-week weight reduction program. After weight loss (T0), 143 subjects (weight loss >8%) were randomized to a 12-month lifestyle intervention or a control group. After 12 months (T12) no further intervention was performed until month 18 (T18). Weight regain at T18 (regain BMI ) was the primary outcome. Evaluation of systemic and tissue specific estimates of sympathetic system was a pre-defined secondary outcome. BMI was reduced by 4.67 ± 1.47 kg/m 2 during the initial weight loss period. BMI maintained low in subjects of the intervention group until T12 (+0.07 ± 2.98 kg/m 2 ; p = 0.58 compared to T0), while control subjects regained +0.98 ± 1.93 kg/m 2 (p predicted regain BMI (R 2  = 0.138; p Predictive sympathetic activity was not persistently modified by the intervention, which may partially explain the lack of long-term success of such interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Cell phone intervention for you (CITY): A randomized, controlled trial of behavioral weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetkey, Laura P; Batch, Bryan C; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen S; Corsino, Leonor; Tyson, Crystal C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Grambow, Steven C; Voils, Corrine; Loria, Catherine; Gallis, John A; Schwager, Jenifer; Bennett, Gary G; Bennett, Gary B

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect on weight of two mobile technology-based (mHealth) behavioral weight loss interventions in young adults. Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial in 18- to 35-year-olds with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese), with participants randomized to 24 months of mHealth intervention delivered by interactive smartphone application on a cell phone (CP); personal coaching enhanced by smartphone self-monitoring (PC); or Control. The 365 randomized participants had mean baseline BMI of 35 kg/m(2) . Final weight was measured in 86% of participants. CP was not superior to Control at any measurement point. PC participants lost significantly more weight than Controls at 6 months (net effect -1.92 kg [CI -3.17, -0.67], P = 0.003), but not at 12 and 24 months. Despite high intervention engagement and study retention, the inclusion of behavioral principles and tools in both interventions, and weight loss in all treatment groups, CP did not lead to weight loss, and PC did not lead to sustained weight loss relative to Control. Although mHealth solutions offer broad dissemination and scalability, the CITY results sound a cautionary note concerning intervention delivery by mobile applications. Effective intervention may require the efficiency of mobile technology, the social support and human interaction of personal coaching, and an adaptive approach to intervention design. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  20. A Behavioral Weight Reduction Model for Moderately Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A behavioral weight reduction treatment and maintenance program for moderately mentally retarded adolescents which involves six phases from background information collection to followup relies on stimulus control procedures to modify eating behaviors. Data from pilot studies show an average weekly weight loss of .5 to 1 pound per S. (CL)

  1. Behavioral therapy for weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate an increased prevalence of obesity. While most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to be especially problematic. Weight gain and obesity are highly distressing to these patients, can reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk of serious medical conditions and all-cause premature mortality. The selection of an antipsychotic on the basis of its effectiveness and relative side effect profile is recognized as an important initial consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, less is known regarding the efficacy of dietary, pharmacologic, and behavioral therapy in reducing antipsychotic-related weight gain and obesity. Behavioral therapy, in particular, is understudied, and there are relatively few controlled trials of its effectiveness in reducing SGA-induced weight gain. Although weight loss resulting from behavioral therapy has been observed mostly as a result of effective short-term interventions, controlled behavioral studies do exist to suggest that weight can be controlled long term. In addition, a small pilot study in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recently demonstrated that behavioral therapy that utilizes stepped interventions, involving body weight self-monitoring, diet, and exercise, can prevent weight gain in patients initiating treatment with SGAs. Additional studies of behavioral therapy for long-term weight control in patients with schizophrenia and other forms of severe mental illness are warranted.

  2. Benefits of weight control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallak, D. [P & H Mining Equipment (United States)

    2006-07-15

    With haul truck tyres and fuel taking a greater toll on operating costs, controlling haul truck payloads is more important than ever. The paper explains the technologies behind two new optional systems that let operators take control. P & H has introduced two new shovel-based payload measurement options that break new ground for accuracy in the Payload{trademark} and Payload{trademark} Plus Monitoring Systems. Both require P & M's Centurion supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The Payload system can be retrofitted on existing shovels. 4 figs.

  3. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  4. Using Animal Models to Determine the Role of Gustatory Neural Input in the Control of Ingestive Behavior and the Maintenance of Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Dana L; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research have suggested that nutritional intake contributes to the development of human disease, mainly by influencing the development of obesity and obesity-related conditions. A relatively large body of research indicates that functional variation in human taste perception can influence nutritional intake as well as body mass accumulation. However, there are a considerable number of studies that suggest that no link between these variables actually exists. These discrepancies in the literature likely result from the confounding influence of a variety of other, uncontrolled, factors that can influence ingestive behavior. In this review, the use of controlled animal experimentation to alleviate at least some of these issues related to the lack of control of experimental variables is discussed. Specific examples of the use of some of these techniques are examined. The review will close with some specific suggestions aimed at strengthening the link between gustatory neural input and its putative influence on ingestive behaviors and the maintenance of body weight.

  5. Individual Differences and Short-Term Military Factors Associated With Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors Among Active Duty and Reserve Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    sports associated with leanness such as gymnastics or wrestling are more likely to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors than athletes involved...unhealthy weight loss behaviors in the months prior to the APFT and weigh-in (Dale & Landers, 1999). Performing artists such as dancers also may be more

  6. Trends in the Prevalence of Obesity, Dietary Behaviors, and Weight Control Practices. National YRBS: 1991-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  7. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  8. Effect of mindfulness meditation on short-term weight loss and eating behaviors in overweight and obese adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Kathleen C; Davis, Kelliann K; Sereika, Susan M; Gibbs, Bethany B; Jakicic, John M; Cohen, Susan M

    2017-12-05

    Background There is a significant health crisis with rates of obesity continuing to increase despite research and clinical standard behavioral weight loss programs (SBWP). Mindfulness meditation (MM), with demonstrated benefits on physical, psychological health, and self-regulation behaviors was explored with SBWP. Methods Forty-six adults (BMI=32.5±3.7 kg/m2; age=45.2±8.2 years, 87 % female, 21.7 % African American) were randomly assigned to a 6-month SBWP only (n=24) or SBWP+MM (n=22) at a university-based physical activity and weight management research center in a northeastern US city. Participants were instructed to decrease intake (1200-1500 kcal/day), increase physical activity (300 min/wk), and attend weekly SBWP or SBWP+MM sessions. SBWP+MM had the same SBWP lessons with addition of focused MM training. Outcome measures collected at 0, 3, and 6 months included: weight, Block Food Frequency Questionnaire, Eating Behavior Inventory, Eating Inventory and Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed modeling for efficacy analysis of weight (primary) and eating, exercise and mindfulness (secondary outcomes). Results Retention rate was 76.1 % (n=35). A significant group by time interaction (p=0.03) was found for weight, with weight loss favoring SBWP+MM (-6.9 kg+2.9) over SBWP (-4.1 kg+2.8). Eating behaviors (p=0.02) and dietary restraint (p=0.02) improved significantly in SBWP+MM, compared to SBWP. MM enhanced weight loss by 2.8 kg potentially through greater improvements in eating behaviors and dietary restraint. Conclusions These findings support further study into the use of MM strategies with overweight and obese adults. The use of this low-cost, portable strategy with standard behavioral interventions could improve weight management outcomes.

  9. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  10. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theor...

  11. What Behaviors Are Important for Successful Weight Maintenance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Nakade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine behavioral factors related to successful weight maintenance. Methods. Subjects were 90 middle-aged participants who attended a weight loss program and were followed for one year. The subjects were classified into either successful weight maintainers (maintained a weight loss of 5% or more from their initial weight for one year (SWM or unsuccessful weight maintainers (USWM, and weight control practice, stress, obstacles, support, and self-efficacy during the program and follow-up period were compared. Results. SWM had mean loss of 12% from their initial weight during the program. They showed a greater improvement in their regularity of eating, walked more, and felt less stress regarding their increased physical activity than the USWM. During the follow-up period, significantly more SWM participants had self-efficacy (for measuring weight, practicing dietary objective, and assessing the practice and keeping records, actually kept records and measured weight more than the USWM participants. In contrast, more USWM participants felt stress about measuring weight. Conclusion. In addition to a substantial initial weight loss due to an increased amount of physical activity, having a higher self-efficacy and consistently keeping records of one's activities, as well as regularly weighing themselves, may be important for successful weight maintenance.

  12. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-03-02

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation--not only considering the level but also type of motivation--in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  13. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  14. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  15. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  16. Attitudes to body weight, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-12-01

    The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.

  17. "I have to constantly prove to myself, to people, that I fit the bill": Perspectives on weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn; Krieger, Nancy; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L

    2016-09-01

    The impact of societal femininity ideals on disordered eating behaviors in non-transgender women has been well described, but scant research has explored these processes among transgender women. The present study explored weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women at high risk for HIV or living with HIV in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 participants (ages 18-31 years; mean annual income gender affirmation framework. Of 21 participants, 16 reported engaging in past-year disordered eating or weight and shape control behaviors, including binge eating, fasting, vomiting, and laxative use. Study participants described using a variety of strategies to address body image concerns in the context of gender-related and other discriminatory experiences, which shaped participants' access to social and material resources as well as stress and coping behaviors. Disordered weight and shape control behaviors were discussed in relation to four emergent themes: (1) gender socialization and the development of femininity ideals, (2) experiences of stigma and discrimination, (3) biological processes, and (4) multi-level sources of strength and resilience. This formative study provides insight into disordered eating and weight and shape control behaviors among at-risk transgender women, illuminating avenues for future research, treatment, and public health intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  19. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Weight-Control Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  1. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight…

  2. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. Frequency-Weighted Balancing Related Controller Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras; Anderson, Brian D.O.

    2002-01-01

    The efficient solution of a class of controller approximation problems by using frequency-weighted balancing related model reduction approaches is considered. It is shown that for certain standard performance and stability enforcing frequency-weights, the computation of the frequency-weighted controllability and observability grammians can be done by solving reduced order Lyapunov equations regardless the controller itself is stable or unstable. The new approach can be used in conjunction wit...

  4. Weight Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss medications Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Body Weight Diets Eating Disorders Exercise and Physical Fitness Nutrition Obesity Weight Loss Surgery National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Weight Control is the National Institute of ...

  5. Common weights under dea control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, P.J.; Bogetoft, P.; Fristrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    DEA relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, limited to available information. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA. The potential application could be to precipitate collective bargaining on cost efficiency. The models are exemplified with data from the Danish district heating plants, where the open evaluation of multiple non-priced outputs is relevant (au)

  6. A Systematic Review of Electronic Mindfulness-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Weight, Weight-Related Behaviors, and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2018-03-01

    Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.

  7. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. © 2014 APJPH.

  8. The Exposure Effects of Online Model Pictures and Weight-Related Persuasive Messages on Women's Weight-Loss Planned Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Peña, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how exposure to pictures of women with different body sizes (thin, obese), physical attractiveness levels (attractive, unattractive), along with exposure to weight-related messages (pro-anorexia, anti-anorexia) embedded in a fashion website affected female participants' planned behavior toward weight loss. Participants exposed to attractive model pictures showed higher intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms to lose weight compared with unattractive models. Additionally, participants exposed to thin and attractive model pictures indicated the highest attitudes and self-efficacy to lose weight, whereas those exposed to thin and unattractive model pictures indicated the lowest. Furthermore, weight-related messages moderated the effect of model appearance (body size and attractiveness) on controllability of weight-loss activities. However, website pictures' body size differences had no main effects on planned behavior toward weight loss. These effects are discussed in the light of social comparison mechanisms.

  9. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  10. Disordered Weight Management Behaviors, Nonprescription Steroid Use, and Weight Perception in Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly E; Williams, David N; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Katz-Wise, Sabra L

    2017-01-01

    Disordered weight management behaviors are prevalent among youth; recent case reports suggested that these behaviors might also be common in transgender youth. We studied associations of gender identity with disordered weight management behaviors, nonprescription steroid use, and weight perception among transgender and cisgender (nontransgender) high-school students in Massachusetts. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Massachusetts Youth Health Survey, an anonymous survey in a random sample of Massachusetts public high schools. Respondents were divided into three groups: transgender (n = 67), cisgender male (n = 1,117), and cisgender female (n = 1,289). Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine unhealthy weight management behaviors in the past 30 days: fasting >24 hours, vomiting, diet pill use, and laxative use; nonprescription steroid use; and self-perceived weight status. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index. Compared with cisgender males, transgender adolescents had higher odds of fasting >24 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-7.8), using diet pills (AOR = 8.9, 95% CI = 2.3-35.2) and taking laxatives (AOR = 7.2, 95% CI = 1.4-38.4). Transgender youth had higher odds of lifetime use of steroids without a prescription than male cisgender respondents (AOR = 26.6, 95% CI = 3.5-200.1). Compared with cisgender females, transgender respondents had higher odds of perceiving themselves as healthy weight/underweight when they were overweight/obese (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5-4.1). Transgender youth disproportionately self-reported unsafe weight management behaviors and nonprescription steroid use compared with cisgender youth. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk among transgender youth. Research is needed to further understand these disparities and to inform future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and

  11. Cognitive and Self-regulatory Mechanisms of Obesity Study (COSMOS): Study protocol for a randomized controlled weight loss trial examining change in biomarkers, cognition, and self-regulation across two behavioral treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M A W; Colaizzi, Janna; Gunstad, John; Hughes, Joel W; Mullins, Larry L; Betts, Nancy; Smith, Caitlin E; Keirns, Natalie G; Vohs, Kathleen D; Moore, Shirley M; Forman, Evan M; Lovallo, William R

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, yet successful interventions are rare. Up to 60% of people fail to achieve clinically meaningful, short-term weight loss (5-10% of start weight), whereas up to 72% are unsuccessful at achieving long-term weight loss (5-10% loss for ≥5years). Understanding how biological, cognitive, and self-regulatory factors work together to promote or to impede weight loss is clearly needed to optimize obesity treatment. This paper describes the methodology of the Cognitive and Self-regulatory Mechanisms of Obesity Study (the COSMOS trial). COSMOS is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate how changes in multiple biopsychosocial and cognitive factors relate to weight loss and one another across two weight loss treatments. The specific aims are to: 1) Confirm that baseline obesity-related physiological dysregulation is linked to cognitive deficits and poorer self-regulation, 2) Evaluate pre- to post-treatment change across time to assess individual differences in biomarkers, cognition, and self-regulation, and 3) Evaluate whether the acceptance-based treatment (ABT) group has greater improvements in outcomes (e.g., greater weight loss and less weight regain, improvements in biomarkers, cognition, and self-regulation), than the standard behavioral treatment group (SBT) from pre- to post-treatment and 1-year follow-up. The results of COSMOS will provide critical information about how dysregulation in biomarkers, cognition, and/or self-regulation is related to weight loss and whether weight loss treatments are differentially associated with these factors. This information will be used to identify promising treatment targets that are informed by biological, cognitive, and self-regulatory factors in order to advance obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A qualitative study of successful adolescent and young adult weight losers: implications for weight control intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Hunsaker, Sanita L; Rancourt, Diana; Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Jelalian, Elissa; Wing, Rena R

    2014-12-01

    Our study aims to provide an in-depth analysis of behavioral strategies, psychological factors, and social contributors to adolescent weight loss and weight loss maintenance among participants in the Adolescent Weight Control Registry (AWCR). Qualitative analyses were conducted using semi-structured interview data from 40 participants from the AWCR who successfully lost ≥10 lbs and maintained their weight loss for at least one year. In contrast to existing literature, our findings suggest that primary motivating factors for adolescent weight loss may be intrinsic (e.g., desire for better health, desire to improve self-worth) rather than extrinsic. In addition, life transitions (e.g., transition to high school) were identified as substantial motivators for weight-related behavior change. Peer and parental encouragement and instrumental support were widely endorsed as central to success. The most commonly endorsed weight loss maintenance strategies included attending to dietary intake and physical activity levels, and making self-corrections when necessary. Results from this study highlight considerations for future adolescent weight control treatment development.

  13. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traina SB

    2016-02-01

    -related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm. Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70 for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and Intention when respondents were categorized into groups that differed based on body mass index, disease severity, and HbA1c. Item scores were transformed to a 100-point scale, and minimal clinically important change estimates ranged from 6–11 points, representing the change that would be considered important to a respondent. Conclusion: The DIAB-Q is a brief, psychometrically sound, patient-reported outcome that can be used among individuals with T2DM to evaluate intention to engage in self-care behaviors. Keywords: diabetes, Theory of Planned Behavior, DIAB-Q, attitude, intention, behavior, patient-reported outcome, questionnaire

  14. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  15. A new inertia weight control strategy for particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianming; Wang, Hongbo

    2018-04-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization is a member of swarm intelligence algorithms, which is inspired by the behavior of bird flocks. The inertia weight, one of the most important parameters of PSO, is crucial for PSO, for it balances the performance of exploration and exploitation of the algorithm. This paper proposes a new inertia weight control strategy and PSO with this new strategy is tested by four benchmark functions. The results shows that the new strategy provides the PSO with better performance.

  16. Employers should disband employee weight control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alfred; Khanna, Vikram; Montrose, Shana

    2015-02-01

    American corporations continue to expand wellness programs, which now reach an estimated 90% of workers in large organizations, yet no study has demonstrated that the main focus of these programs-weight control-has any positive effect. There is no published evidence that large-scale corporate attempts to control employee body weight through financial incentives and penalties have generated savings from long-term weight loss, or a reduction in inpatient admissions associated with obesity or even long-term weight loss itself. Other evidence contradicts the hypothesis that population obesity rates meaningfully retard economic growth or manufacturing productivity. Quite the contrary, overscreening and crash dieting can impact employee morale and even harm employee health. Therefore, the authors believe that corporations should disband or significantly reconfigure weight-oriented wellness programs, and that the Affordable Care Act should be amended to require such programs to conform to accepted guidelines for harm avoidance.

  17. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocofsky, David N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Subjects (N=109) completed a behavioral weight-management program either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At the eight-month and two-year follow-ups, the hypnosis clients showed significant additional weight loss and were more likely to have achieved and maintained their…

  18. Using Positive Deviance for Determining Successful Weight-Control Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Boan, Jarol; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Lehman, Erik B.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on positive deviance (examining the practices of successful individuals), we identified five primary themes from 36 strategies that help to maintain long-term weight loss (weight control) in 61 people. We conducted in-depth interviews to determine what successful individuals did and/or thought about regularly to control their weight. The themes included weight-control practices related to (a) nutrition: increase water, fruit, and vegetable intake, and consistent meal timing and content; (b) physical activity: follow and track an exercise routine at least 3×/week; (c) restraint: practice restraint by limiting and/or avoiding unhealthy foods; (d) self-monitor: plan meals, and track calories/weight progress; and (e) motivation: participate in motivational programs and cognitive processes that affect weight-control behavior. Using the extensive data involving both the practices and practice implementation, we used positive deviance to create a comprehensive list of practices to develop interventions for individuals to control their weight. PMID:20956609

  19. Control Chart on Semi Analytical Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G. S.; Oliveira, C. C.; Silva, T. B. S. C.; Stellato, T. B.; Monteiro, L. R.; Marques, J. R.; Faustino, M. G.; Soares, S. M. V.; Ulrich, J. C.; Pires, M. A. F.; Cotrim, M. E. B.

    2018-03-01

    Semi-analytical balance verification intends to assess the balance performance using graphs that illustrate measurement dispersion, trough time, and to demonstrate measurements were performed in a reliable manner. This study presents internal quality control of a semi-analytical balance (GEHAKA BG400) using control charts. From 2013 to 2016, 2 weight standards were monitored before any balance operation. This work intended to evaluate if any significant difference or bias were presented on weighting procedure over time, to check the generated data reliability. This work also exemplifies how control intervals are established.

  20. Does Employee Body Weight Affect Employers' Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene

    This paper offers a study of possible favoritism of normal-weight individuals when firms make decisions on hiring, firing and promoting. Most existing studies use a wage equation to document dispersion in wages between normal- and overweight, however little is known about the reason for dispersion...

  1. Parent and family associations with weight-related behaviors and cognitions among overweight adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Taya R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine parent and family variables in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Methods This study examined parent-reported use of weight control behaviors (i.e., healthy and unhealthy behaviors, behavioral changes, other diet strategies), parent psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, body satisfaction, importance of thinness), and family functioning (i.e., cohesion and adaptability) in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness. Surveys were completed by 103 overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) adolescents, ages 12 to 20, and their parents. Height and weight were also measured. Linear regression equations were used for continuous outcomes and logistic regression equations for dichotomous outcomes. Results Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction and engagement in more “severe” or less healthy forms of weight control behavior were associated with parent weight control behaviors. Adolescent report of overeating was associated with lower scores of family cohesion and adaptability. Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction was positively associated with parent report of body satisfaction and self-esteem. Adolescent report of greater importance placed on thinness was associated with parent report of lower self-esteem. Conclusions Findings indicate that several parent and family variables are associated with weight control behaviors, episodes of overeating, and body satisfaction and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Parent weight control behaviors and adolescent cognitions about body image may be important variables to target within intervention research and treatment programs for overweight youth. PMID:20708565

  2. Calidad de vida, según percepción y comportamientos de control del peso por género, en estudiantes universitarios adolescentes en México Quality of life according to self-perceived weight, weight control behaviors, and gender among adolescent university students in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alejandro Hidalgo-Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la calidad de vida (CV, según auto percepción del peso corporal y comportamientos de control de peso, por género, en 2.401 estudiantes de 17 a 19 años de primer ingreso en un centro universitario en México del 2007 al 2009; 61,9% mujeres, 80,6% no trabajaban y 99,2% solteros. Se auto administró en línea un cuestionario genérico de CV (YQOL-R módulo perceptual, y siete ítems acerca del peso adaptados del YRBS 2007. Se observó que un 52% de mujeres y un 31,7% de hombres trataba de bajar de peso. CV más alta para peso cercano al correcto, quienes trataban de mantenerse en su peso y los que hacían ejercicio; CV más baja para quienes reportaron mucho sobrepeso, mujeres que trataban de bajar de peso, comían menos, dejaban de comer, hacían dieta sin supervisión, vomitaban o tomaban laxantes. En mujeres la CV fue diferente si trataban de mantenerse, subir o bajar de peso; en hombres sólo al tratar de subir. Esta información puede ser de utilidad para procesos educativos, programas de prevención y para evaluar las intervenciones.The aim of this study was to analyze quality of life (QoL according to self-perceived weight and weight control behaviors, by gender. The sample consisted of 2,401 adolescent students (17-19 years of age enrolled from 2007 to 2009 at a Mexican university; 61.9% were women, 19.4% worked, and 99.2% were single. An online self-administered questionnaire was used that included the perceptual module of the YQOL-R and seven items on body weight, adapted from YRBS 2007. RESULTS: 52% of women and 31.7% of men were attempting to lose weight. The highest QoL scores were in students who felt they were near the right weight, those who were attempting to maintain the same weight, and those who exercised. Lowest QoL was reported by those who considered themselves overweight, were trying to lose weight, were eating less, were skipping meals, or were using unsupervised dieting

  3. Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisel Susanne F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800 will be randomized to receive either 1 their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA, or 2 only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO. Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663

  4. Comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision making for water resource planning is often related to social, economic and environmental factors. There are various methods for making decisions about water resource planning alternatives and measures with various shortcomings. A comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk analysis ...

  5. Maternal depressive symptoms and weight-related parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2014-08-01

    This study examined associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors related to children's nutrition and physical activity. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy through kindergarten entry. Contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting behaviors were tested, controlling for background characteristics. The mediating effect of use of a physician's office or clinic as a source for routine care was tested. At each wave, between 18 and 20 % of mothers were considered as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms. These mothers were 1.3 percentage points more likely to put their infants to bed with a bottle, 2.6 percentage points less likely to have rules about the foods their children eat, and their children were 3.0 percentage points less likely to be in bed by 9:00 p.m. than mothers lacking depressive symptoms. These mothers also reported that their families ate dinner together fewer nights per week, and their children watched more television per day, than non-depressed mothers. The use of a physician's office or clinic partially mediated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and whether infants went to bed with a bottle. Interventions that identify maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy parenting behaviors and weight outcomes among young children.

  6. Effect of personal activity trackers on weight loss in families enrolled in a comprehensive behavioral family-lifestyle intervention program in the federally qualified health center setting: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Espinoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a substantial problem despite major public health efforts, and disproportionately impacts children from low-income families. Digital health tools and consumer technology offer promising opportunities for interventions, but few studies have evaluated how they might be incorporated into existing interventions or used to create new types of interventions. It remains unclear which approaches would be most beneficial for underserved pediatric populations. Purpose: To describe the design and rationale of a single-center randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effects of personal activity tracker (PAT use by parents on weight-status improvement in both parents and overweight children enrolled in BodyWorks (BW, a comprehensive behavioral family-lifestyle intervention program (CBFLI, in a primary-care clinic serving a predominantly low-income Latino population. Methods: This study is being conducted in the AltaMed general pediatrics clinic at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Eligible participants are families (child and adult caregiver in which the child is between 7 and 18 years of age, has a BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex, and has been referred to BW by their AltaMed pediatrician. BW consists of one weekly, two-hour session for 7 weeks. In a given cycle, the program is offered on two separate nights: Monday (Spanish and Wednesday (English. Families self sort into one of two groups based on language preference. To ensure balanced allocation of language preference groups and prevent in-group cross contamination, block randomization is used to assign whole groups to either the intervention or control arms of the study. The control arm consists of usual care, while the intervention arm adds assigning a Fitbit PAT to the parents and training them in its proper use. Study personnel are blinded to group assignment during the analysis phase. Study outcomes include attendance rate, program completion

  7. High-frequency binge eating predicts weight gain among veterans receiving behavioral weight loss treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Positive and negative dimensions of weight control motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, S; Larocque, M; Sadikaj, G

    2012-01-01

    This study examined weight control motivation among patients (N=5460 females and 547 males) who sought weight loss treatment with family physicians. An eight-item measure assessed the frequency of thoughts and feelings related to weight control "outcome" (e.g. expected physical and psychological benefits) and "process" (e.g. resentment and doubt). Factor analysis supported the existence of two factors, labeled Positive and Negative motivation. Positive motivation was high (average frequency of thoughts about benefits was 'every day') and stable throughout treatment, while Negative motivation declined rapidly and then stabilized. The determinants of changes in the Positive and Negative dimensions during treatment were examined within 3 time frames: first month, months 2-6, and 6-12. Maintenance of high scores on Positive motivation was associated with higher BMI and more disturbed eating habits. Early reductions in Negative motivation were greater for those starting treatment with higher weight and more disturbed eating habits, but less depression and stress, while later reductions in Negative motivation were predicted by improvements in eating habits, weight, stress and perfectionism. Clinicians treating obesity should be sensitive to fluctuations in both motivational dimensions, as they are likely to play a central role in determining long-term behavior and weight change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight Control: Attitudes of Dieters and Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Ellen S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Survey explores attitudes toward weight loss/weight control among 2 groups of change agents--40 dietitians and 42 fitness instructors--and among 96 people trying to lose weight. Significant differences were found in terms of importance in weight control of diet, drugs, exercise, religion, and will power; in importance of being of normal weight;…

  10. Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtermann Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain. Methods 98 female, overweight health care workers were cluster-randomized to an intervention group or a reference group. The intervention consisted of an individually dietary plan with an energy deficit of 1200 kcal/day (15 min/hour, strengthening exercises (15 min/hour and cognitive behavioral training (30 min/hour during working hours 1 hour/week. Leisure time aerobic fitness was planned for 2 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage (bioimpedance, waist circumference, blood pressure, musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake (maximal bicycle test, and isometric maximal muscle strength of 3 body regions were measured before and after the intervention period. Results In an intention-to-treat analysis from pre to post tests, the intervention group significantly reduced body weight with 3.6 kg (p Conclusion The significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference and blood pressure as well as increased aerobic fitness in the intervention group show the great potential of workplace health promotion among this high-risk workgroup. Long-term effects of the intervention remain to be investigated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01015716

  11. Youth WAVE Screener: addressing weight-related behaviors with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Soroudi, Nafisseh; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the youth Weight, Activity, Variety, and Excess (WAVE) screener in a classroom setting for assessing student weight control intentions and the extent to which they used the WAVE strategies to control their weight. The Youth WAVE Screener was administered to fifth-grade students in an inner-city school located in the Bronx, New York. The study was conducted in part to increase student awareness of snack foods and sugary beverages in relation to weight. Of the 169 students who completed the survey, 45.5% (n = 77) were trying to lose weight. Students who were trying to lose weight were more likely to have low-fat dairy products, less likely to have sugary beverages, and less likely to eat junk foods than those who were not trying to lose weight. Students who reported exercising 3 times weekly were more likely to report healthier dietary patterns and less sedentary behaviors than were students who exercise less often. Feedback and dialogue with fifth graders addressed the relationship between TV viewing and eating behavior, advertisement, availability, and preferences of fruits and vegetables. The Youth WAVE Screener can be used to quickly identify children who are concerned about their weight as well as those with dietary and physical activity patterns that may increase the risk of obesity. Diabetes educators can use this screener to start a dialogue with children about their weight-related behaviors.

  12. Weight discrimination and unhealthy eating-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight Discrimination and Unhealthy Eating-related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N=5,129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. PMID:26877216

  14. Smoking, weight loss intention and obesity-promoting behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Shawna L; Lee, Rebecca E; Kaur, Harsohena; Harris, Kari J; Strother, Myra L; Huang, Terry T-K

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether college smoking was associated with trying to lose weight and other weight-related behaviors. We surveyed 300 students at the University of Kansas about smoking (ever, current, and amount), weight loss intention (y/n), weight-related attitudes, and eating and exercise behavior. Weight, height, and body fat were measured. About half the students (49%) self-identified as having ever smoked while 53 (17.6%) self-identified as current smokers. After controlling for sex, age, and ethnicity, ever smoking was not related to weight loss intention but was associated with greater pressure to maintain a healthy weight (p = 0.05), and having engaged in mild exercise on more days in the previous year (p = 0.05). Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers ate more at restaurants serving high calorie foods (p college students was related to weight loss intention. Despite wanting to lose weight, current smoking was concomitant with obesity-promoting behaviors such as eating higher calorie foods and eating in front of the TV. College-based interventions to prevent smoking initiation or promote smoking cessation should include a focus on healthy eating, exercise and healthful ways to lose or maintain weight.

  15. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  16. Associations between change in sedentary behavior and outcome in standard behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Call, Christine; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behavior, particularly in prolonged periods, is an important determinant of health. Little research exploring changes in sedentary behavior during behavioral weight loss programs exists. This study evaluated the magnitude of changes in total and prolonged sedentary behavior and how these changes related to changes in weight and cardiovascular outcomes during a behavioral weight loss program. Participants (n = 450) in two lifestyle modification programs underwent assessments of sedentary behavior (by accelerometry), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and resting heart rate at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sedentary behavior was defined as both total and prolonged (≥30 continuous minutes) sedentary minutes/day. Reductions in total and prolonged sedentary time were significant and were accounted for by increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only changes in MVPA significantly predicted change in weight when entered into a model simultaneously with changes in sedentary behavior. Changes in total and prolonged sedentary time were not associated with changes in waist circumference, heart rate, or blood pressure. Change in sedentary time was not independently associated with change in health outcomes during a behavioral weight loss treatment. High variability in changes in sedentary time indicate that individual differences may be important to examine. Reducing sedentary time may not be powerful enough to impact these health outcomes above the effects of other changes made during these programs; alternatively, it may be that increasing focus in treatment on reducing sedentary time may engender greater decreases in sedentariness, which could lead to better health outcomes.

  17. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to ‘eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight. PMID:25033958

  18. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  19. Middle School Students' Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behaviors, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Zullig, Keith J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous research has posited that significant relationships exist between health status and psychological measures of health (e.g., self-esteem). Less is known about the relationship between perceived quality of life (e.g., life satisfaction), weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors, particularly among middle school adolescents.…

  20. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  1. Weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Hector, Debra; Lloyd, Beverley

    2012-11-01

    To describe the weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school. This study is a representative cross-sectional survey of Australian children in their first year of schooling (n=1141) in 2010. Height and weight were measured, and parents reported their child's diet, physical activity and screen-time. 18.7% of children were overweight/obese. Compared with non-overweight/obese peers, overweight/obese boys were 1.73 times (95% CI 1.08, 2.79) as likely to exceed recommended screen time and 2.07 times (95% CI 1.11, 3.87) as likely to eat dinner three or more times/week in front of the TV. Overweight/obese girls were twice as likely to have a TV in their bedroom (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.12, 3.59) and usually be rewarded with sweets for good behavior (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.09, 3.51) and were 1.65 times as likely to be inactive (95% CI 1.08, 2.55). We showed that many children begin school with established weight-related behaviors that occur in the home environment. The inclusion of parents and the home environment in intervention strategies will be important to support changes to reduce childhood obesity. The weight status and weight-related behaviors of children entering school may potentially be a general indicator of the overall effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions among preschool-aged children. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Behavioral Theory and Integrated Internet/telephone Technologies to Support Military Obesity and Weight Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Obesity - Cushing’s Syndrome (97%) - Hypothyroidism - Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (10-80%) - Growth Hormone Deficiency - Drug-Induced Weight Gain...interventions and two methods of follow up counseling on weight loss in overweight active duty military service members after 3 months. Participants...different weight control behaviors (dietary fat, fruits and vegetables, portion control, beverage choices, exercise) and weight loss after 3 months

  3. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals.

  4. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Impact of weight reduction on eating behaviors and quality of life: Influence of the obesity degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco, Eléonor; Rossel, Nadia; Rusques, Coralie; Mirepoix, Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Sanguignol, Frédéric; Mauriège, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effects of a short-term weight reducing program on body composition, eating behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of sedentary obese women characterized by different obesity degrees. 44 women with a BMI under 34.9 kg/m(2) and 39 women with a BMI above 35 kg/m(2) were studied. Fat mass and lean mass (electrical bioimpedance), eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire), and HRQL (36-item short form, SF-36, questionnaire) were determined before and after weight loss. Disinhibition and hunger scores and their subscales decreased after weight loss in both groups (0.0001 < p < 0.04). Restriction increased after weight reduction in all women (p = 0.02). Among the five restriction subscales, flexible restriction increased in women with a BMI above 35 kg/m(2) (p = 0.008), whereas rigid restraint and avoidance of fattening foods increased in both groups (0.006 < p < 0.02). SF-36 Mental Component Score increased after weight loss in all women (p < 0.0001). A 3week weight reducing program changes selected eating behaviors and components of HRQL, irrespective of women's obesity degree. Data suggest that women with a BMI above 35 kg/m(2) could have a better weight control in the long term because of their higher flexible restriction after weight loss when compared to those whose BMI was under 34.9 kg/m(2). 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Helping Athletes Avoid Hazardous Weight Control Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    This article addresses dangerous dieting techniques used by athletes and provides coaches and teachers specific strategies to aid in preventing eating-related disorders among athletes. Symptoms of anorexia and of bulimia are described. (JL)

  7. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors.

  8. How College Students Search the Internet for Weight Control and Weight Management Information: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkowski, Valerie; Branscum, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have attempted to examine how young adults search for health information on the Internet, especially information related to weight control and weight management. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine search strategies that college students used for finding information related to weight control and weight…

  9. Adolescent smoking, weight changes, and binge-purge behavior: associations with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J; Whitaker, A H

    1992-01-01

    The association of secondary amenorrhea with extreme forms of substance use, weight control, and exercise in nonrepresentative samples raises questions as to whether adolescents in the general population who engage in these behaviors are at increased risk for secondary amenorrhea. We examined the prevalence and behavioral correlates of secondary amenorrhea in a county-wide high school population of 2544 girls aged 13 to 18. A survey questionnaire, which elicited menstrual history as well as weight history, weight control practices, level of exercise, and use of cigarettes, wine, and beer, was administered during school hours; absentees were also surveyed. The completion rate was 91%. The 1-year prevalence of secondary amenorrhea was 8.5%. Secondary amenorrhea was associated with smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day (adjusted relative risk [RRa] = 1.96, 1.21-3.10), with multiple binge-eating behaviors in combination with laxative use or self-induced vomiting (RRa = 4.17, 2.54-6.32), and with weight fluctuation due to weight control (RRa = 2.59, 1.33-4.79). There was no association between amenorrhea and alcohol consumption or exercise level. Estimates of attributable risk are provided and indicate that bulimic behaviors and cigarette smoking may result in a considerable excess of cases of secondary amenorrhea in an adolescent population.

  10. A cognitive/behavioral group intervention for weight loss in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary; Wyne, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Obesity and diabetes have caused problems for individuals with schizophrenia long before atypical antipsychotic agents. The prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and the Metabolic Syndrome has increased in people with schizophrenia as compared to the general population. Risk reduction studies for persons with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease indicate that cognitive/behavioral interventions that promote motivation and provide strategies to overcome the barriers in adherence to diet and activity modification are effective interventions for weight management and risk reduction. In the landmark multi-center randomized-controlled trial study, the Diabetes Prevention Project (DPP), a cognitive/behavioral intervention, was more successful in producing weight loss and preventing diabetes than the drugs metformin, troglitazone or placebo. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive/behavioral group intervention, modified after the DPP program, in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder taking atypical antipsychotics in a large urban public mental health system. Outcome measures included body weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratios, and fasting glucose levels. Both groups demonstrated elevated fasting glucose levels and were obese with a mean BMI of 33. The group that received the cognitive/behavioral group intervention lost more weight than the treatment as usual group. The CB group participants lost an average of 5.4 lb or 2.9% of body weight, and those in the control group lost 1.3 lb or 0.6% body weight. The range of weight loss for the treatment group was from 1 to 20 lb. This pilot study has demonstrated that weight loss is possible with cognitive/behavioral interventions in a population with a psychotic disorder.

  11. Suboptimal Weight Loss and Weight Regain after Gastric Bypass Surgery?Postoperative Status of Energy Intake, Eating Behavior, Physical Activity, and Psychometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Tina; Str?mmen, Magnus; Martins, Catia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suboptimal weight loss (SWL) and weight regain (WR) after gastric bypass surgery (GB) remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare GB patients experiencing SWL or significant WR (SigWR) with successful controls, regarding postoperative food intake, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and psychometrics. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with >1 year post-surgery were classified as either experiencing SWL (excess body weight loss, EWL,

  12. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  13. Parenting style as a predictor of adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-04-01

    Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake, and physical activity; but most of the research has been cross-sectional, making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, were used. Adolescents (N = 2,516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower body mass index in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth and/or caring in the parent-adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent-adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A behavioral weight-loss intervention in persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumit, Gail L; Dickerson, Faith B; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Young, Deborah R; Frick, Kevin D; Yu, Airong; Gennusa, Joseph V; Oefinger, Meghan; Crum, Rosa M; Charleston, Jeanne; Casagrande, Sarah S; Guallar, Eliseo; Goldberg, Richard W; Campbell, Leslie M; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-04-25

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness. We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Of 291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was -3.2 kg (-7.0 lb, P=0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P=0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among persons with serious mental illness, our findings

  15. Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Evans

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated, multi-component school-based interventions can improve health behaviors in children, as well as parents, and impact the weight status of students. By leveraging a unique collaboration between Texas AgriLife Extension (a federal, state and county funded educational outreach organization and the University of Texas School of Public Health, the Texas Grow! Eat! Go! Study (TGEG modeled the effectiveness of utilizing existing programs and volunteer infrastructure to disseminate an enhanced Coordinated School Health program. The five-year TGEG study was developed to assess the independent and combined impact of gardening, nutrition and physical activity intervention(s on the prevalence of healthy eating, physical activity and weight status among low-income elementary students. The purpose of this paper is to report on study design, baseline characteristics, intervention approaches, data collection and baseline data. Methods The study design for the TGEG study consisted of a factorial group randomized controlled trial (RCT in which 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: (1 Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH only (Comparison, (2 CATCH plus school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG], (3 CATCH plus physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT], and (4 CATCH plus LGEG plus WAT (Combined. The outcome variables include student’s weight status, vegetable and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Parents were assessed for home environmental variables including availability of certain foods, social support of student health behaviors, parent engagement and behavior modeling. Results Descriptive data are presented for students (n = 1369 and parents (n = 1206 at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Hispanic and African American (53 % and 18 %, respectively and low-income (i.e., 78 % eligible for Free and

  16. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each

  17. Weight management behaviors in a sample of Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, S; Garrusi, B; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Z

    2016-09-01

    Attempts to obtain the ideal body shape portrayed in advertising can result in behaviors that lead to an unhealthy reduction in weight. This study was designed to identify contributing factors that may be effective in changing the behavior of a sample of Iranian adolescents. Three hundred fifty adolescent girls from high schools in Kerman, Iran participated in a cross-sectional study based on a self-administered questionnaire. Multifactorial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the factors influencing each of the contributing factors for body management methods, and a decision tree model was constructed to identify individuals who were more or less likely to change their body shape. Approximately one-third of the adolescent girls had attempted dieting, and 37 % of them had exercised to lose weight. The logistic regression model showed that pressure from their mother and the media; father's education level; and body mass index (BMI) were important factors in dieting. BMI and perceived pressure from the media were risk factors for attempting exercise. BMI and perceived pressure from relatives, particularly mothers, and the media were important factors in attempts by adolescent girls to lose weight.

  18. Weight stigma and eating behaviors on a college campus: Are students immune to stigma's effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Brewis, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students. Study 2 included a measure of weight responsibility and multiple measures of eating (food frequency, alcohol intake, and 24-hour dietary recalls, among freshman students (n = 202, n = 157 with 24-hour dietary recalls. Study 1 showed that the three types of stigmas were prevalent. Study 2 had a high prevalence of weight stigma attitudes and demonstrated the occurrence of unhealthful eating and binge drinking behaviors. Both studies found no relationship between weight stigma/responsibility and eating behaviors regardless of weight status. Beyond considering limitations of the study design, we propose two possible reasons for college students' relative immunity to the effects of weight stigma. Those with very high levels of stigma could be suppressing stigmatizing attitudes based on what they think others think is acceptable in a liberal college setting, or the chaotic form of “normal” eating in this population hides the effects of weight stigma.

  19. A new chart for weight control in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, R D; Edwards, R H

    1988-01-01

    Weight control is desirable in the muscle wasting conditions. A new chart is presented to allow the prediction of an ideal weight, free of excess fat, specifically for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  20. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cohort Study of the Success of Controlled Weight Loss Programs for Obese Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A J; Titcomb, J M; Holden, S L; Queau, Y; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2015-01-01

    Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. In control of weight: the relationship between facets of control and weight restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Caroline L; Penny, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the moderating effects of body dissatisfaction (BD) on the relationships between various constructs of control and weight restricting and control behaviours (WRCBs). Participants were 167 female undergraduates who completed self-report measures of control, BD and WRCBs. It was found that higher external locus of control (LOC) was related to less dieting and exercise and that LOC was unrelated to purging. In addition, higher levels of general self-control were found to be related to higher levels of purging when BD was high but not low, and higher general self-control was associated with greater dieting and exercise behaviour. Finally, higher 'self-control as self-esteem' was strongly associated with greater dieting and exercise behaviour at both high and low levels of BD, whilst 'self-control as self-esteem' was related to purging only when BD was high. The results of this research suggest that different constructs of control have differential effects on WRCBs. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  4. Long-Term Weight Loss Effects of a Behavioral Weight Management Program: Does the Community Food Environment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Zenk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether community food environments altered the longer-term effects of a nationwide behavioral weight management program on body mass index (BMI. The sample was comprised of 98,871 male weight management program participants and 15,385 female participants, as well as 461,302 and 37,192 inverse propensity-score weighted matched male and female controls. We measured the community food environment by counting the number of supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants within a 1-mile radius around each person’s home address. We used difference-in-difference regression models with person and calendar time fixed effects to estimate MOVE! effects over time in sub-populations defined by community food environment attributes. Among men, after an initial decrease in BMI at 6 months, the effect of the program decreased over time, with BMI increasing incrementally at 12 months (0.098 kg/m2, p < 0.001, 18 months (0.069 kg/m2, p < 0.001, and 24 months (0.067 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Among women, the initial effects of the program decreased over time as well. Women had an incremental BMI change of 0.099 kg/m2 at 12 months (p < 0.05 with non-significant incremental changes at 18 months and 24 months. We found little evidence that these longer-term effects of the weight management program differed depending on the community food environment. Physiological adaptations may overwhelm environmental influences on adherence to behavioral regimens in affecting longer-term weight loss outcomes.

  5. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status Among Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine crude and adjusted cross-sectional associations. Higher stress was associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (crude prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.09]), though the relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for a wide range of weight-related health risk behaviors (adjusted PR = 1.04; 95% CI [1.00, 1.08]). Stress levels were significantly associated with meal skipping and being a current smoker. Future research should investigate the mechanisms through which stress is related to obesity risk and examine the causes of stress among this understudied population to inform the design of appropriate interventions. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Eating behavior dimensions. Associations with energy intake and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W; Blundell, John E; Wardle, Jane

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual's food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  8. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  9. A Descriptive Survey of Weight Control Participants at a U.S. Army Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    participation in the survey was strictly voluntary; 3. only active duty Army personnel who were on the Army’s weight control program could volunteer ...A.R. 600-9 limit 2 I was singled out because I looked overweight 3 I volunteered for the program 4 Other, specify 18. Where was your initial weight...33. Wing, Rena R., and Epstein, Leonard H. "Prescribed Level of Caloric Restriction in Bahavioral Weight Loss Programs. Addictive Behaviors 6

  10. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Schizophrenia and weight management: a systematic review of interventions to control weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G; Soundy, A A; Lloyd, K

    2003-11-01

    Weight gain is a frequent side effect of antipsychotic medication which has serious implications for a patient's health and well being. This study systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of interventions designed to control weight gain in schizophrenia. A systematic search strategy was conducted of major databases in addition to citation searches. Study quality was rated. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Five of eight pharmacological intervention studies reported small reductions in weight (weight). All behavioural (including diet and/or exercise) interventions reported small reductions in, or maintenance of, weight. Weight loss may be difficult but it is not impossible. Given the inconsistent results, the widespread use of pharmacological interventions cannot be recommended. Both dietary and exercise counselling set within a behavioural modification programme is necessary for sustained weight control.

  12. Endogenous Generalized Weights under DEA Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    Non-parametric efficiency analysis, such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, based on revealed preferences or market prices. However, as DEA is gaining popularity in regulation and normative budgeting, the strategic interest...... of the evaluated industry calls for attention. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA where the units collectively propose the set of weights that maximize their efficiency. Thus, the sector-wide efficiency is then a result of compromising the scores of more specialized smaller units...

  13. Investigating satiety for healthy weight : Appetite control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgering, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulating feelings of hunger and satiety could be a promising approach in weight management. TNO Food & Nutrition offers advanced assessment tools to support the development of food products that help address issues of overweight and underweight. This can reduce time, cost, and time-to-market.

  14. Weight misperception among young adults with overweight/obesity associated with disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Thurston, Idia B; Milliren, Carly E; Gooding, Holly C; Richmond, Tracy K

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between weight misperception among young adults with overweight/obesity and disordered eating behaviors. In a subsample of young adults with overweight or obesity participating in Wave III (2001-2002) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 5,184), we examined the cross-sectional association between weight under-perception (i.e., perceiving oneself to be at a healthy body weight or underweight) and disordered eating (fasting/meal skipping for weight control, purging/pills for weight control, overeating/loss of control eating, and use of performance-enhancing products/substances). About 20% of young adult females under-perceived their weight compared to 48% of males. Individuals who misperceived their weight as healthy were significantly less likely to report fasting/meal skipping (Females: OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.43; Males: OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.20-0.48) and vomiting or taking diet pills/laxatives/diuretics (Females: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25; Males: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) for weight control. Among females, those who misperceived their weight status as healthy were also less likely to report overeating or loss of control eating (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.71). Greater use of performance-enhancing products/substances was seen among males who under-perceived their weight as healthy (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.57-2.72) and among both females (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40-20.0) and males (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.55) who perceived themselves to be underweight. Weight under-perception among young adults with overweight/obesity may convey some benefit related to disordered eating behaviors, but could be a risk factor for the use of performance-enhancing products/substances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord ; 49:937-946). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  16. Navy Nutrition and Weight Control Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-10

    Sugars Used in Foods: sugar sucrose lactose mannitol glucose honey corn syrup dextrose sorbitol fructose maltose maple syrup molasses high- fructose corn...such as glucose , fructose , and sucrose. Another sugar, lactose, is found in milk and milk products. Legumes and cereals contain small amounts of...weeks. Weighing and measuring more frequently will only reflect water weight gains and losses, not true progress. Perform measurements mid-week if

  17. Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie Cathleen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited population-based data on behavioral factors found to be important for successful weight loss maintenance among adults. Methods Data from the 2004 Styles surveys, mailed to U.S. adults aged ≥18 years were used to examine the difference in selected weight loss strategies and attitudes among persons who reported successful weight loss attempts (lost weight and able to keep it off and persons who were not successful (previous attempts to lose weight were unsuccessful or they could not keep the lost weight off. Behaviors examined included modification of diet, leisure-time and sports activities, and self-monitoring, and barriers to weight management. Results Among adults who reported losing weight or trying to lose weight, 31.0% had been successful at both losing weight and maintenance after weight loss. Successful weight loss status differed by sex, age, and current weight status. Assessment of reported weight loss strategies, found that exercising ≥30 minutes/day and adding physical activity to daily life were significantly higher among successful versus unsuccessful weight losers. Individuals who were successful at weight loss and maintenance were less likely to use over-the-counter diet products than those who were unsuccessful at weight loss. Significantly more successful versus unsuccessful weight losers reported that on most days of the week they planned meals (35.9% vs. 24.9%, tracked calories (17.7% vs. 8.8%, tracked fat (16.4% vs. 6.6%, and measured food on plate (15.9% vs. 6.7%. Successful losers were also more likely to weigh themselves daily (20.3% vs. 11.0%. There were a significantly higher proportion of successful losers who reported lifting weights (19.0% versus unsuccessful (10.9%. The odds of being a successful weight loser were 48%–76% lower for those reporting exercise weight control barriers were influencing factors (e.g., no time, too tired to exercise, no one to exercise with, too

  18. Optimizing weight control in diabetes: antidiabetic drug selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kalra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available S Kalra1, B Kalra1, AG Unnikrishnan2, N Agrawal3, S Kumar41Bharti Hospital, Karnal; 2Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi; 3Medical College, Gwalior; 4Excel Life Sciences, Noida, IndiaDate of preparation: 18th August 2010Conflict of interest: SK has received speaker fees from Novo Nordisk, sanofi-aventis, MSD, Eli Lilly, BMS, and AstraZeneca.Clinical question: Which antidiabetic drugs provide optimal weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes?Results: Metformin reduces weight gain, and may cause weight loss, when given alone or in combination with other drugs. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone use is associated with weight gain. Use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogs, liraglutide and exenatide, is associated with weight loss. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are considered weight-neutral. Results with insulin therapy are conflicting. Insulin detemir provides weight control along with glycemic control.Implementation: • Weight gain is considered an inevitable part of good glycemic control using conventional modalities of treatment such as sulfonylureas.• Use of metformin, weight-sparing insulin analogs such as insulin detemir, and liraglutide, should be encouraged as monotherapy, or in combination with other drugs.Keywords: weight control, diabetes

  19. On frequency-weighted coprime factorization based controller reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras

    2003-01-01

    We consider the efficient solution of a class of coprime factorization based controller approximation problems by using frequency-weighted balancing related model reduction approaches. It is shown that for some special stability enforcing frequency-weights, the computation of the frequency-weighted controllability and observability grammians can be done by solving reduced order Lyapunov equations. The new approach can be used in conjunction with accuracy enhancing square-root and balancing-fr...

  20. Family Food Choices: A Guide to Weight and Diabetes Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    Written for American Indians who have diabetes, this folder explains diabetes and outlines a weight control program and diet. The folder discusses the five things diabetics can do to help control their disease: lose weight, watch the amount and kind of fat eaten, eat more food with fiber, avoid sugar, and avoid alcohol. Charts for foods containing…

  1. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  2. Factors associated with parent concern for child weight and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.

  3. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  4. Behavioral and Psychological Phenotyping of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Implications for Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Angela D; Jakicic, John M; Hunter, Christine M; Evans, Mary E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Epstein, Leonard H

    2017-10-01

    Risk for obesity is determined by a complex mix of genetics and lifetime exposures at multiple levels, from the metabolic milieu to psychosocial and environmental influences. These phenotypic differences underlie the variability in risk for obesity and response to weight management interventions, including differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior. As part of a broader effort focused on behavioral and psychological phenotyping in obesity research, the National Institutes of Health convened a multidisciplinary workshop to explore the state of the science in behavioral and psychological phenotyping in humans to explain individual differences in physical activity, both as a risk factor for obesity development and in response to activity-enhancing interventions. Understanding the behavioral and psychological phenotypes that contribute to differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior could allow for improved treatment matching and inform new targets for tailored, innovative, and effective weight management interventions. This summary provides the rationale for identifying psychological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to physical activity and identifies opportunities for future research to better understand, define, measure, and validate putative phenotypic factors and characterize emerging phenotypes that are empirically associated with initiation of physical activity, response to intervention, and sustained changes in physical activity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Nurses' self-care behaviors related to weight and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Warren, Joan; Zhu, Shijun; An, Minjeong; Brown, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research on preventive health care behaviors has been conducted in different segments of the population. Although nurses are the largest group of direct health care providers (3 million), little is known about their preventive health care behaviors. As the average age of nurses working in the United States (US) increases (mean age 47 years), maintaining their health to ensure they can continue to provide optimal health care to others becomes a greater priority. This descriptive online study examined registered nurses' dietary and exercise practices, weight status, stress levels, and preferred preventive health strategies using a sample of nurses recruited from a community-based, urban teaching hospital (n = 183; mean age 47 ± 11.3 years). The majority of participants (72.2%, n = 122) reported a lack of exercise, and more than half (53.8%, n = 91) had an irregular meal pattern. The average body mass index (BMI) was 28.3 ± 6.8, and 59.2% (n = 100) were either overweight (n = 47) or obese (n = 53). BMI had a significant inverse relationship with having a regular meal schedule and the amount of time spent exercising. Participants who reported greater stress had more irregular meal schedules. The most frequently used stress-release method was eating (n = 32), followed by exercise (n = 31). Nurses are fully aware of measures that should be taken for healthy living. Their knowledge, however, has not been well translated into their own self-care. As nursing shortages loom, maintaining the health of the aging nursing workforce is essential to retention. Further research is needed to identify factors that may motivate nurses to better care for themselves and measures that can be implemented by employers to initiate and sustain these preventive health care behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Wedel, Amelia V

    2017-03-01

    Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A; Butryn, Meghan L; Byrne, Kirstin J

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification induces loss of approximately 10% of initial weight in 16 to 26 weeks, as revealed by a review of recent randomized controlled trials, including the Diabetes Prevention Program. Long-term weight control is facilitated by continued patient-therapist contact, whether provided in person or by telephone, mail, or e-mail. High levels of physical activity and the consumption of low-calorie, portion-controlled meals, including liquid meal replacements, can also help maintain weight loss. Additional studies are needed of the effects of macronutrient content (e.g., low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets) on long-term changes in weight and health. Research also is needed on effective methods of providing comprehensive weight loss control to the millions of Americans who need it.

  8. Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD =2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beliefs about genetic influences on eating behaviors: Characteristics and associations with weight management confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Bouhlal, Sofia; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M

    2017-08-01

    The development of precision approaches for customized health interventions is a promising application of genomic discovery. To optimize such weight management interventions, target audiences will need to be engaged in research and implementation efforts. Investigation into approaches that engage these audiences will be required to ensure that genomic information, particularly with respect to genomic influences on endophenotypes like eating behavior, is understood and accepted, and not associated with unintended adverse outcomes. We took steps to characterize healthy individuals' beliefs about genetic influences on eating behavior. Data were collected via online survey from 261 participants selected at random from a database. Respondents infrequently spontaneously identified eating behavior-related factors as running in families. However, those who perceived themselves as overweight and perceived a family history of overweight were more likely to attribute eating behavior to genetics on closed-ended assessments, β=0.252, p=0.039. Genetic attributions for eating behaviors were associated with lower confidence in ability to control eating and weight, β=-0.119, p=0.035. These exploratory findings shed light on beliefs about genetic influences on eating, a behavioral trait (rather than a disease). This investigation can inform future health intervention efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Undergrad and Overweight: An Online Behavioral Weight Management Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Berino, Jean; Pope, Lizzy; Gold, Beth Casey; Leonard, Heather; Belliveau, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Explore the feasibility of an online behavioral weight management program for college students. Methods: The program focused on behavioral strategies to modify eating and exercise behaviors of students interested in losing weight and/or developing a healthy lifestyle. Specific tools included weekly chat meetings with a facilitator,…

  11. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluch Rocco A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247

  12. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-02-22

    Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. © 2011 Epstein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  14. Identifying the ‘red flags’ for unhealthy weight control among adolescents: Findings from an item response theory analysis of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utter Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight control behaviors are common among young people and are associated with poor health outcomes. Yet clinicians rarely ask young people about their weight control; this may be due to uncertainty about which questions to ask, specifically around whether certain weight loss strategies are healthier or unhealthy or about what weight loss behaviors are more likely to lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, the aims of the current study are: to confirm, using item response theory analysis, that the underlying latent constructs of healthy and unhealthy weight control exist; to determine the ‘red flag’ weight loss behaviors that may discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight loss; to determine the relationships between healthy and unhealthy weight loss and mental health; and to examine how weight control may vary among demographic groups. Methods Data were collected as part of a national health and wellbeing survey of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9,107 in 2007. Item response theory analyses were conducted to determine the underlying constructs of weight control behaviors and the behaviors that discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight control. Results The current study confirms that there are two underlying constructs of weight loss behaviors which can be described as healthy and unhealthy weight control. Unhealthy weight control was positively correlated with depressive mood. Fasting and skipping meals for weight loss had the lowest item thresholds on the unhealthy weight control continuum, indicating that they act as ‘red flags’ and warrant further discussion in routine clinical assessments. Conclusions Routine assessments of weight control strategies by clinicians are warranted, particularly for screening for meal skipping and fasting for weight loss as these behaviors appear to ‘flag’ behaviors that are associated with poor mental wellbeing.

  15. The Impact of Weight Perception on the Health Behaviors of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Jessica; Naquin, Mildred; Gillan, Wynn; Bowers, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity has links to numerous health problems. Having an accurate perception of one's own weight is an important aspect of maintaining an appropriate weight. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among perceived body weight, actual body weight, body satisfaction, and selected health behaviors. Methods: The…

  16. Weight Suppression in Bulimia Nervosa: Associations with Biology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a serious eating disorder that can persist for years and contribute to medical complications and increased mortality, underscoring the need to better understand factors maintaining this disorder. Higher levels of weight suppression (WS) have been found to predict both the onset and maintenance of BN; however, no studies have examined mechanisms that may account for the effects of WS on BN. We hypothesized that high WS would lead to reduced leptin levels, which may increase risk of binge eating by modulating reward responses to food. The current study examined the relationship between WS, leptin levels, and the reinforcing value of food in women with BN (n=32) and non-eating disorder controls (n=30). Participants provided information on WS, completed a fasting blood draw to obtain serum leptin, and completed a progressive ratio task to measure the reinforcing value of food. Individuals with BN had greater WS (p<.01) and reinforcing food value (p<.05) compared to controls. Additionally, higher WS was associated with both lower leptin (p<.05) and increased reinforcing value of food (p<.05). Contrary to hypotheses, BN and control participants did not differ significantly on leptin levels, and leptin levels were not significantly associated with the reinforcing value of food. Findings support that efforts to conform to the thin ideal may alter drive to consume rewarding foods and leave women vulnerable to binge episodes. However, mechanisms through which WS contributes to food reward and binge eating remain unknown. PMID:26191637

  17. A smartphone-supported weight loss program: design of the ENGAGED randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Christine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Methods/design Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2 will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1 standard behavioral weight loss (STND, (2 technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH; or (3 self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF. All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD’s and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1–6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer. STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. Discussion ENGAGED is an innovative weight loss intervention that integrates theory with emerging mobile technologies. We hypothesize that TECH, as compared to STND and SELF, will result in greater weight loss by virtue of improved behavioral adherence and goal achievement. Trial registration NCT01051713

  18. Suboptimal Weight Loss and Weight Regain after Gastric Bypass Surgery-Postoperative Status of Energy Intake, Eating Behavior, Physical Activity, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Tina; Strømmen, Magnus; Martins, Catia

    2017-05-01

    Suboptimal weight loss (SWL) and weight regain (WR) after gastric bypass surgery (GB) remains poorly understood. This study aims to compare GB patients experiencing SWL or significant WR (SigWR) with successful controls, regarding postoperative food intake, eating behavior, physical activity (PA), and psychometrics. Forty-nine patients with >1 year post-surgery were classified as either experiencing SWL (excess body weight loss, EWL, <50%, n = 22) or SigWR (total weight regain ≥15%, n = 38), with respective control groups. Energy intake (EI) was measured with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and PA using both SenseWear Armbands and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Eating disorders, depression, and quality of life (QoL) were measured using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory II, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life, respectively. EI, macronutrient distribution, and meal frequency were similar among groups. However, disinhibited eating behavior score was higher, while most subcategories from IWQOL were significantly lower in both SWL and SigWR groups compared with their respective controls. PA was significantly lower in the SWL and SigWR groups compared with the respective controls. There were no differences between groups regarding depression. Lower PA levels, disordered eating behavior and lower QoL are associated with unsuccessful weigh loss outcome after GB surgery. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the potential causal relationship between the previously described variables and SWL/SigWR after GB.

  19. Development and Application of Coating Weight Control Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hyoung [Dongbu Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Precise coating weight control is very important issue on quality and minimizing operating costs on continuous galvanizing line. These days, many steel making companies are having a new understanding of cost importance by rise raw material prices and customers requirement for cost reduction. Dongbu steel also meets these situations and decided to develop the technologies. Dongbu Steel developed Integrated coating weight control system jointly with Objective Control Ltd. and installed 2CGL and 4CGL. Several technological functions were developed and realized to achieve true hands-off operation and maximum cost benefit by combining model-based preset and dynamic prediction models. We also installed it on 1 CGL on April, 2008. This paper will present the interface, functions and application result of the integrated coating weight control system including Zn saving and coating weight uniformity.

  20. molecular weight control of a batch suspension polymerization reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, M.; Fanaei, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns molecular weight control of a batch polymerization reactor where suspension polymerization of methyl methylacrylate (MMA) takes place. For this purpose, a cascade control structure with two control loops has been selected. The slave loop is used for temperature control using on-line temperature measurements, and the master loop controls the average molecular weights based on its estimated values. Two different control algorithms namely proportional-integral (PI) controller and globally linearizing controller (GLC) have been used for temperature control. An estimator, which has the structure of an extended Kalman filter(EKF), is used for estimating monomer conversion and average molecular weights of polymer using reactor temperature measurements. The performance of proposed control algorithm is evaluated through simulation and experimental studies. The results indicate that a constant average molecular weight cannot be achieved in case of strong gel effect. However, the polydispersity of product will be lower in comparison to isothermal operation. It is also shown that in case of mo dek mismatch, the performance of cascade control is superior compared to the case where only reactor temperature is controlled based on desired temperature trajectory obtained through cascade strategy

  1. Overeating with and without loss of control: Associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Pisetsky, Emily M; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    The relative importance of loss of control and overeating in the relationship between binge eating and eating-related and general psychopathology has been debated in the literature. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of overeating with and without loss of control within a diverse, population-based sample of adolescents. A highly diverse (81.1% non-White) sample of adolescents (n = 2,793) from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating-related psychopathology, substance use, nonsuicidal self-injury, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Overeating without loss of control was reported by 6.9% of girls and 5.0% of boys, while 9.6% of girls and 6.3% of boys reported overeating with loss of control (binge eating). Overall, overeating (with or without loss of control) was positively associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, dieting, nonsuicidal self-injury, lower body satisfaction, and self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to no overeating. Among girls, binge eating was associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to overeating without loss of control, while in boys, binge eating was associated with greater cigarette usage, lower body satisfaction, and greater depressive symptoms than overeating without loss of control (although cigarette usage was comparable in boys reporting binge eating and no overeating). Any overeating, with or without loss of control, was associated with multiple adverse correlates among adolescents. Loss of control was uniquely associated with multiple health indicators, further highlighting its importance as a marker of severity of overeating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Beginning Weight Training Class: Their Relations to Students' Behavioral Intention and Actual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…

  3. Smartphone Interventions for Weight Treatment and Behavioral Change in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplais, Elodie; Naughton, Geraldine; Thivel, David; Courteix, Daniel; Greene, David

    2015-10-01

    Traditional approaches for treating or managing children and adolescents with overweight or obesity have limited effectiveness. Current advances in smartphone technology may improve the attractiveness and accessibility of weight management support for children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. This systematic review aimed to provide a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using smartphones in the multidisciplinary treatment of child and adolescent overweight or obesity, with a specific interest in behavior change. The databases of Medline complete, OVID, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies addressing behavioral change using smartphone technology, plus nutrition and/or physical activity, to treat or manage child and adolescent obesity. Only two RCTs have described the effectiveness of smartphone devices in pediatric overweight or obesity treatment. Within the limitation of the two studies, electronic contact (e-contact) appeared unsuccessful in achieving weight loss. However, smartphone usage was linked to improved engagement and reduced dropout rates during important sustainability phases of these long-term interventions. Smartphone technologies allow users to accomplish tasks anywhere and anytime and, as such, provide researchers with additional and generationally appropriate capacities to deliver health promotion. E-contact should be used for its significant capacity to prolong engagement and decrease withdrawal during sustainability phases that follow intensive intervention for weight management in young populations. Despite increasing popularity in published protocols of weight management trials, the effectiveness of the impact of smartphone technology in pediatric programs remains equivocal.

  4. Examination of weight control practices in a non-clinical sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.87±1.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status.

  5. Daily text messaging for weight control among racial and ethnic minority women: randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-11-18

    Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women. Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts. The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference -2.41 kg, 95% CI -5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=-.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence. Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1).

  6. On the relationship between weight status and doctor shopping behavior-evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi

    2013-11-01

    A recent study has suggested that overweight and obese people are more likely to consult a range of physicians (doctor shopping). The consistency of this finding with multiple measures of doctor shopping and controls for socioeconomic circumstances was interrogated. Ninety-nine thousand four hundred seven Australians aged 45 and over who had sought primary healthcare at least five times within 6 months of a survey (2006-2008). (i) The count of different physicians consulted; a binary indicator of (ii) >= three different physicians; (iii) >= five different physicians; and iv) a measure that took into account multiple consultations with the same physician were investigated. Weight status was measured using Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight. Controls included socioeconomic circumstances, demographics, health, and neighborhood factors. In comparison to people with "normal" BMI, the likelihood of doctor shopping was lower among overweight (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98) and obese people (0.95: 0.93, 0.96). This negative correlation between doctor shopping behavior and weight status was consistent after full adjustment and across different outcome measures. In contrast with recent evidence from the US, overweight and obese Australians are less prone to doctor shopping behavior than their peers with "normal" BMI. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI, food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  8. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, Kamisha H; French, Simone A; Harnack, Lisa J; Toomey, Traci L; Hannan, Peter J; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-12-20

    Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI), food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  9. Can mindfulness influence weight management related eating behaviors? If so, how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Katy

    2017-04-01

    Mindfulness is increasingly being used for weight management. However, the strength of the evidence for such an approach is unclear; although mindfulness-based weight management programs have had some success, it is difficult to conclude that the mindfulness components were responsible. Research in this area is further complicated by the fact that the term 'mindfulness' is used to refer to a range of different practices. Additionally, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which mindfulness might exert its effects. This review addresses these issues by examining research that has looked at the independent effects of mindfulness and mindfulness-related strategies on weight loss and weight management related eating behaviors. As well as looking at evidence for effects, the review also considers whether effects may vary with different types of strategy, and the kinds of mechanisms that may be responsible for any change. It is concluded that there is some evidence to support the effects of (a) present moment awareness, when applied to the sensory properties of food, and (b) decentering. However, research in these areas has yet to be examined in a controlled manner in relation to weight management. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived Self-Efficacy and Financial Incentives: Factors Affecting Health Behaviors and Weight Loss in a Workplace Weight Loss Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Pouran D; Simon, Julia; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Gorin, Amy

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate if self-efficacy (SE) and financial incentives (FI) mediate the effect of health behavior on weight loss in a group of overweight and obese nursing-home employees participating in a 16-week weight-loss intervention with 12-week follow-up. Ninety nine overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > 25) employees from four nursing-homes participated, with a mean age of 46.98 years and BMI of 35.33. Nursing-homes were randomized to receiving an incentive-based intervention (n = 51) and no incentive (n = 48). Participants' health behaviors and eating and exercise self-efficacy (Ex-SE) were assessed at week 1, 16, and 28 using a self-reported questionnaire. Mediation and moderated mediation analysis assessed relationships among these variables. Eating self-efficacy (Eat-SE) and Ex-SE were significant mediators between health behaviors and weight loss (P self-efficacy (P = 0.00) on weight loss. Self-efficacy and FI may affect weight loss and play a role in weight-loss interventions.

  11. Use of probabilistic weights to enhance linear regression myoelectric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2015-12-01

    Clinically available prostheses for transradial amputees do not allow simultaneous myoelectric control of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Linear regression methods can provide simultaneous myoelectric control, but frequently also result in difficulty with isolating individual DOFs when desired. This study evaluated the potential of using probabilistic estimates of categories of gross prosthesis movement, which are commonly used in classification-based myoelectric control, to enhance linear regression myoelectric control. Gaussian models were fit to electromyogram (EMG) feature distributions for three movement classes at each DOF (no movement, or movement in either direction) and used to weight the output of linear regression models by the probability that the user intended the movement. Eight able-bodied and two transradial amputee subjects worked in a virtual Fitts' law task to evaluate differences in controllability between linear regression and probability-weighted regression for an intramuscular EMG-based three-DOF wrist and hand system. Real-time and offline analyses in able-bodied subjects demonstrated that probability weighting improved performance during single-DOF tasks (p linear regression control. Use of probability weights can improve the ability to isolate individual during linear regression myoelectric control, while maintaining the ability to simultaneously control multiple DOFs.

  12. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Élise; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-03-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (-10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint ( p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition ( p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger ( p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.

  13. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet before and after Weight Loss on Eating Behavioral Traits in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Carbonneau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria, aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001 and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02 and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01. Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.

  14. Automated indexing of Internet stories for health behavior change: weight loss attitude pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuvinakurike, Ramesh; Velicer, Wayne F; Bickmore, Timothy W

    2014-12-09

    Automated health behavior change interventions show promise, but suffer from high attrition and disuse. The Internet abounds with thousands of personal narrative accounts of health behavior change that could not only provide useful information and motivation for others who are also trying to change, but an endless source of novel, entertaining stories that may keep participants more engaged than messages authored by interventionists. Given a collection of relevant personal health behavior change stories gathered from the Internet, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated indexing algorithm that could select the best possible story to provide to a user to have the greatest possible impact on their attitudes toward changing a targeted health behavior, in this case weight loss. An indexing algorithm was developed using features informed by theories from behavioral medicine together with text classification and machine learning techniques. The algorithm was trained using a crowdsourced dataset, then evaluated in a 2×2 between-subjects randomized pilot study. One factor compared the effects of participants reading 2 indexed stories vs 2 randomly selected stories, whereas the second factor compared the medium used to tell the stories: text or animated conversational agent. Outcome measures included changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance for weight loss before and after the stories were read. Participants were recruited from a crowdsourcing website (N=103; 53.4%, 55/103 female; mean age 35, SD 10.8 years; 65.0%, 67/103 precontemplation; 19.4%, 20/103 contemplation for weight loss). Participants who read indexed stories exhibited a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy for weight loss compared to the control group (F1,107=5.5, P=.02). There were no significant effects of indexing on change in decisional balance (F1,97=0.05, P=.83) and no significant effects of medium on change in self-efficacy (F1,107=0.04, P=.84) or decisional

  15. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  16. Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette R; Faber, Anne; Ekner, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study e...... evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain.......Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study...

  17. From morbid obesity to a healthy weight using cognitive-behavioral methods: a woman's three-year process with one and one-half years of weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a national health problem regularly confronting medical professionals. Although reduced-energy (kilocalorie [kcal]) eating and increased exercise will reliably reduce weight, these behaviors have been highly resistant to sustained change. To control eating using theory-based cognitive-behavioral methods that leverage the positive psychosocial effects of newly initiated exercise as an alternate to typical approaches of education about appropriate nutrition. A woman, age 48 years, with morbid obesity initiated exercise through a 6-month exercise support protocol based on social cognitive and self-efficacy theory (The Coach Approach). This program was followed by periodic individual meetings with a wellness professional intended to transfer behavioral skills learned to adapt to regular exercise, to then control eating. There was consistent recording of exercises completed, foods consumed, various psychosocial and lifestyle factors, and weight. Over the 4.4 years reported, weight decreased from 117.6 kg to 59.0 kg, and body mass index (BMI) decreased from 43.1 kg/m(2) to 21.6 kg/m(2). Mean energy intake initially decreased to 1792 kcal/day and further dropped to 1453 kcal/day by the end of the weight-loss phase. Consistent with theory, use of self-regulatory skills, self-efficacy, and overall mood significantly predicted both increased exercise and decreased energy intake. Morbid obesity was reduced to a healthy weight within 3.1 years, and weight was maintained in the healthy range through the present (1.3 years later). This case supports theory-based propositions that exercise-induced changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood transfer to and reinforce improvements in corresponding psychosocial factors related to controlled eating.

  18. A Bayesian Formulation of Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Dayan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Helplessness, a belief that the world is not subject to behavioral control, has long been central to our understanding of depression, and has influenced cognitive theories, animal models and behavioral treatments. However, despite its importance, there is no fully accepted definition of helplessness or behavioral control in psychology or…

  19. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P maternal control of child's eating routines (P maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3½, 7½ and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped......A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive...... outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well...

  1. Infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants improves independency in mobility at preschool age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Houtzager, Bregje; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program(©) (IBAIP) in very low birth weight infants on sensory processing and daily activities at preschool age. Follow-up of children included in a randomized controlled trial. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  2. A randomized controlled trial testing an Internet delivered cost-benefit approach to weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Fava, Joseph L; Seiden, Andrew; Fernandes, Denise; Doyle, Caroline; Kent, Kimberly; La Rue, Molly; Mitchell, Marc; Wing, Rena R

    2016-11-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a significant challenge in obesity treatment. During maintenance the "costs" of adhering to weight management behaviors may outweigh the "benefits." This study examined the efficacy of a novel approach to weight loss maintenance based on modifying the cost-benefit ratio. Individuals who achieved a 5% weight loss (N=75) were randomized to one of three, 10-month maintenance interventions. All interventions were delivered primarily via the Internet. The Standard arm received traditional weight maintenance strategies. To increase benefits, or rewards, for maintenance behaviors, the two cost-benefit intervention conditions received weekly monetary rewards for self-monitoring and social reinforcement via e-coaching. To decrease behavioral costs (boredom) and increase novelty, participants in the cost-benefit conditions also monitored different evidence-based behaviors every two weeks (e.g., Weeks 1 & 2: steps; Week 3 & 4: red foods). The primary difference between the cost-benefit interventions was type of e-coach providing social reinforcement: Professional (CB Pro) or Peer (CB Peer). Study procedures took place in Providence, RI from 2013 to 2014. Retention was 99%. There were significant group differences in weight regain (p=.01). The Standard arm gained 3.5±5.7kg. In contrast, participants in CB Pro and CB Peer lost an additional 1.8±7.0kg and 0.5±6.4kg, respectively. These results suggest that an Internet delivered cost-benefit approach to weight loss maintenance may be effective for long-term weight control. In addition, using peer coaches to provide reinforcement may be a particularly economic alternative to professionals. These data are promising and provide support for a larger, longer trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Step Tracking with Goals Increases Children's Weight Loss in Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Beyl, Robbie A; Hsia, Daniel S; Jarrell, Amber R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Mantzor, Savarra; Newton, Robert L; Tyson, Patrice

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the influence of step goals with pedometers to improve children's weight loss, physical activity, and psychosocial health during obesity treatment. Overweight and obese children ages 8-17 years (n = 105) participated in a 10-week family-based weight management intervention, including physical activity, nutrition, and behavioral modification. A quasi-experimental design was used to group eight cohorts into three conditions: no pedometer (n = 24), pedometer only (n = 25), and pedometer with step goals (i.e., 500 steps/day weekly increase above baseline; n = 56). Height and weight were measured at baseline and week 10 and used to calculate BMI. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine difference by condition for change in weight, BMI, and BMI z-score, controlling for age and baseline value. Differences in steps per day and psychosocial health were compared between the two pedometer conditions. Participants were 12.4 ± 2.5 years of age, including 70% girls and 64% African Americans. The pedometer with goals condition significantly reduced BMI (p = 0.02) and BMI z-score (p = 0.01) compared with the no-pedometer group. The pedometer with goals condition significantly increased steps per day (+1185 ± 425 steps/day) compared with the pedometer-only condition (-162 ± 620 steps/day; p goals was an effective approach to produce weight loss. Further work is needed to increase the strength of interventions to achieve clinically meaningful weight reduction for children with obesity.

  4. Controllability of Weighted and Directed Networks with Nonidentical Node Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linying Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of controllability from control theory is applied to weighted and directed networks with heterogenous linear or linearized node dynamics subject to exogenous inputs, where the nodes are grouped into leaders and followers. Under this framework, the controllability of the controlled network can be decomposed into two independent problems: the controllability of the isolated leader subsystem and the controllability of the extended follower subsystem. Some necessary and/or sufficient conditions for the controllability of the leader-follower network are derived based on matrix theory and graph theory. In particular, it is shown that a single-leader network is controllable if it is a directed path or cycle, but it is uncontrollable for a complete digraph or a star digraph in general. Furthermore, some approaches to improving the controllability of a heterogenous network are presented. Some simulation examples are given for illustration and verification.

  5. Access Request Trustworthiness in Weighted Access Control Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lun-wei; LIAO Xiang-ke; WANG Huai-min

    2005-01-01

    Weighted factor is given to access control policies to express the importance of policy and its effect on access control decision. According to this weighted access control framework, a trustworthiness model for access request is also given. In this model, we give the measure of trustworthiness factor to access request, by using some idea of uncertainty reasoning of expert system, present and prove the parallel propagation formula of request trustworthiness factor among multiple policies, and get the final trustworthiness factor to decide whether authorizing. In this model, authorization decision is given according to the calculation of request trustworthiness factor, which is more understandable, more suitable for real requirement and more powerful for security enhancement than traditional methods. Meanwhile the finer access control granularity is another advantage.

  6. Using Avatars to Model Weight Loss Behaviors: Participant Attitudes and Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Hayes, Sharon; Russo, Giuseppe; Muresu, Debora; Giordano, Antonio; Foster, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality and other avatar-based technologies are potential methods for demonstrating and modeling weight loss behaviors. This study examined avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. Methods: This study consisted of two phases: (1) an online survey to obtain feedback about using avatars for modeling weight loss behaviors and (2) technology development and usability testing to create an avatar-based technology program for modeling weight loss behaviors. Results: Results of phase 1 (n = 128) revealed that interest was high, with 88.3% stating that they would participate in a program that used an avatar to help practice weight loss skills in a virtual environment. In phase 2, avatars and modules to model weight loss skills were developed. Eight women were recruited to participate in a 4-week usability test, with 100% reporting they would recommend the program and that it influenced their diet/exercise behavior. Most women (87.5%) indicated that the virtual models were helpful. After 4 weeks, average weight loss was 1.6 kg (standard deviation = 1.7). Conclusion: This investigation revealed a high level of interest in an avatar-based program, with formative work indicating promise. Given the high costs associated with in vivo exposure and practice, this study demonstrates the potential use of avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. PMID:23911189

  7. Healthy food consumption in young women: The influence of others’ eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  8. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  9. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  10. Use of probabilistic weights to enhance linear regression myoelectric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Clinically available prostheses for transradial amputees do not allow simultaneous myoelectric control of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Linear regression methods can provide simultaneous myoelectric control, but frequently also result in difficulty with isolating individual DOFs when desired. This study evaluated the potential of using probabilistic estimates of categories of gross prosthesis movement, which are commonly used in classification-based myoelectric control, to enhance linear regression myoelectric control. Approach. Gaussian models were fit to electromyogram (EMG) feature distributions for three movement classes at each DOF (no movement, or movement in either direction) and used to weight the output of linear regression models by the probability that the user intended the movement. Eight able-bodied and two transradial amputee subjects worked in a virtual Fitts’ law task to evaluate differences in controllability between linear regression and probability-weighted regression for an intramuscular EMG-based three-DOF wrist and hand system. Main results. Real-time and offline analyses in able-bodied subjects demonstrated that probability weighting improved performance during single-DOF tasks (p < 0.05) by preventing extraneous movement at additional DOFs. Similar results were seen in experiments with two transradial amputees. Though goodness-of-fit evaluations suggested that the EMG feature distributions showed some deviations from the Gaussian, equal-covariance assumptions used in this experiment, the assumptions were sufficiently met to provide improved performance compared to linear regression control. Significance. Use of probability weights can improve the ability to isolate individual during linear regression myoelectric control, while maintaining the ability to simultaneously control multiple DOFs.

  11. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2010-06-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of satisfaction of their basic psychological needs. In turn, psychological need satisfaction was hypothesised to negatively predict body image concerns (i.e. drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) and, indirectly, unhealthy weight control behaviours. The predictions of the model were largely supported indicating that parental autonomy support and adaptive life goals can indirectly impact upon the extent to which female adolescents engage in unhealthy weight control behaviours via facilitating the latter's psychological need satisfaction.

  12. Electrophoretic behavior in filter paper and molecular weight of insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.

    1955-01-01

    Insulin travels as well defined band in electropherograms if acetic acid-water 1:2 (v/v) is used as a buffer. Preparations of partially acetylated insulin were analysed by this method. From the results it could be derived that the molecular weight of insulin is 6,000. An improvement in the

  13. Weight control in schizophrenic patients through Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern and its associations with temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Ryoei; Matsuo, Hisae; Naono-Nagatomo, Keiko; Ozono, Kazuhiko; Araki, Ryuji; Ishikawa, Michiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether daily self-monitoring of weight and monthly interviews with a doctor improved eating habits and led to weight loss, and whether temperament and character traits affect weight change in persons with schizophrenia. Participants used Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern to monitor their weight daily. In addition, Sakata's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was administered to evaluate eating-behavior awareness. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to assess participants' temperament and character. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the intervention group (n = 25) filled in Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern every day; was interviewed monthly by a doctor about weight management; was weighed monthly. The non-intervention group (n = 25) was only weighed monthly. The body mass index (mean ± standard error: 0.59 ± 0.10 kg/m(2), p Weight change and TCI scores were not correlated for the intervention group, but scores for "self-directedness" and weight gain in the non-intervention group had a marginally significant negative correlation (r = -0.33, p weight daily on Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern led to improvements in eating behavior and a decrease in BMI of patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A pilot study of the effects of behavioral weight loss treatment on fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jennifer R; Anderson, Drew A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have found a relation between weight loss and pain severity in various chronic pain populations. However, there has been little research examining the relation between body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and FMS symptoms and to determine if FMS symptoms would decrease following weight loss. Overweight and obese women participated in a 20-week behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants, on average, lost 9.2 lbs (4.4% of their initial weight), and there were significant pre-postimprovements on several outcome measures. Although weight was not significantly related to pain at baseline, weight loss significantly predicted a reduction in FMS, pain interference, body satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment could be included in the treatment for overweight/obese women with FMS.

  15. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Kelly H; Gabriele, Jeanne M; Tate, Deborah F; Dignan, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous mot...

  16. Older members perform better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program compared to younger members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Jonasson, Josefine; Svensson, Madeleine; Linné, Yvonne; Rossner, Stephan; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2009-01-01

    New technology offers increased opportunities for weight control. However, it is not clear whether older people with less computer training can make use of this tool. Our objective was to examine how members above the age of 65 years performed in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program, compared to younger members. Data from members (n = 23,233) of an internet-based behavioral weight loss program were analyzed. We restricted our study to active participants accessing the weight club, during a 6-month period (n = 4,440). The number of logins, food intake, and weight records were examined. Participants were divided into age tertiles separately for men and women. The oldest tertile was further subdivided into two groups: above and below the age of 65 years. Participants aged 65 or older were more likely to remain active in the weight club for at least 6 months compared to younger age groups. They had the highest frequency of recordings of food intake and current weight. Among women, those older than 65 years had on average the highest percentage of weight loss (5.6 kg, 6.8%). Men above 65 years of age had the highest number of logins, on average 161 times during the 6-month period. Older participants are performing equally well or even better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program than younger participants. Internet-based programs could be a promising and attractive option for older adults requiring assistance in losing weight. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Web-based interventions for weight loss and weight maintenance among rural midlife and older women: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeckner Linda S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss is challenging and maintenance of weight loss is problematic among midlife and older rural women. Finding effective interventions using innovative delivery methods that can reach underserved and vulnerable populations of overweight and obese rural women is a public health challenge. Methods/Design This Women Weigh-In for Wellness (The WWW study randomized-controlled trial is designed to compare the effectiveness of theory-based behavior-change interventions using (1 website only, (2 website with peer-led support, or (3 website with professional email-counseling to facilitate initial weight loss (baseline to 6 months, guided continuing weight loss and maintenance (7-18 months and self-directed weight maintenance (19-30 months among rural women ages 45-69 with a BMI of 28-45. Recruitment efforts using local media will target 306 rural women who live within driving distance of a community college site where assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months by research nurses blinded to group assignments. Primary outcomes include changes in body weight, % weight loss, and eating and activity behavioral and biomarkers from baseline to each subsequent assessment. Secondary outcomes will be percentage of women achieving at least 5% and 10% weight loss without regain from baseline to 6, 18, and 30 months and achieving healthy eating and activity targets. Data analysis will use generalized estimating equations to analyze average change across groups and group differences in proportion of participants achieving target weight loss levels. Discussion The Women Weigh-In for Wellness study compares innovative web-based alternatives for providing lifestyle behavior-change interventions for promoting weight loss and weight maintenance among rural women. If effective, such interventions would offer potential for reducing overweight and obesity among a vulnerable, hard-to-reach, population of rural women

  18. Sibutramine in weight control: a dose-ranging, efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, M; Rubio, A; Golik, A; Byrne, L; Scheinbaum, M L

    1991-09-01

    We tested the safety and efficacy of sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, and placebo on weight loss. Medication was added to caloric restriction, behavior modification, and exercise in a parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial. Participants were 130% to 180% of ideal body weight and in good health. The study lasted 12 weeks over Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Weight loss during 8 weeks of study medication was: placebo, 1.4 +/- 2.1 kg (n = 19); 5 mg sibutramine, 2.9 +/- 2.3 kg (n = 18); and 20 mg sibutramine, 5.0 +/- 2.7 kg (n = 18) (p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, versus placebo; p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 20 mg versus 5 mg). There is a significant dose-effect relationship. Five participants left the study before completion, all because of adverse events; placebo (one patient), 5 mg sibutramine (one patient), and 20 mg sibutramine (three patients). Sleep difficulties were noted by eight participants (20 mg sibutramine, seven patients; 5 mg, one patient; and placebo, no patients). Six of 21 participants receiving 20 mg complained of irritability, unusual impatience, or "excitation." Sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, added to a multimodal program assisted participants in losing weight.

  19. Compromised Weight Gain, Milk Intake, and Feeding Behavior in Breastfed Newborns of Depressive Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Sybil L.; Jackson, Shera C.; Boylan, L. Mallory

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore depressed mood in the breastfeeding dyad. Method N = 50 mothers of 12-day-olds reported depressed mood (EPDS) and anxiety (STAI), then were videotaped while breastfeeding. Infants were weighed before and after breastfeeding. Results An ANCOVA on weight gain, which controlled for infant age and birth weight, found EPDS inversely related to weight gain. Following a significant MANCOVA on infant biobehavioral measures, ANCOVAs which controlled for birth weight, age, hunger a...

  20. Frequency weighted model predictive control of wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauco, Martin; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Mirzaei, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on applying frequency weighted model predictive control (FMPC) on three blade horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). A wind turbine is a very complex, non-linear system influenced by a stochastic wind speed variation. The reduced dynamics considered in this work are the rotatio...... predictive controller are presented. Statistical comparison between frequency weighted MPC, standard MPC and baseline PI controller is shown as well.......This work is focused on applying frequency weighted model predictive control (FMPC) on three blade horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). A wind turbine is a very complex, non-linear system influenced by a stochastic wind speed variation. The reduced dynamics considered in this work...... are the rotational degree of freedom of the rotor and the tower for-aft movement. The MPC design is based on a receding horizon policy and a linearised model of the wind turbine. Due to the change of dynamics according to wind speed, several linearisation points must be considered and the control design adjusted...

  1. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  2. Altered ingestive behavior, weight changes, and intact olfactory sense in an APP overexpression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloeberghs, Ellen; Van Dam, Debby; Franck, Frieda; Serroyen, Jan; Geert, Molenberghs; Staufenbiel, Matthias; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2008-06-01

    Transgenic APP23 mice were generated to model Alzheimer's disease. The APP23 model develops pathological features, learning deficits, and memory deficits analogous to dementing patients. In this report, transgenic mice exhibited several behavioral disturbances indicating the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Aiming to verify whether the model also develops other behavioral problems, the authors investigated ingestive behavior in APP23 males of 3, 6 and 12 months. In addition, body weights of a naive male group were longitudinally monitored starting at weaning. Olfactory acuity was evaluated in mice of different age groups. Although olfactory functioning of APP23 mice appeared intact, they drank more and took more food pellets compared with wild-type littermates during a 1-week registration period. From the age of 4.5 weeks onward, APP23 males weighed significantly less than their control littermates, whereas this difference became more prominent with increasing age. Our results suggest the presence of a hypermetabolic state in this model. This is the first report, evidencing the presence of changes in eating and drinking behavior in a single transgenic Alzheimer mouse model. (Copyright) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  4. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT) transcripto......-controllers. Interestingly, ASPN is a TGFβ1 inhibitor. Conclusions: We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control, which could influence weight management strategies, and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control....

  5. Influences of prior miscarriage and weight status on perinatal psychological well-being, exercise motivation and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Courtenay A.; Huberty, Jennifer; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2017-01-01

    Objectives women who have experienced miscarriage may be at increased risk for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms in subsequent pregnancies. Exercise may be a useful strategy for coping with these symptoms. Little is known about how miscarriage influences prenatal exercise behavior. The study purpose was to examine the influences of miscarriage history and prepregnancy weight status on pregnant women’s psychological health, exercise motivation, and behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants/Setting Pregnant women (N=203; 41 with prior miscarriage; 72 overweight/obese; BMI > 25.0) in the northeast United States. Design Women prospectively reported their depressive/anxiety symptoms and exercise motivation/behavior in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters via mailed surveys. Group differences in depressive/anxiety symptoms, exercise behavior, and its motivational determinants were examined using Chi Square analyses and Univariate and Multivariate Analyses of Covariance. Measurements and findings Women with a history of miscarriage had higher 1st and 2nd trimester depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower 1st trimester attitudes about exercise and 1st and 2nd trimester perceived behavior control than women without a history of miscarriage. Overweight/obese women had higher 1st and 2nd trimester pregnancy depressive/anxiety symptoms, engaged in less prepregnancy exercise, and had lower levels of exercise intention, attitude, and perceived behavior control throughout pregnancy than normal weight women. Key Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage and overweight/obese women have poorer psychological health and lower motivation to exercise during pregnancy than women without a history of miscarriage and normal weight women. Implications for practitioners Interventions and healthcare provider communications aimed at promoting perinatal exercise behavior and psychological health should take into account pre-pregnancy weight status and pregnancy history

  6. The efficacy of a technology-based system in a short-term behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzien, Kristen M; Jakicic, John M; Tate, Deborah F; Otto, Amy D

    2007-04-01

    The objective was to examine the efficacy of adding a technology-based program to an in-person, behavioral weight loss intervention. Fifty-seven subjects (BMI=33.1+/-2.8 kg/m2; age=41.3+/-8.7 years) participated in a 12-week intervention with random assignment to Standard In-Person Behavioral Weight Control Program (SBWP) or Intermittent or Continuous Technology-Based Program (INT-TECH, CON-TECH). SBWP subjects received seven individualized weight loss sessions encouraging dietary and exercise modifications. INT-TECH and CON-TECH subjects received all SBWP components; additionally, these groups used a SenseWear Pro Armband (BodyMedia, Inc.) to monitor energy expenditure and an Internet-based program to monitor eating behaviors. These features were used by INT-TECH subjects during weeks 1, 5, and 9 and CON-TECH subjects weekly throughout the intervention. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed weight loss of 4.1+/-2.8 kg, 3.4+/-3.4 kg, and 6.2+/-4.0 kg, for SBWP, INT-TECH, and CON-TECH groups, respectively (CON-TECH>INT-TECH, ptechnology-based program needs to be used continuously throughout the intervention period to significantly impact weight loss. Future studies should examine the long-term and independent effect of this technology on weight loss, and for whom this intervention format is most effective.

  7. Behavioral Economic Predictors of Overweight Children's Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R.; Theim, Kelly R.; Gredysa, Dana M.; Stein, Richard I.; Welch, R. Robinson; Saelens, Brian E.; Perri, Michael G.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to determine whether behavioral economic constructs--including impulsivity (i.e., steep discounting of delayed food and monetary rewards), the relative reinforcing value of food (RRV[subscript food]), and environmental enrichment (i.e., the presence of alternatives to unhealthy foods in the home and neighborhood…

  8. Workplace social and organizational environments and healthy-weight behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Tabak

    Full Text Available The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA behaviors and obesity among employees.Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity.There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the 'company values my health' was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16 and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98. Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91 and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05.This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers' health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and obesity. These findings point to the

  9. Workplace social and organizational environments and healthy-weight behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Hipp, J Aaron; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity. There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the 'company values my health' was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work) increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98). Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91) and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05). This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers' health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and obesity. These findings point to the potential for

  10. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  11. [Challenges in nutrition-based treatment for weight control in adolescents suffering from schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Levi, Mazal; Zalsman, Gil

    2008-11-01

    The rate of overweight people amongst schizophrenia sufferers is higher than it is in the general population and this is true even prior to starting drug treatment. It is well known that anti-psychotic medications increase the severity of weight control problems. It seems that weight gain is even more significant in adolescents than in adults. The mechanisms in those medications which cause weight gain are not well understood. Hormones like Leptin, Ghrelin and others are being investigated in relation to this issue. Various interventions, like weight loss medications, were investigated in adults suffering from schizophrenia but not in adolescents. Other weight loss interventions, for example behavior therapy, were also investigated in adults, both as preventive measures and as treatment for already present excessive weight. Even caloric limitation was attempted in closed adult wards. The majority of studies show that there is only a small loss of weight and the patients maintain their high Body Mass Index (BMI). Among adolescents suffering from schizophrenia it was found that weight gain results mostly from increase in caloric intake. The easy availability of processed foods and their relatively low cost, result in the positive caloric balance. During adolescence there is increased sensitivity to outer appearance, however, those youngsters have great difficulty following professionals' advice for a balanced diet. This is particularly hard for those adolescents who are treated with antipsychotics and suffer from increased appetite. In a comparative study of various weight loss treatments for children it was found that the most efficient one is group weight loss clinics intended strictly for parents. The efficacy of such group weight loss clinics for parents of schizophrenia suffering adolescents should also be investigated.

  12. A randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss in overweight and obese women: Health In Pregnancy and Postpartum (HIPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Addy, Cheryl L; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Burgis, Judith T; Wingard, Ellen; Dahl, Alicia A; Whitaker, Kara M; Schneider, Lara; Boutté, Alycia K

    2018-03-01

    Interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss have yielded modest results, particularly in overweight and obese women. To examine the impact of a theory-based lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain, postpartum weight loss, and related maternal and child outcomes and to examine race differences in these outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (target N=400; 200 intervention, 200 standard care; 200 African American, 200 white). Overweight and obese African American and white women ≤16weeks gestation are recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Carolina. Intervention participants receive two in-depth counseling sessions (early pregnancy and postpartum), telephone counseling, behavioral podcasts, and social media support that target weight self-monitoring and increasing physical activity and healthy dietary behavior practices, guided by Social Cognitive Theory. Standard care participants receive monthly mailings and a matched number of podcasts on non-weight related topics. All intervention activities last from ≤18weeks gestation to 6months after delivery. Gestational weight gain is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are meeting gestational weight gain guidelines (inadequate, adequate, excessive), weekly rate of gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, physical activity and dietary behaviors, health-related quality of life, and offspring adiposity. Participants are assessed at baseline (≤16weeks gestation), 32weeks gestation, and 6 and 12months postpartum, and offspring are assessed at 6 and 12months. HIPP is an innovative study that addresses significant gaps in the literature. Primary outcome results are expected in 2019. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.

  14. Loss of control eating and weight outcomes after bariatric surgery: a study with a Portuguese sample

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Eva Martins; Silva, Ana Isabel Pinto Bastos Leite; Brandão, Isabel; Vaz, Ana Rita Rendeiro Ribeiro; Ramalho, Sofia Marlene Marques; Arrojado, Filipa; Costa, José; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aim is to investigate the frequency of loss of control eating (LOC) episodes in three groups with different assessment times: one before, one at short and one at long-term after bariatric surgery; as well as to explore the association of postoperative problematic eating behaviors and weight outcomes and psychological characteristics. This cross-sectional study compared a group of preoperative bariatric surgery patients (n = 176) and two postoperative groups, one at short-ter...

  15. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender

    OpenAIRE

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B. R. Simon; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Methods Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n=28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified ...

  16. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  17. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  18. Relationship of Night and Shift Work With Weight Change and Lifestyle Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; van Steeg, H.; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  19. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus crossbred steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...

  20. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  1. Alcohol Use, Eating Patterns, and Weight Behaviors in a University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore associations between alcohol, alcohol-related eating, and weight-related health indicators. Methods: Cross-sectional, multivariate regression of weight behaviors, binge drinking, and alcohol-related eating, using self-reported student survey data (n = 3206 undergraduates/graduates). Results: Binge drinking was associated with…

  2. Am I overweight? A longitudinal study on parental and peers weight-related perceptions on dietary behaviors and weight status among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina eZarychta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An investigation of the interplay between various types of adolescents’ perceptions of weight status in predicting adolescents’ nutrition behavior and their body weight was conducted. In particular, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parental and peers’ perceptions of their own weight status (reported by adolescents and objectively measured weight status of adolescents would be mediated by three types of adolescents’ weight status perceptions (adolescents’ own weight perceptions, parental perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants, and peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants and by adolescents’ nutrition behaviors. Design: Data were collected twice, with a 13-month follow-up. Participants (N = 1096 were aged 14-20, with BMI ranging from 16.20 to 41.21. Multiple mediation analysis with two sequential mediators was applied.Main outcome measures: At the baseline adolescents completed the questionnaire assessing their nutrition behaviors and weight status perceptions. Weight and height were measured objectively at baseline and follow-up.Results: Two types of weight perceptions (adolescents’ own weight status perceptions, peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status reported by participants, and adolescents’ nutrition behaviors mediated the relationship between the others’ own weight perceptions and adolescents’ weight status. No indirect effects of others’ own weight perceptions on adolescents’ weight status through parental perceptions were found.Conclusion: Adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and body weight status depend on what they think about their own weight status and what they think of their peers’ perceptions, but do not depend on what adolescents think of their parents’ perceptions.

  3. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  4. Fuzzy Behaviors for Control of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Zein-Sabatto

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, an RWI B-14 robot has been used as the development platform to embody some basic behaviors that can be combined to build more complex robotics behaviors. Emergency, avoid-obstacle, left wall- following, right wall-following, and move-to-point behaviors have been designed and embodied as basic robot behaviors. The basic behaviors developed in this research are designed based on fuzzy control technique and are integrated and coordinated to from complex robotics system. More behaviors can be added into the system as needed. A robot task can be defined by the user and executed by the intelligent robot control system. Testing results showed that fuzzy behaviors made the robot move intelligently and adapt to changes in its environment.

  5. History of weight control attempts among adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Shomaker, Lauren B; Field, Sara E; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-05-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating and a weight control attempt (WCA) history during adolescence are important behavioral risk factors for eating disorders and obesity. The current study investigated the significance of the presence of a WCA history among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Participants were 114 obesity-prevention-seeking 12-17-year-old (M = 14.5, SD = 1.7 years) girls who were between the 75th and 97th body mass index (BMI) percentile (BMI-z: M = 1.5, SD = 0.3) and reported LOC eating episodes during the previous month (M = 4.0, SD = 4.9 episodes; Median = 2.0). Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess LOC eating, eating pathology, and WCA history, and self-report questionnaires for symptoms of general psychopathology. Eating behavior was observed during a laboratory meal designed to capture a LOC eating episode. 67.5% reported a WCA history. As compared to girls without a WCA history (no-WCA), those with a WCA history (WCA) had greater disordered eating attitudes and depressive symptoms (ps frequency (ps > .10). During the laboratory meal, WCA consumed less energy from snack-type foods than no-WCA (M = 245.0, SD = 156.1 vs. M = 341.6, SD = 192.3 kcal; p = .01). Reported WCAs are highly prevalent and are associated with greater psychopathology symptoms among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Prospective data are needed to determine whether these overlapping risk behaviors confer differential vulnerability for developing eating disorders and obesity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Elearning approaches to prevent weight gain in young adults: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charoula Konstantia; Hankey, Catherine Ruth; Lean, Michael Ernest John

    2015-12-01

    Preventing obesity among young adults should be a preferred public health approach given the limited efficacy of treatment interventions. This study examined whether weight gain can be prevented by online approaches using two different behavioral models, one overtly directed at obesity and the other covertly. A three-group parallel randomized controlled intervention was conducted in 2012-2013; 20,975 young adults were allocated a priori to one control and two "treatment" groups. Two treatment groups were offered online courses over 19 weeks on (1) personal weight control ("Not the Ice Cream Van," NTICV) and, (2) political, environmental, and social issues around food ("Goddess Demetra," "GD"). Control group received no contact. The primary outcome was weight change over 40 weeks. Within-group 40-week weight changes were different between groups (P < 0.001): Control (n = 2,134): +2.0 kg (95% CI = 1.5, 2.3 kg); NTICV (n = 1,810): -1.0 kg (95% CI = -1.3, -0.5); and GD (n = 2,057): -1.35 kg (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.7). Relative risks for weight gain vs. NTICV = 0.13 kg (95% CI = 0.10, 0.15), P < 0.0001; GD = 0.07 kg (95% CI = 0.05, 0.10), P < 0.0001. Both interventions were associated with prevention of the weight gain observed among control subjects. This low-cost intervention could be widely transferable as one tool against the obesity epidemic. Outside the randomized controlled trial setting, it could be enhanced using supporting advertising and social media. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Smartphone Technology and Text Messaging for Weight Loss in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna D; Yager, Allison M; Allen, Jerilyn

    Using smartphone technology and text messaging for health is a growing field. This type of technology is well integrated into the lives of young adults. However, few studies have tested the effect of this type of technology to promote weight loss in young adults OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a behaviorally based smartphone application for weight loss combined with text messaging from a health coach on weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference in young adults as compared with a control condition. Sixty-two young adults, aged 18 to 25 years, were randomized to receive (1) a smartphone application + health coach intervention and counseling sessions or (2) control condition with a counseling session. All outcome measures were tested at baseline and 3 months. These included weight, BMI, waist circumference, dietary habits, physical activity habits, and self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity. The sample was 71% female and 39% white, with an average age of 20 years and average BMI of 28.5 kg/m. Participants in the smartphone + health coach group lost significantly more weight (P = .026) and had a significant reduction in both BMI (P = .024) and waist circumference (P technology and feedback from a health coach on improving weight in a group of diverse young adults.

  8. COMPUTER CONTROL OF BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIEGEL, LOUIS

    THE LINC COMPUTER PROVIDES A PARTICULAR SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT FOR BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS BY EXECUTING A SEQUENCE OF COMPUTER OPERATIONS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SPECIALLY DESIGNED INTERFACE. THE INTERFACE IS THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL CHAMBER AND THE COMPUTER. THE PROGRAM AND INTERFACE OF AN EXPERIMENT INVOLVING A PIGEON…

  9. Good intentions gone awry? Effects of weight-related social control on health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Julie A; Overup, Camilla S; Nguyen, Mai-Ly; Novak, Sarah A; Smith, C Veronica

    2014-01-01

    A negative body image has been associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes. Social pressures from others, in the form of weight-related social control, may serve to exacerbate this effect, especially for college-aged women. Undergraduate students (N=399) completed a variety of questionnaires assessing weight-related social control, well-being, and diet and exercise behaviors. The results suggest that weight is associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes and particularly for women, weight-related social control is also associated with these negative effects. In addition, men of higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or higher self-perceived weight did not experience negative health and well-being outcomes to the same degree that overweight women did. Parents in particular seem to instigate weight-related social control to change students' diet and exercise behaviors. These results help clarify the effects of weight-related social control in a college population, where weight may be especially important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: results of an 8-week pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Raynor, Hollie A; Niemeier, Heather M; Wing, Rena R

    2007-11-14

    Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 +/- 9.5 years) were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT) or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home). SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01) and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002). While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08). Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  11. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  12. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam J. Zizzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise.

  13. Parent behavior and child weight status among a diverse group of underserved rural families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices); to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight; and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated t...

  14. Effects of Transport on Live Weight and Behavior of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has monitored the effects of transport stress on some biochemical indicators of stress and behavior lambs at time of slaughter. The research was carried out in the cold season, on a number of 120 lambs, transported for 6h- 16h, to be slaughtered. During our research, we followed the changes in bodyweight, behaviours expressed by sheep, and plasma cortisol levels. Bodyweight loss recorded in the slaughterhouse to 24 hours of departure transportation was of 4-5%. The behavioural manifestations of lambs were different from the destination, depending on journey duration. Lambs behaviour was different depending on the journey, the resting and watering were mostly present manifestations. Increased in cortisol levels measured at 3 h after leaving the vehicle was maintained at 9 h after the journey. Increased duration of rest before slaughter can reduce the stress of transport in case of lambs ensures obtaining good quality meat.

  15. Effect of Grazing Behavior on Weight Regain Post-Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Pizato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, design of the method, and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent authors. The search strategy was performed until October 2017 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Open Grey. Of a total of 3764 articles, five papers met the inclusion criteria (four original articles and one thesis, comprising 994 subjects, mostly women. The prevalence of grazing behavior ranged from 16.6 to 46.6%, and the highest prevalence of significant weight regain was 47%. The association between grazing and weight regain was observed in four of the five evaluated studies. Our findings support an association between grazing behavior and weight regain after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgery type and contextual concept of grazing. Further studies are needed to confirm the clarity of the real prevalence and interfering factors related to grazing behavior and weight outcomes.

  16. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  17. [The effects of a weight control program with competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong-Mi; Suh, Sun-Lim

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a weight control program and compliancy in overweight women. This program was composed of strategies to modify diet and exercise and to change compliance and self determination over an 8 week period. The subjects were 19 overweight women who participated in our project voluntarily. Data was collected from May 4 to June 30 of 2007. The program consisted of regular rapid walking exercise, diet, mobile phone messages and e-mail. The data was analyzed by Repeated Measures ANOVA using the SPSS WIN program. According to 3 assessment periods, there were significant differences in body weight, body mass index, and compliance. There were no significant differences in self determination. These findings suggest that more intensive interventions may be needed to demonstrate a change in self determination.

  18. Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium “Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  19. Self-perception of weight status and its association with weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese children in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Jun; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Chen, Yajun

    2017-07-01

    How weight perception influences weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in Chinese children is unknown. We investigated self-perception of body weight and its correlates, and analyzed the relationship between weight perception and weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in children in Guangzhou, China. We assessed self-reported weight perception, weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in 3752 children aged 7-12 years. Underweight or overweight was defined using the Chinese criteria based on body mass index (BMI). Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess correlates of weight underestimation. In total, 27.3% of children underestimated and 6.7% overestimated their weight status. Weight underestimation was common among normal-weight (34.1%) and overweight children (25.3%). Older age, female sex, and child BMI z-score were negatively associated with normal-weight children's underestimation, whereas older age, paternal obesity, maternal obesity, and child BMI z-score were negatively associated with overweight children's underestimation. Correct answers on weight-related knowledge questions ranged from 81.5% to 98.6% and did not differ by weight perception within BMI categories. Although negative perceivers (i.e., those who perceived themselves as underweight or overweight) had a higher intention to change weight, they behaved more unhealthily on fruit intake, breakfast, screen time, and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activities time than counterparts. Weight underestimation was prevalent in normal-weight and overweight children in Guangzhou. Negative perceivers had stronger willingness to change weight but tended to behave more unhealthily on certain behaviors than positive perceivers. Childhood obesity interventions should incorporate health education and practical support to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  1. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Marga B M; Koppes, Lando L J; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Steeg, Harry; Proper, Karin I

    2015-04-01

    To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association changes in night and shift work with weight change and changes in lifestyle behaviors. A larger weight change was seen in normal-weight workers changing from day to shift work (β = 0.93%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 1.85) compared with stable no shift workers. No further associations of night and shift work with weight change were observed, neither in normal-weight, overweight, and obese workers. Despite the fact that starting night or shift work is associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits, this study did not confirm a positive association of night and shift work with weight change over 1 year, except for normal-weight workers moving from day to shift work.

  2. Weight Loss Maintenance in African American Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  3. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  4. Prevalence of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Gracie A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined articles in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" in which results of functional analyses indicated that problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement. Data for 88 (16.9%) of 521 subjects reported in 168 studies met the criteria for multiple control. Data for 11 subjects (2.1%) involved a single response…

  5. Serial album validation for promotion of infant body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Costa Gonzaga Saraiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy to aid weight loss in obese patients: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Cattivelli, Roberto; Rossi, Alessandro; Novelli, Margherita; Varallo, Giorgia; Molinari, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways. Evidence-based strategies to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities typically integrate different interventions: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and if necessary, pharmacological and surgical ones. Such treatments are implemented in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of endocrinologists, nutritionists, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sometimes surgeons. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is traditionally recognized as the best established treatment for binge eating disorder and the most preferred intervention for obesity, and could be considered as the first-line treatment among psychological approaches, especially in a long-term perspective; however, it does not necessarily produce a successful weight loss. Traditional CBT for weight loss and other protocols, such as enhanced CBT, enhanced focused CBT, behavioral weight loss treatment, therapeutic education, acceptance and commitment therapy, and sequential binge, are discussed in this review. The issue of long-term weight management of obesity, the real challenge in outpatient settings and in lifestyle modification, is discussed taking into account the possible contribution of mHealth and the stepped-care approach in health care.

  7. Examination of the association between lifestyle behavior changes and weight outcomes in preschoolers receiving treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Bandstra, Nancy F; Filigno, Stephanie S; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Rausch, Joseph R; Stark, Lori J

    2014-01-01

    Preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) have been significantly underrepresented in the obesity treatment outcome literature, despite estimates that 12.1% are already obese. As such, little is known about the most important intervention targets for weight management within this age group. The aims of this study were (a) to examine lifestyle behavior changes for 30 obese preschoolers participating in a weight-control intervention and (b) to explore which lifestyle behavior changes predicted changes in body mass index (BMI) z score. Preschooler height, weight, diet (three 24-hr recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), and television use (parent report) were measured at baseline and posttreatment (6 months). A linear regression was conducted to examine pre- to posttreatment changes in diet (i.e., intake of calories, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruits and vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks) and activity (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous activity and television use) behaviors on changes in BMI z score. Despite significant reductions in sugar-sweetened beverage intake and television use, and increases in fruit and vegetable intake, only reductions in absolute caloric intake significantly predicted reductions in BMI z score. Our findings suggest that attaining healthy caloric goals may be the most important component of weight-control interventions for preschoolers. Future research using innovative methodologies, such as the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, may be helpful to prospectively identifying the lifestyle behavior changes that are most effective in helping families to achieve healthy weight outcomes for preschoolers and thereby improve intervention efficiency and decrease treatment burden for families. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  9. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  11. Associations of maternal stress with children’s weight-related behaviors: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Sydney G.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Belcher, Britni R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Margolin, Gayla; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2017-01-01

    Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake and physical activity) among U.S. children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children’s obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behavior (i.e., healthy diet (n=3), unhealthy diet (n=6), physical activity (n=7), sedentary behavior (n=9)). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children’s healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children’s lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. PMID:28296057

  12. An Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Bernoulli Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of the transformation is given and its limit for small values of p is derived. Control of high yield processes is discussed and the chart is shown to perform very well in comparison with both the most common alternative EWMA chart and the CUSUM chart. The construction and the use of the proposed EWMA chart......We consider a production process in which units are produced in a sequential manner. The units can, for example, be manufactured items or services, provided to clients. Each unit produced can be a failure with probability p or a success (non-failure) with probability (1-p). A novel exponentially...... weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart intended for surveillance of the probability of failure, p, is described. The chart is based on counting the number of non-failures produced between failures in combination with a variance-stabilizing transformation. The distribution function...

  13. Effectiveness of Social Media-based Interventions on Weight-related Behaviors and Body Weight Status: Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Ji, Mengmeng; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-11-01

    We reviewed scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of social media-based interventions about weight-related behaviors and body weight status. A keyword search were performed in May 2017 in the Clinical-Trials.gov, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of social media-based interventions on weight-related outcome measures. We identified 22 interventions from the keyword and reference search, including 12 randomized controlled trials, 6 pre-post studies and 3 cohort studies conducted in 9 countries during 2010-2016. The majority (N = 17) used Facebook, followed by Twitter (N = 4) and Instagram (N = 1). Intervention durations averaged 17.8 weeks with a mean sample size of 69. The meta-analysis showed that social media-based interventions were associated with a statistically significant, but clinically modest reduction of body weight by 1.01 kg, body mass index by 0.92 kg/m2, and waist circumstance by 2.65 cm, and an increase of daily number of steps taken by 1530. In the meta-regression there was no doseresponse effect with respect to intervention duration. The boom of social media provides an unprecedented opportunity to implement health promotion programs. Future interventions should make efforts to improve intervention scalability and effectiveness.

  14. Social support for healthy behaviors: Scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  15. Influence of vertex weight on cooperative behavior in a spatial snowdrift game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, C Y; Zhao, J; Zhang, H; Wang, J; Wang, Y L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the vertex weight is introduced into a snowdrift game to study the evolution of cooperative behavior. Compared with the snowdrift game in a traditional square lattice without any weight, cooperation can be promoted under three types of weight distribution: uniform, exponential and power-law distribution. For an intermediate cost-to-benefit ratio (r), in particular, the facilitation effect of cooperation is obvious. Moreover, the influence of undulation amplitude of weight distribution and the noise strength of strategy selection on cooperative behavior are also investigated. They exhibit a nontrivial phenomenon as a function of r. The results are helpful in analyzing and understanding the emergence of collective cooperation that is found widely in many natural and social systems.

  16. Influence of vertex weight on cooperative behavior in a spatial snowdrift game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, C Y; Zhao, J; Zhang, H [Laboratory of Computer Vision and Systems, Tianjin University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wang, J [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Control Theory and Applications in Complicated Industry Systems, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wang, Y L, E-mail: xialooking@163.com, E-mail: juanwang75@163.com, E-mail: hzhang@tjut.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, Shanxi 041000 (China)

    2011-08-01

    In this paper the vertex weight is introduced into a snowdrift game to study the evolution of cooperative behavior. Compared with the snowdrift game in a traditional square lattice without any weight, cooperation can be promoted under three types of weight distribution: uniform, exponential and power-law distribution. For an intermediate cost-to-benefit ratio (r), in particular, the facilitation effect of cooperation is obvious. Moreover, the influence of undulation amplitude of weight distribution and the noise strength of strategy selection on cooperative behavior are also investigated. They exhibit a nontrivial phenomenon as a function of r. The results are helpful in analyzing and understanding the emergence of collective cooperation that is found widely in many natural and social systems.

  17. ‘Small Changes' to Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors for Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Hills

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment.

  18. Relationships of Sleep Duration With Weight-Related Behaviors of U.S. College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Colby, Sarah; Brown, Onikia; Kidd, Tandalayo; Greene, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    This study describes sleep behaviors of U.S. college students (N = 1,252; 18-24 years old; 59% female) and examines associations of sleep duration with weight-related behaviors. More than one quarter of participants slept Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores indicating poor sleep quality. There were significant differences for all PSQI scales among sleep duration categories, sleep/night. Compared to those who slept ≥ 8 hr, those who slept health care professionals to evaluate sleep behaviors of college students during office visits and promote good sleep behaviors.

  19. Internalized weight bias mediates the relationship between depressive symptoms and disordered eating behavior among women who think they are overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Rachel M; Saules, Karen K; Carr, Meagan M

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the potential mediating role of Internalized Weight Bias (IWB) in the relationship between depressive symptoms (DEP-SX) and disordered eating behavior. In particular, we hypothesized that IWB may be an intervening variable in the well documented association between depression and disordered eating. College women (N=172) who were taking undergraduate psychology courses and who endorsed thinking they were overweight completed the Patient Health Questionnaire depression screener (PHQ-9), the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between these variables. IWB was significantly correlated with eating disorder symptoms and DEP-SX, but not Body Mass Index. Mediation analyses supported a model in which IWB mediated the relationship between DEP-SX and disordered eating behavior. Results indicate that individuals with elevated DEP-SX may be likely to internalize weight bias, which may in turn lead to maladaptive approaches to eating and weight control, regardless of one's actual weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  1. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  2. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  3. Relationship between Personalities Attributes (Neuroticism, Psychoticsism and Self-efficacy in Weight Control with People’s Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakiei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Today, overweight is a damaging agent that threats general health and mental states. So, the current research was done with the aim of specifying the relationship between personality attributes (neuroticism, psychoticism, self-efficacy in weight control with people’s weight. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive - correlational study. The sample concluded of all of students in Razi university of Kermanshah in year 2015-2016; of them 459 people were selected with stochastic random sampling method. The research tools were self-efficacy of lifestyle that effects on weight and Eisenck personality questionnaires. Results: The results showed that there is a negative significant relationship between weight with neuroticism and psychotics (p<0.001, but there was no significant relationship between neuroticism and weight. Also, the results showed that the components of self-efficacy in weight control can predict weight of people. Based on this, overeating with impact factor equal to 0.001, diet with 0.28 and oral inhibition with -0.13 of impact factor can predict weight of people. Conclusion: Due to the results, psycho personality and self-efficacy have roles in weight control of people.

  4. Co-Rumination of Fat Talk and Weight Control Practices: An Application of Confirmation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa; Segrin, Chris; Harwood, Jake; Bonito, Joseph A

    2017-04-01

    Grounded in confirmation theory, the current research sought to explore the relationship between co-rumination of fat talk and weight control practices (i.e., binging and purging, exercising, and healthy eating behaviors), with a particular interest in whether perceptions of friends' responses during these interactions exacerbate or mitigate this relationship. Female friendship dyads completed online questionnaires at three time points across 2 weeks. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that (a) co-rumination was positively associated with binging and purging and exercising, (b) women who perceived their friends as accepting reported less binging and purging, more exercising, and more healthy eating behaviors, (c) acceptance and challenge interacted to predict binging and purging, (d) acceptance moderated the relationships between co-rumination and binging and purging, and (e) challenge moderated the relationship between co-rumination and healthy eating behaviors.

  5. Behavioral and body size correlates of energy intake underreporting by obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, M J; Fong, A K; Green, M W

    1999-03-01

    To examine behavioral and body size influences on the underreporting of energy intake by obese and normal-weight women. Seven-day estimated food records were kept by subjects before they participated in a 49-day residential study. Self-reported energy intake was compared with energy intake required to maintain a stable body weight during the residential study (reference standard). Energy intake bias and its relationship to various body size and behavioral measures were examined. Twenty-two, healthy, normal-weight (mean body mass index [BMI] = 21.3) and obese (mean BMI = 34.2) women aged 22 to 42 years were studied. Analysis of variance, paired t test, simple linear regression, and Pearson correlation analyses were conducted. Mean energy intake from self-reported food records was underreported by normal-weight (-9.7%) and obese (-19.4%) women. BMI correlated inversely with the energy intake difference for normal-weight women (r = -.67, P = .02), whereas the Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with the energy intake difference for obese women (r = .73, P behavioral traits play a role in the ability of women to accurately self-report energy intake. BMI appears to be predictive of underreporting of energy intake by normal-weight women, whereas emotional factors related to depression appear to be more determinant of underreporting for obese women. Understanding causative factors of the underreporting phenomenon will help practicing dietitians to devise appropriate and realistic diet intervention plans that clients can follow to achieve meaningful change.

  6. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Variation and Control of Process Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Whitaker, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to highlight the importance of controlling process variability for successful quality assurance (QA). We describe the method of statistical process control for characterizing and controlling a process. Traditionally, QA has been performed by comparing some important measurement (e.g., linear accelerator output) against a corresponding specification. Although useful in determining the fitness of a particular measurement, this approach does not provide information about the underlying process behavior over time. A modern view of QA is to consider the time-ordered behavior of a process. Every process displays characteristic behaviors that are independent of the specifications imposed on it. The goal of modern QA is, not only to ensure that a process is on-target, but that it is also operating with minimal variation. This is accomplished by way of a data-driven approach using process behavior charts. The development of process behavior charts, historically known as control charts, and process behavior (action) limits are described. The effect these concepts have on quality management is also discussed

  8. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Weight-Related Behaviors in Inner-City Adolescents: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Wills, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of two distinct self-regulation constructs, effortful control and dysregulation, with weight-related behaviors in adolescents and tested whether these effects were mediated by self-efficacy variables. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted with 1771 adolescents from 11 public schools in the Bronx, New York. Self-regulation was assessed by multiple indicators and defined as two latent constructs. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, intake of snack/junk food, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the relation of effortful control and dysregulation to lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy variables as possible mediators. RESULTS: Study results showed that effortful control had a positive indirect effect on fruit and vegetable intake, mediated by self-efficacy, as well as a direct effect. Effortful control also had a positive indirect effect on physical activity, mediated by self-efficacy. Dysregulation had direct effects on intake of junk food/snacks and time spent in sedentary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that self-regulation characteristics are related to diet and physical activity and that some of these effects are mediated by self-efficacy. Different effects were noted for the two domains of self-regulation. Prevention researchers should consider including self-regulation processes in programs to improve health behaviors in adolescents.

  10. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  11. Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use among 18- to 19-Year-Old Adolescent Women by Weight Status: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Ela, Elizabeth J; Hall, Kelli S; Barber, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    To describe the association between weight status and sexual practices among 18- to 19-year-old women. We analyzed a population-based longitudinal study of 18- to 19-year-old women residing in a Michigan county at cohort inception. Weekly journal surveys measured sexual practices, including contraceptive behaviors. Outcomes included proportion of weeks with a partner, proportion of weeks with sexual intercourse, number of partners, average length of relationships, proportion of weeks with contraception use, and proportion of weeks where contraception was used consistently. We examined 26,545 journal surveys from 900 women over the first study year. Ordinary least squares regression models for each outcome examined differences by weight status, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The mean proportion of weeks in which adolescents reported sexual intercourse was 52%; there was no difference by weight status. Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks where any contraception was used compared with normal weight adolescents (84% vs 91%, P = .011). Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity and contraceptive use, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks with consistent contraceptive use (68% vs 78%, P = .016) and oral contraceptive pill use (27% vs 45%, P = .001) compared with normal weight adolescents. All other relationships by weight status were not statistically significant. In this longitudinal study, obese adolescent women were less likely to use contraception, and less likely to use it consistently when compared with normal weight peers. Findings suggest obesity may be an important factor associated with adolescent women's sexual behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-sectional associations between weight-related health behaviors and weight misperception among U.S. adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Samantha L; Borton, Kelley A; Sonneville, Kendrin R

    2018-04-18

    Weight misperception occurs when there is a discrepancy between one's actual and perceived weight status. Among adolescents with overweight/obesity, many believe that correcting weight misperception is imperative to inspire weight-related behavior change. However, past research has shown that adolescents with overweight/obesity who misperceive their weight status gain less weight over time compared to accurate perceivers. Therefore, our objective was to examine possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. Specifically, we examined the association between weight misperception and engagement in weight-related health behaviors among adolescents with overweight/obesity. Self-reported data from the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used in analyses restricted to participants with overweight/obesity (n = 4383). Using multivariate logistic models correcting for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school, we examined the cross-sectional associations between weight misperception and engagement in weight-related health behaviors, specifically related to dietary intake, physical activity, and sleep. Adolescents with overweight/obesity who misperceived their weight status were more likely to drink 100% fruit juice two or more times per day (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.94), eat vegetables two or more times per day (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.57), be physically active for 1 hour or more per day for at least 5 days in the week prior (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.72), be on a sports team in the last year (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.97), sleep an average of at least 8 hours per school night (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.72), and less likely to be trying to lose weight (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.20). Misperceivers were more likely to consume breakfast every morning in the week prior and to drink a sports drink at least once per day, though these results were not statistically significant. We observed no difference in fruit intake, soda intake

  13. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Gebhardt, Ursel; Müller, Hermann L

    2015-01-01

    As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the HIT-Endo multicenter study, and in 85 body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls using the Inventory for Eating Behavior and Weight Problems (IEG) and the Inventory for Eating Disorders (ESI). Severely obese patients (BMI>8 SD; n=9) presented with pathological eating behavior, more weight problems, and eating disorders, as compared to obese (BMI 3-8 SD; n=44) and normal or overweight patients (BMICraniopharyngioma patients with different degrees of obesity showed similar or even less pathological findings as compared to BMI-matched normal controls. Severe obesity is associated with pathological eating behavior/disorders in craniopharyngioma patients. As these disorders are not disease-specific, risk factors for hypothalamic obesity should be the focus of further craniopharyngioma research.

  14. A mindfulness-based intervention to control weight after bariatric surgery: Preliminary results from a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Sara A; Yeh, Gloria Y; Davis, Roger B; Wee, Christina C

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to develop and test a novel mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) designed to control weight after bariatric surgery. Randomized, controlled pilot trial. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Bariatric patients 1-5 years post-surgery (n=18) were randomized to receive a 10-week MBI or a standard intervention. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability of the MBI. Secondary outcomes included changes in weight, eating behaviors, psychosocial outcomes, and metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Qualitative exit interviews were conducted post-intervention. Major themes were coded and extracted. Attendance was excellent (6 of 9 patients attended ≥7 of 10 classes). Patients reported high satisfaction and overall benefit of the MBI. The intervention was effective in reducing emotional eating at 6 months (-4.9±13.7 in mindfulness vs. 6.2±28.4 in standard, p for between-group difference=0.03) but not weight. We also observed a significant increase in HbA1C (0.34±0.38 vs. -0.06±0.31, p=0.03). Objective measures suggested trends of an increase in perceived stress and symptoms of depression, although patients reported reduced stress reactivity, improved eating behaviors, and a desire for continued mindfulness-based support in qualitative interviews. This novel mindfulness-based approach is highly acceptable to bariatric patients post-surgery and may be effective for reducing emotional eating, although it did not improve weight or glycemic control in the short term. Longer-term studies of mindfulness-based approaches may be warranted in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02603601. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Franchini, Emerson; Nicastro, Humberto; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Solis, Marina Y; Lancha, Antonio H

    2010-05-04

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight.

  16. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. Motivational "spill-over" during weight control: increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Andrade, Ana M; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Successful weight management relies on at least two health behaviors, eating and exercise. However, little is known about their interaction on a motivational and behavioral level. Based on the Hierarchical Model of Motivation the authors examined whether exercise-specific motivation can transfer to eating regulation during a lifestyle weight control program. The authors further investigated whether general, treatment-related, and exercise motivation underlie the relation between increased exercise and improved eating regulation. Overweight/obese women participated in a 1-year randomized controlled trial (N = 239). The intervention focused on promoting physical activity and internal motivation for exercise and weight loss, following Self-Determination Theory. The control group received general health education. General and exercise specific self-determination, eating self-regulation variables, and physical activity behavior. General self-determination and more autonomous exercise motivation predicted eating self-regulation over 12 months. Additionally, general and exercise self-determination fully mediated the relation between physical activity and eating self-regulation. Increased general self-determination and exercise motivation seem to facilitate improvements in eating self-regulation during weight control in women. These motivational mechanisms also underlie the relationship between improvements in exercise behavior and eating regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Second-generation antipsychotic use in schizophrenia and associated weight gain: a critical review and meta-analysis of behavioral and pharmacologic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chandan; Mendez, Guillermo; Jagasia, Sonal; Labbate, Lawrence A

    2012-08-01

    Weight gain in schizophrenia, particularly secondary to second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) use, is a common adverse effect and often is associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. We performed a critical literature review of all controlled clinical trials for pharmacologic and/or behavioral management of SGA-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients by searching PubMed and Google Scholar. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate and compare weight changes for various medications and behavioral interventions. Sample sizes generally were small. Clinical trials were 6 weeks to 1 year, and weight loss was modest with any treatment. Although several adjunctive pharmacologic treatments showed no weight loss, sibutramine, metformin, and topiramate showed some benefit. Amantadine and orlistat were somewhat less effective and had lower rates of tolerability. Among the behavioral therapies, nutritional counseling combined with exercise showed the most benefit. Behavioral therapies, although modest, showed the most consistent benefits compared with controls. Scheduled pharmacologic treatment to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss in schizophrenia patients on SGA therapy is limited based on current studies. Switching antipsychotic agents has not been established as a long-term solution. Additional long-term studies are required to influence clinical practice.

  19. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus Corriente steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Criollo cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Raramuri Criollo (RC) steers are commonly raised for beef and finished on rangelands, while Corriente (CR) are often raised for rodeo sports. No data exist on weight gains and grazing behavior of ran...

  20. Weighted asymptotic behavior of solutions to semilinear integro-differential equations in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Tao Bian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study weighted asymptotic behavior of solutions to the semilinear integro-differential equation $$ u'(t=Au(t+\\alpha\\int_{-\\infty}^{t}e^{-\\beta(t-s}Au(sds+f(t,u(t, \\quad t\\in \\mathbb{R}, $$ where $\\alpha, \\beta \\in \\mathbb{R}$, with $\\beta > 0, \\alpha \

  1. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  2. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  3. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of sa...

  4. Pregnancy eating attributes study (PEAS): a cohort study examining behavioral and environmental influences on diet and weight change in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Burger, Kyle; Faith, Myles; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity and excessive gestational weight gain poses a serious public health concern due to the contribution of these factors to increased risk of negative health outcomes for both mother and child. Scant intervention research has indicated moderate short-term improvement in maternal diet and gestational weight gain, with little evidence of long-term behavior change, in parallel with findings from interventions outside of pregnancy. Recent laboratory-based findings from neuroscience implicate aberrant reward processing of food at the brain level ("food reward sensitivity," the between-individual variation in the response to food stimuli) as a contributor to eating beyond energy needs. However, scant research has examined the influence of these processes on weight change in population-based settings, and the relevance of these processes to pregnancy-related weight change has not been explored. The purpose of the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study (PEAS) is to examine the role of food reward sensitivity in maternal diet and weight change during pregnancy and postpartum. The study examines the interplay of food reward sensitivity with behavioral control, home food environment, and related aspects of eating behavior in the context of weight-related biomedical, psychosocial, genetic and behavioral factors including physical activity, stress, sleep and depression. Women of varying baseline weight status (n = 450) are enrolled early in pregnancy and followed, along with their infants, until 1 year postpartum. Assessments occur during each trimester of pregnancy, and postpartum at approximately 2 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months. Maternal food reward, self-control, home food environment, eating behaviors, dietary intake, health behaviors, and anthropometrics are assessed along with maternal and infant clinical and biological data, infant anthropometrics, and feeding practices. Primary exposures of interest include food

  5. Frequency-weighted feedforward control for dynamic compensation in ionic polymer–metal composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Yingfeng; Leang, Kam K

    2009-01-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) are innovative materials that offer combined sensing and actuating ability in lightweight and flexible package. IPMCs have been exploited in robotics and a wide variety of biomedical devices, for example, as sensors for teleoperation, as actuators for positioning in active endoscopy, as fins for propelling aquatic robots, and as an injector for drug delivery. In the actuation mode, one of the main challenges is precise position control. In particular, IPMC actuators exhibit relaxation behavior and nonlinearities; and at relatively high operating frequencies dynamic effects limit accuracy and positioning bandwidth. A frequency-weighted feedforward controller is designed to account for the IPMC's structural dynamics to enable fast positioning. The control method is applied to a custom-made Nafion-based IPMC actuator. The controller takes into account the magnitude of the control input to avoid generating excessively large voltages which can damage the IPMC actuator. To account for unmodeled effects not captured by the dynamics model, a feedback controller is integrated with the feedforward controller. Experimental results show a significant improvement in the tracking performance when feedforward control is used. For instance, the feedforward controller shows over 75% reduction in the tracking error compared to the case without feedforward compensation. Finally, the integrated feedforward and feedback control system reduces the tracking error to less than 10% for tracking an 18-Hz triangle-like trajectory. Some of the advantages of feedforward control as well as its limitations are also discussed

  6. The Impact of Family Rules on Children's Eating Habits, Sedentary Behaviors, and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; King, Mindy H; Sovinski, Danielle; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-08-01

    Family rules may be influential in helping children to modify their dietary and sedentary behaviors, which are important modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity. However, data examining family rules in relation to children's health behaviors and weight status are limited. This cross-sectional study examined differences in family rules by demographic characteristics of students enrolled in the HEROES (Healthy, Energetic, Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic Schools) Initiative, a school-based childhood obesity prevention program. It also investigated the relationship between eating and screen time family rules and six eating and screen time behaviors: fast food consumption; soft drink consumption; fruit and vegetable intake; television viewing; computer use; and video game use, in addition to the association between family rules and children's weight status. Measures included self-reported behavioral data and anthropometric data from students in fourth to eighth grade at 16 schools (N=2819) in a tri-state area of the United States in spring 2012. Approximately one-third of students had each of the family rules examined. Whereas the profile of students who had specific rules varied, in general, younger, female, white, and low socioeconomic status students were more likely to have rules than their counterparts. Family rules were associated with healthier outcomes for each of the six behaviors examined (pchildren's weight status. This study demonstrates that family rules are an underutilized strategy to promote healthier eating habits and reduce children's screen time hours and may serve as an intermediary mechanism to curb childhood obesity.

  7. Weighted tunable clustering in local-world networks with increment behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying-Hong; Li, Huijia; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Since some realistic networks are influenced not only by increment behavior but also by the tunable clustering mechanism with new nodes to be added to networks, it is interesting to characterize the model for those actual networks. In this paper, a weighted local-world model, which incorporates increment behavior and the tunable clustering mechanism, is proposed and its properties are investigated, such as degree distribution and clustering coefficient. Numerical simulations are fitted to the model and also display good right-skewed scale-free properties. Furthermore, the correlation of vertices in our model is studied which shows the assortative property. The epidemic spreading process by weighted transmission rate on the model shows that the tunable clustering behavior has a great impact on the epidemic dynamic

  8. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; Mcewen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that required for health benefits, and costs for treatment

  9. A behavioral weight-loss intervention for persons with serious mental illness in psychiatric rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumit, G L; Dalcin, A T; Jerome, G J; Young, D R; Charleston, J; Crum, R M; Anthony, C; Hayes, J H; McCarron, P B; Khaykin, E; Appel, L J

    2011-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic in populations with serious mental illnesses. We developed and pilot-tested a behavioral weight-loss intervention appropriately tailored for persons with serious mental disorders. We conducted a single-arm pilot study in two psychiatric rehabilitation day programs in Maryland, and enrolled 63 overweight or obese adults. The 6-month intervention provided group and individual weight management and group physical activity classes. The primary outcome was weight change from baseline to 6 months. A total of 64% of those potentially eligible enrolled at the centers. The mean age was 43.7 years; 56% were women; 49% were white; and over half had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder. One-third had hypertension and one-fifth had diabetes. In total, 52 (82%) completed the study; others were discharged from psychiatric centers before completion of the study. Average attendance across all weight management sessions was 70% (87% on days participants attended the center) and 59% for physical activity classes (74% on days participants attended the center). From a baseline mean of 210.9 lbs (s.d. 43.9), average weight loss for 52 participants was 4.5 lb (s.d. 12.8) (P<0.014). On average, participants lost 1.9% of body weight. Mean waist circumference change was 3.1 cm (s.d. 5.6). Participants on average increased the distance on the 6-minute walk test by 8%. This pilot study documents the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness who were attendees at psychiatric rehabilitation centers. The results may have implications for developing weight-loss interventions in other institutional settings such as schools or nursing homes.

  10. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  11. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  12. Self-reported sleep duration and weight-control strategies among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2013-08-01

    To determine if self-reported sleep duration was associated with weight-control behaviors among US high school students. National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. United States, 2007. US high school students (N = 12,087). Students were asked if they had engaged in several weight-control behaviors during the 30 days before the survey to lose or maintain weight. Self-reported sleep duration categories included very short (≤ 5 h), short (6 or 7 h), referent moderate (8 or 9 h), and long (≥ 10 h). Sex-specific logistic regression analyses with race/ethnicity, grade, and body mass index category as covariates were conducted using SUDAAN to account for complex study design. Approximately half the students reported short sleep duration (51.8% of males and 54.3% of females), whereas very short sleep durations were reported by another 14.8% of males and 16.9% of females. Among males, very short sleepers were significantly (P sleep duration was associated with dieting and three unhealthy weight-control behaviors in this population. If our findings are confirmed, intervention studies should be conducted to examine the effect of educational interventions.

  13. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  14. Clinical and psychological features of normal-weight women with subthreshold anorexia nervosa: a pilot case-control observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Martinelli, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Repossi, Ilaria; Trentani, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Weight preoccupations have been frequently reported in normal-weight subjects. Subthreshold anorexia nervosa (s-AN, all DSM IV TR criteria except amenorrhea or underweight) is a form of eating disorder not otherwise specified that has received scarce scientific attention. Under a case-control design we compared the general characteristics, body composition, and psychopathological features of normal-weight patients with s-AN with those of BMI- and sex-matched controls. Participants in this pilot study included 9 normal-weight women who met the DSM IV TR criteria for s-AN and 18 BMI-matched normal-weight controls. The general characteristics of the study participants were collected by questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Behavioral and psychological measures included the standardized symptom checklist (SCL-90-R) and the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2). There were no differences in age, education, employment status, marital status, and history of previous slimming treatment in the two study groups. In addition, anthropometric measures and body composition of s-AN patients and BMI-matched normal weight controls were not significantly different. In the s-AN subgroup, we found a significant relationship between waist circumference and the SCL-90-R obsessivity-compulsivity scale (n=9, r=-0.69, pstudy cohort. These pilot results suggest that psychopathological criteria (particularly related to the obsessivity-compulsivity dimension) may be more useful than anthropometric measures for screening of s-AN in normal-weight women.

  15. Exercising for weight and shape reasons vs. health control reasons: the impact on eating disturbance and psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia F; Gomes, A Rui

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise motivated by health and weight/shape reasons. In total, 301 participants (53.5% males) completed questionnaires assessing eating behaviors, affect, self-esteem and attitudes toward exercise. Almost 48% of the participants reported that their exercise is motivated by weight/shape reasons. These individuals were more likely to report eating problems and more positive affect after exercising. For both groups, gender, ideal weight, and the impact of weight gain on self-esteem significantly predict disordered eating. Body mass index, affect, and attitudes toward exercise also emerged as predictors for the health reasons group. Weight and shape control reasons for exercise participation were very common and related to eating disturbance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wearable devices and mobile technologies for supporting behavioral weight loss among people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-10-30

    Promoting physical activity is essential for addressing elevated cardiovascular risk and high obesity rates affecting people with serious mental illness. Numerous challenges interfere with exercise participation in this high-risk group including mental health symptoms, low motivation, and limited access to safe and affordable options for physical activity. Wearable devices and mobile health technologies may afford new opportunities for promoting physical activity and supporting behavioral weight loss efforts. This exploratory study examined whether daily step count measured using Fitbit wearable devices was associated with weight loss and improved fitness among individuals with serious mental illness enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle program. Participants (n=34) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (23.5%), major depression (50.0%), or bipolar disorder (26.5%), and wore Fitbits most of the days (M=86.2%; SD=18.4%) they were enrolled in the study. At 6-months, higher average daily step count was associated with greater weight loss (F=5.07; df=1,32; p=0.0314), but not improved fitness (F=1.92; df=1,31; p=0.176). These findings demonstrate that encouraging participants with serious mental illness enrolled in lifestyle interventions to collect more steps may contribute to greater weight loss. This suggests that wearable devices may offer a feasible and potentially effective strategy for supporting behavioral weight loss in community mental health settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations of parents' self, child, and other "fat talk" with child eating behaviors and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Riley, Kristen E; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-03-15

    Fat talk, negative communication about weight, is common in the media, peer groups, and families. Little is known about parental fat talk directed at oneself or others. This study examined associations between different forms of parental fat talk and child disordered eating behaviors and weight, and differences by child sex and age. Parents of preadolescents or adolescents (n = 581) reported fat talk about themselves (self-fat talk), others (obesity-fat talk), and their child (child-fat talk). 76.0% of parents reported regular self-fat talk in front of children, 51.5% reported obesity-fat talk, and 43.6% reported child-fat talk. Fat talk did not differ significantly between parents of preadolescents and adolescents but was more common with sons than daughters. Of the three forms of fat talk, only child-fat talk was associated with all child eating and weight variables (binge eating, overeating, secretive eating, and overweight/obesity); associations were strongest for adolescent girls. Child sex was associated with secretive eating and overweight/obesity. Parents reported using different forms of fat talk frequently. Parent self- and obesity-fat talk were reported more frequently, but child-fat talk was the most strongly associated with children's eating and weight. Because of associations with disordered eating behaviors, intervening to reduce fat talk might contribute to improving pediatric disordered eating and weight-related interventions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Active Mothers Postpartum: a randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Krause, Katrina M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Morey, Miriam C; Bastian, Lori A; Peterson, Bercedis L; Swamy, Geeta K; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; McBride, Colleen M

    2009-09-01

    Pregnancy may contribute to overweight and obesity. The primary objective of Active Mothers Postpartum was to promote a reduction in BMI through 24-months postpartum via sustainable lifestyle changes. Behavioral intervention RCT to enhance postpartum weight loss. A total of 450 overweight or obese women, enrolled 6-weeks postpartum, were recruited through obstetrics clinics and community posters in the Durham NC area. Intervention participants were offered eight healthy-eating classes, ten physical-activity classes, and six telephone-counseling sessions over 9 months. Changes from baseline (6-weeks postpartum) to 1-month post-intervention (12-months postpartum) in: (1) diet (caloric intake, calories from fat, intake of certain foods); (2) physical activity (self-reported physical activity, television time); and (3) weight (collected 2004-2007, analyzed 2007-2008). Mean weight loss was 0.90 kg (+/-5.1 kg) in the intervention group and 0.36 kg (+/-4.9 kg) in the control group; this difference was not significant. There were also no significant group differences in improvement of diet or increased physical activity. In secondary analyses, there was a positive bivariate relationship between classes attended and weight loss (p=0.01). There were no significant differences among the arms in diet, physical activity, or weight change. Home-based interventions via mail, telephone, or Internet/e-mail may be more feasible and successful in this population. The postpartum period is an important phase in women's lives with regard to weight retention, but engaging them during this busy period remains a challenge. NCT00212251.

  19. Dynamic fMRI networks predict success in a behavioral weight loss program among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Rejeski, W Jack; Zhu, Yingying; Wu, Guorong; Simpson, Sean L; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    More than one-third of adults in the United States are obese, with a higher prevalence among older adults. Obesity among older adults is a major cause of physical dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. Many people who engage in lifestyle weight loss interventions fail to reach targeted goals for weight loss, and most will regain what was lost within 1-2 years following cessation of treatment. This variability in treatment efficacy suggests that there are important phenotypes predictive of success with intentional weight loss that could lead to tailored treatment regimen, an idea that is consistent with the concept of precision-based medicine. Although the identification of biochemical and metabolic phenotypes are one potential direction of research, neurobiological measures may prove useful as substantial behavioral change is necessary to achieve success in a lifestyle intervention. In the present study, we use dynamic brain networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to prospectively identify individuals most likely to succeed in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Brain imaging was performed in overweight or obese older adults (age: 65-79 years) who participated in an 18-month lifestyle weight loss intervention. Machine learning and functional brain networks were combined to produce multivariate prediction models. The prediction accuracy exceeded 95%, suggesting that there exists a consistent pattern of connectivity which correctly predicts success with weight loss at the individual level. Connectivity patterns that contributed to the prediction consisted of complex multivariate network components that substantially overlapped with known brain networks that are associated with behavior emergence, self-regulation, body awareness, and the sensory features of food. Future work on independent datasets and diverse populations is needed to corroborate our findings. Additionally, we believe that efforts can begin to

  20. Weight-based stigmatization, psychological distress, & binge eating behavior among obese treatment-seeking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Jamile A; Friedman, Kelli E; Reichmann, Simona K; Musante, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the associations between weight-based stigmatization, psychological distress, and binge eating behavior in a treatment-seeking obese sample. Ninety-three obese adults completed three questionnaires: 1) Stigmatizing Situations Inventory, 2) Brief Symptoms Inventory, and 3) Binge Eating Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were used to evaluate the association between stigmatizing experiences, psychological distress and binge eating behavior. Stigmatizing experiences predicted both binge eating behavior (R(2)=.20, p<.001) and overall psychological distress (R(2)=.18, p<.001). A substantial amount of the variance in binge eating predicted by weight-based stigmatization was due to the effect of psychological distress. Specifically, of the 20% of the variance in binge eating accounted for by stigmatizing experiences, between 7% and 34% (p<.01) was due to the effects of various indicators of psychological distress. These data suggest that weight-based stigmatization predicts binge eating behavior and that psychological distress associated with stigmatizing experiences may be an important mediating factor.

  1. The Breathe Easier through Weight Loss Lifestyle (BE WELL Intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buist A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and asthma have reached epidemic proportions in the US. Their concurrent rise over the last 30 years suggests that they may be connected. Numerous observational studies support a temporally-correct, dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI and incident asthma. Weight loss, either induced by surgery or caloric restriction, has been reported to improve asthma symptoms and lung function. Due to methodological shortcomings of previous studies, however, well-controlled trials are needed to investigate the efficacy of weight loss strategies to improve asthma control in obese individuals. Methods/Design BE WELL is a 2-arm parallel randomized clinical trial (RCT of the efficacy of an evidence-based, comprehensive, behavioral weight loss intervention, focusing on diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, as adjunct therapy to usual care in the management of asthma in obese adults. Trial participants (n = 324 are patients aged 18 to 70 years who have suboptimally controlled, persistent asthma, BMI between 30.0 and 44.9 kg/m2, and who do not have serious comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, stroke. The 12-month weight loss intervention to be studied is based on the principles of the highly successful Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention. Intervention participants will attend 13 weekly group sessions over a four-month period, followed by two monthly individual sessions, and will then receive individualized counseling primarily by phone, at least bi-monthly, for the remainder of the intervention. Follow-up assessment will occur at six and 12 months. The primary outcome variable is the overall score on the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire measured at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include lung function, asthma-specific and general quality of life, asthma medication use, asthma-related and total health care utilization. Potential mediators (e.g., weight loss and change in physical

  2. EOSCOR: a light weight, microprocessor controlled solar neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Albats, P.; Frye, G.M. Jr.; Schindler, S.M.; Denehy, B.V.; Hopper, V.D.; Mace, O.B.

    1979-01-01

    A light weight high energy neutron detector with vertical detection efficiency of 0.005 at 40 MeV and 1.4 m 2 sensitive area has been developed for long duration super-pressure balloon flight observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays. It consists of two sets of four plastic scintillator hodoscopes separated by a 1 m time-of-flight path to observe n-p, C(n,p), and C(n,d) interactions. The neutron interactions are separated from gamma ray events through TOF measurements. For a large flare, the signal from solar neutrons is expected to be an order of magnitude greater than that of the atmospheric background. The microprocessor controls the data acquisition, accumulation of histograms, and the encoding of data for the telemetry systems. A test flight of the detector was made with a zero-pressure balloon. The expected many-week duration of a super-pressure balloon flight would significantly increase the probability of observing 20-150 MeV neutrons from a medium or large flare. (Auth.)

  3. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  4. Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; Carmo, Isabel do

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion...

  5. Effects of Vertex Activity and Self-organized Criticality Behavior on a Weighted Evolving Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guiqing; Yang Qiuying; Chen Tianlun

    2008-01-01

    Effects of vertex activity have been analyzed on a weighted evolving network. The network is characterized by the probability distribution of vertex strength, each edge weight and evolution of the strength of vertices with different vertex activities. The model exhibits self-organized criticality behavior. The probability distribution of avalanche size for different network sizes is also shown. In addition, there is a power law relation between the size and the duration of an avalanche and the average of avalanche size has been studied for different vertex activities

  6. Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.

  7. Overweight Adolescents’ Self-Perceived Weight and Weight Control Behaviour: HBSC Study in Finland 1994–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ojala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Overweight and perception of being overweight, may lead adolescent to lose weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, and weight control behaviour during 1994–2010 in Finland. Methods. The country-representative, cross-sectional data of 15-year olds were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study, conducted in 1994 (=1194; males: 48%, 1998 (=1545; 49%, 2002 (=1745; 50%, 2006 (=1670; 47%, and 2010 (=2082; 48%. Results. The majority of overweight boys (62–69% and girls (89–100% assessed themselves as too fat, and their body image was lower than in nonoverweight adolescents. The highest prevalence of current weight controlling was found in 2006 in males (18% and in 2010 in females (39%. Conclusion. The phenomena were current and gender differences notable, but there was no statistically significant difference in overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, or weight control behaviour between survey years.

  8. Behavioral control and reward sensitivity in adolescents’ risk taking behavior : A longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  9. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  10. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  11. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  12. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size......, affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment...... in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (1985-1996). For each birth, maternal prepregnancy BMI and WC were measured at year 0 (baseline), 2, 5, or 7 examinations. Recalled GWG and breastfeeding behavior were collected at years 7 and 10. GWG was analyzed by using linear regression...

  13. From Bench to Bedside: Understanding Stress-Obesity Research Within the Context of Translation to Improve Pediatric Behavioral Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Amy F; Fahrenkamp, Amy J

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that stress, including chronic stress and acute physiologic stress reactivity, is one contributor to the development and maintenance of obesity in youth. Little has been done to apply the literature on stress and obesity risk to inform the development of pediatric behavioral weight control (BWC) interventions. The aims of this review are to (1) discuss research linking stress and pediatric obesity, (2) provide examples of the implications of the stress-obesity research for pediatric BWC development, and (3) propose that a mindfulness-based approach may be useful in targeting stress reduction within pediatric BWC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  15. Consumer preferences in format and type of community-based weight control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, N E; Morton, N; Jeffery, R W; French, S A; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Falkner, N H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide further information about preferences for types and formats (e.g., correspondence vs. face to face) of eating and exercise programs, actual participation rates in a variety of offered programs, and characteristics of program participants vs. nonparticipants. Over a 3-year period, a large sample of community volunteers was given the opportunity to participate in various forms of diet and exercise programs as part of a weight gain prevention study. The study was conducted at a university and three local health department sites. Subjects in the study were 616 individuals participating in the Pound of Prevention study (POP), a 3-year randomized evaluation of an intervention for preventing weight gain. The primary outcomes assessed were participation rates for each program offering. Program participants were also compared to those who did not participate on demographic characteristics, smoking, diet behavior, exercise behavior, and weight concern. Survey results indicated that correspondence formats for delivery of health education programs were rated as more desirable than face-to-face formats. Participation for program offering ranged from 0 to 16% of the study population. Participation data were consistent with survey results and showed participants' preference for correspondence formats even more strongly. Program offering attracted health-conscious participants with higher education and income levels. These data suggest that some community members will get interested and take part in low-cost, minimal contact programs for exercise and weight control. Future research efforts should focus on investigating ways to increase participation in brief or minimal contact programs, particularly among groups that may be difficult to reach and at high risk for the development of obesity.

  16. Relationships of cognitive load on eating and weight-related behaviors of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Koenings, Mallory; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra K

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight-related behaviors and cognitive load (working memory available to complete mental activities like those required for planning meals, selecting foods, and other health-related decisions). Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore associations between cognitive load and eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference of college students. College students (n=1018) from 13 institutions completed an online survey assessing eating behaviors (e.g., routine and compensatory restraint, emotional eating, and fruit/vegetable intake), stress level, and physical activity level. BMI and waist circumference were measured by trained researchers. A cognitive load score was derived from stress level, time pressure/income needs, race and nationality. High cognitive load participants (n=425) were significantly (Pcognitive loads (n=593). Compared to low cognitive load participants, high cognitive load participants were significantly more likely to eat cognitive load scores had a non-significant trend toward higher BMIs, waist circumferences, and drinking more alcohol than low cognitive load counterparts. In conclusion, cognitive load may be an important contributor to health behaviors. Understanding how cognitive load may affect eating and other weight-related behaviors could potentially lead to improvements in the effectiveness of obesity prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroengineering control and regulation of behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Radzewicz, C.; Mankiewicz, L.; Hottowy, P.; Knapska, E.; Konopka, W.; Kublik, E.; Radwańska, K.; Waleszczyk, W. J.; Wójcik, D. K.

    2014-11-01

    To monitor neuronal circuits involved in emotional modulation of sensory processing we proposed a plan to establish novel research techniques combining recent biological, technical and analytical discoveries. The project was granted by National Science Center and we started to build a new experimental model for studying the selected circuits of genetically marked and behaviorally activated neurons. To achieve this goal we will combine the pioneering, interdisciplinary expertise of four Polish institutions: (i) the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology (Polish Academy of Sciences) will deliver the expertise on genetically modified mice and rats, mapping of the neuronal circuits activated by behavior, monitoring complex behaviors measured in the IntelliCage system, electrophysiological brain activity recordings by multielectrodes in behaving animals, analysis and modeling of behavioral and electrophysiological data; (ii) the AGH University of Science and Technology (Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences) will use its experience in high-throughput electronics to build multichannel systems for recording the brain activity of behaving animals; (iii) the University of Warsaw (Faculty of Physics) and (iv) the Center for Theoretical Physics (Polish Academy of Sciences) will construct optoelectronic device for remote control of opto-animals produced in the Nencki Institute based on the unique experience in laser sources, studies of light propagation and its interaction with condensed media, wireless medical robotic systems, fast readout opto-electronics with control software and micromechanics.

  18. The controllability test for behaviors revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.; Piztek, P.

    2005-01-01

    Let B = {w 2 Lloc 1 (R,Rq) | R( d/dt )w = 0}. It is well-know that B is controllable if and only if R(λ) has the same rank for all complex λ. We want to re-examen the proof of this fundamental result. Denote by B1 the behavior B intersected with set of smooth functions. For B1 the proof is easy and

  19. Parental influences on weight-related health behaviors in western and eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J

    2017-03-01

    Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A cost analysis of implementing a behavioral weight loss intervention in community mental health settings: Results from the ACHIEVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ellen M; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene T; Gennusa, Joseph V; Goldsholl, Stacy; Frick, Kevin D; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J; Daumit, Gail L

    2017-06-01

    In the ACHIEVE randomized controlled trial, an 18-month behavioral intervention accomplished weight loss in persons with serious mental illness who attended community psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This analysis estimates costs for delivering the intervention during the study. It also estimates expected costs to implement the intervention more widely in a range of community mental health programs. Using empirical data, costs were calculated from the perspective of a community psychiatric rehabilitation program delivering the intervention. Personnel and travel costs were calculated using time sheet data. Rent and supply costs were calculated using rent per square foot and intervention records. A univariate sensitivity analysis and an expert-informed sensitivity analysis were conducted. With 144 participants receiving the intervention and a mean weight loss of 3.4 kg, costs of $95 per participant per month and $501 per kilogram lost in the trial were calculated. In univariate sensitivity analysis, costs ranged from $402 to $725 per kilogram lost. Through expert-informed sensitivity analysis, it was estimated that rehabilitation programs could implement the intervention for $68 to $85 per client per month. Costs of implementing the ACHIEVE intervention were in the range of other intensive behavioral weight loss interventions. Wider implementation of efficacious lifestyle interventions in community mental health settings will require adequate funding mechanisms. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. Binge eating and weight loss behaviors of overweight and obese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Leonard, Kelly; Veroneau, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    To investigate binge eating (BE) and weight-related behaviors in overweight and obese college students. This was a secondary analysis of data from 487 overweight and obese college-age students from a private university in the northeastern United States. BE was reported by 34.9% of students. Only 6.2% of participants reported the use of compensatory behaviors (i.e., self-induced vomiting, laxative, or diuretic use) to prevent weight gain. BE was associated with smoking and exercising to lose weight. Gender differences emerged from the data as women were more likely to report being obese, the use of compensatory behaviors, and to perceive themselves as moderately or extremely overweight. BE is a significant problem on college campuses and is associated with the development of obesity and eating disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are in an excellent position to effect change in this population through their frequent contact with young adults in community and school-based venues. NPs are well-prepared to identify at-risk college students and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Asare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of theory in designing the interventions only five interventionsused a theory. In three of those cases social cognitive theory was used. Appropriate sample sizewas found to be the major strength of most of the interventions. Six interventions usedrandomized controlled design. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of physicalactivity interventions in African American women are presented.

  3. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behaviors and weight status in Delhi, India. Methods The study was cross-sectional by design. The target population was comprised of a convenience sample of 6th and 8th grade children enrolled at 6 private schools in Delhi, India and their parents. A total of 551 child-parent dyads were used in analysis. Measures included parent and child BMI; physical activity and sedentary behavior; and dietary intake, such as weekly breakfast consumption, daily fruit and vegetable (FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily energy-dense (ED food consumption, daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to test for the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors (independent variables and child dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (dependent variables while controlling for parent and child demographics. Results Significant, positive associations were observed between all parent and child dietary behaviors (weekly breakfast consumption, daily FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily ED food consumption, daily SSB consumption after adjusting for child sex and grade, parent sex, and parent weight status (p<0.05, all. Parent moderate/vigorous physical activity was positively associated with child moderate/vigorous physical activity (p=0.000, however there was no significant association between parent and child light physical activity levels (p=0.310. Parent

  4. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy to aid weight loss in obese patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelnuovo G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gianluca Castelnuovo,1,2 Giada Pietrabissa,1,2 Gian Mauro Manzoni,1,3 Roberto Cattivelli,1,2 Alessandro Rossi,1 Margherita Novelli,1 Giorgia Varallo,1 Enrico Molinari1,2 1Psychology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, San Giuseppe Hospital, Verbania, 2Department of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, 3Faculty of Psychology, eCampus University, Novedrate, Italy Abstract: Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical ­complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways. Evidence-based strategies to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities typically integrate different interventions: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and if necessary, pharmacological and surgical ones. Such treatments are implemented in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of endocrinologists, nutritionists, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sometimes surgeons. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is traditionally recognized as the best established treatment for binge eating disorder and the most preferred intervention for obesity, and could be considered as the first-line treatment among psychological approaches, especially in a long-term perspective; however, it does not necessarily produce a successful weight loss. Traditional CBT for weight loss and other protocols, such as enhanced CBT, enhanced focused CBT, behavioral weight loss treatment, therapeutic education, acceptance and commitment therapy

  6. Weight-related behaviors among non-overweight adolescents: results from the Korean national survey from 2005 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight misperception, unhealthy diet practices, and factors associated with these weight-related behaviors among Korean adolescents. The subjects were a nationally representative sample of non-overweight students (52,515 in 2005, 64,084 in 2006, and 67,113 in 2007) in middle and high schools who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The prevalence of weight-related behaviors and factors associated with these behaviors were assessed using a complex sampling design. Of non-overweight students, 14.9% of boys and 22.2% of girls reported their weight as overweight/obese. Dieting within the last year was reported by 19.8% of boys and 41.8% of girls. Of those who attempted dieting, 17.1% of boys and 24.6% of girls indicated practicing at least one unhealthy diet behavior within the last month. Overweight misperceptions were independently associated with diet attempts and unhealthy diets after adjustment for weight status, and demographic, social, and psychological factors. Additionally, these weight-related behaviors were also associated with psychosocial factors such as low school achievement, sadness, suicidal ideation, increased stress perception, and cigarette or alcohol use. In conclusion, the high prevalence of inappropriate weight-related behaviors suggests a need for comprehensive approaches to improve weight-related behaviors in non-overweight Korean adolescents.

  7. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Assessing motivation and readiness to change for weight management and control: an in-depth evaluation of three sets of instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eCeccarini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is highly recommended to promptly assess motivation and readiness to change in individuals who wish to achieve significant lifestyle behavior changes in order to improve their health, overall quality of life and well-being. In particular, motivation should be assessed for those who face the difficult task to maintain weight, which implies a double challenge: weight loss initially and its management subsequently. In fact, weight-control may be as problematic as smoking or drugs-taking cessation, since they all share the commonality of being highly refractory to change behaviors. This paper will examine three well-established tools following the Trans-theoretical Model (TTM, specifically assessing readiness to change in weight management: the URICA, the S-Weight and the P-Weight and the Decisional Balance Inventory. Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be rather homogeneous and similar, the S-Weight and P-Weight are more efficient in assessing readiness to change in weight management and control. Assessing motivation and readiness to change may be a crucial step in promptly identifying psychological obstacles or resistance towards weight-management in overweight or obese hospitalised individuals, and it may contribute to provide a more effective weight-control treatment intervention.

  9. Design and implementation of a randomized controlled social and mobile weight loss trial for young adults (project SMART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, K; Marshall, S J; Davila, E P; Kolodziejczyk, J K; Fowler, J H; Calfas, K J; Huang, J S; Rock, C L; Griswold, W G; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, G J; Raab, F; Donohue, M C; Fogg, B J; Robinson, T N

    2014-01-01

    To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (M(age) = 22( ± 4) years; M(BMI) = 29( ± 2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, text messaging, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. Methods: Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed.  Results: Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7% of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%, followed by arithmetic and language (16% each. BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. Conclusion: Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  11. The effect of educational intervention on weight loss in adolescents with overweight and obesity: Application of the theory of planned behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. The theory of planned behavior (TPB efficiently explains the ability of perceived behavioral control and possibly attitude to enhance the motivations of the obese people to lose weight. Our aim was to investigate the effect of TPB-based education on weight loss in obese and overweight adolescents. METHODS: In an interventional study, simple random sampling was used to select 86 overweight and obese adolescents aged 13-18 years in the pediatric clinic at the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute. Anthropometric measures and TPB constructs were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaires were filled out before and six weeks after the intervention. Participants received 5 sessions of training based on the constructs of the TPB. RESULTS: A significant increase was observed in the mean score for knowledge and TPB constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and behavior six weeks after the educational intervention (P < 0.001. Moreover, significant decrease in body mass index (P < 0.001, weight (P = 0.001, and waist circumference (P < 0.001 of adolescents were found after the educational intervention. CONCLUSION: The TPB-based interventions seem to be effective in losing weight in obese and overweight adolescents. This theory serves as a helpful theoretical framework for health-related behaviors and can be an appropriate pattern to plan for educational interventions.   

  12. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  13. Weight-Loss: Gain Control of Emotional Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy weight: Key to wellness. In: American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: ... relaxation training reduce emotional eating in women with obesity? An exploratory ... Dietetic Association. 2009;10:1427. Macht M. How emotions affect ...

  14. A nudge in a healthier direction: How environmental cues help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Aline E; Stöckli, Sabrina; Brunner, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use. Therefore, two laboratory studies were conducted. They examined the Giacometti sculptures' effects on unhealthy and healthy food intake (Study 1) and on the completion of weight- and health-related fragmented words (Study 2). Study 1 indicated that the sculptures are weight-related by showing that they reduced food intake independent of food healthiness. Furthermore, the "Giacometti effect" was moderated by restrained eating. Restrained eaters, who are known for their weight-control goal, ate less after having been exposed to the thin sculptures. The results of Study 2 pointed in the same direction. Restrained eaters completed more weight-related words after being exposed to the sculptures. Overall, these studies suggest that the thin sculptures are primarily weight-related cues and particularly helpful for restrained eaters. Environmental weight-control cues such as the Giacometti sculptures could act as a counterforce to our obesogenic environment and help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal. In this way, they could nudge food decisions in a healthier direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-03-15

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. The Substitutability of Cigarettes and Food: A Behavioral Economic Comparison in Normal Weight and Overweight or Obese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M.; Owens, Max M.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; MacKillop, James

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and cigarette smoking contribute to a multitude of preventable deaths in the US and eating and smoking behavior may influence each other. The field of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics and permits systematic examination of how commodities interrelate with one another. Using this framework, the current study evaluated the effects of rising food and cigarette prices on consumption to investigate their substitutability and their relationship to BMI and associated variables. Behavioral economics categorizes commodities as substitutable when the consumption of one increases as a function of a price increase in the other. Smokers (N = 86) completed a two-part hypothetical task in which money was allocated to purchase cigarettes and fast food-style reinforcers (e.g., hamburgers, ice cream) at various prices. Results indicated that food and cigarettes were not substitutes for one another (cross-price elasticity coefficients > .20). Food purchases were independent of cigarette price, whereas cigarette purchases decreased as food price rose. Cross-price elasticity coefficients were significantly associated with confidence in one’s ability to control weight without smoking (rs = −.23 and .29), but not BMI (rs = .04 and .04) or post-cessation weight concerns (rs = −.05 and .12). Perceived ability to manage weight without cigarettes may influence who substitutes food for cigarettes when quitting. In addition, given observed decreases in purchases of both commodities as food prices increased, these findings imply that greater taxation of fast food-style reinforcers could potentially reduce consumption of these foods and also cigarettes among smokers. PMID:27736143

  17. National weighting of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Iachan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS is a network of health-related telephone surveys--conducted by all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and participating US territories—that receive technical assistance from CDC. Data users often aggregate BRFSS state samples for national estimates without accounting for state-level sampling, a practice that could introduce bias because the weighted distributions of the state samples do not always adhere to national demographic distributions. Methods This article examines six methods of reweighting, which are then compared with key health indicator estimates from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS based on 2013 data. Results Compared to the usual stacking approach, all of the six new methods reduce the variance of weights and design effect at the national level, and some also reduce the estimated bias. This article also provides a comparison of the methods based on the variances induced by unequal weighting as well as the bias reduction induced by raking at the national level, and recommends a preferred method. Conclusions The new method leads to weighted distributions that more accurately reproduce national demographic characteristics. While the empirical results for key estimates were limited to a few health indicators, they also suggest reduction in potential bias and mean squared error. To the extent that survey outcomes are associated with these demographic characteristics, matching the national distributions will reduce bias in estimates of these outcomes at the national level.

  18. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height we...

  19. Nutritional and Weight-Management Behaviors in Low-Income Women Trying to Conceive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women trying to conceive as compared to women not trying to conceive. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women aged 16–40 years who were low-income, racially diverse, (n=1,711) and attending reproductive health clinics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and various health behaviors after adjusting for demographic variables, gravidity, and obesity status. Results At total of 8.9% (n=153) of the participants stated they were trying to get pregnant. Women trying to conceive were more likely than those not trying to have participated in a number of unhealthy weight loss practices in the past year. These included taking diet pills, supplements or herbs (13.5% vs. 8.8%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–3.49;), using laxatives or diuretics or inducing vomiting (7.7% vs. 3.0%; aOR 2.70, CI 1.23–5.91;), and fasting for 24 hours (10.7% vs. 5.5%; aOR 2.15, CI 1.03–4.51;). There were no significant differences between the two groups in amount of exercise, current smoking status or current alcohol consumption Further, fruit, green salad and other vegetables, and intake of soda and fast food were unrelated to pregnancy intention. Conclusion This study highlights that women trying to conceive are more likely to participate in unhealthy and potentially dangerous weight loss practices than women not trying to conceive. PMID:25162259

  20. Nutritional and weight management behaviors in low-income women trying to conceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women trying to conceive as compared with women not trying to conceive. This was a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women aged 16-40 years who were low income, racially diverse, (n=1,711), and attending reproductive health clinics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and various health behaviors after adjusting for demographic variables, gravidity, and obesity status. A total of 8.9% (n=153) of the participants stated they were trying to get pregnant. Women trying to conceive were more likely than those not trying to have participated in a number of unhealthy weight loss practices in the past year. These included taking diet pills, supplements, or herbs (13.5% compared with 8.8%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.49), using laxatives or diuretics or inducing vomiting (7.7% compared with 3.0%; adjusted OR 2.70, CI 1.23-5.91), and fasting for 24 hours (10.7% compared with 5.5%; adjusted OR 2.15, CI 1.03-4.51). There were no significant differences between the two groups in amount of exercise, current smoking status, or current alcohol consumption Furthermore, fruit, green salad and other vegetables, and intake of soda and fast food were unrelated to pregnancy intention. This study highlights that women trying to conceive are more likely to participate in unhealthy and potentially dangerous weight loss practices than women not trying to conceive. II.

  1. Physical activity intensity and weight control status among U.S. Adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Pariser, Gina

    2014-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the objectively determined physical activity levels by weight control status (i.e., trying to lose weight, trying to maintain weight, and neither trying to lose or maintain weight) among U.S. adults with diabetes. Therefore, this study assessed the association between physical activity and weight control status among U.S. adults with diabetes. Cross-sectional survey. The 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, which is representative of the U.S. population. Subjects were 733 adults (≥20 years) with diabetes. Participants wore an accelerometer to assess physical activity, and questionnaires were used to assess weight control status and covariates. Multivariate negative binomial regressions were used. After adjustments, and compared to those not trying to lose or maintain their weight, women trying to lose weight engaged in 74% more physical activity (rate ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.65). Although findings were not significant for men, men were more likely than women to meet physical activity recommendations. Diabetic women trying to lose weight engaged in more physical activity than did their female counterparts not trying to lose or maintain their weight. Although men were more active than women, no differences in activity estimates occurred across weight control status for men.

  2. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. Objective: This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Methods: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis–St. Paul school classrooms in 2009–2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Results: Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. PMID:27281807

  3. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-07-01

    Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Accuracy of body image perception and preferred weight loss strategies in schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, C; Meyer, J M; Leckband, S G

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in severely mentally ill (SMI) populations is an increasing problem, but there is no controlled data regarding the relationship between SMI and weight perception. Fifty patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched control participants were recruited. Weight, height, and body image accuracy were assessed for all participants, and assessments of mood, psychotic symptom severity and anxiety, and preferred modes of weight loss were assessed for the schizophrenia sample. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be obese than controls (46% vs. 18%, P < 0.005), and most patients expressed an interest in losing weight. Obese participants with schizophrenia underestimated their body size (11.0%) more than controls (4.9%) (P < 0.05). Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to underestimate their body size, independent of the effects of obesity. However, they also express concern about weight issues and willingness to participate in psychoeducational groups targeted at weight loss.

  5. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Fuzzy Logic Based Set-Point Weighting Controller Tuning for an Internal Model Control Based PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthai Suresh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Controller tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of the selected controller to achieve optimum response for the controlled process. For many of the control problems, a satisfactory performance is obtained by using PID controllers. One of the main problems with mathematical models of physical systems is that the parameters used in the models cannot be determined with absolute accuracy. The values of the parameters may change with time or various effects. In these cases, conventional controller tuning methods suffer when trying a lot to produce optimum response. In order to overcome these difficulties a fuzzy logic based Set- Point weighting controller tuning method is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is analyzed through computer simulation using SIMULINK software and the results are presented. The fuzzy logic based simulation results are compared with Cohen-Coon (CC, Ziegler- Nichols (ZN, Ziegler – Nichols with Set- Point weighting (ZN-SPW, Internal Model Control (IMC and Internal model based PID controller responses (IMC-PID. The effects of process modeling errors and the importance of controller tuning have been brought out using the proposed control scheme.

  7. A Behavioral Weight Loss Program and Nonurinary Incontinence Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Overweight and Obese Women with Urinary Incontinence: A Secondary Data Analysis of PRIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Creasman, Jennifer M; Richter, Holly E; Myers, Deborah; Burgio, Kathryn L; Wing, Rena R; West, Delia Smith; Kusek, John W; Subak, Leslee L

    2018-01-01

    We sought to determine whether a behavioral weight reduction intervention would improve nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms at 6 months, including urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency, compared to a structured education program serving as the control group among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PRIDE (Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise) was a randomized clinical trial performed in 338 overweight or obese women with urinary incontinence. Participants were randomized, including 226 to 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention and 112 to the control group. All participants received a self-help behavioral treatment booklet to improve bladder control. On this secondary data analysis we examined changes in nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms from baseline to 6 months and the impact of treatment allocation (intervention vs control), weight loss and physical activity. Nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common at baseline, varying from 48% to 62%. In the 2 groups combined women experienced significant improvement in nocturia, urgency and International Prostate Symptom Score at 6 months (all p urinary tract storage symptom outcomes at 6 months did not differ between the intervention and control groups. Similarly no difference was observed in the amount of weight lost (5% or greater vs less than 5%) or physical activity (1,500 kcal or greater expenditure per week compared to less than 1,500 kcal). Lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. The prevalence decreased significantly after 6 months independent of treatment group assignment, amount of weight lost or physical activity. These improvements may have been due to self-help behavioral educational materials, trial participation or repeat assessment of symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  8. Effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for weight loss in family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Raffaella; Moscatiello, Simona; Tarrini, Giulietta; Di Domizio, Silvia; Soverini, Valentina; Romano, Andreina; Mazzotti, Arianna; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2011-11-01

    The possibility that lifestyle changes may be shared by the family members of subjects with obesity attending cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss has been scarcely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in body weight, lifestyle habits, and stage of change toward physical activity in the family members of 149 subjects with overweight/obesity enrolled into a weekly group CBT for weight management in the years 2007-2008. 230 adult (aged >18 years) family members (129 spouses, 72 children (43 female, 29 male), 29 with a different family relationship) completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and soon after the end of the completion of their relatives' program (approximately 6 months later). The questionnaire consisted of qualitative information regarding food choices, estimation of energy and food intake, self-report of height and weight, and motivation toward physical activity. At baseline, self-reported body mass index was normal in 115 cases, in the range 25 to 29.9 in 80 and ≥30 in 35. Following CBT of their relatives, the family members significantly reduced their average daily energy intake (-232 kcal/day; Pfood choices revealed a reduced average daily amount of energy from dressings (-40 kcal, Pbread (-58 kcal, P<0.001), breakfast biscuits (-23 kcal, P=0.005), chocolate (-7 kcal, P=0.024), and nonalcoholic beverages (fruit juices and carbonated drinks; -10 kcal; P=0.013), whereas fruit consumption was increased (+10 kcal; P=0.023). There was also a shift in the stage of change toward exercising. Body mass index changes of family members and CBT subjects were significantly correlated, mainly within spouses. In conclusion, CBT for weight loss positively influences the lifestyle habits of family members of participants, reducing energy intake and promoting a more favorable attitude toward physical activity. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognition, academic progress, behavior and self-concept at 14 years of very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, A L; Kelly, E A; Doyle, L W; Callanan, C

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare cognition, academic progress, behavior, and self-concept children of very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight 2,499 g). At 14 years of age, 130 (84.4%) of 154 VLBW and 42 (70.0%) of 60 NBW children were assessed. Ten VLBW children and one NBW child who had cerebral palsy were excluded. VLBW children scored at a significantly lower level on all three composite scales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd Edition. VLBW children were also significantly disadvantaged on more specific cognitive processes, including tests of visual processing and visual memory and on subtests reflecting learning and problem solving. Only in arithmetic was a difference between the groups discerned on tests of achievement. Significantly more VLBW children were rated by teachers as socially rejected and by their parents as having learning problems at school. VLBW children had significantly reduced self-esteem. VLBW children had more cognitive, academic, and behavioral problems and lower self-esteem at 14 years of age than NBW control subjects.

  10. RECOMANDATION FOR A BETTER CONTROL OF THE BODY WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Manescu

    2012-01-01

    From fitness magazines to tv commercials it’s an every day information bombing about diets. The latest always say that "this popular diet doesn't work, but ours will" or it’s showed a photoshoped before and after picture. And although the term diet automatically gets us thinking of people who need to lose weight, it’s definition says: "the food or drink prescribed to a person for a special reason". So for those who play sports or have goals in fitness, having the proper diet is important as w...

  11. Leisure-time physical activity patterns by weight control status: 1999-2002 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-05-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Physical activity is associated inversely with overweight and obesity prevalence, thus potentially assisting in weight control efforts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the variability of physical activity levels and their patterns by self-reported weight control status in a nationally representative sample. Four years of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to examine leisure-time physical activity patterns (regular, irregular, inactive) and the prevalence of weight control practices (trying to lose, trying to maintain, not trying to lose or maintain) among U.S. adults (N = 9496). The prevalence of regular physical activity was 32.6% among people trying to lose weight, 37.9% among people trying to maintain weight, and 21.8% among those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Those trying to lose weight were almost three times as likely to be regularly active (vs inactive), and those trying to maintain weight were over three times more likely to be regularly active (vs inactive) than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. The most commonly reported activities among those trying to lose weight were walking (38.3%), yard work (14.5%), biking (12.5%), and running (11.6%). Despite the importance of physical activity, fewer than half the people trying to lose or maintain weight were regularly active during leisure-time. People trying to lose or maintain weight had a higher likelihood of being regularly active than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Walking was the most common type of physical activity among all weight control groups. Health promotion efforts should promote increased levels of physical activity among all adults.

  12. Controlling silk fibroin microspheres via molecular weight distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Dong-Mei; Pan, Jue-Jing; Wang, Qun; Liu, Xin-Fang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) microspheres were produced by salting out SF solution via the addition of potassium phosphate buffer solution (K 2 HPO 4 –KH 2 PO 4 ). The morphology, size and polydispersity of SF microspheres were adjusted by changing the molecular weight (MW) distribution and concentration of SF, as well as the ionic strength and pH of the buffer solution. Changing the conditions under which the SF fiber dissolved in the Lithium Boride (LiBr) solution resulted in altering the MW distribution of SF solution. Under optimal salting-out conditions (ionic strength > 0.7 M and pH > 7) and using a smaller and narrower SF MW distribution, SF microspheres with smoother shapes and more uniform sizes were produced. Meanwhile, the size and polydispersity of the microspheres increased when the SF concentration was increased from 0.25 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. The improved SF microspheres, obtained by altering the distribution of molecular weight, have potential in drug and gene delivery applications. - Highlights: • MW distribution was changed by applying different dissolving methods of SF fiber. • Smaller and narrower MW distribution improves the quality of SF microspheres. • Size and polydispersity of microspheres increase as SF concentration increases. • Improved SF microspheres have potential in drug and gene delivery applications

  13. Controlling silk fibroin microspheres via molecular weight distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Dong-Mei; Pan, Jue-Jing; Wang, Qun; Liu, Xin-Fang; Wang, Hui [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College for Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College for Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Research Center of Cooperative Innovation for Functional Organic/Polymer Material Micro/Nanofabrication, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) microspheres were produced by salting out SF solution via the addition of potassium phosphate buffer solution (K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}–KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}). The morphology, size and polydispersity of SF microspheres were adjusted by changing the molecular weight (MW) distribution and concentration of SF, as well as the ionic strength and pH of the buffer solution. Changing the conditions under which the SF fiber dissolved in the Lithium Boride (LiBr) solution resulted in altering the MW distribution of SF solution. Under optimal salting-out conditions (ionic strength > 0.7 M and pH > 7) and using a smaller and narrower SF MW distribution, SF microspheres with smoother shapes and more uniform sizes were produced. Meanwhile, the size and polydispersity of the microspheres increased when the SF concentration was increased from 0.25 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. The improved SF microspheres, obtained by altering the distribution of molecular weight, have potential in drug and gene delivery applications. - Highlights: • MW distribution was changed by applying different dissolving methods of SF fiber. • Smaller and narrower MW distribution improves the quality of SF microspheres. • Size and polydispersity of microspheres increase as SF concentration increases. • Improved SF microspheres have potential in drug and gene delivery applications.

  14. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  15. Promoting weight control at the worksite: a pilot program of self-motivation using payroll-based incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L; Snell, M K

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-six individuals participated in a worksite weight-loss program in which the central component was a self-motivation program of biweekly payroll deductions refunded contingent on meeting self-selected weight-loss goals. Half were assigned to early treatment and the remainder to a delayed treatment control group. Nine additional individuals also enrolled at the time of delayed treatment and were included in descriptive analyses of factors associated with weight loss. Results showed low program attrition over 6 months (6%) and mean weight losses (12.3 lb) that are competitive with those obtained in clinical settings. Although not different at baseline, participants in the delayed treatment group lost more than twice as much weight as those in the early treatment condition. This difference was interpreted as either a strong seasonal effect or a critical mass effect related to the proportion of employees at the worksite participating in the program. We conclude that self-motivation programs for health behavior change using the payroll system as an organization framework offer a promising new methodology for promoting healthful behaviors in work settings.

  16. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  17. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  18. Let's get technical! Gaming and technology for weight control and health promotion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Frankel, Leslie

    2012-02-01

    Most children, including lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority children, play video games, use computers, and have cell phones, and growing numbers have smart phones and electronic tablets. They are comfortable with, even prefer, electronic media. Many expect to be entertained and have a low tolerance for didactic methods. Thus, health promotion with children needs to incorporate more interactive media. Interactive media for weight control and health promotion among children can be broadly classified into web-based educational/therapeutic programs, tailored motivational messaging systems, data monitoring and feedback systems, active video games, and diverse forms of interactive multimedia experiences involving games. This article describes the primary characteristics of these different technological methods; presents the strengths and weaknesses of each in meeting the needs of children of different ages; emphasizes that we are in the earliest stages of knowing how best to design these systems, including selecting the optimal requisite behavioral change theories; and identifies high-priority research issues. Gaming and technology offer many exciting, innovative opportunities for engaging children and promoting diet and physical activity changes that can contribute to obesity prevention and weight loss maintenance. Research needs to clarify optimal procedures for effectively promoting change with each change procedure.

  19. Linking care of patients with obesity to outpatient weight control clinics following acute hospitalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris CM

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ché M Harris,1 Lawrence J Cheskin,2 Trina L Gipson-Jones,3 Jennifer A Hartfield,4 Flora Kisuule1 1Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2Department of Health, Behavior and Society, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3School of Nursing, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 4Center for Research on Men’s Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Despite obesity impacting over one-third of US adults, guideline recommendations have not been effectively utilized by health care providers in hospital settings. Initiation of weight loss plans for obese patients during hospitalizations followed by linkage of care to weight control centers may improve compliance with the guidelines. Provider recognition and awareness that obesity is a chronic condition that warrants inpatient counsel and management with appropriate arrangement of postdischarge follow-up care will be critical to guideline implementation. Keywords: guideline compliance, health systems, intervention, linkage 

  20. Health Behavior and Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Normal Weight Obesity in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To explore health behaviors and metabolic risk factors in normal weight obese (NWO adolescents compared with normal weight lean (NWL peers.A cross-sectional study of 18-year-old students (n = 182, 47% female in the capital area of Iceland, with body mass index within normal range (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max during treadmill test, dietary intake through 24-hour recall, questionnaires explained health behavior and fasting blood samples were taken. NWO was defined as normal BMI and body fat >17.6% in males and >31.6% in females.Among normal weight adolescents, 42% (n = 76 were defined as NWO, thereof 61% (n = 46 male participants. Fewer participants with NWO were physically active, ate breakfast on a regular basis, and consumed vegetables frequently compared with NWL. No difference was detected between the two groups in energy- and nutrient intake. The mean difference in aerobic fitness was 5.1 ml/kg/min between the groups in favor of the NWL group (p<0.001. NWO was positively associated with having one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome (Odds Ratio OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.2, 3.9 when adjusted for sex. High waist circumference was more prevalent among NWO than NWL, but only among girls (13% vs 4%, p = 0.019.High prevalence of NWO was observed in the study group. Promoting healthy lifestyle with regard to nutrition and physical activity in early life should be emphasized regardless of BMI.

  1. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E S; Farris, J C; Post, D S

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%.

  2. The behavior-analytic approach to emotional self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.

  3. Self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity and sedentary behavior to prevent weight regain in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Gaukstern, Jill E; Beavers, Kristen M; Newman, Jill C; Leng, Xiaoyan; Rejeski, W Jack

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether adding a self-regulatory intervention (SRI) focused on self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and sedentary behavior to a standard weight loss intervention improved maintenance of lost weight. Older (65-79 years), obese (BMI = 30-40 kg/m(2) ) adults (n = 48) were randomized to a 5-month weight loss intervention involving a hypocaloric diet (DIET) and aerobic exercise (EX) with or without the SRI to promote SPA and decrease sedentary behavior (SRI + DIET + EX compared with DIET + EX). Following the weight loss phase, both groups transitioned to self-selected diet and exercise behavior during a 5-month follow-up. Throughout the 10-months, the SRI + DIET + EX group utilized real-time accelerometer feedback for self-monitoring. There was an overall group by time effect of the SRI (P DIET + EX lost less weight and regained more weight than SRI + DIET + EX. The average weight regain during follow-up was 1.3 kg less in the SRI + DIET + EX group. Individuals in this group maintained approximately 10% lower weight than baseline compared with those in the DIET + EX group whom maintained approximately 5% lower weight than baseline. Addition of a SRI, designed to increase SPA and decrease sedentary behavior, to a standard weight loss intervention enhanced successful maintenance of lost weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. A Review of Weight Control Strategies and Their Effects on the Regulation of Hormonal Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A. Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimated prevalence of obesity in the USA is 72.5 million adults with costs attributed to obesity more than 147 billion dollars per year. Though caloric restriction has been used extensively in weight control studies, short-term success has been difficult to achieve, with long-term success of weight control being even more elusive. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to control the rates of obesity that are occurring globally. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of how exercise, sleep, psychological stress, and meal frequency and composition affect levels of ghrelin, cortisol, insulin GLP-1, and leptin and weight control. We will provide information regarding how hormones respond to various lifestyle factors which may affect appetite control, hunger, satiety, and weight control.

  5. Studying the effects of dietary body weight-adjusted acute tryptophan depletion on punishment-related behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tilman J; Dingerkus, Vita L S; Crockett, Molly J; Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Helmbold, Katrin; Sánchez, Cristina L; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Zepf, Florian D

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission are thought to play a decisive role in affective disorders and impulse control. This study aims to reproduce and extend previous findings on the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and subsequently diminished central 5-HT synthesis in a reinforced categorization task using a refined body weight-adjusted depletion protocol. Twenty-four young healthy adults (12 females, mean age [SD]=25.3 [2.1] years) were subjected to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Each subject was administered both an ATD challenge and a balanced amino acid load (BAL) in two separate sessions in randomized order. Punishment-related behavioral inhibition was assessed using a forced choice go/no-go task that incorporated a variable payoff schedule. Administration of ATD resulted in significant reductions in TRP measured in peripheral blood samples, indicating reductions of TRP influx across the blood-brain barrier and related brain 5-HT synthesis. Overall accuracy and response time performance were improved after ATD administration. The ability to adjust behavioral responses to aversive outcome magnitudes and behavioral adjustments following error contingent punishment remained intact after decreased brain 5-HT synthesis. A previously observed dissociation effect of ATD on punishment-induced inhibition was not observed. Our results suggest that neurodietary challenges with ATD Moja-De have no detrimental effects on task performance and punishment-related inhibition in healthy adults.

  6. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: A behavioral and neurocomputational investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doll, B.B.; Jacobs, W.J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Frank, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S (Ed) 1989. Rule-governed behavior:

  7. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  8. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  9. Family meals. Associations with weight and eating behaviors among mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n=3488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Not only body weight perception but also body mass index is relevant to suicidal ideation and self-harming behavior in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kuni; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Shimodera, Shinji; Nishida, Atsushi; Inoue, Ken; Watanabe, Norio; Oshima, Norihito; Akechi, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Okazaki, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    Whether a low body mass index (BMI) is directly associated with a high risk of suicidal ideation or self-harming behavior in adolescents is still inconclusive. This study has, therefore, evaluated the relevance of BMI to suicidal ideation and self-harming behavior after controlling for body weight perception (BWP) and other potential confounding factors. BMI, BWP, suicidal ideation, and self-harming behavior were all assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to 18,104 Japanese adolescents. Potential confounding factors were also evaluated. The data were then analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Low BMI was associated with suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm when controlling for sex, age, drug use, emotional distress, and BWP. Low BMI may be an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harming behavior in Japanese adolescents.

  11. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHTER A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  12. My Quest, an Intervention Using Text Messaging to Improve Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors and Promote Weight Loss in Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jamie B; Struempler, Barb; Funderburk, Katie; Parmer, Sondra M; Tran, Cecilia; Wadsworth, Danielle D

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors and weight after implementation of a 12-week text messaging initiative (My Quest). The researchers conducted a 1-group, pre- to posttest study design to determine changes after implementation of a text messaging initiative developed using the tenets of the Social Cognitive Theory. A total of 55 Alabama counties (84% rural) with high rates of poverty, overweight/obesity, and chronic diseases. Convenience sample of low-income, primarily overweight/obese women (n = 104). Short texts (n = 2-3/d) provided health tips, reminders, and goal-setting prompts. Weekly electronic newsletters provided tips and recipes. Participant self-monitored body weight weekly. Outcomes included goal setting, self-efficacy, behavioral and environmental factors, self-monitoring, and body weight; data collection occurred through text message response and online surveys. Analyses were conducted using McNemar test (dichotomous data), Wilcoxon signed rank test (ordinal data), or paired t test (continuous data). Participants significantly (P text messaging initiative particularly targeting women residing in rural communities with high rates of poverty and obesity can promote weight loss and improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. Future studies may include a control group and social support component such as group text messaging. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A randomised controlled trial comparing weight adjusted dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prophylactic phenylephrine infusion combined with a fluid co-load is proven to be an effective and safe method of maintaining maternal hemodynamic stability. ... for non-urgent caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomized into 2 groups; control group and intervention group using a computer generated ...

  14. Neurobehavioral conditions and effects of gender, weight and severity in preterm infants according to the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Álvarez-García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of preterm babies in recent years has raised interest in studying the consequences of prematurity as a risk factor. In the present paper, 30 preterm babies (at 40 weeks of gestational age were assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the results were compared with those of a control group of 28 full term babies. Moreover, the influence of weight, sex and gestational age was analyzed considering the Brazelton results in the preterm group. The preterm group showed significantly lower scores than the control group for 9 of the 28 behavioral items in the Scale and for 2 of the 5 clusters. However, preterm babies performed better in habituation to disturbing stimuli (light and noise during sleep. In relation to the influence of sex, premature girls performed better in the Social-Interactive cluster. The preterm group has lower neurobehavioral conditions than the full term group, probably due to the abrupt interruption of their intrauterine maturation. In contrast, they showed a better ability of habituation, maybe as a consequence of a learning effect due to earlier additional extrauterine exposition.

  15. Developing a consumer evaluation tool of weight control strategy advertisements on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat; Gray, Nicola J; Anderson, Claire W

    2008-06-01

    To develop two evaluation tools for weight loss and weight gain advertisements on the Internet in order to help consumers to evaluate the quality of information within these advertisements. One hundred websites identified by Internet search engines for weight loss and weight gain strategies (50 websites each) were evaluated using two specific scoring instruments, developed by adapting questions from the 'DISCERN' tool and reviewing all related weight control guidelines and advertising regulations. The validity and reliability of the adapted tools were tested. Our evaluation tools rated the information from most websites as poor quality (70%). In the case of weight loss strategies, statements about rapid (18%) and permanent (28%) weight loss caused concern as well as lack of sensible advice about dieting and a lack of product warnings (84%). Safety concerns relating to weight gain products were the lack of warnings about side effects in products containing steroids and creatine (92%). The adapted tools exhibited acceptable validity and reliability. Quality of information within weight control advertisements on the Internet was generally poor. Problems of false claims, little advice on healthy ways to modify weight and few warnings on side effects have been highlighted in this study.

  16. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support: a randomized controlled trial of a theory-based weight loss program for couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A. Gorin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT, greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one’s spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Methods Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other’s eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL. Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. Discussion This

  17. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support): a randomized controlled trial of a theory-based weight loss program for couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Powers, Theodore A; Gettens, Katelyn; Cornelius, Talea; Koestner, Richard; Mobley, Amy R; Pescatello, Linda; Medina, Tania Huedo

    2017-09-29

    Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one's spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support) is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other's eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL) or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL). Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. This study addresses the fundamental importance of interpersonal

  18. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  19. Ballistic behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composite: effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Andreia L. dos Santos; Nascimento, Lucio F.C.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez; lucio2002bol.com.br

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, textile composites have been used as ballistic armor. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers are used in the production of armor materials. As they have been developed and commercialized only recently, there is not enough information about the effect of environmental agents in the ballistic performance of UHMWPE composites. In the present work, was evaluated the ballistic behavior of composite plates manufactured with UHMWPE fibers after exposure to gamma radiation. The ballistic tests results were related to the macromolecular alterations induced by the radiation through mechanical (hardness, impact and flexure) and physicochemical (Ftir/Mir. DSC and TGA) testing. It was observed that irradiation induces changes in the UHMWPE, degrading the ballistic performance of the composite. These results are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Molecular Weight Effects on the Glass Transition and Confinement Behavior of Polymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Hsu, David D; Keten, Sinan

    2015-08-01

    Nanoscale polymer thin films exhibit strong confinement effects on Tg arising from free surfaces. However, the coupled influence of molecular weight (MW) and surface effects on Tg is not well understood for low MW film systems below the entanglement length. Utilizing atomistically informed coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), it is demonstrated that the decrease in free-standing film Tg with respect to bulk is more significant for low MW compared to high MW systems. Investigation of the local interfacial properties reveals that the increase in the local free volume near the free surface is greater for low MW, explaining the MW dependence of Tg -confinement behaviors. These findings corroborate recent experiments on low MW films, and highlight the relationship between nanoconfinement phenomena and local free volume effects arising from free surfaces. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Application of cool wan flow control weight scale design on belt conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokorayono, Rony; Junus; Rivai, A; Gunarwan; Indarzah

    2003-01-01

    Control of the coal mass flow on the belt conveyor at coal handling unit PLTU Suralaya has been designed by using weight scale of gamma absorption technique where accuracy for the measurement of weight scale system is 0,5% to 0,1%. The absorption gamma radiation will be measured by scintillation or ion chamber detector

  2. Correlates of weight-related quality of life among individuals with binge eating disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Grilo, Carlos M; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) report poorer weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) compared to individuals with obesity alone. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the best available treatment for BED, does not consistently produce weight loss or improvements in weight QOL. The purpose of the current study was to examine baseline and longitudinal associations between eating-related and psychosocial variables and dimensions of weight QOL. We examined associations between predictor variables, including body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, and psychosocial factors, in relation to three dimensions of WRQOL among 171 patients whom received CBT for BED. Participants completed interviews and self-report measures at baseline prior to CBT and at end of treatment. At baseline the following associations were significant: BMI, ED psychopathology, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related self-esteem; gender, BMI, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related public distress (i.e., stigma and worry in public because of one's weight); and age, BMI, and ED psychopathology were associated with weight-related physical function. At end of treatment, the following associations were significant: changes in ED psychopathology and coping predicted weight-related self-esteem; changes in coping and self-esteem predicted weight-related public distress; and changes in BMI and subjective binge eating predicted weight-related physical function. Overall, changes in a number of ED and associated symptoms were associated with improvements in WRQOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipidomic profiling of di- and tri-acylglycerol species in weight-controlled mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenee S King

    Full Text Available Weight control by dietary calorie restriction (DCR or exercise has been shown to prevent cancer in various models. However, the mechanisms as to how weight control is beneficial are not well understood. While previous reports have investigated the effects of weight control on total lipid levels or lipid composition within cellular membranes, there has been little work surrounding changes to individual lipids following weight control interventions. In this study, using a model of skin carcinogenesis centered on the tumor promotion stage, CD-1 mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ad libitum and sedentary (control, ad libitum with exercise (AL+Exe, exercise with pair feeding of a diet isocaloric with control (PF+Exe, and sedentary with 20% DCR compared to control. After ten weeks, body weight and body fat percentages significantly decreased in the PF+Exe and DCR groups but not AL+Exe when compared with sedentary controls. Murine skin and plasma samples were obtained for analysis. Lipidomics using electrospray ionization MS/MS was employed to profile triacylglycerol (TG and diacylglycerol (DG species. Both plasma and tissue TG species containing fatty acid chains with length 18:1 were significantly decreased following DCR when compared to sedentary control animals. In regards to DG, the most significant changes occurred in the plasma. DG species containing fatty acids with lengths 16:1 or 18:1 were significantly decreased in PF+Exe and DCR groups when compared to sedentary controls. Due to the significant role of TG in energy storage and DG in cellular signaling, our findings of the effects of weight control on individual TG and DG species in plasma and skin tissue following exposure to a tumor promoter, may provide insight into the mechanism of weight control on cancer prevention.

  4. Controlling Behaviors in Middle School Youth's Dating Relationships: Reactions and Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation forms…

  5. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: SBM supports curbing summertime weight gain among America's youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy; Zarrett, Nicole; Beets, Michael W; Hall, Georgia; Buscemi, Joanna; Heard, Amy; Pate, Russell

    2017-12-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine recommends adoption of policies at the district, state, and federal levels that minimize weight gain among youth over the summertime, particularly among low-income, minority school-age youth who appear to be at greater risk. Policies that facilitate (1) partnerships between school districts and community organizations to provide affordable summertime programming, (2) strategic efforts by schools and communities to encourage families to enroll and attend summertime programming via the creation of community-wide summertime offerings offices, (3) adoption of joint-use/shared use agreements in communities to promote use of indoor and outdoor school facilities to provide affordable programming during the summer months, and (4) implementation of strategies that help summer programs achieve the Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) standards which have been endorsed by the Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) coalition. Research is needed to elucidate key mechanisms by which involvement in structured programming may reduce weight gain over the summer months.

  6. Self-perceived successful weight regulators are less affected by self-regulatory depletion in the domain of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Engeler, Michèle; Florack, Arnd

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss and maintenance goals are highly prevalent in many affluent societies, but many weight regulators are not successful in the long term. Research started to reveal psychological mechanisms that help successful weight regulators in being successful. In the present study, we tested the assumption that these mechanisms facilitate successful self-regulation particularly under conditions of self-regulatory depletion. Participants exerted or did not exert self-control in a first task before engaging in a taste test of a tempting but unhealthy food. Participants who had initially exerted self-control ate more than participants in the control condition. This effect was reduced in self-perceived successful weight regulators as compared to perceived unsuccessful self-regulators. A reduced susceptibility to self-regulatory depletion may be an important contributor to long-term weight regulation success in successful weight regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  8. Contextual control of discriminated operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P; León, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed.

  9. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  10. DTIPrep: Quality Control of Diffusion-Weighted Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek eOguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, diffusion MRI (dMRI studies of the human and animal brain have been used to investigate a multitude of pathologies and drug-related effects in neuroscience research. Study after study identifies white matter (WM degeneration as a crucial biomarker for all these diseases. The tool of choice for studying WM is dMRI. However, dMRI has inherently low signal-to-noise ratio and its acquisition requires a relatively long scan time; in fact, the high loads required occasionally stress scanner hardware past the point of physical failure. As a result, many types of artifacts implicate the quality of diffusion imagery. Using these complex scans containing artifacts without quality control (QC can result in considerable error and bias in the subsequent analysis, negatively affecting the results of research studies using them. However, dMRI QC remains an under-recognized issue in the dMRI community as there are no user-friendly tools commonly available to comprehensively address the issue of dMRI QC. As a result, current dMRI studies often perform a poor job at dMRI QC.Thorough QC of diffusion MRI will reduce measurement noise and improve reproducibility, and sensitivity in neuroimaging studies; this will allow researchers to more fully exploit the power of the dMRI technique and will ultimately advance neuroscience. Therefore, in this manuscript, we present our open-source software, DTIPrep, as a unified, user friendly platform for thorough quality control of dMRI data. These include artifacts caused by eddy-currents, head motion, bed vibration and pulsation, venetian blind artifacts, as well as slice-wise and gradient-wise intensity inconsistencies. This paper summarizes a basic set of features of DTIPrep described earlier and focuses on newly added capabilities related to directional artifacts and bias analysis.

  11. Adding evidence-based behavioral weight loss strategies to a statewide wellness campaign: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Thomas, Graham; Fava, Joseph L; Subak, Leslee L; Schembri, Michael; Krupel, Katie; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad; Wing, Rena R

    2014-07-01

    We determined the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of adding an evidence-based Internet behavioral weight loss intervention alone or combined with optional group sessions to ShapeUp Rhode Island 2011 (SURI), a 3-month statewide wellness campaign. We randomized participants (n = 230; body mass index = 34.3 ±6.8 kg/m(2); 84% female) to the standard SURI program (S) or to 1 of 2 enhanced programs: SURI plus Internet behavioral program (SI) or SI plus optional group sessions (SIG). The primary outcome was weight loss at the end of the 3-month program. Weight losses differed among all 3 conditions (S: 1.1% ±0.9%; SI: 4.2% ±0.6%; SIG: 6.1% ±0.6%; Ps ≤ .04). Both SI and SIG increased the percentage of individuals who achieved a 5% weight loss (SI: 42%; SIG: 54%; S: 7%; Ps < .001). Cost per kilogram of weight loss was similar for S ($39) and SI ($35); both were lower than SIG ($114). Although weight losses were greatest at the end of SURI with optional group sessions, the addition of an Internet behavioral program was the most cost-effective method to enhance weight losses.

  12. Parent & Family Influences on Adopting Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors: Views and Perceptions of Obese African-American Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan

    2015-06-01

    RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49, who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs.

  14. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sibutramine for clozapine-associated weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D C; Fan, X; Copeland, P M; Borba, C P; Daley, T B; Nguyen, D D; Zhang, H; Hayden, D; Freudenreich, O; Cather, C; Evins, A E; Goff, D C

    2007-02-01

    This study sought to examine the effectiveness of sibutramine, a weight loss agent, on clozapine-associated weight gain. This was a 12-week double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial of sibutramine for weight loss in obese clozapine-treated schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder subjects. Ten patients were enrolled into the placebo group and 11 patients into the sibutramine group. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups on age, gender, education, ethnicity, diagnosis, weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure. At week 12, there were no significant differences in changes in weight, BMI, abdominal and waist circumferences, Hba1c, fasting glucose, or cholesterol levels. Sibutramine treatment did not show significant weight loss compared with placebo in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Further research with a larger sample size and longer follow-up duration is warranted.

  15. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1

    OpenAIRE

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Parker, Whadi-ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-01-01

    Background South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of...

  16. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  17. Psychological aspects of eating behavior as predictors of 10-y weight changes after surgical and conventional treatment of severe obesity: results from the Swedish Obese Subjects intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars; Carlsson, Lena; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the factors that influence long-term weight outcomes after bariatric surgery. We examined whether pretreatment and posttreatment levels of cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger and 1-y changes in these eating behaviors predict short- and long-term weight changes after surgical and conventional treatments of severe obesity. Participants were from an ongoing, matched (nonrandomized) prospective intervention trial of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. The current analyses included 2010 obese subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1916 contemporaneously matched obese controls who received conventional treatment. Physical measurements (e.g., weight and height) and questionnaires (e.g., Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were completed before the intervention and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after the start of the treatment. Structural equation modeling was used as the main analytic strategy. The surgery group lost more weight and reported greater decreases in disinhibition and hunger at 1- and 10-y follow-ups (all P women) and experienced larger 1-y decreases in these behaviors (β = 0.31-0.48, P women) lost more weight 2, 6, and 10 y after surgery. In control patients, larger 1-y increases in cognitive restraint predicted a greater 2-y weight loss in both sexes. A higher tendency to eat in response to various internal and external cues shortly after surgery predicted less-successful short- and long-term weight outcomes, making postoperative susceptibility for uncontrolled eating an important indicator of targeted interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. DTIPrep: quality control of diffusion-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ipek; Farzinfar, Mahshid; Matsui, Joy; Budin, Francois; Liu, Zhexing; Gerig, Guido; Johnson, Hans J; Styner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, diffusion MRI (dMRI) studies of the human and animal brain have been used to investigate a multitude of pathologies and drug-related effects in neuroscience research. Study after study identifies white matter (WM) degeneration as a crucial biomarker for all these diseases. The tool of choice for studying WM is dMRI. However, dMRI has inherently low signal-to-noise ratio and its acquisition requires a relatively long scan time; in fact, the high loads required occasionally stress scanner hardware past the point of physical failure. As a result, many types of artifacts implicate the quality of diffusion imagery. Using these complex scans containing artifacts without quality control (QC) can result in considerable error and bias in the subsequent analysis, negatively affecting the results of research studies using them. However, dMRI QC remains an under-recognized issue in the dMRI community as there are no user-friendly tools commonly available to comprehensively address the issue of dMRI QC. As a result, current dMRI studies often perform a poor job at dMRI QC. Thorough QC of dMRI will reduce measurement noise and improve reproducibility, and sensitivity in neuroimaging studies; this will allow researchers to more fully exploit the power of the dMRI technique and will ultimately advance neuroscience. Therefore, in this manuscript, we present our open-source software, DTIPrep, as a unified, user friendly platform for thorough QC of dMRI data. These include artifacts caused by eddy-currents, head motion, bed vibration and pulsation, venetian blind artifacts, as well as slice-wise and gradient-wise intensity inconsistencies. This paper summarizes a basic set of features of DTIPrep described earlier and focuses on newly added capabilities related to directional artifacts and bias analysis.

  19. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Pekkarinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69 and one year later (week 121. Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight ≥5%, P=0.40, and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, P=0.77, respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655.

  20. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 adolescents, of which 66% revealed an increased risk for mental health problems. To assess behavioral control at age 11 we used both self-report (effortful control) as well as behavioral measures of cognitive control (i.e., working memory and response inhibition). Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Bangor Gambling Task. The main finding of this study was that effortful control at age 11 was the best predictor of risk taking behavior (alcohol and cannabis use) at age 16, particularly among adolescents who were more reward sensitive. Risk taking behavior in adolescents might be explained by relatively weak behavioral control functioning combined with high sensitivity for reward.

  1. Effects of Greenselect Phytosome? on weight maintenance after weight loss in obese women: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Pierro, Francesco; Risso, Paolo; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Most subjects regain weight after weight loss due to compensatory adaptations finalized to maintain stable body energy stores. Green tea (GT) preparations, which help maintain energy expenditure while dieting could be a useful strategy to facilitate weight maintenance. The usefulness of GT preparations in weight maintenance has been poorly studied so far with conflicting results. This study evaluated if a supplement of GSP and piperine helps obese women to maintain the weight loss ...

  2. The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.

  3. Plastic surgery improves long-term weight control after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Nicolas; Combescure, Christophe; Huber, Olivier; Pittet-Cuénod, Brigitte; Modarressi, Ali

    2013-10-01

    The positive impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on weight, comorbidities, and health-related quality of life is well documented. However, 50 percent of patients regain some of the lost weight after 2 years with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and present a mean weight regain of 10 to 15 percent after several years, partially losing the previously obtained benefits. The authors hypothesize that body contouring could decrease weight regain, leading to better long-term weight control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In a matched control study, variations in weight for 98 patients with body contouring after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were compared with those of 102 matched control patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone. Data were collected prospectively at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and then yearly until 7 years. After a massive mean weight loss of 45.2 kg during the first 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone presented a higher continuous mean weight regain than those with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring (1.78 kg/year versus 0.51 kg/year of weight regain, respectively; p = 0.001). After 7 years, patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass presented significantly higher mean weight regain than patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring (i.e., 10.8 percent versus 3.6 percent mean weight gain, respectively; p weight of 2.04 kg by body contouring, the weight regain was 22.9 kg for patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone and only 6.2 kg for those with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring. The authors demonstrated that patients with body contouring present better long-term weight control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Therefore, body contouring must be considered as a reconstructive operation in the treatment of morbid obesity. Therapeutic, III.

  4. Evaluation on the Effect of Load Follow Controller's Weighting Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Keuk Jong; Lee, Jae Gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    there are several important physical effects that limit the possibilities of power variations in NPPs. Some major effects are moderator and xenon effect. Moderator effect is relation with moderator density change and xenon effect is relation with the concentration change of Xe-135 which could affect axial power shape. These effects are more significant with large magnitudes of power variations and they are considered as major disturbances at the aspect of control method. Due to the above physical effects, it is necessary to carefully change nuclear power considering power distribution change in the core. So, when nuclear plants are required to operate on load variation mode, we could control not only reactor power but also power distribution. Generally, power distribution is controlled by reactor operators who have enough experience, whereas reactor power is automatically controlled by automatic controllers. So, it is necessary to design an automatic controller that controls both reactor power and power distribution for frequent load following operation. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD (KHNP) has been developing automatic load follow controller as a part of Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) development. The developing controller is composed of three algorithms which could control reactor power and axial power shape. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of the controller’s weighting factors. So, in this paper, we identify the meaning of the weighting factors and the controlled output weighting factors are selected among them. In this study, the effect of output weighting factors is analyzed. According to the simulation results, it is recommended that the weighting factor of power be between 200 and 400 and that of ASI be between 200 and 600. In the near future, based on the study, optimization of power and ASI weighting factors will be performed at the same time.

  5. The effect of weight controllability beliefs on prejudice and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Natasha M.; Breadsell, Dana

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test for the presence of prejudice towards obesity and whether weight controllability beliefs information reduces this prejudice and impacts on a person’s own healthy eating self-efficacy. The experiment randomly allocated 346 participants (49 males) into one of three conditions: controllable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about personal control about diet and exercise); uncontrollable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about genes, factors in society); and a control condition with no information given. Prejudice was present in 81% of the sample. High prejudice was predicted by low self-efficacy for exercise and weight. Weight controllability beliefs information had no significant effect on prejudice levels or exercise or healthy eating self-efficacy levels. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:26966679

  6. Motivators, Barriers, and Facilitators to Weight Loss and Behavior Change Among African American Adults in Baltimore City: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, William H; Redmond, Leslie; Parisi, Jeanine M; Bowie, Janice V; Liu, Elizabeth Y; Ng, Tin Yee; Onyuka, Alberta M A; Cort, Marcia; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2017-01-01

    African American adults achieve smaller amounts of weight loss than their white counterparts when exposed to the same intervention and are more likely to regain weight during long-term follow-up. To identify perceived motivators, barriers, and facilitators to weight loss and behavior change among African American adults. Two focus groups were conducted between April and May 2015 at an urban community health center in Baltimore City, Maryland. A total of 13 participants took part in the discussions. Eligible participants were obese (BMI 30+) African American adults aged 21-70 who had at least one obesity-related comorbidity. Discussion questions were designed to identify the personal, social, and environmental factors that influence weight loss and behavior change among urban minority populations. Statements were first classified as a motivator, barrier, or facilitator, then divided further as a personal, social, or environmental factor influencing weight loss and behavior change. Among the findings, several novel motivators (reducing or eliminating medication, improving physical intimacy) and barriers (personal transportation, lack of access to scales) emerged that were not previously characterized in the existing literature. This study was intended to provide preliminary evidence that may be used to guide the development of innovative and culturally relevant weight-loss interventions in the future. Results are applicable to similar urban minority populations. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variability of environmental sensitivity revealed by phenotypic variation in body weight and (its correlations to physiological and behavioral traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lallias

    Full Text Available Adaptive phenotypic plasticity is a key component of the ability of organisms to cope with changing environmental conditions. Fish have been shown to exhibit a substantial level of phenotypic plasticity in response to abiotic and biotic factors. In the present study, we investigate the link between environmental sensitivity assessed globally (revealed by phenotypic variation in body weight and more targeted physiological and behavioral indicators that are generally used to assess the sensitivity of a fish to environmental stressors. We took advantage of original biological material, the rainbow trout isogenic lines, which allowed the disentangling of the genetic and environmental parts of the phenotypic variance. Ten lines were characterized for the changes of body weight variability (weight measurements taken every month during 18 months, the plasma cortisol response to confinement stress (3 challenges and a set of selected behavioral indicators. This study unambiguously demonstrated the existence of genetic determinism of environmental sensitivity, with some lines being particularly sensitive to environmental fluctuations and others rather insensitive. Correlations between coefficient of variation (CV for body weight and behavioral and physiological traits were observed. This confirmed that CV for body weight could be used as an indicator of environmental sensitivity. As the relationship between indicators (CV weight, risk-taking, exploration and cortisol was shown to be likely depending on the nature and intensity of the stressor, the joint use of several indicators should help to investigate the biological complexity of environmental sensitivity.

  8. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassas, Germine; Ziade, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress. PMID:27429989

  9. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  10. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  11. CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Chanclón, Belén; Eerola, Kim; Micallef, Peter; Skibicka, Karolina P; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacological β 3 -adrenergic receptor (β 3 AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β 3 AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β 3 ARs in adipose tissue. However, β 3 ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brain stem and the hypothalamus, which provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots. Thus, contrary to the current adipocentric view, the central nervous system (CNS) may also have the ability to regulate energy balance and metabolism through actions on central β 3 ARs. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate whether CNS β 3 ARs can regulate browning of WAT and other aspects of metabolic regulation, such as food intake control and insulin release. We found that acute central injection of β 3 AR agonist potently reduced food intake, body weight, and increased hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Acute central β 3 AR stimulation was also accompanied by a transient increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, subchronic central β 3 AR agonist treatment led to a browning response in both inguinal (IWAT) and gonadal WAT (GWAT), along with reduced GWAT and increased BAT mass. In high-fat, high-sugar-fed rats, subchronic central β 3 AR stimulation reduced body weight, chow, lard, and sucrose water intake, in addition to increasing browning of IWAT and GWAT. Collectively, our results identify the brain as a new site of action for the anorexic and browning impact of β 3 AR activation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multivariate weighted recurrence network inference for uncovering oil-water transitional flow behavior in a vertical pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-06-01

    Exploring the dynamical behaviors of high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows remains a contemporary and challenging problem of significant importance. This challenge stimulates us to design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor to capture spatial local flow information. We systematically carry out experiments and acquire the multi-channel measurements from different oil-water flow patterns. Then we develop a novel multivariate weighted recurrence network for uncovering the flow behaviors from multi-channel measurements. In particular, we exploit graph energy and weighted clustering coefficient in combination with multivariate time-frequency analysis to characterize the derived complex networks. The results indicate that the network measures are very sensitive to the flow transitions and allow uncovering local dynamical behaviors associated with water cut and flow velocity. These properties render our method particularly useful for quantitatively characterizing dynamical behaviors governing the transition and evolution of different oil-water flow patterns.

  14. The effects of noise reduction by earmuffs on the physiologic and behavioral responses in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Rıdvan; Ciftdemir, Nükhet Aladağ; Ozbek, Ulfet Vatansever; Berberoğlu, Ufuk; Durankuş, Ferit; Süt, Necdet; Acunaş, Betül

    2012-10-01

    Preterm infants are exposed to loud noises during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit which can lead to physiologic and behavioral alterations and even hearing loss. The use of earmuffs can reduce sound level and these changes. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the earmuffs in preterm infants solely cared for in closed incubators. A comparative prospective study comprising 20 clinically stable preterm infants weighing less than 1500 g cared in closed incubator was conducted. Preterm infants acted as their own controls whereby they were observed without earmuffs (Group 1) for 2 days and with earmuffs (Group 2) on consecutive 2 days. The preterm infants' physiologic responses and Anderson Behavioral State Scoring System (ABSS) scores were assessed over 30s every 2h for 8h during daytime for 4 days. Out of 20 preterm infants, 6 were male and 14 female with a mean birth weight of 1220 ± 209 g, gestational age of 29.9 ± 2.1 weeks. The total number of measurements was 320. The mean ABSS scores of Group 1 and 2 were 3.07±1.1 and 1.34 ± 0.3, respectively. Statistically significant difference was noted between the means of ABSS scores (pNoise level reduction was associated with significant improvement in behavioral states of ABSS. We suggest that noise reduction in preterm infants with earmuffs is helpful by improving sleep efficiency and increasing time of quiet sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  16. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation

  17. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.

  18. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  19. How strongly does appetite counter weight loss? Quantification of the feedback control of human energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David; Sanghvi, Arjun; Seeley, Randy; Hall, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. Methods We used a validated mathematical method to calculate energy intake changes during a 52 week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit. We analyzed the relationship between the body weight time course and the calculated energy intake changes using principles from engineering control theory. Results We discovered that weight loss leads to a proportional increase in appetite resulting in eating above baseline by ~100 kcal/day per kg of lost weight – an amount more than 3-fold larger than the corresponding energy expenditure adaptations. Conclusions While energy expenditure adaptations are often thought to be the main reason for slowing of weight loss and subsequent regain, feedback control of energy intake plays an even larger role and helps explain why long-term maintenance of a reduced body weight is so difficult. PMID:27804272

  20. Controlling for the use of extreme weights in bank efficiency assessments during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Zhu, Minyan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for bank efficiency assessment, based on weight restricted DEA, that limits banks’ abilities to use extreme weights, corresponding to extreme judgements of the risk adjusted prices on funding sources and assets. Based on a data set comprising the largest European banks during...... the financial crisis, we illustrate the impact of the proposed weight restrictions in two different efficiency models; one related to banks’ funding mix and one related to their asset mix. The results show that using a more balanced set of weights tend to reduce the estimated efficiency scores more for those...... banks which were bailed out during the crisis, which confirms the potential bias within standard DEA that does not control for extreme weights applied by highly risky banks. We discuss the use of the proposed method as a regulatory tool to constrain discretion when complying with regulatory capital...

  1. Controller synthesis for L2 behaviors using rational kernel representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, M.E.C.; Weiland, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the controller synthesis problem for the class of linear time-invariant L2 behaviors. We introduce classes of LTI L2 systems whose behavior can be represented as the kernel of a rational operator. Given a plant and a controlled system in this class, an algorithm is developed

  2. Frequency-Weighted Model Predictive Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Couchman, Ian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    flapwise blade root moment and trailing edge flap deflection. Frequency-weighted MPC is chosen for its ability to handle constraints on the trailing edge flaps deflection, and to target at loads with given frequencies only. The controller is first tested in servo-aeroelastic simulations, before being......This paper presents the load reduction achieved with trailing edge flaps during a full-scale test on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. The trailing edge flap controller is a frequency-weighted linear model predictive control (MPC) where the quadratic cost consists of costs on the zero-phase filtered...

  3. Model ZD-I paper base weight measuring and controlling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianzu; Song Debin; Wu Guoliang; Hou Yaoxin; Li Dazhen

    1988-01-01

    Model ZD-I Base Weight Measuring and Controlling System has been developed for the automation process in paper-making industry. A single-board microprocessor is installed in the system. The mass thickness can be controlled within 1 g/m 2 if the changing range of concentration and water content is less than 10%

  4. Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Lane, Ilana; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry B; Puleo, Elaine; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-04-29

    eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate self-monitoring. Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00938535.

  5. Importance weighting and andness control in De Morgan dual power means and OWA operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Legind

    2012-01-01

    (minimum) and the max (maximum), the so-called averaging operators. Two key issues in the choice of such an operator for a given application are the kind of importance weighting and the andness (“minness”) of the operator. Two main kinds of importance weighting for such operators, namely multiplicative...... and implicative, are proposed and discussed. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the choice and application of such operators through providing a systematization of their classes according to their behavior and equipping some classical averaging operators, namely the Power Means and the OWA operators...

  6. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining weight and eating behavior by sexual orientation in a sample of male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Richards, Lauren K; Bartlett, Brooke; Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S

    2016-07-01

    Eating disorders are understudied in men and in sexual minority populations; however, extant evidence suggests that gay men have higher rates of disordered eating than heterosexual men. The present study examined the associations between sexual orientation, body mass index (BMI), disordered eating behaviors, and food addiction in a sample of male veterans. Participants included 642 male veterans from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel. They were randomly selected from a larger study based on previously reported trauma exposure; 96% identified as heterosexual. Measures included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, and self-reported height and weight. Heterosexual and sexual minority men did not differ significantly in terms of BMI. However, gay and bisexual men (n=24) endorsed significantly greater eating disorder symptoms and food addiction compared to heterosexual men. Our findings that sexual minority male veterans may be more likely to experience eating disorder and food addiction symptoms compared to heterosexual male veterans highlight the importance of prevention, assessment, and treatment efforts targeted to this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Body Weight and Breast Cancer: Nested Case-Control Study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Natália Luiza; Bessel, Marina; Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Wendland, Eliana Marcia

    2018-04-28

    Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause). Current anthropometric measurements were also made. Fifty-seven women with cancer (66.7% postmenopausal) and 159 controls were included. Current age (60.3 ± 10.4 vs. 55.8 ± 8.4 years, P weight at different stages of life. Women with social vulnerability recruited at a mammography screening program in Southern Brazil showed a large weight gain during life, but no significant differences were found in body weight between women with or without breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low/No Calorie Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the National Weight Control Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Thomas, J. Graham; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Roberts, Susan A.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Wing, Rena R.; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence of and strategies behind low/no calorie sweetened beverage (LNCSB) consumption in successful weight loss maintainers. Methods An online survey was administered to 434 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR, individuals who have lost ≥13.6 kg and maintained weight loss for > 1 year). Results While few participants (10%) consume sugar-sweetened beverages on a regular basis, 53% regularly consume LNCSB. The top five reasons for choosing LNCSB were for taste (54%), to satisfy thirst (40%), part of routine (27%), to reduce calories (22%) and to go with meals (21%). The majority who consume LNCSB (78%) felt they helped control total calorie intake. Many participants considered changing patterns of beverage consumption to be very important in weight loss (42%) and maintenance (40%). Increasing water was by far the most common strategy, followed by reducing regular calorie beverages. Conclusions Regular consumption of LNCSB is common in successful weight loss maintainers for various reasons including helping individuals to limit total energy intake. Changing beverage consumption patterns was felt to be very important for weight loss and maintenance by a substantial percentage of successful weight loss maintainers in the NWCR. PMID:25044563

  10. Body image and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, V.; Nansel, T.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents......-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. CONCLUSIONS: Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss...

  11. Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of a Worksite-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The NHF-NRG In Balance-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Baak, van M.A.; Brug, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Examine the effectiveness of the worksite-based weight gain prevention program Netherlands Heart Foundation-Netherlands Research program weight Gain prevention In Balance, with regard to behavioral changes and corresponding cognitive determinants. METHODS:: A nonrandomized

  12. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  13. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  14. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Bruening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. Methods The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month. University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Discussion Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  15. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brewis, Alexandra; Laska, Melissa; Todd, Michael; Hruschka, Daniel; Schaefer, David R; Whisner, Corrie M; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-08-30

    The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  16. Effects of behavioral therapy on weight loss in overweight and obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Jaspreet S; Ganguli, Rohan; Pandina, Gahan; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Berry, Sally; Mahmoud, Ramy

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is common in persons with schizophrenia. Besides its adverse health effects, obesity reduces quality of life and contributes to the social stigma of schizophrenia. This 14-week, multicenter, open-label, rater-blinded, randomized study evaluated the effects of a group-based behavioral treatment (BT) for weight loss in overweight and obese stable patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had been switched from olanzapine to risperidone. Participants were randomly assigned to receive BT or usual clinical care (UC). BT included 20 sessions during which patients were taught to reduce caloric intake. In UC, patients were encouraged to lose weight but received no special advice about weight reduction. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight. Seventy-two patients were enrolled. The mean +/- SD weight loss at endpoint was significant in both groups (p or = 5% of their body weight at endpoint (26.5% [9/34] and 10.8% [4/37], respectively; p = .082). A post hoc analysis of patients attending at least 1 BT session showed that significantly more patients in the BT than the UC group had lost > or = 5% of their body weight at endpoint (32.1% [9/28] vs. 10.8% [4/37], respectively, p = .038) and at week 14 (complete population; 40.9% [9/22] and 14.3% [4/28], respectively, p = .027). BT may be an effective method for weight reduction in patients with chronic psychotic illness.

  17. Inherited behavioral susceptibility to adiposity in infancy: a multivariate genetic analysis of appetite and weight in the Gemini birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Clare H; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Plomin, Robert; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane

    2012-03-01

    The behavioral susceptibility model proposes that inherited differences in traits such as appetite confer differential risk of weight gain and contribute to the heritability of weight. Evidence that the FTO gene may influence weight partly through its effects on appetite supports this model, but testing the behavioral pathways for multiple genes with very small effects is not feasible. Twin analyses make it possible to get a broad-based estimate of the extent of shared genetic influence between appetite and weight. The objective was to use multivariate twin analyses to test the hypothesis that associations between appetite and weight are underpinned by shared genetic effects. Data were from Gemini, a population-based birth cohort of twins (n = 4804) born in 2007. Infant weights at 3 mo were taken from the records of health professionals. Appetite was assessed at 3 mo for the milk-feeding period by using the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ), a parent-reported measure of appetite [enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, slowness in eating (SE), satiety responsiveness (SR), and appetite size (AS)]. Multivariate quantitative genetic modeling was used to test for shared genetic influences. Significant correlations were found between all BEBQ traits and weight. Significant shared genetic influence was identified for weight with SE, SR, and AS; genetic correlations were between 0.22 and 0.37. Shared genetic effects explained 41-45% of these phenotypic associations. Differences in weight in infancy may be due partly to genetically determined differences in appetitive traits that confer differential susceptibility to obesogenic environments.

  18. Parenting Style as a Moderator of the Association between Parenting Behaviors and the Weight Status of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Based on the contextual model of parenting style, this study aimed to examine whether the associations between parenting behaviors and adolescents' dietary habits, physical activity, and weight status is moderated by parenting style. A total of 1,869 parent-adolescent dyads were recruited in southern China. The adolescents' body mass index,…

  19. Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children : The Childhood Obesity Study in China mega-cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban

  20. A Note on the Tail Behavior of Randomly Weighted Sums with Convolution-Equivalently Distributed Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the tailed asymptotic behavior of the randomly weighted sums with increments with convolution-equivalent distributions. Our obtained result can be directly applied to a discrete-time insurance risk model with insurance and financial risks and derive the asymptotics for the finite-time probability of the above risk model.

  1. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  2. Maternal parenting behaviors during childhood relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable intakes of college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...

  3. Weight status, gender, and race/ethnicity: are there differences in meeting recommended health behavior guidelines for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Karl E; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-04-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Supported exercise improves controlled eating and weight through its effects on psychosocial factors: extending a systematic research program toward treatment development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral weight-loss treatments have been overwhelmingly unsuccessful. Many inadequately address both behavioral theory and extant research--especially in regard to the lack of viability of simply educating individuals on improved eating and exercise behaviors. The aim was to synthesize research on associations of changes in exercise behaviors, psychosocial factors, eating behaviors, and weight; and then conduct further direct testing to inform the development of an improved treatment approach. A systematic program of health behavior-change research based on social cognitive theory, and extensions of that theory applied to exercise and weight loss, was first reviewed. Then, to extend this research toward treatment development and application, a field-based study of obese adults was conducted. Treatments incorporated a consistent component of cognitive-behaviorally supported exercise during 26 weeks that was paired with either standard nutrition education (n = 183) or cognitive-behavioral methods for controlled eating that emphasized self-regulatory methods such as goal setting and caloric tracking, cognitive restructuring, and eating cue awareness (n = 247). Both treatment conditions were associated with improved self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood, exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference; with improvements in self-regulation for eating, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference significantly greater in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition condition. Changes in exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy and self-regulation were associated with changes in exercise and eating (R(2) = 0.40 and 0.17, respectively), with mood change increasing the explanatory power to R(2) = 0.43 and 0.20. Improved self-efficacy and self-regulation for exercise carried over to self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating (β= 0.53 and 0.68, respectively). Development and longitudinal testing of a new and different

  5. Determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e apetite Physiological determinants of weight and appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleika S. C. Halpern

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública da atualidade, apresentando etiologia multifatorial. Entre os determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e do apetite, estão fatores neuronais, endócrinos, adipocitários e intestinais. A leptina e a insulina são hormônios secretados em proporção à massa adiposa e atuam perifericamente, estimulando o catabolismo. No sistema nervoso central, a insulina e a leptina interagem com receptores hipotalâmicos, favorecendo a saciedade. Indivíduos obesos têm maiores concentrações séricas destes hormônios e apresentam resistência à sua ação. Os peptídeos intestinais, combinados a outros sinais, podem estimular (grelina e orexina ou inibir (CCK, leptina e oximodulina a ingestão alimentar. Todos atuam nos centros hipotalâmicos, que são os grandes responsáveis pelo comportamento alimentar.Obesity is currently one of the main problems of public health, presenting multifactorial etiology. The main involved factors in the control of weight and appetite are neuronal, endocrine, adipocity and intestinal. Leptine and insuline are hormones produced proportionally to adipose mass and act stimulating the catabolism. In the central nervous system, insuline and leptine interact with hypothalamic receivers favoring the satiety. Individuals with obesity have high seric concentrations of these hormones and present resistance to their action. The intestinal peptides, associated with other signals, can stimulate (greline and orexine or inhibit (CKK, leptine and oxymodulin the food intake. All act in the hypothalamic centers, that are the major responsible for the nutrititional behavior.

  6. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-09-30

    South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

  7. Framing obesity a disease: Indirect effects of affect and controllability beliefs on weight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Sarah; Alberga, Angela S; MacInnis, Cara; Ellard, John H; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2018-05-24

    Obesity has been declared a disease by the American and Canadian Medical Associations. Although these declarations sparked much debate as to the impact of framing obesity as a disease on weight bias, strong empirical research is needed to examine this impact. The current study examined the impact of framing obesity a disease on weight bias, focusing on moderating and mediating processes. A sample of 309 participants living in the United States or Canada was recruited from Crowdflower. Participants completed measures of demographics, ideology, general attitudes, and previous contact quality and quantity with people living with obesity. Participants then read one of three articles as part of an experimental manipulation framing obesity as a disease, obesity not as a disease, and a control article unrelated to obesity. Post-manipulation included measures of affect, disgust, empathy, blame, and weight bias. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the obesity-disease condition to the obesity-not-disease condition and control condition. The manipulation had a direct effect on affect (emotions), such that affect toward individuals with obesity was more positive in the obesity-disease condition than the obesity-not-disease and control condition combined. Exploration of moderating effects revealed that both the belief in a just world and weight satisfaction moderated the relationship between the obesity-disease manipulation and blame for obesity. Two m