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Sample records for behavioral symptoms

  1. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

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    Joaquim eCerejeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes

  2. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

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    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  3. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5 y

  4. Development and Pilot Investigation of Behavioral Activation for Negative Symptoms

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    Mairs, Hilary; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Keeley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Negative symptoms cause functional impairment and impede recovery from psychosis, not least, because of limited developments in empirically validated treatments. This article details a pilot evaluation of a behavioral activation (BA) treatment with eight people presenting with psychosis and marked negative symptoms. The rationale for this…

  5. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    , and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...

  6. A prospective study of behavioral and emotional symptoms in preschoolers.

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    Klein, Annette M; Otto, Yvonne; Fuchs, Sandra; Reibiger, Ina; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-03-01

    A substantial number of preschool children exhibit psychological symptoms that have an impact on their own and their families' lives. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, stability and increase/decrease in emotional and behavioral symptoms and the resultant impairment at two assessment points at preschool age. The sample consisted of 1,034 children drawn from the general population with a mean age of 51 months at t1 and 72 months at t2. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire extended version (Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5):581-586, 1997; Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(5):791-799, 1999). At t1, 6.9 % of the preschoolers had a total difficulties and 6.8 % a total impact score within the abnormal range. At t2, these scores were 5.7 and 6.2 %, respectively. We found moderate stability of symptoms. From t1 to t2, emotional symptoms and prosocial behavior significantly increased, while hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and total difficulties decreased. The mean total impact score did not change. Boys showed higher levels of symptoms (except emotional symptoms) and impact, and lower prosocial behavior, than girls. Moreover, there was a significant time × gender interaction, with girls showing a larger decrease in hyperactivity/inattention and in total difficulties than boys. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the total impact score at baseline, male gender, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems significantly contributed to the explained variance of the total impact score at follow-up. This is one of very few studies to examine the stability and change of psychological symptoms in a large community sample of preschoolers, assessed twice during preschool age.

  7. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

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    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms

  8. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

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    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  9. Relationships between neuropsychological measures of executive function and behavioral measures of ADHD symptoms and comorbid behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, Solveig; Bouma, Anke; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between executive functions (EFs), as measured by neuropsychological tests, and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid behavior, as rated by parents and teachers. As intelligence and language ability a

  10. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

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    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  11. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Xiao-Ling Li; Nan Hu; Meng-Shan Tan; Jin-Tai Yu; Lan Tan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as depression, apathy, aggression, and psychosis are now recognized as core features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and there is a general consensus that greater symptom severity is predictive of faster cognitive decline, loss of independence, and even shorter survival. Whether these symptoms result from the same pathogenic processes responsible for cognitive decline or have unique etiologies independent of AD-associated neurodegeneration is unclear. Many st...

  12. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

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    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  13. Age-Varying Associations between Nonmarital Sexual Behavior and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

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    Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally…

  14. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

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    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...

  15. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

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    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  16. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

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    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  17. Age-varying associations between nonmarital sexual behavior and depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood.

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    Vasilenko, Sara A

    2017-02-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

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    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  19. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

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    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…

  20. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms.

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    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD.

  1. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

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    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.

  2. Augmented cognitive behavioral therapy for post stroke depressive symptoms : a randomized controlled trial

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    Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha Mc; Lem, Frederik C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano; Geurts, Alexander C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety post stroke. DESIGN: Multi-center, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Six ambulatory rehabilitation settings in The Nethe

  3. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

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    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents.

  4. Collective behaviors: mass panic and outbreaks of multiple unexplained symptoms.

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    Pastel, R H

    2001-12-01

    The general public, the mass media, and many government officials believe that the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) will inevitably lead to mass panic and/or mass hysteria. However, studies of disasters and wars show that disorganized flight in the presence of a real or perceived danger (i.e., mass panic) is rare. On the other hand, in a real or perceived WMD scenario, outbreaks of multiple unexplained symptoms (i.e., mass psychogenic illness, mass sociogenic illness, mass hysteria, or epidemic hysteria) may be prevalent. Many of the symptoms (fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness/lightheadedness, and anorexia) are common in combat and after toxic chemical exposure, chemical weapon exposure, prodromal infectious illness, and acute radiation sickness.

  5. Behavioral Symptoms after Breast Cancer Treatment: A Biobehavioral Approach

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    Christopher Fagundes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer is emotionally and physically challenging. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death for women in the United States. Accordingly, women with a breast cancer history are the largest group of female cancer survivors. Psychological stress substantially augments adverse autonomic, endocrine, and immune discharge, including enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, inflammation is a key biological mechanism underlying the symptom cluster of pain, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances; there is also good evidence that inflammation contributes to breast cancer recurrence. Stress may exert direct effects on psychological and physiological risk processes. In this review, we take a biobehavioral approach to understanding predictors and mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms in breast cancer survivors.

  6. Supportive and cognitive behavioral group interventions on Bam earthquake related PTSD symptoms in adolescents

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    J Mahmoudi-Gharaei

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological debriefing has been widely advocated for routine use following major traumatic events. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions, art supportive therapies, and sport and recreational support activities are other interventions for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder. We assessed the effects of theses methods individually and in combination on reduction posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents who had experienced Bam earthquake. Methods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of psychological debriefing, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in 200 adolescents with PTSD symptoms who survived of Bam earthquake and compare it with a control group. Patients were randomly assigned to one of intervention programs including: group cognitive-behavioral therapy; group CBT plus art and sport interventions; art and sport interventions without group CBT; and control group. Results: Thirty one individuals were excluded because of migration. A statistically significant reduction in overall PTSD symptoms as well as in avoidance symptoms was observed after group cognitive-behavioral therapy. There was no significant difference in reduction of overall PTSD and avoidance symptoms between the other groups. Conclusion: Psychological interventions in form of group cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce the symptoms of PTSD symptoms but we couldn't find the art and sport supportive therapy alone or in combination with group CBT to be useful in this regard.

  7. The Interplay of Genetics, Behavior, and Pain with Depressive Symptoms in the Elderly

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    Klinedinst, N. Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Dorsey, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Study: About 25% of older adults suffer from depressive symptoms. Commonly studied candidate genes associated with depression include those that influence serotonin (SLC6A4), dopamine (COMT), or neuroplasticity (BDNF, NTRK3). However, the majority of candidate gene studies do not consider the interplay of genetics, demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and how they jointly contribute to depressive symptoms among older adults. The purpose of this study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of depressive symptoms among older adults. Design and methods: In this descriptive study, demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities, volunteering, physical activity, pain, and fear of falling) were obtained via interview of 114 residents in a continuing care retirement community. Peripheral whole blood was collected for DNA extraction. We examined common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the aforementioned genes using path analyses. Results: SNPs in the NTRK3 gene, pain, physical activity, and fear of falling were directly associated with depressive symptoms in older adults. Those who had polymorphisms in the NTRK3 gene, pain, fear of falling, and were less physically active were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. None of the SNPs in SLC6A4, COMT, or BDNF genes were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Implications: Our use of a path analysis to examine a biopsychosocial model of depressive symptoms provided the opportunity to describe a comprehensive clinical picture of older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. Thus, interventions could be implemented to identify older adults at risk for depressive symptoms. PMID:26055783

  8. Psychotic Symptoms, Anger, and Anxiety as Determinants of Agrresive Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Nederlof (Angela F.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAs an introduction on the topic of this dissertation, it might be interesting to look at some other cases of psychiatric patients that displayed clear-cut aggressive behavior towards other persons: Case 1. Twenty-nine-year-old man, who stabbed his mother’s fiancé in the chest with the in

  9. Behavioral inhibition and risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms in Latino children exposed to violence.

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    Gudiño, Omar G

    2013-08-01

    Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD = 0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis--stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness.

  10. Reactive vs. Proactive Antisocial Behavior: Differential Correlates of Child ADHD Symptoms?

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    Bennett, David S.; Pitale, Maria; Vora, Vaishali; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between proactive and reactive antisocial behavior with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Caregivers of children aged 8 to 15 (n = 84) being evaluated at a child psychiatry outpatient clinic served as participants. Given the conceptual similarity between reactive antisocial behavior (ASB)…

  11. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

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    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

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    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  13. Behavioral symptoms after pallido-nigral lesions: a clinico-pathological case.

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    Adam, Julien; Baulac, Michel; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Laplane, Dominique; Duyckaerts, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A 59-year-old patient presented with compulsive behaviors and lasting apathy after carbon monoxide intoxication. The apathy could be overcome by external stimulation (self-activation deficit). There was severe neuronal loss bilaterally in the anterior part of the pallidum and in the substantia nigra, pars reticulata. This first clinico-pathological case of a self-activation deficit illustrates the dissociation between motor and behavioral symptoms in lesions of the pallido-nigral complex, with the behavioral symptoms being related to lesions of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and of the anterior part of the pallidum.

  14. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

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    A Abollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.

  15. Facets of Mindfulness Mediate the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Smoking Behavior.

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    Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A; Peltier, MacKenzie R; Copeland, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking.

  16. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and hippocampal atrophy in subcortical ischaemic vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Tiel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in patients with cognitive impairments, mediated by both neurodegenerative processes and cerebrovascular disease. Previous studies have reported that Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD might correlate with severity of cognitive decline. Thus far, the impact of the association between white-matter hyperintensities (WHM and hippocampal atrophy (HA on the incidence of these symptoms has been less studied. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the clinical profile of a sample with large extensions of WMH, examining the association between different degrees of HA and cognitive, functional, and behavioral status. Methods: Fifty outpatients (mean age: 76.86±8.70 years; 58% female; mean schooling: 7.44±4.69 years with large extensions of WMH (modified-Fazekas scale=3 on MRI and different degrees of hippocampal atrophy (according to de Leon Score underwent cognitive, functional, and behavioral assessments. Results: Patients with mild-moderate to severe HA had worse performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cambridge Cognitive Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating and Pfeffer's Functional Activities Questionnaire, compared to the group with none or questionable HA. Appetite/Eating Behavior was the only cluster of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with presence of HA in Vascular Cognitive Impairment patients. Discussion: Although HA may exhibit distinct impact on cognitive performance and functional status, it appears to have little effect on behavioral symptoms in patients with high severity WMH.

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  18. Association between depressive symptoms and dental care-seeking behavior among elderly Brazilian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ádima de Camargo ÁVILA

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent among the elderly population (10%. These symptoms frequently appear when there is a loss of quality of life associated with social exclusion and the appearance of severe diseases. Feelings of sadness, discouragement, despondency and deception, and events such as the loss of close friends and family can also be related to these symptoms. The consequences of depressive symptoms include negative oral health outcomes, such as a decrease in the frequency of toothbrushing, greater prevalence of caries and higher probability of the appearance of periodontitis. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the association between the presence of depressive symptoms and problem-oriented oral healthcare behavior, as well as the absence of healthcare-seeking behavior. Material and method 872 elderly people living in two health districts in Porto Alegre were evaluated. They provided information on socioeconomic variables at an interview, and responded to the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and to a questionnaire assessing dental care-seeking behavior. In addition, an oral examination was performed. When analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance, the variables of male sex, less schooling, lower income, reduced number of teeth, presence of root remnants and presence of depressive symptoms were found to be independently associated with the outcome. Result There was a significant difference regarding dental care-seeking behavior in relation to elderly people presenting depressive symptoms and those in low socioeconomic strata having poor oral status. Conclusion It was concluded that these factors need to be taken into consideration when evaluating dental care-seeking behavior.

  19. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  20. Behavioral and Emotional Symptoms of Post-Institutionalized Children in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik, Kristen L.; Loman, Michelle M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Pollak, Seth D.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Experience in institutional/orphanage care has been linked to increased mental health problems. Research suggests children adopted from institutions experience specific difficulties related to inattention/overactivity. Evidence of internalizing and conduct problems relative to non-adopted peers has been found in early childhood and early adolescence, but problems may not differ from other adopted children. This study clarifies the understanding of behavioral and emotional symptoms of post-institutionalized (PI) children during middle childhood. Methods Eight to eleven-year-old PI children (n=68) and two comparison groups, children internationally adopted from foster care (n=74) and non-adopted children (n=76), and their parents completed the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire related to ADHD, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms. Group means for symptom level and number of children with symptoms above clinical cutoffs were compared. Results PI children displayed an increased level of ADHD symptoms per parent report. PI child and parent report indicated a higher number of PI children above clinical ADHD cutoff. Both groups of internationally adopted (IA) children had higher levels of externalizing symptoms relative to non-adopted children, with parent report indicating higher numbers of IA children above the externalizing clinical threshold. Informants differed in their report of internalizing symptoms. Parents indicated both IA groups displayed increased internalizing symptom levels and greater numbers above clinical threshold; however, children reported this to be true only for the PI group. Conclusions PI children differ from non-adopted peers across symptom domains in middle childhood. Whether these concerns were more broadly associated with international adoption rather than institutional care depended on symptom domain and informant. An understanding of this variability may be beneficial for treatment and intervention. PMID:20649913

  1. Impact of patients' symptom interpretation on care-seeking behaviors of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; YAN Hong-bing; YANG Jin-gang; SUN Yi-hong; HU Da-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Delay in seeking medical care in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is receiving increasing attention. This study aimed to examine the association between expected symptoms and experienced symptoms of AMI and its effects on care-seeking behaviors of patients with AMI.Methods Between November 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006, a cross-sectional and multicenter survey was conducted in 19 hospitals in Beijing and included 799 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admitted within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. Data were collected by structured interviews and medical record review.Results The median (25%, 75%) prehospital delay was 140 (75, 300) minutes. Only 264 (33.0%) arrived at the hospital by ambulance. The most common symptoms expected by patients with STEMI were central or left chest pain (71.4%),radiating arm or shoulder pain (68.7%), shortness of breath or dyspnea (65.5%), and loss of consciousness (52.1%). The most common symptoms experienced were central or left chest pain (82.1%), sweats (71.8%), shortness of breath or dyspnea (43.7%), nausea or vomiting (32.3%), and radiating pain (29.4%). A mismatch between symptoms experienced and those expected occurred in 41.8% of patients. Patients who interpreted their symptoms as noncardiac in origin were more likely to arrive at the hospital by self-transport (86.5% vs. 52.9%, P <0.001) and had longer prehospital delays (medians, 180 vs. 120 minutes, P <0.001) compared to those who interpreted their symptoms as cardiac in origin.Conclusions Symptom interpretation influenced the care-seeking behaviors of patients with STEMI in Beijing. A mismatch between expectation and actual symptoms was associated with longer prehospital delay and decreased use of emergency medical service (EMS).

  2. Pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms in autism and pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    Autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of language and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of PDDs, some of the behavioral symptoms may be treated pharmacologically. In addition to relieving some of the daily stress in the lives of patients and their families, improvement of these behavioral symptoms, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, and self-injury, removes some of the hindrances to other rehabilitative efforts. This article discusses the efficacy and tolerability of various medications and alternative interventions in addressing the symptoms of autism and other PDDs.

  3. Effect of management of patients with Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa on symptoms and impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernec, Karin; Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to provide further and up to date information on the evaluation of the management of Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa at the Eating Disorders Unit (EDU) of the Ljubljana Psychiatric Clinic, based upon detailed assessment of the eating disorders specific and non specific symptoms of impulsive behaviors, highly correlated with these entities. 34 female patients with anorexia (restrictive or purgative type) and 38 female patients with Bulimia nervosa (purgative or non-purgative type) undergoing hospital treatment at the EDU were evaluated upon admission, as well as upon discharge and three and six months after discharge, using the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Upon discharge a marked decrease in the overall symptoms was noted. The differences in symptoms incidences between the two groups were significantly specific for the individual form of eating disorder, especially upon admission, and were more pronounced in anorexia group. In later measurements, performed during the period of three and six months after discharge, a mild trend of increase in the disorder specific symptoms was detected in both groups, but was not statistically significant. In addition to binging on food, striking, quarreling and spending sprees are characteristics of patients with eating disorders, which in particular apply to the Bulimia nervosa group. Apart from the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior was also reduced during study period, while the difference in its occurrence between the two groups gradually became non-significant. The management of patients with eating disorders at the EDU was successful in both groups, confirmed by an intense reduction of the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior and increased stability recorded three and six months after discharge. The study strongly suggests that the effect of treatment regime for eating disorders can be predicted by careful assessment of the relevant symptoms and impulsive behavioral patterns.

  4. Rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with mixed bowel symptoms in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid compulsive behavior in children ages 2-17. Following statistical correction, four of five primary measures were significantly associated with constipation and diarrhea or underwear staining, including parental report of repetitive behavior, parental report of compulsive behavior, clinician diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and report of rituals observed on the autism diagnostic observation schedule. This association could point to a causal connection between these symptoms or to a common biological pathway that impacts both gut and brain.

  5. Caregiver distress associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms in mild Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Pedro Balieiro Jr.

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Caregiver Distress and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementias (BPSD in mild Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Fifty patients and caregivers were interviewed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Results: 96.0% of the patients had at least one BPSD. The mean NPI total score was 19.6 (SD=18.05; range=0-78 whereas the mean Caregiver Distress Index (CDI total score was 11.5 (SD=10.41; range=0-40. For the individual symptoms, the weighted mean CDI was 2.8 (SD=1.58. All symptom CDI means were higher than 2.0 except for euphoria/elation (m=1.8; SD=1.49. There were correlations between CDI and derived measures (Frequency, Severity, FxS, and Amplitude for all symptoms, except Disinhibition and Night-time behavior. Correlations ranged between 0.443 and 0.894, with significance at p<0.05. Conclusions: All the derived measures, including amplitude, were useful in at least some cases. The data suggests that CDI cannot be inferred from symptom presence or profile. Symptoms should be systematically investigated.

  6. Social affiliation and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Examining the role of behavioral skills and subjective responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Jack J; Park, Stephanie G; Catalano, Lauren T; Bennett, Melanie E

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by profound impairment in the motivation for social affiliation. Negative symptoms are associated with such impairment but the contribution of behavioral skill deficits is unclear. In this study we utilized a novel video paradigm to assess performance-based affiliative behavioral skills in individuals with schizophrenia (N=48) and community controls (N=29). Individuals with schizophrenia displayed significant impairment in behavioral affiliative skills compared to controls; however, in response to the affiliative interaction the groups did not differ on self-reported affective responding, appraisal of the interaction partner, or desire to interact with the partner in the future. Importantly, within the patient group more severe negative symptoms (particularly those related to motivation and pleasure) were associated with poorer affiliative social skills and this relationship was independent of instrumental (non-social) skills, depression or positive symptoms. More severe negative symptoms were also associated with less positive affect in response to the interaction and less positive appraisals of the interaction partner. Self-reported social anhedonia was related to patients' diminished willingness to interact with the partner in the future. These results demonstrate that negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to both affiliative skill deficits and less affiliative subjective responses to interaction partners.

  7. Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

  8. A self-help behavioral activation treatment for geriatric depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Kathryn; Scogin, Forrest; Di Napoli, Elizabeth; Presnell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral activation (BA) bibliotherapy as a treatment for late-life depressive symptoms. BA bibliotherapy was administered using Addis and Martell's Overcoming depression one step at a time as a stand-alone treatment that was completed by participants (N=26) over a 4-week period [Addis, M.E., & Martell, C.R. (2004). Overcoming depression one step at a time. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.]. Results of an immediate intervention group were compared with those of a delayed treatment control group and treatment response for both groups was evaluated at 1-month follow-up. Primary outcome results showed that symptoms on a clinician-rated measure of depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, were significantly lower at post-treatment for those who received immediate BA bibliotherapy compared with those who were in the delayed treatment control condition. However, self-reported depressive symptoms (a secondary outcome measured via the Geriatric Depression Scale), were not significantly different at this period. Because study control was lost after the delayed treatment group received the intervention, within-subjects analyses examining both treatment groups combined showed that clinician-rated depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pre-treatment to both post-treatment and 1-month follow-up. Self-reported depressive symptoms were significantly lower from pre-treatment to 1-month follow-up. These findings suggest that BA may be useful in treating mild or subthreshold depressive symptoms in an older adult population.

  9. Improving work style behavior in computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical

  10. Brief Behavioral Interventions for Symptoms of Depression and Insomnia in University Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Residual Symptoms and Impairment in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, William; Roseborough, David

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of persons with schizophrenia who experienced significant residual symptoms and impaired functioning despite their adherence to medication. The study used an aggregated AB single-system research design across 22 participants to evaluate change in clinical…

  12. Impact of Adult Day Services on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Greene, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether adult day service (ADS) use was associated with reductions in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in individuals with dementia. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design to compare a group of 133 persons with dementia (PWDs) who initially enrolled in an ADS program to a…

  13. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  14. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  15. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  16. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  17. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  18. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section

  19. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  20. Trajectories of Symptom Reduction and Engagement during Treatment for Childhood Behavior Disorders: Differences across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…

  1. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  2. L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves the Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sarah Farid; El-hamamsy, Manal H.; Zaki, Osama K.; Badary, Osama A.

    2013-01-01

    L-Carnitine was proposed as a potential treatment for patients diagnosed with autism to ameliorate the behavioral symptoms associated with the disease. Thirty children diagnosed with autism were randomly assigned to receive (100 mg/kg bodyweight/day) of liquid L-carnitine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) for 6 months. Measurements included changes in…

  3. Temperament as a Moderator of the Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…

  4. The Association between Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Gastrointestinal Symptoms among Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Schreiber, Dana R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores = 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom…

  5. Psychiatric symptoms and same-sex sexual attraction and behavior in light of childhood gender atypical behavior and parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.

  6. Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mościcka-Teske

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542

  7. A novel analytical framework for dissecting the genetic architecture of behavioral symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Anthony J Deo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, a categorical classification system is often utilized as a simple way for conceptualizing an often complex clinical picture. This approach provides an unsatisfactory model of mental illness, since in practice patients do not conform to these prototypical diagnostic categories. Family studies show notable familial co-aggregation between schizophrenia and bipolar illness and between schizoaffective disorders and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, revealing that mental illness does not conform to such categorical models and is likely to follow a continuum encompassing a spectrum of behavioral symptoms. RESULTS AND METHODOLOGY: We introduce an analytic framework to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity present in complex psychiatric disorders based on the conceptual paradigm of a continuum of psychosis. The approach identifies subgroups of behavioral symptoms that are likely to be phenotypically and genetically homogenous. We have evaluated this approach through analysis of simulated data with simulated behavioral traits and predisposing genetic factors. We also apply this approach to a psychiatric dataset of a genome scan for schizophrenia for which extensive behavioral information was collected for each individual patient and their families. With this approach, we identified significant evidence for linkage among depressed individuals with two distinct symptom profiles, that is individuals with sleep disturbance symptoms with linkage on chromosome 2q13 and also a mutually exclusive group of individuals with symptoms of concentration problems with linkage on chromosome 2q35. In addition we identified a subset of individuals with schizophrenia defined by language disturbances with linkage to chromosome 2p25.1 and a group of patients with a phenotype intermediate between those of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with linkage to chromosome 2p21. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented

  8. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  9. Potential drug–drug interactions in Alzheimer patients with behavioral symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualetti G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Sara Tognini, Valeria Calsolaro, Antonio Polini, Fabio Monzani Geriatrics Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug–drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug–drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug–drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with

  10. Potential drug-drug interactions in Alzheimer patients with behavioral symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Tognini, Sara; Calsolaro, Valeria; Polini, Antonio; Monzani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug-drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug-drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug-drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with behavioral symptoms considering both physiological and pathological changes in AD patients, and potential pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic drug interaction mechanisms.

  11. Biological basis for sleep disturbance and behavioral symptoms in dementia: a biobehavioral model.

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    Woods, Diana Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Martin, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Behavioral symptoms and sleep disturbance occur in more than 56% of older adults with mild to moderate dementia and are challenging and costly. This article proposes a biobehavioral causal model to explain sleep disturbances and behavioral symptoms in dementia (BSD) based on an integrative science perspective using the life cycle model of stress (chronic stress) integrating genetic, neuroendocrine, and personality factors. The model proposes that: (a) BSD are an outcome of sleep disturbance; (b) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation is key to sleep disturbances and BSD; (c) genotype influences response to stress hormones; (d) HPA is influenced by genotype; (e) trait anxiety moderates the relationship between HPA axis and BSD and/or sleep disturbances; and (f) trait anxiety is influenced by genotype. Examining these relationships simultaneously will advance our theoretical understanding of BSD and sleep disturbances, potentially providing a basis for the design of targeted interventions and prevention strategies with an understanding of risk.

  12. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Kawabe; Fumie Horiuchi; Yasunori Oka; Shu-ichi Ueno

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteo...

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    A Abollahi; AM Nazar; J Hasani; M Darharaj; A Behnam Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12). The experimental group was participated in eight se...

  14. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

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    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care.

  15. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  16. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  17. Gender Differences in the Behavioral Symptom Severity of Prader-Willi Syndrome

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    Masao Gito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study measured gender differences in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS in regard to the severity of behavioral symptoms. Methods. The Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version, the Childhood Routines Inventory, the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, and Japanese ADHD-RS were administered to PWS patients (45 males aged 6 to 58 and 37 females aged 6 to 45. To examine the effects that gender and genotype have on the severity of each symptom, two-way ANOVAs were conducted. Results. Significant interactions were found only in regard to FRPQ scores, such as FRPQ total score (F(1, 78 = 8.43, p<0.01. The FRPQ of male deletion (DEL individuals was higher than that of female DEL and male mUPD. The FRPQ of male maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD was lower than that of female mUPD. Conclusions. In terms of problem behaviors, routines, autistic behaviors, and hyperactivity, no significant differences were found. Food-related behaviors in DEL were more severe in males, although those in mUPD were less severe in males.

  18. DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms associated with suicide behaviors in veterans.

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    Legarreta, Margaret; Graham, Jessica; North, Lindsey; Bueler, C Elliott; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    A connection between suicidality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently demonstrated; however, the underlying relationship between suicidality and PTSD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine patterns of DSM-5 PTSD symptom endorsement that differentiated veteran participants with and without a history of suicide behaviors. We enrolled 95 veterans, 32 of whom reported no suicide ideation (SI) or suicide attempts (SA). The 63 remaining participants reported a history of SI, with 28 of the 63 also reporting a historical SA. Participants completed a standardized diagnostic interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), structured interview of suicidal behaviors (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale; Posner et al., 2011), and selected clinical measures. Veterans who reported SI and/or SA were more likely to meet criteria for PTSD on DSM-5 than were veterans who reported neither SI nor SA. Participants who reported SA were more likely to meet criteria for clusters C and D. Finally, at the symptom level, those who reported SI were more likely to report experiencing feelings of alienation. Those who reported a SA were more likely to report avoidance of thoughts and feelings, inability to recall an important aspect of their trauma, persistent negative beliefs, diminished interest, and feelings of alienation. These findings suggest that targeting specific symptoms of PTSD may aid in treatment of suicidal thoughts and behaviors associated with PTSD.

  19. Hippocampal volume and sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior: a prospective study of adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Dudgeon, Paul; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that biological factors confer increased sensitivity to environmental influences on depressive symptoms during adolescence, a crucial time for the onset of depressive disorders. Given the critical role of the hippocampus in sensitivity to stress and processing of contextual aspects of the environment, investigation of its role in determining sensitivity to environmental context seems warranted. This study prospectively examined hippocampal volume as a measure of sensitivity to the influence of aggressive maternal behavior on change in depressive symptoms from early to midadolescence. The interaction between aggressive maternal behavior and hippocampal volume was found to predict change in depressive symptoms. Significant sex differences also emerged, whereby only for girls were larger bilateral hippocampal volumes more sensitive to the effects of maternal aggressive behavior, particularly with respect to experiencing the protective effects of low levels of maternal aggressiveness. These findings help elucidate the complex relationships between brain structure, environmental factors such as maternal parenting style, and sensitivity to (i.e., risk for, and protection from) the emergence of depression during this life stage. Given that family context risk factors are modifiable, our findings suggest the potential utility of targeted parenting interventions for the prevention and treatment of adolescent depressive disorder.

  20. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

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    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life.

  1. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia

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    Meena Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD between vascular dementia (VaD and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for probable VaD and VCI-ND on the lines of the Canadian study of health and aging. The severity of cognitive impairment and the behavioral/psychological symptoms were studied by means of the clinical dementia rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI respectively. Results: All patients with VaD and 89% of those with VCI-ND had at least one BPSD. The mean no. of symptoms per patient and the total NPI scores were higher in VaD than in VCI-ND. Apathy and night-time behavior disturbances were significantly more common and severe in VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are very common both in VCI-ND and in VaD. The profile of BPSD is similar in both groups, albeit more severe in VaD. The net burden of BPSD is higher in VaD as compared to VCI-ND.

  2. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

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    Azermai M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Majda Azermai Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Keywords: behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms, dementia, interventions, nonpharmacological intervention

  3. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Cui; Li-Ying Cui; Ming-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Guang Li; Jun-Fang Ma; Jia Fang; Qing-Yun Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background:The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described,but its practical meaning,namely its impact on caregiver burden,has not been clearly documented in Chinese population.This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population,and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden.Methods:Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale,Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version,the Frontal Assessment Battery,and the Caregiver Burden Inventory.Results:Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees,with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration.Irritability,logopenia,and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list.Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden,with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors.Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected,caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden,physical burden,and total burden than those with no behavioral change.Conclusions:Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND,and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique.Besides,abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers' burden.

  4. The motivation and pleasure dimension of negative symptoms: neural substrates and behavioral outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-05-01

    A range of emotional and motivation impairments have long been clinically documented in people with schizophrenia, and there has been a resurgence of interest in understanding the psychological and neural mechanisms of the so-called "negative symptoms" in schizophrenia, given their lack of treatment responsiveness and their role in constraining function and life satisfaction in this illness. Negative symptoms comprise two domains, with the first covering diminished motivation and pleasure across a range of life domains and the second covering diminished verbal and non-verbal expression and communicative output. In this review, we focus on four aspects of the motivation/pleasure domain, providing a brief review of the behavioral and neural underpinnings of this domain. First, we cover liking or in-the-moment pleasure: immediate responses to pleasurable stimuli. Second, we cover anticipatory pleasure or wanting, which involves prediction of a forthcoming enjoyable outcome (reward) and feeling pleasure in anticipation of that outcome. Third, we address motivation, which comprises effort computation, which involves figuring out how much effort is needed to achieve a desired outcome, planning, and behavioral response. Finally, we cover the maintenance emotional states and behavioral responses. Throughout, we consider the behavioral manifestations and brain representations of these four aspects of motivation/pleasure deficits in schizophrenia. We conclude with directions for future research as well as implications for treatment.

  5. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B.; Durkin, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Method Obese adults (N=50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating “probable depression.” Participants with (BDI≥14; n=15) and without elevated depression symptoms (BDI<14; n=35) were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. Results After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p=.03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50)=4.3; p=.04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald chi-square=13.8; p<.001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald chi-square=7.7; p=.005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate=3.79; 95% CI=1.02–7.46). Discussion Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without, and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. PMID:24014067

  6. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: II. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD in Brazil, with special focus on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of BPSD encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, neuroleptics, anti-depressives, benzodiazepines, anti-convulsants plus other drugs and substances and non-pharmacological (including education-based interventions, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, music therapy, therapy using light, massage and art therapy approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of cognitive disorders of AD symptoms are included in a separate article of this edition.

  7. Symptom Discrimination and Habituation: A Case Study of Behavioral Treatment for Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Timothy E; Kanzler, Kathryn E

    2016-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a multifaceted disorder of the autonomic nervous system that profoundly impacts physical functioning. In addition to physical consequences, many patients develop situational anxiety that causes reduced activity level, which may impede functional recovery from POTS. Despite links with anxiety, to date there have been no reports of psychological intervention for POTS. Here we report a case study of POTS in a 40-year-old female serving on active duty in the US military. Because there are no established guidelines for the psychological treatment of POTS, intervention techniques were adapted for use with the patient. Elements of cognitive behavioral therapy, including in-vivo exposure and symptom discrimination, were used to target avoidance of feared situations. Over the course of treatment, the patient learned to discriminate her POTS symptoms from anxiety and displayed a significant decrease in POTS-related functional impairment. Implications for future care are discussed.

  8. Genome-wide association analysis of eating disorder-related symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver S P; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Liao, Thomas Pei-Chi; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P < 10(-5) . Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits.

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  10. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  11. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors.

  12. Effects of contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Chad E; Hirsch, Jameson K; Nelson, Lyndsay A; Nsamenang, Sheri A

    2014-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem, or self-worth hinged upon successfully meeting standards or attaining goals, requires continual maintenance and validation. Despite the inherent instability that accompanies contingent self-esteem, relatively little is known about how it relates to markers of mental health. A sample of 371 college students completed measures of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem, suicidal behaviors, and depression. Individuals with fragile low self-esteem, described as highly contingent, reported greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Among those with secure high self-esteem, or high yet noncontingent, depression and suicide risk were markedly lower. Therapeutically promoting positive but noncontingent self-worth may reduce poor mental health outcomes.

  13. Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention in patients with medically unexplained symptoms: cluster randomized trial

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    López-García-Franco Alberto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained symptoms are an important mental health problem in primary care and generate a high cost in health services. Cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy have proven effective in these patients. However, there are few studies on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions by primary health care. The project aims to determine whether a cognitive-behavioral group intervention in patients with medically unexplained symptoms, is more effective than routine clinical practice to improve the quality of life measured by the SF-12 questionary at 12 month. Methods/design This study involves a community based cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in Madrid (Spain. The number of patients required is 242 (121 in each arm, all between 18 and 65 of age with medically unexplained symptoms that had seeked medical attention in primary care at least 10 times during the previous year. The main outcome variable is the quality of life measured by the SF-12 questionnaire on Mental Healthcare. Secondary outcome variables include number of consultations, number of drug (prescriptions and number of days of sick leave together with other prognosis and descriptive variables. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the percentage of patients that improve at least 4 points on the SF-12 questionnaire between intervention and control groups at 12 months. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion This study aims to provide more insight to address medically unexplained symptoms, highly prevalent in primary care, from a quantitative methodology. It involves intervention group conducted by previously trained nursing staff to diminish the progression to the chronicity

  14. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  15. Yokukansan improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by suppressing dopaminergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Kenji; Kurita, Masatake; Nishino, Satoshi; Teranishi, Mika; Numata, Yukio; Sato, Tadahiro; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have shown equal efficacy in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in our previous study, their mechanisms of action are different from one another. Monoamines have attracted attention for their key roles in mediating several behavioral symptoms or psychological symptoms through synaptic signaling. We aimed to clarify the monoamines changed by treatment with each drug in patients with BPSD. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites are correlated with pharmacological treatments. This was an 8-week, rater-blinded, randomized, flexible-dose, triple-group trial. In total, 90 subjects were recruited and subsequently three different drugs were allocated to 82 inpatients with BPSD. We examined BPSD data from patients who completed 8 weeks of treatment. Eventually, we analyzed 42 patients (yokukansan: 17; risperidone: 9; fluvoxamine: 16). Homovanillic acid, a metabolite of dopamine, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, a metabolite of noradrenaline, in their plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. All three drugs showed equal significant efficacy between baseline and study endpoint. By contrast, biomarkers showed mutually different changes. Patients in the yokukansan group had significantly decreased plasma homovanillic acid levels from baseline. Conversely, patients in the risperidone and fluvoxamine groups exhibited no significant changes in plasma homovanillic acid levels from baseline. Yokukansan contains geissoschizine methyl ether, which is known to have a partial agonist effect on dopamine D2 receptors. An improvement in BPSD condition with the intake of yokukansan is suggested to occur through a suppressed dopaminergic function, which is similar to the effect of aripiprazole.

  16. Symptoms of frontotemporal dementia provide insights into orbitofrontal cortex function and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskontas, Indre V; Possin, Katherine L; Miller, Bruce L

    2007-12-01

    Recent investigations into the brain substrates of behavioral changes in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) demonstrate that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a crucial role in normal social and emotional behavior. The initial symptoms of FTD reflect the early involvement of OFC as well as the disruption of an associated network involving the insula, striatum, and medial frontal lobes. As predicted by patients with other types of OFC lesions, FTD patients show impairments involving stimulus-reward reversal learning, response inhibition, and ability to judge the appropriateness of their behavior in the social context. While the natural reward system remains intact in these patients, that is, patients will seek out directly rewarding stimuli, such as food and sex, with progressive OFC dysfunction they lose the ability to process complex stimulus-reward contingencies. These abnormalities are apparent in their social interactions, which break down early in the disease. Also, deficits in emotion recognition and empathy have been directly linked to OFC atrophy in these patients. In contrast, some patients with early FTD show intact cognitive skills, including memory and executive functioning. Here, we review the behavioral and neuropsychological changes that accompany OFC atrophy in FTD and argue that phylogenetically new neurons found in this region, called von Economo neurons, are selectively vulnerable in FTD.

  17. The association between emotional and behavioral problems and gastrointestinal symptoms among children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A; Schreiber, Dana R; Olino, Thomas M; Minshew, Nancy J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores ≥ 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and multiple internalizing and externalizing problems. The majority (61%) of children had at least one reported gastrointestinal symptom. Emotional and behavioral problems were also common but with a high degree of variability. Children with and without gastrointestinal problems did not differ in autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, or total internalizing or externalizing problem scores. However, participants with gastrointestinal problems had significantly higher levels of affective problems. This finding is consistent with a small body of research noting a relationship between gastrointestinal problems, irritability, and mood problems in autism spectrum disorder. More research to identify the mechanisms underlying this relationship in autism spectrum disorder is warranted. Future research should include a medical assessment of gastrointestinal concerns, longitudinal design, and participants with a range of autism spectrum disorder severity in order to clarify the directionality of this relationship and to identify factors that may impact heterogeneity in the behavioral manifestation of gastrointestinal concerns.

  18. Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannu P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Piero Mannu1, Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna11Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Department of Neuro Psycho Physio Pathology, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment.Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Activity of Daily Living (ADL, the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles.Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress, the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL after the second REAC treatment cycle.Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment.Keywords: anxiety, depression, insomnia, behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD

  19. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  20. Correlation of dental health behavior with health awareness and subjective symptoms in a rural population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenqun; Tamaki, Yoh; Arakawa, Yuki; Ogino, Daisuke; Aoki, Kunie; Ohyama, Masakazu; He, Dawei; Osawa, Taeko; Ohsawa, Kazuo; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Arakawa, Hirohisa

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of dental health behavior with health awareness, oral condition, and subjective symptoms in Japan. The present study included 1699 individuals who underwent dental checkups at the public health center of Miura City. All those who underwent dental checkups were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The correlation between having a regular dentist and each of the other items was analyzed. Undergoing regular checkups was significantly related to having a regular dentist. To analyze the correlation of dental health behavior with Subjective symptoms and Health awareness, structured equation modeling was performed following factor analysis. As a result, only the regression weight between dental health behavior and health awareness was found to be statistically significant. The present survey indicates that dental health behavior was significantly related to Health awareness but not to Subjective symptoms.

  1. Yokukansan improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by suppressing dopaminergic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeyoshi K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Takeyoshi,1,2 Masatake Kurita,1–3 Satoshi Nishino,2,3 Mika Teranishi,1 Yukio Numata,2 Tadahiro Sato,2 Yoshiro Okubo11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 2Sato Hospital, Koutokukai, Nanyo, Yamagata, 3Department of Cellular Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, JapanAbstract: Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have shown equal efficacy in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in our previous study, their mechanisms of action are different from one another. Monoamines have attracted attention for their key roles in mediating several behavioral symptoms or psychological symptoms through synaptic signaling. We aimed to clarify the monoamines changed by treatment with each drug in patients with BPSD. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites are correlated with pharmacological treatments. This was an 8-week, rater-blinded, randomized, flexible-dose, triple-group trial. In total, 90 subjects were recruited and subsequently three different drugs were allocated to 82 inpatients with BPSD. We examined BPSD data from patients who completed 8 weeks of treatment. Eventually, we analyzed 42 patients (yokukansan: 17; risperidone: 9; fluvoxamine: 16. Homovanillic acid, a metabolite of dopamine, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, a metabolite of noradrenaline, in their plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. All three drugs showed equal significant efficacy between baseline and study endpoint. By contrast, biomarkers showed mutually different changes. Patients in the yokukansan group had significantly decreased plasma homovanillic acid levels from baseline. Conversely, patients in the risperidone and fluvoxamine groups exhibited no significant changes in

  2. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy ‎on ‎symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS ‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maddineshat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences.Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the studentsResults: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012. Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012.‎Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎

  3. [Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, Egemen; Bopp-Kistler, Irene; Buerge, Markus; Fischlin, Regina; Georgescu, Dan; Giardini, Umberto; Hatzinger, Martin; Hemmeter, Ulrich; Justiniano, Isabella; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas; Mosimann, Urs P; Mueri, Renè; Munk, Anna; Popp, Julius; Schmid, Ruth; Wollmer, Marc A

    2014-01-29

    In patients with dementia, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent findings that accompany deficits caused by cognitive impairment and thus complicate diagnostics, therapy and care. BPSD are a burden both for affected individuals as well as care-givers, and represent a significant challenge for therapy of a patient population with high degree of multi-morbidity. The goal of this therapy-guideline issued by swiss professional associations is to present guidance regarding therapy of BPSD as attendant symptoms in dementia, based on evidence as well as clinical experience. Here it appears to be of particular importance to take into account professional experience, as at this point for most therapeutic options no sufficiently controlled clinical trials are available. A critical discussion of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention is necessary, as this patient-population is particularly vulnerable for medication side-effects. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on incorporating and systematically reporting psycho-social and nursing options therapeutic intervention.

  4. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  5. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p HIV undergoing ART.

  6. Breathing Biofeedback as an Adjunct to Exposure in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Hastens the Reduction of PTSD Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaura Polak, A.; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and a...

  7. DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Disaster-Exposed Adolescents: Stability across Gender and Relation to Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-07-28

    Given the significant modifications to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom criteria from DSM-IV to DSM-5, a better understanding of the dimensionality underlying DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents is needed. However, to date, whether gender moderates the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in youth remains unclear. Meanwhile, little is known about how distinct PTSD dimensions relate to adolescent behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to fill these gaps. A sample of 1184 disaster-exposed Chinese adolescents (53.8 % girls) with age ranging from 13 to 17 years (M = 14.3, SD = 0.8) completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and the Withdrawn, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behavior subscales of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model provided the best fit to the data for both girls and boys. Measurement equivalence of this model held across gender, although girls had higher mean scores than boys on some factors. Differential patterns of associations emerged between PTSD dimensions and behavioral problems, with anhedonia symptoms most strongly relating to social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior symptoms most strongly relating to aggression and delinquency. These findings further support the gender invariance and external criterion validity of the newly refined hybrid model that best represents DSM-5 PTSD symptom structure in youth, and carry implications for accurate assessment, diagnosis, and gender comparison of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology, and potential symptom targets for PTSD intervention among adolescent disaster survivors.

  8. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  9. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.

  10. Behavioral Indicators on a Mobile Sensing Platform Predict Clinically Validated Psychiatric Symptoms of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Skyler; Rubin, Channah; Gorrostieta, Cristina; Mead, Caroline; Kane, John; Marx, Brian P; Feast, Joshua; Deckersbach, Thilo; Pentland, Alex “Sandy”; Nierenberg, Andrew; Azarbayejani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a critical need for real-time tracking of behavioral indicators of mental disorders. Mobile sensing platforms that objectively and noninvasively collect, store, and analyze behavioral indicators have not yet been clinically validated or scalable. Objective The aim of our study was to report on models of clinical symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression derived from a scalable mobile sensing platform. Methods A total of 73 participants (67% [49/73] male, 48% [35/73] non-Hispanic white, 33% [24/73] veteran status) who reported at least one symptom of PTSD or depression completed a 12-week field trial. Behavioral indicators were collected through the noninvasive mobile sensing platform on participants’ mobile phones. Clinical symptoms were measured through validated clinical interviews with a licensed clinical social worker. A combination hypothesis and data-driven approach was used to derive key features for modeling symptoms, including the sum of outgoing calls, count of unique numbers texted, absolute distance traveled, dynamic variation of the voice, speaking rate, and voice quality. Participants also reported ease of use and data sharing concerns. Results Behavioral indicators predicted clinically assessed symptoms of depression and PTSD (cross-validated area under the curve [AUC] for depressed mood=.74, fatigue=.56, interest in activities=.75, and social connectedness=.83). Participants reported comfort sharing individual data with physicians (Mean 3.08, SD 1.22), mental health providers (Mean 3.25, SD 1.39), and medical researchers (Mean 3.03, SD 1.36). Conclusions Behavioral indicators passively collected through a mobile sensing platform predicted symptoms of depression and PTSD. The use of mobile sensing platforms can provide clinically validated behavioral indicators in real time; however, further validation of these models and this platform in large clinical samples is needed. PMID:28302595

  11. Unhealthy substance-use behaviors as symptom-related self-care in persons with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John M; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K; Sloane, Rick; Corless, Inge B; Lindgren, Teri G; Wantland, Dean J; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Nokes, Kathleen M; Kirksey, Kenn M; Eller, Lucille; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L; Portillo, Carmen J; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen; Willard, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Unhealthy substance-use behaviors, including a heavy alcohol intake, illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage their disease-related symptoms. This study, based on data from a larger randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual, examines the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms. The mean age of the sample (n = 775) was 42.8 years and 38.5% of the sample was female. The mean number of years living with HIV was 9.1 years. The specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were the use of marijuana, cigarettes, a large amount of alcohol, and illicit drugs. A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance-use behaviors, including amphetamine and injection drug use, heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. The implications for clinical practice include the assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons regarding the self-management of HIV.

  12. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ru Zhang; Jing Chen; Zi-Jiao Yang; Hui-Jun Zhang; Yun-Ting Fu; Yun Shen; Pei-Cheng He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).However, little is known regarding the relation between the severity of RBD and the different domains of cognitive impairment.The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the domains of cognitive impairment in patients with PD and RBD, and (2) to explore risk factors for PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and the relationship between RBD severity and impairment in different cognitive domains in PD.Methods: The participants were grouped as follows: PD without RBD (PD-RBD;n =42), PD with RBD (PD + RBD;n =32), idiopathic RBD (iRBD;n =15), and healthy controls (HCs;n =36).All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological assessment of attention and working memory, executive function, language, memory, and visuospatial function.The information of basic demographics, diseases and medication history, and motor and nonmotor manifestations was obtained and compared between PD-RBD and PD + RBD groups.Particular attention was paid to the severity of RBD assessed by the RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) and the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), then we further examined associations between the severity of RBD symptoms and cognitive levels via correlation analysis.Results: Compared to PD-RBD subjects, PD + RBD patients were more likely to have olfactory dysfunction and their Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were higher (P < 0.05).During neuropsychological testing, PD + RBD patients performed worse than PD-RBD patients, including delayed memory function, especially.The MCI rates were 33%, 63%, 33%, and 8% for PD-RBD, PD + RBD, iRBD, and HC groups, respectively.RBD was an important factor for the PD-MCI variance (odds ratio =5.204, P =0.018).During correlation analysis, higher RBDSQ and RBDQ-HK scores were significantly associated with poorer performance on the Trail Making Test-B (errors) and

  13. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whooley, Mary A.; de Jonge, Peter; Vittinghoff, Eric; Otte, Christian; Moos, Rudolf; Carney, Robert M.; Ali, Sadia; Dowray, Sunaina; Na, Beeya; Feldman, Mitchell D.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Browner, Warren S.

    2008-01-01

    Context Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. Objective To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Design and Part

  14. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body

  15. Amygdala Response Predicts Trajectory of Symptom Reduction During Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among Adolescent Girls with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2015-01-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent...

  16. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R Hiles; Parris, Sheri R; Call, Casey D; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities.

  17. Panic symptoms and elevated suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals: Moderating effects of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Brian J; Norr, Aaron M; Capron, Daniel W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are highly prevalent among trauma exposed individuals and have been associated with a number of adverse outcomes. Despite high suicide rates among trauma exposed individuals, research to date has not examined the potential relation between panic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behaviors among this high risk population. The current study tested the association of panic with suicidal ideation and behaviors among a large sample of trauma exposed smokers. Community participants (N=421) who reported a lifetime history of trauma exposure were assessed concurrently for current panic, suicidal ideation and behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses. Those who met criteria for a current panic disorder diagnosis were removed from analyses to allow for the assessment of non-PD related panic in line with the recent addition of the PA specifier applicable to all DSM-5 disorders. Findings indicated that panic symptoms were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors beyond the effects of depression and number of trauma types experienced. Further, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status significantly moderated this relationship, indicating that the relationship between panic and suicidal ideation and behaviors is potentiated among individuals with a current PTSD diagnosis. This investigation suggests that panic symptoms may be a valuable clinical target for the assessment and treatment of suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals.

  18. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  19. Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

  20. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  1. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy in 22q11.2 microdeletion with psychotic symptoms: What do we learn from schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demily, Caroline; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes, with a widely underestimated prevalence between 1 per 2000 and 1 per 6000. Since childhood, patients with 22q11.2DS are described as having difficulties to initiate and maintain peer relationships. This lack of social skills has been linked to attention deficits/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression. A high incidence of psychosis and positive symptoms is observed in patients with 22q11.2DS and remains correlated with poor social functioning, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Because 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia share several major clinical features, 22q11.2DS is sometimes considered as a genetic model for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, almost no study suggests the use of cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) in this indication. We reviewed what should be learned from schizophrenia to develop specific intervention for 22q11.2DS. In our opinion, the first step of CBT approach in 22q11.2DS with psychotic symptoms is to identify precisely which tools can be used among the already available ones. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targets integrated disorders, i.e. reasoning biases and behavior disorders. In 22q11.2DS, CBT-targeted behavior disorders may take the form of social avoidance and withdrawal or, in the contrary, a more unusual disinhibition and aggressiveness. In our experience, other negative symptoms observed in 22q11.2DS, such as motivation deficit or anhedonia, may also be reduced by CBT. Controlled trials have been studying the benefits of CBT in schizophrenia and several meta-analyses proved its effectiveness. Therefore, it is legitimate to propose this tool in 22q11.2DS, considering symptoms similarities. Overall, CBT is the most effective psychosocial intervention on psychotic symptoms and remains a relevant complement to pharmacological treatments such as antipsychotics.

  3. A new simple score (ABS) for assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Yamashita, T; Hishikawa, N; Ohta, Y; Deguchi, K; Sato, K; Matsuzono, K; Nakano, Y; Ikeda, Y; Wakutani, Y; Takao, Y

    2015-03-15

    In addition to cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are another important aspect of most dementia patients. This study was designed for a new simple assessment of BPSD. We first employed a clinical survey for the local community with sending an inquiry letter to all members (n=129) of dementia caregiver society, and then attempted to create a new BPSD score for dementia with 10 BPSD items. This new simple BPSD score was compared to a standard-detailed BPSD score neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) for a possible correlation (n=792) and a time to complete (n=136). Inter-rater reliability was examined comparing scores between main and second caregivers (n=70) for AD. Based on the clinical survey for local caregivers, a new BPSD score for dementia (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) was newly created, in which each BPSD item was allotted by an already-weighted score (maximum 1-9) based on the frequency and severity, and was finalized with taking temporal occurrences into account. ABS was filled by the main caregiver with a full score of 44, was well correlated with NPI (r=0.716, **pABS in secondary than the main caregivers. ABS provides a new simple and quick test for BPSD assessment, with a good correlation to NPI but a shorter time, and with a high inter-rater reliability. Thus ABS is useful for evaluating BPSD for mild to moderate dementia patients.

  4. [Behavioral and psychologic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: results of the REAL.FR study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M; Staccini, P; Brocker, P; Benhamidat, T; Bertogliati, C; Lechowski, L; Tortrat, D; Robert, P H

    2003-10-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Signs and Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are important manifestations of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other forms of dementia, because they are associate with care-giver distress, increase the likelihood of institutionalization, and may be associated with more rapid cognitive decline In this study (REAL.FR for Réseau sur la maladie d'Alzheimer Français) we prospectively used the Neuropsychiatric Inventory NPI to examine BPSD. 255 AD patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score between 11 and 20 and 244 AD patients with a MMSE between 21 and 30 were examined. Factor analysis was carried out leading to three different syndromes according to the level of cognitive impairment. BPSD were detected in 92.5% of the patients with a MMSE between 11 and 20, and in 84% of the patients with a MMSE between 21 and 30. Apathy was the most common abnormality, followed by anxiety and dysphoria. These results in a French cohort of patients with AD underline the importance of the evaluation and finally of the treatment of BPSD.

  5. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression during the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117)…

  6. The nursing assistants' communication style and the behavioral symptoms of dementia in Korean-American nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Diana Lynn; Mentes, Janet C; Martin, Jennifer L; Moon, Ailee; Phillips, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examined the association between communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD). The communication style of Nursing Assistants' (NAs), whose ethnic background is different from the residents, may contribute to BSD. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between non-Korean NAs' communication style and BSD in Korean-American (KA) nursing home residents with dementia. Twenty eight NAs and 20 KA residents were recruited from an ethno-specific nursing home. Research assistants observed and recorded NAs' communication style and residents' behavior simultaneously during routine care for 3 days. This study shows a trend that NAs' dementia and culturally appropriate communication style influenced the decreased behavioral symptoms. This finding suggests the need for training for NAs in dementia and culturally appropriate communication.

  7. Predicting Risky Sexual Behavior: the Unique and Interactive Roles of Childhood Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah L; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J

    2016-11-04

    Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be uniquely associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adolescence and early adulthood, yet their interactive role in predicting RSB remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of CD symptoms and CU traits, as well as their interaction, on several RSB outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. A total of 683 participants (41.7 % female, 47.4 % African American) were followed annually and self-reported age of first sexual intercourse, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, contraction of sexually transmitted infections, and engagement in sexual solicitation from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. CD symptoms predicted age of first sexual intercourse, condom use, and sexual solicitation. CU traits predicted age of first sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Their interaction predicted a composite score of these RSBs such that CD symptoms positively predicted the composite score among those with high levels of CU traits but not among those with low levels of CU traits. The current findings provide information regarding the importance of both CD symptoms and CU traits in understanding adolescent and early adulthood RSB, as well as the benefits of examining multiple RSB outcomes during this developmental period. These findings have implications for the development and implementation of preventive efforts to target these risky behaviors among adolescents and young adults.

  8. An approach to and the rationale for the pharmacological management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Manjari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsiveness in an otherwise "incurable" and progressive disease, but also improves the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers alike. The caregiver burden is greatly decreased by an efficient management of BPSD. This review discusses the implications and boundaries of the term BPSD and unravels each symptom and its identification. Manifestations of psychological symptoms such as delusion, hallucination, misidentification, psychosis, depression, apathy, and anxiety are briefly described. Correct identification of behavior symptoms such as wandering, agitation, catastrophic reaction, disinhibition, and delirium has been outlined. While the subtle differences in each entity make the precise identification difficult, the different therapeutics of each make the exercise necessary. Pharmacological recommendations and side effects of medications have been mentioned thereafter. The review will help in the identification and correct pharmacological management of BPSD.

  9. Prevalence, self-care behaviors, and self-care activities for peripheral neuropathy symptoms of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Voss, Joachim; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri; Huang, Emily; Holzemer, William L; Cuca, Yvette; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Portillo, Carmen; Willard, Suzanne; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary J; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Human, Sarie; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Maryland, Mary; Nokes, Kathleen M; Eller, Lucille; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Brion, John M; Bunch, Elli H; Shannon, Maureen; Nicholas, Thomas P; Viamonte-Ros, Ana; Bain, Catherine A

    2010-03-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual (n = 775), this study examined the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected individuals at 12 sites in the USA, Puerto Rico, and Africa. Neuropathy was reported by 44% of the sample; however, only 29.4% reported initiating self-care behaviors to address the neuropathy symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy was found to increase the frequency of neuropathy symptoms, with an increased mean intensity of 28%. A principal axis factor analysis with Promax rotation was used to assess the relationships in the frequency of use of the 18 self-care activities for neuropathy, revealing three distinct factors: (i) an interactive self-care factor; (ii) a complementary medicine factor; and (iii) a third factor consisting of the negative health items of smoking, alcohol, and street drugs. The study's results suggest that peripheral neuropathy is a common symptom and the presence of neuropathy is associated with self-care behaviors to ameliorate HIV symptoms. The implications for nursing practice include the assessment and evaluation of nursing interventions related to management strategies for neuropathy.

  10. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period.

  11. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia is not a unitary concept: A critical review with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Laks

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. Objectives: This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. Methods: A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. Results: The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. Conclusions: BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.

  12. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms: support for a hybrid Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviors model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Tsai, Jack; Durham, Tory A; Charak, Ruby; Biehn, Tracey L; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD's tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms.

  13. Fibromyalgia symptom reduction by online behavioral self-monitoring, longitudinal single subject analysis and automated delivery of individualized guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Collinge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog that analyzes personal self-monitoring data and delivers data-based feedback over time. Materials and Methods: Subjects were self-referred, anonymous, and recruited via publicity on FM advocacy websites. Standardized instruments assessed health status, self-efficacy, and locus of control at baseline and monthly during participation. Subjects were encouraged to complete the SMARTLog several times weekly. Within-subject, univariate, and multivariate analyses were used to derive classification trees for each user associating specific behavior variables with symptom levels over time. Results: Moderate use (3 times weekly x 3 months increased likelihood of clinically significant improvements in pain, memory, gastrointestinal problems, depression, fatigue, and concentration; heavy use (4.5 times weekly x five months produced the above plus improvement in stiffness and sleep difficulties. Conclusions: Individualized, web-based behavioral self-monitoring with personally-tailored feedback can enable FM sufferers to significantly reduce symptom levels over time.

  14. Online cognitive-behavioral treatment of bulimic symptoms: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, J.; Lange, A.; Broeksteeg, J.; Renteria Agirre, A.; Schrieken, B.; Dolan, C.V.; Emmelkamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Manualized cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is underutilized in the treatment of bulimic symptoms. Internet-delivered treatment may reduce current barriers. Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new online CBT of bulimic symptoms. Method: Participants with bulimic

  15. Behavioral approach system activity and self-reported somatic symptoms in fibromyalgia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-García, Juan A; Robles Jurado, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate the behavioural activity in the systems of Gray's theory; these are the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS), in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The second aim was to assess in FM patients whether there is an association between BIS or BAS with self-reported somatic symptoms. Twenty FM patients and 20 healthy controls completed questionnaire measures of BIS and BAS activity (Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), self-reported somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale Revised), positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and health status (EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale). The results showed that FM patients had lower Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scores than controls. The SR score correlated with different somatic symptoms groups. The partial correlation (controlling for other variables measured) showed that the SR score correlated specifically with musculoskeletal symptoms. Furthermore, in regression analysis, SR score significantly predicted musculoskeletal symptoms, after controlling for other variables measured in this study. Our findings suggest that FM patients show BAS hypoactivity. This BAS activity in FM is similar to patients with depression, where a lower BAS functioning has also been found. The BAS activity predicts the musculoskeletal self-reported symptoms in FM better than other measures included in this study. Although this is a preliminary study, it suggests the importance of BAS activity in FM.

  16. A case of drug-induced interstitial pneumonia potentially related to quetiapine (seroquel) therapy for behavioral and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Jin; Han, Sang-Don; Lee, Jung Yeon; Chon, Gyu Rak

    2014-10-01

    Quetiapine is regarded as an effective and safe treatment for delirium. An 82-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of violent behavior and dizziness accompanied by weakness on the left side of his body. He was diagnosed with acute cerebral cortical infarction and delirium associated with alcohol abuse. After quetiapine treatment, he complained of fever and coughed up sputum, whereas his aggressive behavior improved. His symptoms persisted despite empirical antibiotic treatment. All diagnostic tests for infectious causes were negative. High-resolution computed tomography revealed bilateral consolidations and ground-glass opacities with predominantly peribronchial and subpleural distributions. The primary differential diagnosis was drug-associated interstitial lung disease, and therefore, we discontinued quetiapine and began methylprednisolone treatment. His symptoms and radiologic findings significantly improved after receiving steroid therapy. We propose that clinicians need to be aware of the possibility that quetiapine is associated with lung injury.

  17. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  18. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  19. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Andersen, Sandra B; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L

    2011-01-01

    Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interac...

  20. Cognitive processes as mediators of the relation between mindfulness and change in social anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica R; Price, Matthew; Schmertz, Stefan K; Johnson, Suzanne B; Masuda, Akihiko; Calamaras, Martha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether pretreatment mindfulness exerts an indirect effect on outcomes following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive processes of probability and cost bias (i.e., overestimations of the likelihood that negative social events will occur, and that these events will have negative consequences when they do occur) were explored as potential mediators of the relation between mindfulness and social anxiety symptom change. People with higher levels of mindfulness may be better able to benefit from treatments that reduce biases because mindfulness may aid in regulation of attention. Sixty-seven individuals with a primary diagnosis of social phobia identifying public speaking as their greatest fear received eight sessions of one of two types of exposure-based CBT delivered according to treatment manuals. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, probability bias, cost bias, and social anxiety symptoms. Mediation hypotheses were assessed by a bootstrapped regression using treatment outcome data. Pretreatment mindfulness was not related to change in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. However, mindfulness had an indirect effect on treatment outcome via its association with probability bias, but not cost bias, at midtreatment. These findings were consistent across three metrics of social anxiety symptoms. Mindfulness may play a role in response to CBT among individuals with social phobia through its relation with probability bias--even when the treatment does not target mindfulness.

  1. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this.

  2. Using family history and health risk behaviors to determine predictors of depressive symptoms in Central American immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Lyon, Debra E; Meyers, Melanie F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms. There were no significant findings for acculturation as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Predictors that related to depressive symptomatology were a positive family history of depression, marital status (divorced), and having a daughter engaged in health risk behaviors. Clinicians working with mothers from Central America should consider risk of depression, whether there is a family history of depression; and additional stresses, such as the health risk behaviors of adolescents. Unprecedented levels of immigration around the world underscore the importance of meeting the healthcare needs of culturally-diverse groups.

  3. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  4. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  5. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Andersen, Sandra B; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L;

    2011-01-01

    Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied...... leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected...

  6. Pharmacological treatments of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer's disease: role of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmidt, Thomas; Hommet, Caroline; Camus, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). They are associated with disability and suffering for both the patients and their caregivers. Even if BPSD are now well diagnosed and characterized by standardized tools, their treatment remains often challenging in clinical setting because of the frequent and severe side effects of the psychotropic drugs when used in this indication. Evidence-based data confirm that antipsychotics and antidepressants are efficient for the treatment of BPSD but have a poor tolerance profile and their use is problematic. Use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, whom French authorities have questioned the relevance in 2008, also have a significant efficacy on non-cognitive symptoms of AD. Therefore, and although their tolerance profile is considered unsatisfying, they keep an indication in patients with AD and BPSD.

  7. The effectiveness of a training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: protocol of a cognitive behavioral group training and randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N.L. Zonneveld (Lyonne); A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan); J. Passchier (Jan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: BACKGROUND: In primary care, up to 74% of physical symptoms is classified as unexplained. These symptoms can cause high levels of distress and healthcare utilization. Cognitive behavioral therapy has shown to be effective, but does not seem to be attractive to patients. An exce

  8. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  9. Gender as a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms and externalizing behavior problems in sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Duchesne, Amélie; Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève

    2017-02-01

    Despite the proliferation of studies documenting outcomes in sexually abused victims, gender differences remain understudied. The bulk of studies have relied on retrospective samples of adults with insufficient representation of male victims to explore gender specificities. This study examined differential outcomes among boy and girl victims of sexual abuse. A predictive model of outcomes including abuse characteristics and sense of guilt as mediators was proposed. Path analysis was conducted with a sample of 447 sexually abused children (319 girls and 128 boys), aged 6-12. Being a girl was a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms, while being a boy was a predictor of externalizing problems. Being a boy was also associated with more severe abuse, which in turn predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. Child's gender was not related to perpetrator's relationship to the child or sense of guilt. However, sense of guilt predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms and externalizing problems while perpetrator's relationship to the child predicted externalizing problems. Gender specificities should be further studied among sexually abused children, as boys and girls appear to manifest different outcomes. Sense of guilt should be a target in intervention for sexually abused children, as results highlight its link to heightened negative outcomes.

  10. Effects of a Multi-Component Behavioral Intervention (MCI) for Insomnia on Depressive and Insomnia Symptoms in Individuals with High and Low Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kirsten; Sidani, Souraya; Epstein, Dana R.

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia and depression are prevalent and co-occurring conditions that are associated with significant impairment of life. Previous research indicates that cognitive-behavioral interventions for insomnia (CBT-I) can improve both insomnia and depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether a multi-component behavioral intervention (MCI) improved both insomnia and depressive symptoms in persons presenting with insomnia and high levels of depression. The sample consisted of 3...

  11. Is increased sexual behavior a symptom of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.

  12. Attenuation of Rhes activity significantly delays the appearance of behavioral symptoms in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A Baiamonte

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by choreiform movement of the limbs, cognitive disability, psychosis and dementia. It is invariably associated with an abnormally long CAG expansion within the IT15 gene on human chromosome 4. Although the mutant huntingtin protein is ubiquitously expressed in HD patients, cellular degeneration occurs predominantly in neurons within the corpus striatum and cerebral cortex. The Ras homolog Rhes is expressed very selectively in the precise brain areas affected by HD. Recent in vitro work suggests that Rhes may be a co-factor with mutant huntingtin in cell death. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the inhibition of Rhes would attenuate or delay the symptoms of HD in vivo. We used a transgenic mouse model of HD crossed with Rhes knockout mice to show that the behavioral symptoms of HD are regulated by Rhes. HD(+/Rhes(-/- mice showed significantly delayed expression of HD-like symptoms in this in vivo model. Drugs that block or inhibit the actions of Rhes may be useful as the first treatments for HD.

  13. Infant behaviors are predictive of functional somatic symptoms at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ørnbøl, Eva; Olsen, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate infancy predictors of impairing functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at child ages 5-7 years with a focus on problems with feeding, sleep, and tactile reactivity. STUDY DESIGN: This study is part of a longitudinal birth cohort study, Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC2000. Child...... the Danish National Registers. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis controlled for maternal psychiatric illness and annual household income revealed that combined infancy regulatory problems (ie, at least 2 of 3 problems of feeding, sleeping, or tactile reactivity during the first 10 months...... in young children, which together with maternal psychiatric problems, point to possible early risk mechanisms of impairing FSS in childhood....

  14. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himaman Winanda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards where ants die on sapling leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected workers that mediate the expression of the death grip phenotype. Results We found that infected ants behave as zombies and display predictable stereotypical behaviors of random rather than directional walking, and of repeated convulsions that make them fall down and thus precludes returning to the canopy. Transitions from erratic wandering to death grips on a leaf vein were abrupt and synchronized around solar noon. We show that the mandibles of ants penetrate deeply into vein tissue and that this is accompanied by extensive atrophy of the mandibular muscles. This lock-jaw means the ant will remain attached to the leaf after death. We further present histological data to show that a high density of single celled stages of the parasite within the head capsule of dying ants are likely to be responsible for this muscular atrophy. Conclusions Extended phenotypes in ants induced by fungal infections are a complex example of behavioral manipulation requiring coordinated changes of host behavior and morphology. Future work should address the

  15. Relationships between mobbing at work and MMPI-2 personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian; Alfano, Vincenzo; Fraccaroli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the experience of mobbing at work and personality traits and symptom patterns as assessed by means of the revised version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). Participants were 107 workers who had contacted mental health services because they perceived themselves as victims of mobbing. In line with previous research, the results showed that the MMPI-2 mean profile was characterized by a neurotic component as evidenced by elevations of Scales 1, 2, and 3 and a paranoid component as indicated by elevation of Scale 6. Contrary to previous research, a pattern of positive and significant correlations was found between the frequency of exposure to mobbing behaviors and the MMPI-2 clinical, supplementary, and content scales, including the posttraumatic stress scale. Only about half the participants showed a severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms indicative of a posttraumatic stress disorder. The frequency of exposure to mobbing predicted suicidal ideation and behavior, with depression only partially mediating this relationship.

  16. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  17. Investigating the current methods of assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms in residential aged care facilities in a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-05-01

    Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 21 clinicians were identified and administered a questionnaire. Old age psychiatrists, aged psychiatry clinicians, behavior management teams and RACF staff completed the questionnaires. Clinicians reported that objective consistent information about BPSD were important for recommending and implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for BPSD; however, the use of validated BPSD assessments in RACFs was not a usual part of clinical practice. RACF staff stated the major barrier to assessment of BPSD was lack of time. Alternate methods of assessing BPSD which consider preferences from clinicians and RACF staff should be further investigated. Modern technology which can allow "real time" assessment may be a solution.

  18. Effects of music therapy on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Tomomi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Sato, Mai; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common problems for patients and caregivers. Although music therapy is considered a non-pharmacological intervention for the management of BPSD, its effectiveness remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy on BPSD, cognitive function, and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. We selected 20 studies, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and controlled trials, and conducted a meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD). The results showed that music therapy had moderate effects on anxiety [SMD, -0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.05 - -0.24; p=0.002] and small effects on behavioral symptoms (SMD, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.82 - -0.17; p=0.003). In studies of duration >3 months, music therapy had large effects on anxiety (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.72 - -0.13; p=0.02). The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that music therapy is effective for the management of BPSD.

  19. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  20. Paternal postnatal depressive symptoms, infant sleeping and feeding behaviors, and rigid parental regulation: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshaw, Wendell D; Muscat, Tracey; Obst, Patricia L; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Paternal postnatal depression (PND) is now recognized as a serious and prevalent problem, associated with poorer well-being and functioning of all family members. Aspects of infant temperament, sleeping and feeding perceived by parents as problematic are associated with maternal PND, however, less is known about paternal PND. This study investigated depressive symptoms (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS)) in 219 fathers of infants aged from 1 to 24 weeks (median 7.0 weeks). Infant predictor variables were sleeping problems, feeding problems and both mother and father reported temperament. Control variables were partner's support, other support and life events. Rigidity of parenting beliefs regarding infant regulation was also measured as a potential moderating factor. Infant feeding difficulties were associated with paternal depressive symptoms, subsuming the variance associated with both sleep problems and temperament. This relationship was not moderated by regulation beliefs. It was concluded that infant feeding is important to fathers. Fathers of infants with feeding difficulties may not be able to fulfill their idealized construction of involved fatherhood. Role incongruence may have an etiological role in paternal PND.

  1. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

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    Iva Bicanic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  2. Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Students: Bias or Behavioral Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, Shelley J.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2008-01-01

    Disproportionate placement of African American and Hispanic students into disability and special education categories may result from true behavioral and cognitive differences, bias in assessment and referral, or some combination of the two. Studies of commonly used ADHD rating scales suggest teacher bias may contribute to placement discrepancies.…

  3. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  4. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  5. Insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy for gad on insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Langlois, Frédéric; Ladouceur, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Although clinical practice suggests that sleep complaints are frequent among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), frequency, severity, types of insomnia complaints, and relationship to GAD diagnosis severity in patients diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria are not well documented. Clinical data about the impact on insomnia symptoms of treating GAD worries are also lacking. The present study examined these aspects in 44 GAD patients who participated in a treatment study specifically addressing excessive worries through CBT interventions. All patients were assessed using a structured clinical interview and the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-IV (ADIS-IV). They also completed anxiety and insomnia inventories, including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), a self-report measure which assesses insomnia type, severity and interference with daily life. Among this sample, 47.7% reported difficulties initiating sleep, 63.6% reported difficulties maintaining sleep, and 56.8% complained of waking too early in the morning. The majority of these patients (86.5%) reported never having experienced insomnia without having excessive worries. However, insomnia severity and GAD severity were not correlated. In this sample, patients with severe GAD did not necessarily report more severe insomnia symptoms. Regarding treatment impact on insomnia complaints, ISI post-treatment scores were significantly lower after treatment. Mean post-treatment scores almost reached ISI's "absence of clinical insomnia" category. Results indicate that this CBT package for GAD does have a significant impact on sleep quality even if sleep disturbances were not specifically addressed during treatment.

  6. The effectiveness of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research was made to assign the effect of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors. Methods: The research was carried between January 2002-February 2003 in the district of Abdurrahman Gazi Primary Health department which lies in the borders of metropolitan municipality of Erzurum. 2761 climacteric women between the age of 40-60 formed the population of the research. In sample selection, because of knowing the frequency of event and the number of individuals in the population; the formula of, n=N . t2 . pq / y2 .(N-1 + t2 . pq was used and samples are assigned as 337. Afterresearch problem had been assigned on 337 women, the research was made control group with pretest-posttest of quasi experimental design on 100 women who were selected proper to the aim of the research, 50 of which was experiment, the rest was control group. But 87 women 44 of which was control, 434 of which was experiment group completed the research. Results: According to the research results, after planned health education given by the researcher, decrease in common menopausal symptoms and increase in point averages of menopausal attitude (t=4.697, p=.000 and health promotion life style behaviors (t=7.127, p=.000 were determined. Conclusion: After planned health education given to the women in climacteric period, positive health behaviors can be developed so as to make women live a more peaceful life. According to these result, it can be suggested to health professionals to mind education programs about climacteric period.

  7. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  8. Yokukansan improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by suppressing dopaminergic function

    OpenAIRE

    Takeyoshi K; Kurita M; Nishino S; Teranishi M; Numata Y; Sato T; Okubo Y

    2016-01-01

    Kenji Takeyoshi,1,2 Masatake Kurita,1–3 Satoshi Nishino,2,3 Mika Teranishi,1 Yukio Numata,2 Tadahiro Sato,2 Yoshiro Okubo11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 2Sato Hospital, Koutokukai, Nanyo, Yamagata, 3Department of Cellular Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, JapanAbstract: Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have sh...

  9. Increased levels of glutamate in the central nervous system are associated with behavioral symptoms in experimental malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A S; Vieira, L B; Lacerda-Queiroz, N; Souza, A H; Rodrigues, D H; Vilela, M C; Gomez, M V; Machado, F S; Rachid, M A; Teixeira, A L

    2010-12-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection. This condition has been associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor dysfunctions, seizures and coma. The underlying mechanisms of CM are incompletely understood. Glutamate and other metabolites such as lactate have been implicated in its pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of glutamate in the behavioral symptoms of CM. Seventeen female C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) aged 6-8 weeks were infected with P. berghei ANKA by the intraperitoneal route using a standardized inoculation of 10⁶ parasitized red blood cells suspended in 0.2 mL PBS. Control animals (N = 17) received the same volume of PBS. Behavioral and neurological symptoms were analyzed by the SmithKline/Harwell/Imperial College/Royal Hospital/Phenotype Assessment (SHIRPA) battery. Glutamate release was measured in the cerebral cortex and cerebrospinal fluid of infected and control mice by fluorimetric assay. All functional categories of the SHIRPA battery were significantly altered in the infected mice at 6 days post-infection (dpi) (P ≤ 0.05). In parallel to CM symptoms, we found a significant increase in glutamate levels in the cerebral cortex (mean ± SEM; control: 11.62 ± 0.90 nmol/mg protein; infected at 3 dpi: 10.36 ± 1.17 nmol/mg protein; infected at 6 dpi: 26.65 ± 0.73 nmol/mg protein; with EGTA, control: 5.60 ± 1.92 nmol/mg protein; infected at 3 dpi: 6.24 ± 1.87 nmol/mg protein; infected at 6 dpi: 14.14 ± 0.84 nmol/mg protein) and in the cerebrospinal fluid (control: 128 ± 51.23 pmol/mg protein; infected: 301.4 ± 22.52 pmol/mg protein) of infected mice (P ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest a role of glutamate in the central nervous system dysfunction found in CM.

  10. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups.

  11. Telemonitoring of Daily Activity and Symptom Behavior in Patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Tabak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated the activity behavior of patients with COPD in detail compared to asymptomatic controls, and the relationship between subjective and objective activities (awareness, and readiness to change activity behavior. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with COPD (66.0 years; FEV1% predicted: 44.9% and 21 healthy controls (57.0 years participated. Objective daily activity was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as amount of activity in counts per minute (cpm. Patients' baseline subjective activity and stage of change were assessed prior to measurements. Results. Mean daily activity in COPD patients was significantly lower compared to the healthy controls ( cpm versus  cpm, . COPD patients showed a temporary decrease in objective activities in the early afternoon. Objective and subjective activities were significantly moderately related and most patients (55.3% were in the maintenance phase of the stages of change. Conclusions. COPD patients show a distinctive activity decrease in the early afternoon. COPD patients are moderately aware of their daily activity but regard themselves as physically active. Therefore, future telemedicine interventions might consider creating awareness of an active lifestyle and provide feedback that aims to increase and balance activity levels.

  12. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  13. Reforming Management of Behavior Symptoms and Psychiatric Conditions in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Different Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Steven A; Desai, Abhilash K

    2017-02-24

    Despite much attention including national initiatives, concerns remain about the approaches to managing behavior symptoms and psychiatric conditions across all settings, including in long-term care settings such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities. One key reason why problems persist is because most efforts to "reform" and "correct" the situation have failed to explore or address root causes and instead have promoted inadequate piecemeal "solutions." Further improvement requires jumping off the bandwagon and rethinking the entire issue, including recognizing and applying key concepts of clinical reasoning and the care delivery process to every situation. The huge negative impact of cognitive biases and rote approaches on related clinical problem solving and decision making and patient outcomes also must be addressed.

  14. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.O. Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words “anxiety”, “depression”, “implantable cardioverter”, “cognitive behavioral therapy” and “psychotherapy” was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011, and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  15. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A C C O; Braga, A A; Soares-Filho, G; Pereira, V; Nardi, A E; Silva, A C

    2014-04-01

    This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words "anxiety", "depression", "implantable cardioverter", "cognitive behavioral therapy" and "psychotherapy" was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011), and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  16. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention.

  17. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  18. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7–11 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baselin...

  19. Exercise training for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto; Demougeot, Laurent; Pillard, Fabien; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Rolland, Yves

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessed the effects of exercise on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, including depression) in people with dementia (PWD). Secondary outcomes for the effects of exercise were mortality and antipsychotic use. Twenty studies were included in this review (n=18 in the meta-analysis). Most studies used a multicomponent exercise training (n=13) as intervention; the control group was often a usual care (n=10) or a socially-active (n=8) group. Exercise did not reduce global levels of BPSD (n=4. Weighted mean difference -3.884; 95% CI -8.969-1.201; I(2)=69.4%). Exercise significantly reduced depression levels in PWD (n=7). Standardized mean difference -0.306; 95% CI -0.571 to -0.041; I(2)=46.8%); similar patterns were obtained in sensitivity analysis performed among studies with: institutionalized people (p=0.038), multicomponent training (p=0.056), social control group (p=0.08), and low risk of attrition bias (p=0.11). Exploratory analysis showed that the principal BPSD (other than depression) positively affected by exercise was aberrant motor behavior. Exercise had no effect on mortality. Data on antipsychotics were scarce. In conclusion, exercise reduces depression levels in PWD. Future studies should examine whether exercise reduces the use (and doses) of antipsychotics and other drugs often used to manage BPSD.

  20. HIV infection, genital symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Indian truck drivers from a large transportation company in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent

  1. How much does "how much" matter? Assessing the relationship between children's lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura J; Jaycox, Lisa H; Setodji, Claude M; Kofner, Aaron; Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Harris, Racine

    2013-04-01

    The study explores whether and how lifetime violence exposure is related to a set of negative symptoms: child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, child trauma symptoms, and parenting stress. Using a large sample of violence-exposed children recruited to participate in intervention research, the study employs different methods of measuring that exposure. These include total frequency of all lifetime exposure, total frequency of lifetime exposure by broad category (i.e., assault, maltreatment, sexual abuse, and witnessing violence), and polyvictimization defined as exposure to multiple violence categories. The results indicate that only polyvictimization, constructed as a dichotomous variable indicating two or more categories of lifetime exposure, emerged as a consistent predictor of negative symptoms. The total lifetime frequency of all violence exposure was not associated with negative symptoms, after controlling for the influence of polyvictimization. Likewise, in the presence of a dichotomous polyvictimization indicator the total lifetime frequency of exposure to a particular violence category was unrelated to symptoms overall, with the exception of trauma symptoms and experiences of sexual abuse. Taken together, these findings suggest that total lifetime exposure is not particularly important to negative symptoms, nor is any particular category of exposure after controlling for polyvictimization, with the single exception of sexual abuse and trauma symptoms. Instead, it is the mix of exposure experiences that predict negative impacts on children in this sample. Further research is needed to continue to explore and test these issues.

  2. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  3. Impact of cholinesterase inhibitors on behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noll Campbell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Noll Campbell1, Amir Ayub2, Malaz A Boustani2, Chris Fox3, Martin Farlow4, Ian Maidment3, Robert Howard51Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana; 3University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; 5King’s College, London, United KingdomObjective: To determine the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs in improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Registry, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL from 1966 to 2007. We limited our search to English Language, full text, published articles and human studies.Data extraction: We included randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in managing BPSD displayed by AD patients. Using the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF guidelines, we critically appraised all studies and included only those with an attrition rate of less than 40%, concealed measurement of the outcomes, and intention to treat analysis of the collected data. All data were imputed into pre-defined evidence based tables and were pooled using the Review Manager 4.2.1 software for data synthesis.Results: We found 12 studies that met our inclusion criteria but only nine of them provided sufficient data for the meta-analysis. Among patients with mild to severe AD and in comparison to placebo, ChEIs as a class had a beneficial effects on reducing BPSD with a standard mean difference (SMD of −0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]; −0.18, −0.01 and a weighted mean difference (WMD of −1.38 neuropsychiatry inventory point (95% CI; −2.30, −0.46. In studies with mild AD patients, the WMD was −1.92 (95% CI; −3.18, −0.66; and in studies

  4. Motivational and Behavioral Activation as an Adjunct to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for Mild to Moderate Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kee-Hong Choi; Eunju Jaekal; Ga-Young Lee

    2016-01-01

    Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA) is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation towards treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA) has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI wit...

  5. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  6. Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD improves various PTSD symptoms and trauma-related cognitions: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Wagner, Anne C; Fredman, Steffany J; Monson, Candice M

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies document an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impairments in intimate relationship functioning, and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms and associated impairments are improved by cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012). The present study investigated changes across treatment in clinician-rated PTSD symptom clusters and patient-rated trauma-related cognitions in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBCT for PTSD with waitlist in a sample of 40 individuals with PTSD and their partners (N = 40; Monson et al., 2012). Compared with waitlist, patients who received CBCT for PTSD immediately demonstrated greater improvements in all PTSD symptom clusters, trauma-related beliefs, and guilt cognitions (Hedge's gs -.33 to -1.51). Results suggest that CBCT for PTSD improves all PTSD symptom clusters and trauma-related cognitions among individuals with PTSD and further supports the value of utilizing a couple-based approach to the treatment of PTSD.

  7. Predicting the outcome of a cognitive-behavioral group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: A one-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N.L. Zonneveld (Lyonne); Y.R. van Rood (Yanda); C.G. Kooiman (Cornelis); R. Timman (Reinier); A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. Background: Although Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS), some therapists in clinical practice seem to believe that CBT outcome will diminish if psychiatric comorbidity is present. The result is that patients with a psychiatri

  8. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  9. Cynical hostility, socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and symptom load: a cross-sectional analysis in a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cross-sectional association between cynical hostility and high symptom load in a Danish population-based study. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate to what extent health risk behaviors mediated this association. METHODS: Data were based on a postal questionnaire...

  10. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  11. Detection of Symptoms of Prevalent Mental Health Disorders of Childhood with the Parent Form of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Abdou, Annmary S.; Twyford, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the criterion-related validity of score inferences from the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Parent Form" (BESS Parent) for the detection of symptoms of prevalent mental health disorders of childhood. The BESS Parent was administered to 99 parents of first- through fifth-grade students, along with the…

  12. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise in alleviating treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in patients with breast cancer: results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijts, S.F.A.; van Beurden, M.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Hunter, M.S.; Kieffer, J.M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsma, M.A.; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.E.; Plaisier, P.W.; Rijna, H.; Lopes Cardozo, A.M.F.; Timmers, G.; van der Meij, S.; van der Veen, H.; Bijker, N.; de Widt-Levert, L.M.; Geenen, M.M.; Heuff, G.; van Dulken, E.J.; Boven, E.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality o

  13. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy and an alternative medicine approach in reducing symptoms of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane

    2016-05-30

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (pReiki also showed greater decreases in CDI scores across treatment relative to the wait-list control condition (p=.031). The analyses indicated a significant interaction between gender, condition and change in CDI scores, such that male participants showed a smaller treatment effect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required.

  14. PCP-induced deficits in murine nest building activity: employment of an ethological rodent behavior to mimic negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Christian Spang; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Parachikova, Anna I; Plath, Niels

    2014-10-15

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by three symptom domains, positive (hallucinations, obsession), negative (social withdrawal, apathy, self-neglect) and cognitive (impairment in attention, memory and executive function). Whereas current medication ameliorates positive symptomatology, negative symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunctions remain untreated. The development of improved therapies for negative symptoms has proven particularly difficult, in part due to the inability of mimicking these in rodents. Here, we address the predictive validity of combining an ethologically well preserved behavior in rodents, namely nest building activity, with an established animal model of schizophrenia, the sub-chronic PCP model, for negative symptoms. Decline in rodent nesting activity has been suggested to mirror domains of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including social withdrawal, anhedonia and self-neglect, whereas repeated treatment with the NMDAR antagonist PCP induces and exacerbates schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents and human subjects. Using a back-translational approach of pharmacological validation, we tested the effects of two agents targeting the nicotinic α7 receptor (EVP-6124 and TC-5619) that were reported to exert some beneficial effect on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Sub-chronic PCP treatment resulted in a significant nest building deficit in mice and treatment with EVP-6124 and TC-5619 reversed this PCP-induced deficit. In contrast, the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone remained ineffective in this assay. In addition, EVP-6124, TC-5619 and risperidone were tested in the Social Interaction Test (SIT), an assay suggested to address negative-like symptoms. Results obtained in SIT were comparable to results in the nest building test (NEST). Based on these findings, we propose nest building in combination with the sub-chronic PCP model as a novel approach to assess negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia

  15. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  16. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Increasing of Self-Efficacy and Improving of Addiction Symptoms among Drug Dependency Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kamarzarin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on increasing of self efficacy and improving of addiction symptoms among drug dependency patients. Method: For this purpose, 90 substance abusers were selected of private addiction center, Central Prison and drop in center by using of random sampling, and they were divided into two experimental (45 subjects and witness groups (45 subjects randomly. The members of experimental group were under 12 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by Carol method, and control group only have taken Methadone and other physical drugs. All participants at the beginning of research, during the study (after three months and three months after treatment completed self-efficacy questionnaire and Maudsley addiction profile (Map by a psychologist were assessed. The symptoms of addiction recovery and addiction treatment process. Results: Analysis of covariance indicated the treatment effectiveness and its maintenance on increasing of efficacy and reducing of the symptoms of Maudsley addiction profile. Conclusion: Cognitive behavior therapy is effective to increase self-efficacy and improve symptoms in substance abusers.

  17. Motivational and Behavioral Activation as an Adjunct to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for Mild to Moderate Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Hong Choi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational Interviewing (MI has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation towards treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of mBA in a non-randomized controlled pilot study that included individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms receiving psychiatric rehabilitation. A total of 73 individuals with schizophrenia were recruited. Forty-seven of the participants who met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned to either an mBA + usual psychiatric rehabilitation group (mBA or a usual psychiatric rehabilitation only group (treatment as usual, TAU. Administering mBA to individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms was feasible in a community mental health setting. Relative to TAU, mBA was associated with large effects in reducing negative symptoms measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS. However, after considering PANSS cognitive deficits and marital status as covariates due to significant differences in their baseline levels, the treatment effects on the BNSS were partially observed. In addition, participants in the mBA group showed improved verbal learning and memory compared with those in the TAU group. In individuals with schizophrenia receiving the usual forms of psychiatric rehabilitation in a community mental health setting, mBA appears to offer a promising adjunctive approach for addressing mild to moderate

  18. Brief Report: Health-Seeking Behavior and Symptoms Associated With Early HIV Infection: Results From a Population-Based Cohort in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara E; Hoffman, Risa M; Chilungo, Abdallah; Lungu, Sydney R; Namadingo, Hazel C; Chimwaza, Angela F; Trinitapoli, Jenny A

    2015-05-01

    HIV transmission is most likely to occur during the first few months after infection, yet few cases are identified during this period. Using a population-based cohort of young Malawian women, we identify the distinct symptomology and health-seeking behavior marking early HIV infection by comparing it with periods of seronegativity and chronic infection. During early HIV infection, women are more likely to report malaria-like symptoms and visit clinics for malaria care. In malaria-endemic contexts, where acute HIV symptoms are commonly mistaken for malaria, early diagnostic HIV testing and counseling should be integrated into health care settings where people commonly seek treatment for malaria.

  19. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  20. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  1. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson′s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ru Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: When PD-RBD and PD + RBD patients have equivalent motor symptoms, PD + RBD patients still have more olfactory dysfunction and worse daytime somnolence. RBD is an important risk factor for MCI, including delayed memory. Deficits in executive function, verbal delayed memory, and visuospatial function were consistently associated with more severe RBD symptoms.

  2. Does group cognitive-behavioral therapy module type moderate depression symptom changes in substance abuse treatment clients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Susan M; Hunter, Sarah B; Leininger, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of group therapy treatment modules on symptom change during treatment and on outcomes post-treatment. Secondary analyses of depressive symptoms collected from two group therapy studies conducted in substance use treatment settings were examined (n=132 and n=44). Change in PHQ-9 scores was modeled using longitudinal growth modeling combined with random effects modeling of session effects, with time-in-treatment interacted with module theme to test moderation. In both studies, depressive symptoms significantly decreased during the active treatment phase. Symptom reductions were not significantly moderated by module theme in the larger study. However, the smaller pilot study's results suggest that future examination of module effects is warranted, given the data are compatible with differential reductions in reported symptoms being associated with attending people-themed module sessions versus thoughts-themed sessions.

  3. Trauma symptoms, internalized stigma, social support, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive gay and bisexual MSM who have sought sex partners online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Kaylee E; Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the highest risk group for HIV infection. One reason is the increased use of the Internet to meet potential sex partners, which is associated with greater sexual risk behavior. To date, few studies have investigated psychosocial predictors of sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men seeking sex partners online. The purpose of the current study was to test a conceptual model of the relationships between trauma symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis, internalized HIV stigma, and social support on sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual MSM who seek sex partners online. A sample of 142 gay and bisexual MSM recruited on- and offline completed a comprehensive online assessment battery assessing the factors noted above. A number of associations emerged; most notably internalized HIV stigma mediated the relationship between trauma-related symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis and sexual risk behavior with HIV-negative and unknown serostatus sex partners. This suggests that gay and bisexual MSM who are in greater distress over their HIV diagnosis and who are more sensitive to HIV stigma engage in more HIV transmission risk behavior. As sexual risk environments expand with the increasing use of the Internet to connect with others for sex, it is important to understand the predictors of sexual risk behavior so that tailored interventions can promote sexual health for gay and bisexual MSM seeking sex online.

  4. The association between parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and the clinical significance of child ADHD symptom change following behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management.

  5. Identifying Motor, Emotional–Behavioral, and Cognitive Deficits that Comprise the Triad of HD Symptoms from Patient, Caregiver, and Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorson, David; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Frank, Samuel; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Cheng, Wendy; Gorin, Brian; Duh, Mei Sheng; Samuelson, David; Tulsky, David; Gutierrez, Sandra; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Mueller, Allison; Shen, Vivienne; Sung, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify important attributes associated with the triad of symptoms (cognition, emotional–behavioral, and motor) of Huntington's disease (HD) from patient, caregiver, and medical provider perspectives to facilitate development of a new disease-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument. Methods We conducted a targeted literature review of HD and HRQOL instruments, expert surveys, and patient and caregiver phone-based interviews to extract information on the symptoms and issues most relevant to the HD symptom triad (HD triad). The data collected from these sources were used to generate themes and subdomains and to develop an integrated schema that highlights the key dimensions of the triad. Results The search identified the following areas: emotional functioning/behavioral changes (e.g., positive emotions, sadness/depression); cognitive functioning (e.g., memory/learning, attention/comprehension); physical functioning (e.g., motor functioning, medication); social functioning (e.g., leisure, interpersonal relationships); end-of-life concerns/planning; and gene testing. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with HD and 16 HD caregivers, recruited from several Huntington's Disease Society of America support group networks, completed phone interviews. Nineteen US medical providers who specialize in HD completed the online survey. Twenty-six subdomains of the HD symptom triad (seven cognition, 12 emotional–behavioral, and seven motor) emerged relatively consistently across patient, caregiver, and provider samples. These included movements/chorea, memory impairment, depression, and anxiety. Discussion Based on an integrated, mixed-methods approach, important HD triad symptom were identified and organized into a guiding schema. These patient-, caregiver-, and provider-triangulated data served as the basis for development of a HD-specific HRQOL instrument, the HD-PRO-TRIAD™. PMID:24757585

  6. Activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and social problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT2CR agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT2CR activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT2CR agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT2CR antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT2CR protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT2CR can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT2CR may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:26432939

  7. Treating maladaptive grief and posttraumatic stress symptoms in orphaned children in Tanzania: group-based trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Karen; Dorsey, Shannon; Gong, Wenfeng; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel; Cohen, Judith A; Itemba, Dafrosa; Manongi, Rachel; Whetten, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to test the feasibility and child clinical outcomes for group-based trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for orphaned children in Tanzania. There were 64 children with at least mild symptoms of grief and/or traumatic stress and their guardians who participated in this open trial. The TF-CBT for Child Traumatic Grief protocol was adapted for use with a group, resulting in 12 weekly sessions for children and guardians separately with conjoint activities and 3 individual visits with child and guardian. Using a task-sharing approach, the intervention was delivered by lay counselors with no prior mental health experience. Primary child outcomes assessed were symptoms of grief and posttraumatic stress (PTS); secondary outcomes included symptoms of depression and overall behavioral adjustment. All assessments were conducted pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Results showed improved scores on all outcomes posttreatment, sustained at 3 and 12 months. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for baseline to posttreatment were 1.36 for child reported grief symptoms, 1.87 for child-reported PTS, and 1.15 for guardian report of child PTS.

  8. Illness behavior: prediction by symptoms, the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck Personality Types, neuroticism, life events, coping, health locus of control, social support, and attribution style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejudo Hernández, Santos; Froján Parga, María Xesús; Malo Aznar, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    A study was carried out with 501 persons to analyze the predictive capacity of various psychosocial variables-symptom perception, neuroticism, Personality Types 2 and 4 of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck, beliefs about health, social support, or certain coping styles-on two health-related behaviors: the frequency of visits to the doctor and self-medication. The results were analyzed by two structural equation models that revealed that some of the variables have direct effects on the behaviors, whereas other variables, such as attribution style, coping styles, or the impact of the stressors, have indirect effects via the reported symptoms or neuroticism. In addition, self-medication and the frequency of health service visits are independent of each other, which shows that their determinants are different. It is concluded that to address these factors in the two health indicators, it is also necessary to take in account the psychosocial variables considered herein.

  9. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms Intensity, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic abdominal pain, bowel habit variations, and lack of structural causes. Symptom intensity has a statistical relation with patients' quality of life (QOL and mental health. The first objective of the present study was to develop and provide a therapeutic plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS that was operated for the very first time in Iran. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of these treatments on IBS symptoms intensity, health-related QOL, and psychological health among patients with IBS. Methods: The participants were 15 women with IBS. The participants were diagnosed on the basis of ROME-III diagnosis criteria. The data collection tools consisted of IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R used to evaluate mental health. Data were collected during the weeks of 0, 4, 12, and 24, during the treatment process. The extracted data was examined statistically via repeated measures MANOVA in SPSS software. Results: CBT has a significant effect on IBS symptoms reduction, QOL improvement, and mental health promotion of the patients. The effect of the therapeutic plan persisted until the follow-up stage. Conclusion: According to the results, applied CBT can be specifically implemented as an effective treatment for IBS. Therefore, the use of this treatment is advised.

  10. Predicting the outcome of a cognitive-behavioral group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a one-year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld Lyonne NL; van Rood Yanda R; Kooiman Cornelis G; Timman Reinier; van ’t Spijker Adriaan; Busschbach Jan JV

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS), some therapists in clinical practice seem to believe that CBT outcome will diminish if psychiatric comorbidity is present. The result is that patients with a psychiatric comorbidity are redirected from treatment for UPS into treatment for mental health problems. To explore whether this selection and allocation are appropriate, we explored whether CBT outcomes in UPS could be p...

  11. Child abuse in the context of intimate partner violence against women: the impact of women's depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms on maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.

  12. The effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid abuse

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders comorbid with with substance use disorder. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on the symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid use disorders. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design, 24 patients taking opiates were selected through convenience sampling method and randomly assigned int...

  13. Interactive contributions of self-regulation deficits and social motivation to psychopathology: Unraveling divergent pathways to aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Llewellyn, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-regulation has been implicated as a significant risk factor for the development of multiple forms of psychopathology. This research examined the proposition that self-regulation deficits differentially predict aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms, depending on children’s social approach versus avoidance motivation. A prospective, multiple-informant approach was used to test this hypothesis in 419 children (M age = 8.92, SD = 0.36). Parents rated children’s inhibitory control....

  14. The direction of effects between perceived parental behavioral control and psychological control and adolescents' self-reported GAD and SAD symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsbroek, Saskia A. M.; Hale III, William W.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents? perceptions of parental behavioral and psychological control and adolescents? self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was employed ...

  15. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined) that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use). Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs) for 24 within-subjects design (WSD) and 76 single-subject design (SSD) studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08), with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82) and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61). Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  16. Empowering the dementia care workforce to manage behavioral symptoms of dementia: Development and training outcomes from the VOICE Dementia Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Bradley E; Young, David; Dash, Kim

    2016-07-25

    Nonpharmacological approaches for managing behavioral symptoms of dementia remain widely underutilized, due in part to near-universal training needs reported by dementia caregivers in recent research. This article examines the development, core components, and initial outcomes of an evidence-informed, competency-based training program in the prevention and management of behavioral symptoms of dementia among care managers and nurses within an aging services system. The Vital Outcomes Inspired by Caregiver Engagement (VOICE) Dementia Care Training Program was developed based on identification of state-of-the-art approaches to managing behaviors through expert review of the literature and structured needs assessment. Results reveal robust improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy among training participants, with largest effect sizes (d = 1.8) on domains of knowledge and self-efficacy to manage behaviors. Findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of training in improving the abilities and confidence of aging services providers in dementia care and, specifically, in the nonpharmacological management of dementia-related behaviors.

  17. The effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders comorbid with with substance use disorder. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on the symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid use disorders. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design, 24 patients taking opiates were selected through convenience sampling method and randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated for two months. BDI-II, GHQ-28, WHOQOL-BREF were given to both groups before and after treatment and in the 2-month followup period. The results were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that brief behavioral activation treatment significantly reduced the symptoms of depression (P0.05. Conclusion: brief behavioral activation treatment is capable of reducing the severity of symptoms of depression and improving the mental health of patients with substance use disorders.

  18. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth's Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as "reciprocally determined" or "downward spirals" and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment.

  19. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth’s Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “downward spirals” and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment. PMID:26456988

  20. Atypical and Typical Winter Depressive Symptoms and Responsiveness to Light Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, or Combination Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia . Archives of General Psychiatry , 35(7), 837-844. Fallon, A., & Spada, C. (1997...significantly with remission at post-treatment. For the LT treatment group, pre- treatment scores on items A4 (Increased Eating) and H20 ( Paranoid Symptoms...significantly with remission at post-treatment. For the LT group, pre-treatment hyperphagia and paranoid symptoms both correlated negatively and

  1. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  2. Depressive symptoms and problematic internet use among adolescents: analysis of the longitudinal relationships from the cognitive-behavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Problematic Internet use-frequently called Internet addiction or compulsive use-represents an increasingly widespread problem among adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relations between the presence of depressive symptoms and various components of problematic Internet use (i.e., the preference for online relationships, use of the Internet for mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and the manifestation of negative outcomes). Consequently, a longitudinal design was employed with two times separated by a 1 year interval. The sample consisted of 699 adolescents (61.1% girls) between 13 and 17 years of age. The results indicated that depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted an increase in preference for online relationships, mood regulation, and negative outcomes after 1 year. In turn, negative outcomes at time 1 predicted an increase in depressive symptoms at time 2. These results entail several practical implications for the design of prevention programs and the treatment of problematic Internet use.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbances in treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chan, Christian S; Tang, Kristen Nga-Sze

    2016-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that sleep disturbance is not only a secondary symptom but also a risk factor for PTSD. Sleep-specific psychological treatments provide an alternative to conventional trauma-focused psychological treatments. The current meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of sleep-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in mitigating PTSD, sleep, and depressive symptoms. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analytic comparisons between sleep-specific CBT and waiting-list control groups at posttreatment. Random effects models showed significant reduction in self-report PTSD and depressive symptoms and insomnia severity in the sleep-specific CBT group. The corresponding effect sizes, measured in Hedges' g, were 0.58, 0.44, and 1.15, respectively. The effect sizes for sleep diary-derived sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency were 0.83, 1.02 and 1.15, respectively. The average study attrition rate of sleep-specific CBT was relatively low (12.8%), with no significant difference from the control group (9.4%). In conclusion, sleep-specific CBT appears to be efficacious and feasible in treating PTSD symptoms. Due to the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials available, further research is warranted to confirm its efficacy and acceptability, especially in comparison to trauma-specific psychological treatments.

  4. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  5. Comparing non-specific physical symptoms in environmentally sensitive patients : Prevalence, duration, functional status and illness behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Van Kamp, Irene; Hooiveld, Mariette; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the potential clinical relevance of non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) reported by patients with self-reported environmental sensitivities. This study aimed to assess NSPS in people with general environmental sensitivity (GES) and idiopathic environmental intolera

  6. Comparing non-specific physical symptoms in environmentally sensitive patients: prevalence, duration, functional status and illness behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Hooiveld, M.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the potential clinical relevance of non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) reported by patients with self-reported environmental sensitivities. This study aimed to assess NSPS in people with general environmental sensitivity (GES) and idiopathic environmental intolera

  7. Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Bekelaar, Kim; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pati

  8. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bowel habits. Learn More About Pain in IBS Symptoms Won’t Stop Everyone suffers from bowel changes ... They can be constant or keep coming back. Symptoms Change Some or all of IBS symptoms can ...

  9. Population-based study of food insecurity and HIV transmission risk behaviors and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections among linked couples in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Weiser, Sheri D

    2014-11-01

    Food insecurity has recently emerged as an important risk factor for HIV acquisition among women worldwide. No previous studies have used linked data that would permit investigation of the extent to which food insecurity may have differential associations with HIV transmission risk behaviors or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men and women in the same households. We used nationally representative data on linked couples from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey. The primary explanatory variable of interest was food insecurity, measured with a modified version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. In multivariable logistic regression models, women in food insecure households were less likely to report recent condom use and more likely to report symptoms consistent with STIs. These patterns were absent among men. Interventions targeting food insecurity may have beneficial implications for both HIV prevention and gender equity in Nepal.

  10. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2016-02-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3-6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children's levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition. The results indicated that high levels of parent-reported SM were primarily associated with high levels of social anxiety symptoms. The number of spoken words was negatively related to behavioral inhibition: children with a more inhibited temperament used fewer words during the speech tasks. Future research is necessary to test whether the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition prompts children to speak less in novel social situations, and whether it is mainly social anxiety that turns this taciturnity into the psychopathology of SM.

  11. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Rosen, Lisa H

    2011-05-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence.

  12. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  13. Factors associated with help-seeking behaviors in Mexican elderly individuals with depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Arango-Lopera, Victoria Eugenia; Wagner, Fernando A.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; García-Peña, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Depression in the elderly is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, such as high health service utilization rates, low pharmacological compliance, and synergistic interactions with other comorbidities. Moreover, the help seeking process, which usually starts with the feeling “that something is wrong” and ends with appropriate medical care, is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the pathway of help seeking among older adults with depressive symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study of 60-year or older of community dwelling elderly belonging to the largest health and social security system in Mexico was done. A standardized interview explored the process of seeking health care in four dimensions: depressive symptoms, help seeking, help acquisition and specialized mental health. Results A total of 2,322 individuals were studied; from these, 67.14% (n=1,559) were women, and the mean age was 73.18 years (SD=7.02) 57.9% had symptoms of depression, 337 (25.1%) participants sought help, and 271 (80.4%) received help and 103 (38%) received specialized mental health care. In the stepwise model for not seeking help (χ2=81.66, p<0.0001), significant variables were female gender (OR=0.07 95% CI 0.511–0.958 p=0.026), health care use (OR 3.26 CI 95% 1.64–6.488, p=0.001). Number of years in school, difficulty in activities, SAST score and depression as a disease belief were also significant. Conclusions Appropriate mental health care is rather complex and is influenced by several factors. The main factors associated with help seeking were gender, education level, recent health service use, and the belief that depression is not a disease. Detection of subjects with these characteristics could improve care of elderly with depressive symptoms. PMID:23585359

  14. Comparison of long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus mindfulness-based therapy on reduction of symptoms among patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zomorodi, Saeedeh; Abdi, Saeed; Tabatabaee, Seyed Kazem Rasulzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to compare the long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment and mindfulness-based treatment on decreasing symptoms of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Background One of the most modern therapies put forward in therapy of IBS is mindfulness-based metacognitive therapy. Patients and methods In this quasi-experimental study, 36 people with mean age of 32 years old, including 24 patients with IBS and 12 healthy normal subjects as control...

  15. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Taylor, Kristin P; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder's constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety and more extreme interpersonal problems, lead to less generous behavior on the economic task examined. Results were clearest regarding fine-grained indices derived from latent trajectories. Unexpectedly, the combination of generalized anxiety disorder and higher depression also restricted generosity. Two of three indices showed acceptable test-retest stability. Maladaptive giving behavior may be a treatment target to improve interpersonal functioning in psychiatric disorders; therefore, future work should more precisely characterize behavioral economic tasks, including basic psychometric work (i.e., tests of reliability and validity).

  16. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for climacteric symptoms in breast cancer patients experiencing treatment-induced menopause: design of a multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Marc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature menopause is a major concern of younger women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in women with a history of breast cancer. Non-hormonal medications show a range of bothersome side-effects. There is growing evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and physical exercise can have a positive impact on symptoms in naturally occurring menopause. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of these interventions among women with breast cancer experiencing treatment-induced menopause. Methods/design In a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of CBT/relaxation, of physical exercise and of these two program elements combined, in reducing menopausal symptoms, improving sexual functioning, reducing emotional distress, and in improving the health-related quality of life of younger breast cancer patients who experience treatment-induced menopause. 325 breast cancer patients (aged Discussion Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise are potentially useful treatments among women with breast cancer undergoing treatment-induced, premature menopause. For these patients, hormonal and non-hormonal therapies are contraindicated or have a range of bothersome side-effects. Hence, research into these interventions is needed, before dissemination and implementation in the current health care system can take place. Trial registration The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1165 and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00582244.

  18. Pilot Study of an Exercise Intervention for Depressive Symptoms and Associated Cognitive-Behavioral Factors in Young Adults With Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasstasia, Yasmina; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Lewin, Terry J; Hides, Leanne; Kelly, Brian J; Callister, Robin

    2016-10-31

    This study assesses the feasibility of integrating motivational interviewing (MI) with an exercise intervention. It also explores patterns of depressive symptom changes (cognitive, affective, and somatic subscales) and their relationship to cognitive, behavioral, and immunological factors (interleukin 6, IL-6, a marker for inflammation) across the exercise intervention. Twelve young adults (20.8 ± 1.7 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week exercise intervention. Assessments were conducted preintervention, postintervention, throughout the intervention, and at follow-up. Preliminary results show differential effects of exercise, with the largest standardized mean improvements for the affective subscale (-1.71), followed by cognitive (-1.56) and somatic (-1.39) subscales. A significant relationship was observed between increased behavioral activation and lower levels of IL-6. Despite study limitations, the magnitude of changes suggests that natural remission of depressive symptoms is an unlikely explanation for the findings. A randomized controlled trial has commenced to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention.

  19. Reexperiencing symptoms, dissociation, and avoidance behaviors in daily life of patients with PTSD and patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaltz, Monique C; Michael, Tanja; Meyer, Andrea H; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2013-08-01

    Panic attacks are frequently perceived as life threatening. Panic disorder (PD) patients may therefore experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors explored this in 28 healthy controls, 17 PTSD patients, and 24 PD patients with agoraphobia who completed electronic diaries 36 times during 1 week. Patient groups frequently reported dissociation as well as thoughts, memories, and reliving of their trauma or panic attacks. PTSD patients reported more trauma/panic attack thoughts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.9) and memories (IRR = 2.8) than PD patients. Patient groups relived their trauma or panic attacks equally frequently, and reported comparable bodily reactions and distress associated with trauma or panic attack memories. Clinical groups avoided trauma or panic attack reminders more often than healthy controls (avoidance of trauma- or panic attack-related thoughts (IRR = 8.0); avoidance of things associated with the trauma or panic attack (IRR = 40.7). PD patients avoided trauma or panic attack reminders less often than PTSD patients (avoidance of trauma- or panic attack-related thoughts [IRR = 2.5]; avoidance of things associated with the trauma or panic attack [IRR = 4.1]), yet these differences were nonsignificant when controlling for functional impairment. In conclusion, trauma-like symptoms are common in PD with agoraphobia and panic attacks may be processed similarly as trauma in PTSD.

  20. Utilization of Behavioral Medicine Services to Refine Medical Diagnostic Formulation in the Face of Uncertain Symptom Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the ever expanding realm of cancer care, the psychosocial impact of disease and medical treatments has been garnering increased attention. To address these needs, the integration of behavioral medicine services into inpatient and outpatient medical settings has added a unique resource available to oncologists. Psycho-oncologists may assist providers via the provision of psychological assessment and intervention, supplying valuable consultation to members of the medical team and much needed clinical services to patients. The authors present a complex case in which the utilization of behavioral medicine consultation to clarify the diagnostic picture was critical to identifying underlying anatomic disease.

  1. Gynecological management of premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P

    2010-10-01

    The vast majority of menstruating women experience uncomfortable symptoms during the premenstrual phase of their menstrual cycles. Although many women do not require specific treatment of their symptoms, approximately 20% to 50% report moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms and about 5% meet the diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the most severe manifestation of premenstrual symptoms. While the etiology of premenstrual symptoms remains unclear, several theories have implicated sex steroids and neurotransmitters in the development and manifestation of symptoms. Further complicating the delineation of etiology is that premenstrual symptoms can be somatic, psychological, or behavioral, as well as a combination of all three. Developing successful interventions for premenstrual symptoms has thus been challenging, with interventions focused on a particular aspect of premenstrual symptomatology. Treatments for premenstrual symptoms include lifestyle changes, cognitive behavioral therapies, and pharmacologic agents including ovulation suppression regimens, antidepressant medications, and anxiolytics.

  2. The study of cognitive – behavior training effectiveness on decreasing depresive symptoms in community therapy center resident addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Discussion: The results show that psychological interventions in cognitive behavioral approach played a very crucial role in reducing depression in the addict's resident at the therapeutic community. Therefore, depression, that is one of the relapse risk factors, could be obviated and more success gained.

  3. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  4. Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

  5. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management on depression and anxiety symptoms of patients with epilepsy and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghanifiroozabadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, cognitive behavioral stress management was effective on the depression and anxiety of epileptic and migraine patients, and chronic disease has no effect on this effectiveness. This method can be used in combination with drug therapy.

  6. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, D.; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  7. Somatic symptoms after sexual behavior with fear of four sexually transmitted diseases: A proposal of novel disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kentaro; Katsuda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) often leads to frequent doctor visit not only to psychiatrists but also to various kinds of physicians. We encountered four cases of SSD, particularly associated with sexual intercourse and fear of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). To best of our knowledge, there is no independent clinical entity assigned to this phenomenon. Here, we propose a variation of SSD called four STD as an independent clinical entity since the presentation of this disorder is very distinctive, and lack of awareness of it may lead to unnecessary laboratory workup and antimicrobial prescription as well as augmented anxiety of the patients with potential "doctor shopping." Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder.

  8. The COMTval158met polymorphism is associated with symptom relief during exposure-based cognitive-behavioral treatment in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Jan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT represents a learning process leading to symptom relief and resulting in long-term changes in behavior. CBT for panic disorder is based on exposure and exposure-based processes can be studied in the laboratory as extinction of experimentally acquired fear responses. We have recently demonstrated that the ability to extinguish learned fear responses is associated with a functional genetic polymorphism (COMTval158met in the COMT gene and this study was aimed at transferring the experimental results on the COMTval158met polymorphism on extinction into a clinical setting. Methods We tested a possible effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism on the efficacy of CBT, in particular exposure-based treatment modules, in a sample of 69 panic disorder patients. Results We present evidence that panic patients with the COMTval158met met/met genotype may profit less from (exposure-based CBT treatment methods as compared to patients carrying at least one val-allele. No association was found with the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotypes which is presented as additional material. Conclusions We were thus able to transfer findings on the effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism from an experimental extinction study obtained using healthy subjects to a clinical setting. Furthermore patients carrying a COMT val-allele tend to report more anxiety and more depression symptoms as compared to those with the met/met genotype. Limitations of the study as well as possible clinical implications are discussed. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registry name: Internet-Versus Group-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Panic Disorder (IP2. Registration Identification number: NCT00845260, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00845260

  9. Anthrax: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include: A group of small blisters or ...

  10. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity

    OpenAIRE

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Taylor, Kristin P.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder’s constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety ...

  11. The effectiveness of a training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: protocol of a cognitive behavioral group training and randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passchier Jan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, up to 74% of physical symptoms is classified as unexplained. These symptoms can cause high levels of distress and healthcare utilization. Cognitive behavioral therapy has shown to be effective, but does not seem to be attractive to patients. An exception herein is a therapy based on the consequences model, which distinguishes itself by its labeling of psychosocial distress in terms of consequences rather than as causes of physical symptoms. In secondary care, 81% of the patients accepts this therapy, but in primary care the outcome is poor. We assume that positive outcome can also be reached in primary care, when the consequences model is modified and used bottom-up in an easily accessible group training, in which patients are relieved of being blamed for their symptoms. Our aim is to investigate the (cost-effectiveness of this training. Methods and design A randomized controlled trial is designed. One hundred patients are randomized to either the group training or the waiting list. Physicians in general practices and outpatients clinics of general hospitals refer patients. Referral leads to inclusion if patients are between 18 and 65 years old, understand Dutch, have no handicaps impeding participation and the principal DSM-IV-TR classification is undifferentiated somatoform disorder or chronic pain disorder. In contrast to other treatment effect studies, the co-morbidity of a personality disorder does not lead to exclusion. By this, we optimize the comparability between the study population and patients in daily practice enlarging the generalization possibilities. Also in contrast to other effect studies, we chose quality of life (SF-36 instead of physical symptoms as the primary outcome measure. The SF-6D is used to estimate Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Costs are measured with the Trimbos/iMTA Questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness. Measurements are scheduled at baseline, after

  12. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy with respect to psychological symptoms and recovering autobiographical memory in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarian F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatemehsadat Akbarian,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2,3 Mohammad Haghighi,4 Nadeem Kalak,5 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,5 Serge Brand5,6 1Psychology and Counseling Organization of Iran, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand; 4Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 5Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Objectives: Given the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and its major impact on everyday life, it is important to identify effective treatments. In additional to pharmacological treatments, psychotherapeutic treatments are also highly effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a sample of patients suffering from PTSD, the influence of an additional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT intervention on their symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety, and on autobiographical memory. Methods: A total of 40 patients suffering from PTSD (mean age: 31.64 years; 78.6% female patients and under psychopharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition. The intervention consisted of ten group sessions (one 60–90 minute session per week of CBT. At baseline and 10 weeks later, a series of self-rating and experts’-rating questionnaires were completed. Results: Over time, symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety decreased; however, greater improvement was observed in the experimental than the control condition. Likewise, as a general pattern of results, memory

  13. A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: Design and methods of project ACT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Gitlin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laura N Gitlin1, Laraine Winter1, Marie P Dennis1, Walter W Hauck21Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health (CARAH, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Formely Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Currently Sycamore Consulting, LLC New Hope, PA, USA; 3Funded by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Nursing Research (Grant # R01 AG22254. Clinical trial registration #NCT00259480.Abstract: Project ACT is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological home-based intervention to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and caregiver distress. The study targets 272 stressed racially diverse family caregivers providing in-home care to persons with moderate stage dementia with one or more behavioral disturbances. All participants are interviewed at baseline, 4-months (main trial endpoint, and 6-months (maintenance. The four-month intervention involves up to 13 visits from an occupational therapist who works with families to problem-solve potential triggers (communication style, environmental clutter contributing to behaviors, and instruct in strategies to reduce caregiver stress and manage targeted behaviors. To rule out infection or other potential medical contributors to behaviors, a nurse obtains blood and urine samples from the dementia patient, and conducts a medication review. Participants in the no-treatment control group are offered the nurse arm and one in-home session following trial completion at 6-months. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of this multi-component, targeted psycho-social treatment approach, and the measures used to evaluate quality of life improvements for persons with dementia and their families.Keywords: family caregiving, environmental modification, home care, occupational

  14. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    ) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from...... a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94...... all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate...

  15. How Illegal Drug Use, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Depressive Symptoms Affect Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: A Secondary Analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Rachel; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major risk factors among adolescents who have either contemplated or attempted suicide. Along with successful suicides, suicide attempts and contemplation are coexisting factors that are prominent in the adolescent population and therefore warrant major concern. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed to explore the factors that may influence adolescents' thoughts or actions about suicidal behavior. The YRBS represents high-school students throughout 50 states. Nine questions from the YRBS were used to elicit information about the relationships among the risk factors: (1) Suicidal thoughts and attempts; (2) illegal drug use; (3) alcohol use; (4) tobacco use; and (5) depressive symptoms. Statistically significant relationships among the risk factors were found for adolescents. Adolescents considered suicide (15.8%); attempted suicide at least once (7.8%); were injured while attempting suicide (n = 2.7%). Our findings support the idea that illegal substance use can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions. Depression had a positive relationship with suicidal ideations, supporting similar studies suggesting that depression leads to suicidal action.

  16. An association between the location of white matter changes and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzuchou Lin; Yihui Lin; Linli Kao; Yihui Kao; Yuanhan Yang; Pingsong Chou; Mengni Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The frontal lobe may be involved in circuits associated with depression, apathy, aggression, and other psychiatric symptoms. Although white matter changes (WMC) are related to the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it is unclear which part of the WMC may play the most important role in BPSD. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the location of WMC and the severity of BPSD in AD patients. Methods: Among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease between 2009 and 2014, 387 patients were retrospectively reviewed after those with pre‐existing organic brain syndrome, psychiatric diseases, or toxic‐metabolic encephalopathy were excluded. Patients’ demographic and laboratory data, WMC measured with brain computed tomography and scored using the age‐related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale, and neuropsychological tests, including the cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI), the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE), the clinical dementia rating scale with sum‐box (CDR‐SB), and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) were analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference in the NPI between patients with and without a history of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. No significant difference in the NPI was identified between different sexes or different Apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles. The NPI score was significantly correlated with the duration of education (r=–0.4515, P=0.0172), CASI (r=–0.2915, P Conclusions:WMC involving the right frontal lobe may play an important role in the BPSD in AD patients during their dementia diagnosis. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether controlling the risk factors of WMC can slow the progression of BPSD.

  17. Correlation between afferent rearrangements and behavioral deficits after local excitotoxic insult in the mammalian vestibule: a rat model of vertigo symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travo, Cécile; Saleur, Aurélie; Broussy, Audrey; Brugeaud, Aurore; Chabbert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Damage to inner ear afferent terminals is believed to result in many auditory and vestibular dysfunctions. The sequence of afferent injuries and repair, as well as their correlation with vertigo symptoms, remains poorly documented. In particular, information on the changes that take place at the primary vestibular endings during the first hours following a selective insult is lacking. In the present study, we combined histological analysis with behavioral assessments of vestibular function in a rat model of unilateral vestibular excitotoxic insult. Excitotoxicity resulted in an immediate but transient alteration of the balance function that was resolved within a week. Concomitantly, vestibular primary afferents underwent a sequence of structural changes followed by spontaneous repair. Within the first two hours after the insult, a first phase of pronounced vestibular dysfunction coincided with extensive swelling of afferent terminals. In the next 24 h, a second phase of significant but incomplete reduction of the vestibular dysfunction was accompanied by a resorption of swollen terminals and fiber retraction. Eventually, within 1 week, a third phase of complete balance restoration occurred. The slow and progressive withdrawal of the balance dysfunction correlated with full reconstitution of nerve terminals. Competitive re-innervation by afferent and efferent terminals that mimicked developmental synaptogenesis resulted in full re-afferentation of the sensory epithelia. By deciphering the sequence of structural alterations that occur in the vestibule during selective excitotoxic impairment, this study offers new understanding of how a vestibular insult develops in the vestibule and how it governs the heterogeneity of vertigo symptoms. PMID:27483344

  18. Correlation between afferent rearrangements and behavioral deficits after local excitotoxic insult in the mammalian vestibule: a rat model of vertigo symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Gaboyard-Niay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Damage to inner ear afferent terminals is believed to result in many auditory and vestibular dysfunctions. The sequence of afferent injuries and repair, as well as their correlation with vertigo symptoms, remains poorly documented. In particular, information on the changes that take place at the primary vestibular endings during the first hours following a selective insult is lacking. In the present study, we combined histological analysis with behavioral assessments of vestibular function in a rat model of unilateral vestibular excitotoxic insult. Excitotoxicity resulted in an immediate but transient alteration of the balance function that was resolved within a week. Concomitantly, vestibular primary afferents underwent a sequence of structural changes followed by spontaneous repair. Within the first two hours after the insult, a first phase of pronounced vestibular dysfunction coincided with extensive swelling of afferent terminals. In the next 24 h, a second phase of significant but incomplete reduction of the vestibular dysfunction was accompanied by a resorption of swollen terminals and fiber retraction. Eventually, within 1 week, a third phase of complete balance restoration occurred. The slow and progressive withdrawal of the balance dysfunction correlated with full reconstitution of nerve terminals. Competitive re-innervation by afferent and efferent terminals that mimicked developmental synaptogenesis resulted in full re-afferentation of the sensory epithelia. By deciphering the sequence of structural alterations that occur in the vestibule during selective excitotoxic impairment, this study offers new understanding of how a vestibular insult develops in the vestibule and how it governs the heterogeneity of vertigo symptoms.

  19. Predicting the outcome of a cognitive-behavioral group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a one-year follow-up study

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    Zonneveld Lyonne NL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT is effective for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS, some therapists in clinical practice seem to believe that CBT outcome will diminish if psychiatric comorbidity is present. The result is that patients with a psychiatric comorbidity are redirected from treatment for UPS into treatment for mental health problems. To explore whether this selection and allocation are appropriate, we explored whether CBT outcomes in UPS could be predicted by variables assessed at baseline and used in routine-practice assessments. Methods Patients (n=162 with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or chronic pain disorder were followed up until one year after they had attended a CBT group training. The time-points of the follow-up were at the end of CBT (immediate outcome, three months after CBT (short-term outcome, and one year after CBT (long-term outcome. CBT outcome was measured using the Physical Component Summary of the SF-36, which was the primary outcome measure in the randomized controlled trial that studied effectiveness of the CBT group training. Predictors were: 1. psychological symptoms (global severity score of SCL-90, 2. personality-disorder characteristics (sum of DSM-IV axis II criteria confirmed, 3. psychiatric history (past presence of DSM-IV axis I disorders, and 4. health-related quality of life in the mental domain (mental component summary of SF-36. The effect of this predictor set was explored using hierarchical multiple regression analyses into which these predictors had been entered simultaneously, after control for: a. pretreatment primary outcome scores, b. age, c. gender, d. marital status, and e. employment. Results The predictor set was significant only for short-term CBT outcome, where it explained 15% of the variance. A better outcome was predicted by more psychological symptoms, fewer personality-disorder characteristics, the presence of a psychiatric

  20. Ethnic Variables and Negative Life Events as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behaviors in Latino College Students: On the Centrality of "Receptivo a los Demás"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Tina; Kahle, Emma R.; Hernandez, Viviana; Kim, Jean M.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined ethnic variables (viz., multigroup ethnic identity and other group orientation) along with negative life events as predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in a sample of 156 (38 male and 118 female) Latino college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the…

  1. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  2. The Effects of an Uninterrupted Switch from Donepezil to Galantamine without Dose Titration on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Shoichi Sasaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To elucidate the efficacy of galantamine on cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in outpatients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD who have switched from donepezil to galantamine. Materials and Methods: We performed an uninterrupted switch from donepezil to galantamine without a washout period or dose titration in 44 ambulatory outpatients with amnestic MCI (n = 12 or mild-to-moderate AD (n = 32. Three months after the switch, the efficacy of galantamine was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and NPI Brief Questionnaire Form (NPI-Q, respectively, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: NPI scores improved significantly on BPSD, especially on delusions, agitation and aberrant motor activity in AD patients (p = 0.027; improvement was remarkable in patients with moderate AD (MMSE score 10-19; p = 0.007, while insignificant in those with MCI (MMSE score ≥24; p = 0.648. The NPI-Q score also improved significantly regarding both the severity of the disease (p = 0.009 and caregiver distress (p = 0.012 in AD patients. MMSE scores hardly improved in either MCI (p = 0.394 or AD patients (p = 0.265. Conclusions: An uninterrupted switch from donepezil to galantamine could be a useful alternative treatment option for AD patients whose BPSD are unresponsive to donepezil, or whose caregivers are not satisfied with donepezil treatment.

  3. Tratando os sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos da demência (SCPD Treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD

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    Paulo Caramelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na demência, também denominados de sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos da demência (SCPD, têm prevalência elevada no curso clínico da doença de Alzheimer e de outras desordens relacionadas. A relevância dessas manifestações é bem reconhecida, estando relacionada a evolução clínica mais desfavorável, maior sobrecarga do cuidador e maior incidência de institucionalização, entre outros fatores. O objetivo desta conferência clínica é procurar responder a algumas questões relacionadas a este tema, com o intuito de oferecer aos leitores uma breve atualização sobre o assunto. Os seguintes tópicos foram selecionados para discussão: se a nomenclatura SCPD é adequada para denominar essas manifestações clínicas; se há uma forma de classificar e como diagnosticar esses sintomas; qual a sua prevalência, seu impacto no curso clínico das demências e quais os fatores de risco associados ao seu aparecimento; quais as bases fisiopatológicas conhecidas; e, finalmente, como abordar esses pacientes e também suas famílias e cuidadores, do ponto de vista terapêutico, tanto em relação a intervenções farmacológicas quanto não farmacológicas.Neuropsychiatric disturbances in dementia, also named behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, are highly prevalent in the clinical course of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. The clinical relevance of these manifestations is well recognized, being related to a poor clinical outcome, greater caregiver burden and to higher institutionalization rates, among others. This clinical conference attempts to respond to some questions related to this subject, in order to offer a brief update to the readers. The following topics are discussed: if the nomenclature BPSD is adequate for these clinical manifestations; how to classify and to diagnose these symptoms; how prevalent they are; which is their impact on the clinical course of the

  4. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  5. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  6. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

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    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  7. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: what works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehle, Julia; Opmeer, Brent C; Boer, Frits; Mannarino, Anthony P; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-02-01

    To prevent adverse long-term effects, children who suffer from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) need treatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an established treatment for children with PTSS. However, alternatives are important for non-responders or if TF-CBT trained therapists are unavailable. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a promising treatment for which sound comparative evidence is lacking. The current randomized controlled trial investigates the effectiveness and efficiency of both treatments. Forty-eight children (8-18 years) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of TF-CBT or EMDR. The primary outcome was PTSS as measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). Secondary outcomes included parental report of child PTSD diagnosis status and questionnaires on comorbid problems. The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale was administered during the course of treatment. TF-CBT and EMDR showed large reductions from pre- to post-treatment on the CAPS-CA (-20.2; 95% CI -12.2 to -28.1 and -20.9; 95% CI -32.7 to -9.1). The difference in reduction was small and not statistically significant (mean difference of 0.69, 95% CI -13.4 to 14.8). Treatment duration was not significantly shorter for EMDR (p = 0.09). Mixed model analysis of monitored PTSS during treatment showed a significant effect for time (p EMDR are effective and efficient in reducing PTSS in children.

  8. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week period.…

  9. Design of a randomized controlled trial of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Vera; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Retel, Valesca; van Beurden, Marc; Hunter, Myra S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menopausal symptoms are common and may be particularly severe in younger women who undergo treatment-induced menopause. Medications to reduce menopausal symptoms are either contra-indicated or have bothersome side effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that face-to-face cognitive be

  10. Cognitive-behavioral Intervention for Patients with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia%心理行为干预辅助治疗痴呆并发行为和精神症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 杨国平; 汤莉; 顾君

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of cognitive-behavioral intervention on patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Methods: Sixty patients with BPSD were randomly divided into study group (treated with combination of cognitive-behavioral intervention and risperidone) and control group (treated with risperidone) for six weeks, and curative effectiveness was evaluate by using the BEHAVE-AD, MMSE and ADL scales. Results: The BEHAVE-AD scores in two groups were significantly decreased after 6 weeks as compared with those before treatement. However, reduction of BEHAVE-AD scores was more prominent in study group than that in control group. The scores of MMSE were significantly higher, and those of ADL were significantly lower in study group than in control group. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral intervention combined with risperidone has better efficacy in the treatment of BPSD, and it can improve the quality of life and cognitive function in patients.%目的:探讨心理行为干预辅助治疗痴呆并发行为和精神症状(BPSD)的效果.方法:60例BPSD患者随机分为研究组和对照组各30例,均口服利培酮和脑复康药物治疗.研究组同时辅助心理行为干预治疗.包括记忆、文体活动及ADL训练、行为矫正等.于治疗前后采用痴呆病理行为评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)、简易智能状态量表(MMSE)及ADL能力量表(ADL)评定2组患者的痴呆程度、行为症状及ADL.结果:治疗6周后,2组BEHAVEAD评分均较治疗前有明显下降(P<0.01),2组间比较,研究组下降更明显(P<0.05).MMSE评分研究组较治疗前及对照组明显提高,ADL评分明显下降(均P<0.05),而对照组治疗前后变化不明显.结论:心理行为干预辅助治疗BPSD患者,可有效改善其认知,提高残存记忆功能和ADL能力.

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner violence and suicidal behaviors: self-esteem, social support, and religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Rebekah; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2005-12-01

    There is a dearth of research on risk/protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), presenting for suicidal behavior or routine medical care in a large, urban hospital. We examined self-esteem, social support, and religious coping as mediators between experiences of child maltreatment (CM) and IPV and symptoms of PTSD in a sample (N = 134) of low-income African American women. Instruments used included the Index of Spouse Abuse, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Taylor Self-Esteem Inventory, the Multidimensional Profile of Social Support, the Brief Religious Coping Activities Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. Both CM and IPV related positively to PTSD symptoms. Risk and resilience individual difference factors accounted for 18% of the variance in PTSD symptoms over and above IPV and CM, with self-esteem and negative religious coping making unique contributions. Both variables mediated the abuse-PTSD symptom link. In addition, we tested an alternate model in which PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between abuse and both self-esteem and negative religious coping.

  12. Investigation in behavioral and psychological symptoms of senile dementia patients and nursing inter-vention%老年期痴呆患者行为和精神症状的调查及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the behavioral and psychological symptoms of serfi[e dementia pa-tents and nursing intervention. Methods 56 senile dementia patients were investigated and analyzed about their behavioral and psychological symptoms, nursing interventions were given to them accord-ingly. Results The incidence rate of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) was 94.64%. Diet and psychological care was given according to its behavioral and psychological symptoms, and symptomatic nursing was strengthened and measures were taken to prevent and treat somatic disease. sions Strengthening the nursing quality of senile dementia patients has important significance in improving their quality of life, and reducing the burden of caregivers.%目的 探讨老年期痴呆患者的行为和精神症状及护理措施.方法 对收治的56例老年期痴呆患者进行了行为和精神症状的调查与分析,并针对其症状采取适合的护理措施.结果 痴呆的行为和精神症状(BPSD)发生率达94.64%,针对行为和精神症状采取了饮食和心理护理,加强对症护理并预防和治疗躯体疾病.结论 加强老年痴呆的护理质量对于提高痴呆患者的生存质量,减轻照顾者负担具有重要的临床意义.

  13. Risk behaviors for eating disorders and depressive symptoms: a study of female adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Major Depression Inventory (MDI to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370 = 14.18; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings indicated a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and eating disorders (χ2 = 14.71; Wald = 12.90; p = 0.001. The authors concluded that depressive symptoms were related to eating disorders in female adolescents. Thus, girls with some level of depression showed a greater tendency to adopt disordered eating as a daily habit.

  14. Associations between the severity of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms and care-seeking behavior in rural Africa: A cross-sectional survey from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Lynn; Macnab, Andrew J.; Bajunirwe, Francis; Mutabazi, Sharif; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Study type A cross sectional survey. Background Global estimates indicate that by 2018 2.3 billion individuals worldwide will suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), with 1.1 billion having LUTS related to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Left untreated BOO in men causes irreversible changes to the urinary tract leading to urinary retention, the need for catheterization, renal failure and even death. Estimates suggest that Africa will be one of the continents with the greatest increase in (LUTS) by 2018 however direct measures in Africa are lacking. The objectives were to: (1) measure of prevalence of LUTS/BOO in a community-based sample of men in Africa, (2) compare community-based LUTS/BOO frequency to those seeking care for LUTS in a local clinic (3) quantify bother, interference with daily living, worry and quality of life related to LUTS/BOO between community and clinic settings and (4) examine relationships between socioeconomic and demographics related to LUTS/BOO. Methods and findings 473 men from a rural Ugandan community (238 residents living with their symptoms and 177 presenting at a clinic for care) completed the International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) and a 53-item validated LUTS symptom, bother and quality of life index. Severity of symptoms was categorized based on reference ranges for mild, moderate and severe levels of the IPSS, comparing those in the community versus those seeking care for symptoms. IPSS indicated that 55.9% of men in the community versus 17.5% of those at the clinic had mild symptoms, 31.5% in the community versus 52.5% of those at the clinic had moderate symptoms and 12.6% of those in the community versus 29.9% of those at the clinic had severe symptoms (p<0.001). Men seeking care for LUTS/BOO had a lower quality of life (p<0.05), were more bothered by their urinary symptoms (p<0.05), had more interference with daily activity and worry (p<0.05) but this did not have an impact on their general sense of wellbeing

  15. Burden of menstrual symptoms in Japanese women – an analysis of medical care-seeking behavior from a survey-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka E

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erika Tanaka,1 Mikio Momoeda,2 Yutaka Osuga,3 Bruno Rossi,4 Ken Nomoto,5 Masakane Hayakawa,5 Kinya Kokubo,6 Edward CY Wang1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Integrated Women's Health, St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Market Access, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 5Medical Affairs Women's Health and Dermatology, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 6Consumer Goods/Service and Healthcare Industry Consulting Department, Nomura Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan Background: Menstrual symptoms are associated with various health problems in women of reproductive age, and this may impact their quality of life. Despite this, Japanese women are likely to hesitate seeking a specialist's medical help for their menstrual symptoms. Purpose: To study subject parameters including symptom severity, gynecological disorders, and treatments in medical care-seeking women (outpatient and women opting for self-care (nonvisit, to identify reasons why Japanese women do not see a gynecologist, and to document the benefit of gynecologist visits by assessing the impact on women's daily lives. Methods: Two online surveys were conducted among women aged 15–49 years. Sampling was structured to approximate the age and geographic distribution in Japan. Results of the first survey and part of the second survey on the overall current burden of menstrual symptoms are reported in a separate publication. Further outcomes from the second survey reported in this paper included data from the outpatient (n=274 and nonvisit (n=500 groups on symptom severity, gynecological disorders, medical treatment use, reasons for not seeking medical care, and the improvement of daily life. Results: The outpatient group tended to have greater symptom severity compared to the nonvisit group. Uterine fibroids, dysmenorrhea

  16. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  17. Efficacy of Memantine in the Treatment for Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Vascular Dementia%美金刚治疗血管性痴呆精神行为症状疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆蓉; 张向荣; 张洪燕; 李毅; 袁道瑞

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析美金刚治疗血管性痴呆精神行为症状临床疗效。方法选取从2013年8月~2015年8月收治的40例血管性痴呆伴精神行为症状,使用美金刚治疗,对比入组患者治疗前、治疗后的临床疗效。结果入组患者治疗12周后,ADL、BEHAVE-AD、MMSE评分优于治疗前(P<0.05)。药物不良反应发生率为10.00%。结论对血管性痴呆伴精神行为症状患者采用美金刚治疗,可改善患者日常生活能力、精神行为症状及认知功能,安全有效。%Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy of memantine in treatment of vascular dementia behavioral and psychiatric symptoms. Methods From August 2013 to August 2015,40 cases of vascular dementia had behavioral and psychological symptoms,treatment with memantine and contrast into groups of patients before treatment,after treatment of clinical efficacy. Results After 12 weeks of treatment,the scores of ADL,BEHAVE-AD and MMSE were significantly better than before treatment(P<0.05). The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 10%. Conclusion On vascular dementia with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in patients treated with memantine,improve patients activities of daily living(ADL),neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive function,safe and effective.

  18. Migraine- and dystonia-related disease-mutations of Na+/K+-ATPases: Relevance of behavioral studies in mice to disease symptoms and neurological manifestations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Doganli, Canan; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The two autosomal dominantly inherited neurological diseases: familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) and familial rapid-onset of dystonia-parkinsonism (Familial RDP) are caused by in vivo mutations of specific alpha subunits of the sodium–potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase). Intriguingly, patients...... with classical FHM2 and RDP symptoms additionally suffer from other manifestations, such as epilepsy/seizures and developmental disabilities. Recent studies of FHM2 and RDP mouse models provide valuable tools for dissecting the vital roles of the Na+/K+-ATPases, and we discuss their relevance to the complex...... patient symptoms and manifestations. Thus, it is interesting that mouse models targeting a specific -isoform cause different, although still comparable, phenotypes consistent with classical symptoms and other manifestations observed in FHM2 and RDP patients. This review highlights that use of mouse models...

  19. The role of safety behaviors in exposure-based treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia: associations to symptom severity, treatment course, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; Richter, Jan; Lang, Thomas; Gerlach, Alexander L; Fehm, Lydia; Alpers, Georg W; Ströhle, Andreas; Kircher, Tilo; Deckert, Jürgen; Gloster, Andrew T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The potentially detrimental effects of safety behaviors during exposure therapy are still subject to debate. Empirical findings are inconsistent, and few studies have investigated effects of idiosyncratic safety behavior manifestations during exposure or in everyday life. These limitations might be due to a lack of appropriate measures that address individual safety behaviors. We examined psychometric properties and predictive value of the Texas Safety Maneuver Scale (TSMS), a questionnaire specifically targeting safety behaviors in panic disorder and agoraphobia. Effects of safety behavior use, both during everyday life and during therapy, were examined using data from a multicenter RCT of N=268 patients that aimed at evaluating efficacy and mechanisms of action of two variants of an exposure-based therapy. The TSMS total score demonstrated good internal consistency (α=0.89), and it showed significant correlations with selected measures of baseline anxiety and impairment. The proposed factor structure could not be replicated. Frequent safety behavior use at baseline was associated with actual safety behavior during exposure exercises. Pronounced in-situ safety behavior, but not baseline safety behavior was associated to detrimental treatment outcome. The results underline the relevance of a rigorous safety behavior assessment in therapy. The actual relationship between safety behavior use and treatment outcome is yet to determine.

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study Examining Health Behaviors and Health Care Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    preventive factors. We further explored whether we could identify subgroups of patients with a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes. Methods and Results: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 897 patients discharged with firsttime MI between 1 January 2009 and 31 December......-years of follow-up. Event-free survival was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Compared to the 730 patients without depressive symptoms (HADS-D,8), the 167 patients with depressive symptoms (HADS-D$8) had age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios [HR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 1.53 (95% CI, 1...

  1. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Subsequent Inflammation in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease : Prospective Findings From the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Na, Bee Ya; Cohen, Beth E.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression has been associated with inflammation in patients with coronary heart disease. However, it is uncertain whether depressive symptoms lead to inflammation or vice versa. Method: The authors evaluated 667 outpatients with established coronary heart disease from the Heart and Soul

  2. Changes in Parenting Behaviors, Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation in Attachment-Based Family Therapy for Depressive and Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, Maya S.; Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) was associated with decreases in maternal psychological control and increases in maternal psychological autonomy granting, and whether such changes were associated with changes in adolescents' attachment schema and psychological symptoms. Eighteen suicidal adolescents and their…

  3. Self-compassion influences PTSD symptoms in the process of change in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies: A study of within-person processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asle eHoffart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAlthough self-compassion is considered a promising change agent in the treatment of PTSD, no studies of this hypothesis exist. This study examined the within-person relationship of self-compassion components (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, self-judgment, isolation, over-identification and subsequent PTSD symptoms over the course of therapy. Method: PTSD patients (n = 65 were randomized to either standard prolonged exposure, which includes imaginal exposure (IE to the traumatic memory, or modified prolonged exposure, where imagery re-scripting (IR of the memory replaced IE as the imagery component of prolonged exposure in a 10 week residential program. They were assessed weekly on self-compassion and PTSD symptom measures. The centering method of detrending was used to separate the variance related to the within-person process of change over the course of treatment from between-person variance. Results: The self-compassion components self-kindness, self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification had a within-person effect on subsequent PTSD symptoms. These relationships were independent of therapy form. The within-person relationship between self-judgment and subsequent PTSD symptoms was stronger in patients with higher initial self-judgment. By contrast, there were few indications that within-person variations in PTSD symptoms predict subsequent self-compassion components. Conclusion: The results support the role of self-compassion components in maintaining PTSD and imply the recommendation to facilitate decrease of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification and increase of self-kindness in the treatment of PTSD patients. The reduction of self-judgment appears to be most important, especially for patients with a high initial level of self-judgment.

  4. Self-compassion influences PTSD symptoms in the process of change in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies: a study of within-person processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Øktedalen, Tuva; Langkaas, Tomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Although self-compassion is considered a promising change agent in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no studies of this hypothesis exist. This study examined the within-person relationship of self-compassion components (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, self-judgment, isolation, over-identification) and subsequent PTSD symptoms over the course of therapy. Method: PTSD patients (n = 65) were randomized to either standard prolonged exposure, which includes imaginal exposure (IE) to the traumatic memory, or modified prolonged exposure, where imagery re-scripting (IR) of the memory replaced IE as the imagery component of prolonged exposure in a 10 weeks residential program. They were assessed weekly on self-compassion and PTSD symptom measures. The centering method of detrending was used to separate the variance related to the within-person process of change over the course of treatment from between-person variance. Results: The self-compassion components self-kindness, self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification had a within-person effect on subsequent PTSD symptoms. These relationships were independent of therapy form. The within-person relationship between self-judgment and subsequent PTSD symptoms was stronger in patients with higher initial self-judgment. By contrast, there were few indications that within-person variations in PTSD symptoms predict subsequent self-compassion components. Conclusion: The results support the role of self-compassion components in maintaining PTSD and imply the recommendation to facilitate decrease of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification and increase of self-kindness in the treatment of PTSD patients. The reduction of self-judgment appears to be most important, especially for patients with a high initial level of self-judgment. PMID:26379596

  5. Changes in symptom intensity and emotion valence during the process of assimilation of a problematic experience: A quantitative study of a good outcome case of cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Isabel; Pinheiro, Patrícia; Stiles, William B; Rijo, Daniel; Salgado, João

    2016-02-02

    The assimilation model describes the change process in psychotherapy. In this study we analyzed the relation of assimilation with changes in symptom intensity, measured session by session, and changes in emotional valence, measured for each emotional episode, in the case of a 33-year-old woman treated for depression with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Results showed the theoretically expected negative relation between assimilation of the client's main concerns and symptom intensity, and the relation between assimilation levels and emotional valence corresponded closely to the assimilation model's theoretical feelings curve. The results show how emotions work as markers of the client's current assimilation level, which could help the therapist adjust the intervention, moment by moment, to the client's needs.

  6. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone ...

  7. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Symptoms of IC General IC Symptoms General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...

  8. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Each heading slides to reveal more information. Early Symptoms Early Symptoms Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ...

  9. Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes – results of a national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lene Juel; Birkebæk, Niels; Mose, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological difficulties in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes using both child/adolescent and caregiver reports, and to investigate associations between these symptoms and metabolic control, adherence, and quality of life. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHOD: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8-17 years) recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y), while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The participants also completed...... questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. RESULTS: Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples...

  10. Control study of quetiapine in the treatment of alzheimer's disease(AD) with behavioral and psychological symptoms%奎硫平治疗阿尔茨海默病精神行为症状对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锦红

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine and risperidone in the treatment of alzheimer's disease(AD) patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms(BPSD).Methods:60 cases of AD patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms were selected,they were randomly divided into two groups.The two groups were respectively treated with quetiapine and risperidone for 6 weeks.Treatment effects were assessed with the behavioral pathology in alzheimer's disease rating scale(BEHAVE-AD) and mini mental state examination(MMSE).Adverse reactions were assessed with treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS).Results:In the quetiapine group,the effective rate was 84.5%;in the risperidone group,the effective rate was 83%.Conclusion:The safety of quetiapine is higher.%目的:比较奎硫平和利培酮对阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者精神行为症状(BPSD)的疗效和安全性。方法:收治具有精神行为症状的AD患者60例,随机分为两组,分别给予奎硫平和利培酮治疗,疗程6周。采用痴呆病理行为评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)、简易智力状态检查(MMSE)评定疗效。采用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应。结果:奎硫平组的有效率84.5%;利培酮组的有效率83%。结论:奎硫平的安全性更高。

  11. Severe hypoglycemia symptoms, antecedent behaviors, immediate consequences and association with glycemia medication usage: Secondary analysis of the ACCORD clinical trial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonds Denise E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoglycemia is a common complication of diabetes treatment. This paper describes symptoms, predecessors, consequences and medications associated with the first episode of severe hypoglycemia among ACCORD participants with type 2 diabetes, and compares these between intensive (Int: goal A1C Methods Information about symptoms, antecedents, and consequences was collected at the time participants reported an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Data on medications prescribed during the clinical trial was used to determine the association of particular diabetes drug classes and severe hypoglycemia. Results The most frequently reported symptoms in both glycemia group were weakness/fatigue (Int 29%; Std 30% and sweating (Int 26%; Std 27%, followed by confusion/disorientation (Int 22%; Std 29% and shakiness (Int 21%; Std 19%. Approximately half of all events were preceded by a variation in food intake (Int 48%; Std 58%. The most common consequences were confusion (Int 37%; Std 34%, loss of consciousness (Int 25%; Std 25%, and hospitalization (Int 18%; Std 24%. The highest rates of hypoglycemia were found among those participants treated with insulin only (Int 6.09/100 person yrs; Std 2.64/100 person yrs while the lowest were among those prescribed oral agents only (Int 1.93/100 person yrs; Std 0.20/100 person yrs. Conclusions Severe hypoglycemia episodes were frequently preceded by a change in food intake, making many episodes potentially preventable. Symptoms of confusion/disorientation and loss of consciousness were frequently seen. The highest rates of hypoglycemia were seen with prescription of insulin, either alone or in combination with other medications. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00000620

  12. Self-compassion influences PTSD symptoms in the process of change in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies: a study of within-person processes

    OpenAIRE

    Asle eHoffart; Tuva eØktedalen; Tomas Formo Langkaas

    2015-01-01

    Although self-compassion is considered a promising change agent in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no studies of this hypothesis exist. This study examined the within-person relationship of self-compassion components (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, self-judgment, isolation, over-identification) and subsequent PTSD symptoms over the course of therapy. Method: PTSD patients (n = 65) were randomized to either standard prolonged exposure, which includes ima...

  13. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-08-16

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and related conditions like Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment.

  14. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  15. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2015-01-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3–6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children’s levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the tem...

  16. A qualitative study of earplug use as a health behavior: the role of noise injury symptoms, self-efficacy and an affinity for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, E F; Williams, W; Gilliver, M

    2012-03-01

    The use of earplugs in loud music venues is confined to a small minority who wish to avoid hearing damage from excessive noise exposure. Using the framework of the health belief model (HBM), structured interviews were held with 20 earplug-wearing clubbers. Qualitative analysis revealed the HBM constructs relevant to understanding this group's motivation to protect their hearing. Personal experience of noise injury symptoms was the most common cue triggering earplug use. Awareness of the benefits of earplugs and appreciation of the long-term implications of hearing damage, affinity for music and high self-efficacy were also key variables underlying this health behaviour.

  17. Correlation between depressive symptoms and network addiction, social support, and C behavior among vocational college students%高职学生抑郁与网络成瘾、社会支持、C型行为关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓丽; 刘春莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of network addiction, social support, and C behavior on depressive symptoms among vocational college students and to provide basis for mental health education among students. Methods Totally 1 662 vocational college students were investigated with stratified cluster sampling method. Results Among the students,46. 6% had depression symptoms(44. 6% for the males and 47. 3% for the females). Depression symptom detection rates were 64. 7% and 64. 1% in the students with network dependence and internet addiction. The depression symptom detection rates were 72. 9% and 90. 1% in the students with pro-C behavior and C behavior. Depression symptom detection rates were 67. 5% and 85.7% in the students with less social support and without social support. All the differences observed were statistically significant(P <0. 05 for all). Conclusion Depressive symptom detection rate is high in vocational college students in Ningxia. There are interactions among social support, network addiction, C behavior and depression.%目的 了解社会支持、网络成瘾与C型行为对高职学生抑郁的影响,为高职学生心理健康教育提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽取宁夏5所高职院校共1 662名在校学生进行自填式问卷调查.结果 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率为46.6%,其中女生为47.3%,男生为44.6%;网络依赖与网络成瘾学生抑郁发生率分别为64.7%、64.1%,高于网络使用正常学生的43.7%;社会支持不足和社会支持缺乏学生的抑郁发生率分别为67.5%、85.7%,高于社会支持正常的学生;具有偏C和C型行为学生抑郁发生率分别为72.9%、90.1%,高于偏非C和非C型行为学生抑郁发生率,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);网络成瘾、C型行为、社会支持为抑郁发生的影响因素并与抑郁存在明显相关关系(r=0.193、r=0.453、r=-0.366).结论 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率较高,与网络成瘾

  18. Comparative Study on Tiapride and Risperidone in Treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia%硫必利与利培酮治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁成勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical application of risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and tiapride therapy differences behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and related side effects. Methods Experimental group were treated with tiapride (50~400 mg / qd), the control group received risperidone (0.5~4.0 mg) /qd).6 weeks Differences between the two groups and the PANSS scale Results TESS data. Results Efifciency difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) tiapride treatment group the number of cases of side effects than risperidone group, the Results were statistically significant (P 0.05).硫必利治疗组发生副反应的病例数少于利培酮治疗组,结果具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 硫必利治疗老年期痴呆精神及行为症状效果确切.

  19. 认知行为疗法在癌症病人身心症状护理中的应用进展%Progress on application of cognitive behavior therapy in psychosomatic symptoms care of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健慧; 商丽艳; 徐燕

    2015-01-01

    It summarized the application and effect of domestic and foreign cognitive behavior therapy in com-mon somatic symptoms (pain,fatigue,nausea and vomiting)and psychological symptoms (anxiety,depression) of cancer patients.It pointed out the existing problems and faced challenges in current researches and put for-ward the corresponding suggestions,in order to further popularize the application of cognitive behavior therapy in clinical cancer patients.%概述国内外认知行为疗法在癌症病人常见躯体症状(疼痛、疲乏、恶心呕吐等)以及心理症状(焦虑、抑郁)中的应用情况、效果,指出当前研究中存在的问题和面临的挑战,并提出相应建议,以推广认知行为疗法在临床癌症病人中的应用。

  20. Pathways from Depressive Symptoms to Low Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…

  1. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  2. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Kapp, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828;…

  3. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Meta-Analytic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of seve

  4. Connecting with Parents: Mothers' Depressive Symptoms and Responsive Behaviors in the Regulation of Social Contact by One- and Young Two-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Cheng, Nina; Day, William H.

    2009-01-01

    When children act to involve mothers in positive interaction, they influence the amount, timing, and content of parent-child exchanges. By assessing children's smiling and positive initiation, we examined child behaviors that function to create positive interaction. In a non-clinical North American sample of 103 mothers and their 14- to…

  5. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  6. Investigation of behavioral and pxychological symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease%农村老年痴呆患者精神行为症状及相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢国强; 周玲; 郭丽娜; 陶冬芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore features of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia ( BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer s disease and related factors. Method:77 senile dementia patients were evaluated with the behavioral pathology in Alzheimers disease rating scale in Qingpu Shanghai. Features of BPSD and re lated factors were analyzed. Results:The prevalence of BPSD was 89. 6% . The most common symptoms were abnormal and aggressive behavior, disturbance of circadian rhythm and delusion. BPSD was not associated with sex, age, disease course and education. Conclusion: Prevalence of BPSD is high among senile dementia pa tients.%目的:探讨农村老年痴呆患者精神行为症状(BPSD)的特点及其相关因素.方法:应用阿尔茨海默病病理行为评分量表对77例上海青浦区农村地区老年痴呆患者的病理性行为进行评定,并分析其相关因素.结果:老年痴呆患者BPSD发生率为89.6%,其中以行为紊乱、攻击性行为、日夜节律紊乱和偏执与妄想多见.BPSD与性别、年龄、文化程度和病程无相关,轻、中度痴呆患者偏执和妄想症状较重度明显,阿尔茨海默病和血管性痴呆BPSD相似.结论:农村老年痴呆患者BPSD发生率较高.

  7. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. ...

  8. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Differential Disorders Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Downloadable Publications Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can ... be accounted for: ► The age at which the symptoms started. The age at which symptoms begin is ...

  9. The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and other developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S J; Wehner, D E; Hagerman, R

    2001-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the behavioral phenotype of autism in a group of young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Twenty-four children with FXS, ages 21 to 48 months, were compared with two well-matched groups: 27 children with autism (AD) and 23 children with other developmental delays (DD), on two standardized autism instruments, as well as on measures of development and adaptive behavior. Two FXS subgroups emerged. One subgroup (n = 16) did not meet study criteria for autism. Their profiles on the autism instruments and the developmental instruments were virtually identical to the other DD group. The other FXS subgroup (n = 8, or 33% of the total FXS group) met study criteria for autism. Their profiles on the autism instruments were virtually identical to the group with autism. The finding of two FXS subgroups raises a hypothesis of additional genetic influences in the FXS autism group, warranting further genetic studies.

  10. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eMiranda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EF using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF. The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed. The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of ADHD symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  11. Research of Depressive Symptoms and Related Behaviors of Pupils in Yancheng City%盐城市小学生抑郁症状及相关行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学艳; 周文君

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解盐城市小学生抑郁症状发生现况,探讨相关的影响因素。方法采用儿童抑郁量表(CDI)及自编问卷对盐城市2362名小学生进行抑郁症状及其行为生活方式等情况调查。结果盐城市小学生的抑郁症状总体检出率为10.7%,其中男生12.0%,女生10.1%,男生高于女生。多因素 Logistic 分析结果显示,男性、睡眠质量差、不是每天吃早餐、课外学习时间≥2 h/d、每次电脑游戏≥2 h 以及不锻炼是抑郁症状发生的危险因素,OR 值分别为1.34,2.04,4.05,1.65,1.90,1.45。结论合理安排小学生课外学习时间、增加体育锻炼、加强心理疏导以及避免沉溺电脑游戏是避免和预防小学生抑郁症状发生的有效途径。%Objectives To find out the status of depressive symptoms of students in Yancheng city,and to explore the related factors.Methods Children's Depression Inventory(CDI)and questionnaires were used to investigate the depressive symptoms and lifestyle behaviors of 2362 children in Yancheng city.Results The detection rate of de-pressive symptoms was 10.7%,and the rate for boys (12.0%)was higher than girls (10.1%).According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis,male,poor sleep quality,skipping breakfast,extra study time ≥2 hours/day,each computer game time ≥2 hours and no exercise were risk factors of the depressive symptoms,and the odds ratio (OR)were 1.34,2.04,4.05,1.65,1.90 and 1.45,respectively.Conclusions Reasonable arrange-ments for study time,increasing physical activity,strengthening psychological counseling and avoiding computer game addiction are effective ways to prevent depressive symptoms of pupils.

  12. Curative Effetc of Amisulpr id e on theT reatm ent of Psychological and Behavior al Symptoms of Dementia%氨磺必利治疗痴呆精神行为症状疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 王德燧; 盛利

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of amisulpride on the treatment of psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia.Methods:76 patients with dementia were randomly enrolled experiment group(38cases) administrated with amisulpride with the initial dosage of 50~100mg/d and contrast group accepted with risperidone with the initial dosage of 0.5~1mg/d,and were observed for 8 weeks.Alzhei-mer's disease pathology score sheet behavior( BEHAVE-AD) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ( PANSS) were carried out before and after 8 weeks therapy.Results:After 8 weeks therapy,the scores of BEHAVE-AD in hallucination and behavioral disorders in experiment group were lower than those in contrast group(t=2.09,2.49;P<0.05).The score of PANSS in negative symptoms in experiment group was lower than that in contrast group(t=2.52,P<0.05).Conclus ion:Amisulpride on the treatment of psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia is as effect as risperidone,and more better than risper-idone in improving negative symptoms,hallucination and behavioral disorders.%目的:了解氨磺必利治疗痴呆精神行为症状的疗效。方法:将患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各38例,观察组口服氨磺必利,起始剂量50~100mg/d,对照组口服利培酮起始剂量0.5~1mg/d。两组观察周期均为8周,使用老年性痴呆病理行为评分表( BEHAVE-AD),阳性和阴性症状量表( PANSS)对两组患者分别在治疗前、治疗8周后进行评分。结果:治疗8周后,BEHAVE-AD评分观察组幻觉评分低于对照组(t=2.09,P<0.05),行为紊乱低于对照组(t=2.49,P<0.05)。 PANSS评分观察组阴性症状评分低于对照组(t=2.52,P<0.05)。结论:氨磺必利同利培酮相比对痴呆行为和精神症状同样具有较好的疗效,且在患者的阴性症状以及改善幻觉、行为紊乱方面优于利培酮。

  13. 奥氮平治疗阿尔茨海默病精神行为症状对照研究%Comparative study of olanzapine in treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠海; 王洪娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect and adverse reaction of olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.Methods 70 cases with Alzheimer's disease were randomly divided into 2 groups, being treated with olanzapine and risperidone seperately for 8 weeks.The Alzheimer's disease pathology behavioral assessment scale ( BEHAVE-AD) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale ( TESS) were used to assess the efficacy and adverse reactions.Results Scores of BEHAV-AD decreased significantly after treatment (P0.05).The incidence of extrapyramidal system reaction ( EPS) and insomnia in risperidone group was higher than that of olanzapine group (P <0.05).Conclusions Olanzapine and risperidone had considerable effect in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, but olanzapine had better safety.%目的:探讨奥氮平与利培酮治疗老年期痴呆患者的精神行为症状的疗效及不良反应。方法对70例老年痴呆患者随机分为奥氮平组和利培酮组进行治疗,疗程8周。采用阿尔茨海默病病理行为评定表( BEHAVE-AD )及不良反应症状量表( TESS )评定疗效和不良反应。结果治疗后两组BEHAV-AD评分均显著下降(P<0.05或P<0.01);4周时以奥氮平组BEHAV-AD总分及行为紊乱、抑郁、焦虑评分降低明显(P<0.05);奥氮平组有效率91.43%,利培酮组有效率88.57%(P>0.05);在锥体外系反应(EPS)、失眠的发生率利培酮组高于奥氮平组(P<0.05)。结论奥氮平和利培酮用于治疗阿尔茨海默病精神行为症状的临床疗效相当,但奥氮平的安全性更好。

  14. Characteristics and risk factors of the recurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease%阿尔茨海默病精神行为症状复发的危险因素和特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕继辉; 周爱红; 张力; 李文杰; 李钦云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics and risk factors of the recurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia ( BPSD ) in patients with Alzheimer's disease ( AD ). Methods A total of 102 AD patients with BPSD were followed up for 12 months after BPSD was well controlled. The severity of BPSD was measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory ( NPI ). The 10 items of NPI were categorized into three syndromes : affective impairments, psychotic symptoms and lack of control disorders. The number of symptoms, NPI total score, and its sub-scores of the recurrent BPSD were compared with those at first BPSD onset. Relationships were analyzed between the recurrence of BPSD and its potential influential factors including age, sex, onset age, course, education level, marriage status, cognitive function, ability of daily living, severity of BPSD at the first BPSD onset, maintenance of antipsychotic medications, and change of environment.Results 44.1% ( 45/102 ) of the patients presented recurrent BPSD within 12 months. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that change of environment ( RR = 5.42, P<0.05 ). no maintenance of antipsychotic medication ( RR = 3.13, P <0.05 ), and high NPI score at first BPSD onset( RR = 1.06, P <0.05 ) were risk factors for recurrent BPSD. The numbers of symptoms between the first BPSD onset and the recurrent onset was significantly associated ( r = 0.93, P < 0.05 ), and so was the affective sub-scores ( r = 0.79, P <0.05 ). The NPI total score ( 18.29 ± 2.06 vs. 20.80 ± 3.78, P < 0.05 ) and psychotic sub-score ( 6.49 ± 1.80 vs. 7.73 ± 1.92, P < 0.05 ) were significantly lower in the recurrent onset than in the first BPSD. Conclusions The change in environment, no maintenance of antipsychotic medication, and high NPI score at first BPSD onset are risk factors for the recurrence of BPSD. The severity of BPSD and its psychotic symptoms might decrease with the progress of the disease wherease affective impairments

  15. Blockade of Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors Suppresses Behavioral Sensitization and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Gang; Wu, Xian; Tao, Xinrong; Mao, Ruoying; Liu, Xueke; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Stackman, Robert W.; Dong, Liuyi; Zhang, Gongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prescription of opioids is fueling an epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths. Morphine is a highly addictive drug characterized by a high relapse rate – even after a long period of abstinence. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of morphine dependence, as well as the expression of morphine withdrawal. In this study, we examined the effect of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in male mice. 5-HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed acute morphine (5.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in locomotor activity. Mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg) was administered to induce the expression of behavioral sensitization. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment suppressed the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice on day 7. Moreover, chronic morphine treatment increased 5-HT2AR protein level and decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these results by the first time demonstrate that 5-HT2ARs modulate opioid dependence and blockade of 5-HT2AR may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of morphine use disorders. Highlights (i) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. (ii) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-treated mice. (iii) Chronic morphine exposure induces an increase in 5-HT2A receptor protein level and a decrease in ERK protein phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex. PMID:28082900

  16. Explicit and implicit attitudes towards heights: a relationship with acrophobic symptoms and sesnsitivity to cognitive-behavioral treatment. A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soflau, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test whether implicit and explicit attitudes toward heights differ between individuals with low and high fear of heights, and whether the implicit and explicit attitudes toward heights are sensitive to a one session cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT in the second group. In addition, we also explored the relationships between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as the effect of retesting on implicit attitudes. Both explicit and implicit attitudes toward heights were assessed in individuals with low (n = 49 and high levels of fear of heights (n = 83 prior to treatment, and reassessed in the second group after one session of CBT intervention in virtual reality. Results show that there are differences in both implicit (F(1, 96 = 25.155, p < .005, partial η2 = .208 and explicit attitudes (F(1, 96 = 90.970, p < .001, partial η2 = .487 for cognitive evaluation; F(1, 96 = 69.542, p < .001, partial η2 = .420 for dangerousness between fearful and non-fearful individuals. As expected, implicit (t(48 = 3.712, p = .001 and explicit attitudes (t(56 = 4.071, p < .001 for dangerousness; t(57 = 5.002, p < .001 for cognitive evaluation favorably changed following treatment, with medium effect sizes. These findings suggest that both explicit and implicit attitudes are cognitive factors related to acrophobics ymptoms and might play a role as mechanisms in the cognitive-behavioral treatment of heights related fear.

  17. Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD)-no easy solution%痴呆的精神行为症状的管理——并非易事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen F.K. CHIU; S.W.LI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is a hot topic because these commonly seen symptoms in persons with dementia are quite difficult to manage.As highlighted in the comments by Xiao[1],the administration of antipsychotics is controversial because the use of antipsychotic medications in persons with dementia is associated with increased mortality,increased risk of stroke and worsened cognitive function[2,3].Xiao recommends that more long-term follow-up studies on the management of the BPSD be conducted to give clinicians better guidance on the treatment of this complex condition.This recommendation is particularly pertinent for Chinese populations.Two studies from Hong Kong showed that patients with the BPSD who were treated with antipsychotic medications did not have an increased risk of cerebrovascular accidents[4]or mortality[5].Clearly,more studies should be conducted in populations of different ethnicity to confirm or disprove the presumed risks of antipsychotic medications in patients with dementia.

  18. 自闭症儿童行为症状的中日比较研究%To comparative study of behavioral symptoms of autistic children in China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓辉; 吕晓彤; 太田昌孝

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过中日比较研究来探讨我国自闭症儿童的行为症状.方法 以3~7岁的中日自闭症儿童为研究对象,使用家长记入式问卷---小儿行为量表改订版(CBQ-R)进行研究.结果 中日自闭症儿童的症状都符合ICD-10的自闭症诊断标准,但我国自闭症儿童的行为症状较为严重,社会适应困难.我国自闭症儿童在严重程度(t=2.28,P<0.05),社会交往质的障碍(t=12.83,P<0.001)和伴随症状(t=8.11,P<0.001)等方面的得分高于日本;日本自闭症儿童的"语言发育迟缓(P<0.001)"、"能讲话但是会话不成立(P<0.01)"和"有特定的或奇妙的会话方式(P<0.05)"的得分高于我国.结论 自闭症虽然是中枢神经系统的生物学障碍,但其表现出来的基本的行为症状的强弱与文化社会因素密切相关.%Objective To clarify the behavioral symptoms of the children with autism through comparison between China and Japan. Methods The survey was targeted at 3-7 year-old autistic children. Child Behavior Questionnaire Revised (CBQ-R) completed by their parents were used. Results Both Chinese and Japanese autistic children showed more or less the three necessaries of behavioral symptoms for criteria of autism in ICD-10. However, associated behavioral symptoms were severer and more frequent in Chinese autistic children. The score of autistic degree (t = 2. 28, P < 0. 05 ) , qualitative impairments of social interaction (t = 12. 83 ,P <0. 001) and other nonspecific problems (t=8. 11 ,P <0. 001 ) in Chinese autistic children were higher than that in Japan. In comparison, the score of ' language retardation ( P < 0. 001 ) ' , ' can talk but session is not established (P <0. 01) ' and ' specific or strange conversation style (P <0. 05) ' in Japanese autistic children were higher than China. Conclusions Although autism is neurobilogical disorder,severity of symptoms could be aggravate to relevant social cultural factors .

  19. Clinical study of behavioral and psychological symptoms of senile dementia and the therapeutic efficacy of memantine%老年期痴呆的精神行为症状及美金刚的临床疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 高励; 赵晓玲; 曾仲; 张仲; 郝玉曼; 沈富伟; 何柳; 朱曦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨老年期痴呆患者精神行为症状及美金刚的改善作用.方法 选择老年期痴呆有精神行为症状的患者61例,随机分为2组,美金刚组(美金刚+多奈哌齐+尼莫地平)31例,对照组(多奈哌齐+尼莫地平)30例,分别在治疗前和治疗12周后进行简易智能状态检查量表(MMSE)、临床痴呆程度量表(CDR)及神经精神科问卷(NPI)的评估.结果 老年期痴呆患者精神行为症状多见.美金刚组与对照组患者治疗前MMSE、CDR及各项症状的NPI评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).美金刚组患者治疗12周后激越/攻击行为、焦虑、易激惹/不稳定性、情感高涨/欣快、夜间行为异常、食欲进食改变的NPI评分及NPI总分明显改善;对照组患者治疗12周后易激惹/不稳定性、夜间行为异常、食欲进食改变的NPI评分及NPI总分明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).美金刚组患者治疗12周后MMSE评分、激越/攻击行为、易激惹/不稳定性、食欲进食改变的NPI评分及NPI总分较对照组明显改善(P<0.05).结论 美金刚能有效改善老年期痴呆精神行为症状,减轻家庭负担.%Objective To study the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia(BPSD) in old patients and the improving effect of memantine. Methods Sixty-one patients with BPSD were randomly divided into two groups., the memantine group (memantine + donepezil + nimodipine, 31 patients) and the control group (donepezil+ nimodipine, 30 patients). Before treatment and after 12 weeks of treatment,all patients were assessed with MMSE,CDR and the neuropsychiatric inventory scale(NPI). Results The BPSD in old dementia patients were common. Before treatment,the MMSE,CDR and NPI score of every symptom showed no significant difference (P > 0. 05)between the two groups. After 12 weeks of treatment, the NPI(agitation/aggressive behavior,anxiety, irritability/unsteadiness, rise in affection/euphoria, abnormal behavior during

  20. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  1. The Relationship of dementia and psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia to plasma homocysteine%痴呆及其心理、行为症状与血浆同型半胱氨酸水平关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 李海林; 叶勤; 刘阳; 吴瑞枝; 陆蓉

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨痴呆及痴呆心理和行为症状(Psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia, BPSD)的可能发病机制,研究血浆同型半胱氨酸(homocysteine, Hcy)水平与痴呆及BPSD的关系. 方法阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer Disease, AD)、混合性痴呆(Mixed dementia, MD)、血管性痴呆(Vascular dementia, VD)和正常对照组各30例参加本研究.采用Alzheimer病行为症状评定量表(The Behavioral Pathlology in Alzheimer Disease Rating Scale, BEHAVE-AD)评定痴呆患者BPSD.采用高压毛细血管电泳紫外检测法测定经2, 4-二硝基氟苯(2, 4-dimntrifluorobenzen, DNFB)衍生后的血浆Hcy水平. 结果 AD、MD和VD患者血浆Hcy浓度均显著高于正常对照组,血浆高Hcy水平的痴呆患者BEHAVE-AD总分较高. 结论血浆高Hcy水平不仅与痴呆的发生发展有关,且在痴呆患者BPSD的发病机制中扮演了一个重要角色.

  2. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A: a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Csilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there are no empirically validated treatments of good quality for adolescents showing suicidality and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. Risk factors for suicide are impulsive and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, depression, conduct disorders and child abuse. Behind this background, we tested the main hypothesis of our study; that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents is an effective treatment for these patients. Methods Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT has been developed by Marsha Linehan - especially for the outpatient treatment of chronically non-suicidal patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The modified version of DBT for Adolescents (DBT-A from Rathus & Miller has been adapted for a 16-24 week outpatient treatment in the German-speaking area by our group. The efficacy of treatment was measured by a pre-/post- comparison and a one-year follow-up with the aid of standardized instruments (SCL-90-R, CBCL, YSR, ILC, CGI. Results In the pilot study, 12 adolescents were treated. At the beginning of therapy, 83% of patients fulfilled five or more DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. From the beginning of therapy to one year after its end, the mean value of these diagnostic criteria decreased significantly from 5.8 to 2.75. 75% of patients were kept in therapy. For the behavioral domains according to the SCL-90-R and YSR, we have found effect sizes between 0.54 and 2.14. During treatment, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior reduced significantly. Before the start of therapy, 8 of 12 patients had attempted suicide at least once. There were neither suicidal attempts during treatment with DBT-A nor at the one-year follow-up. Conclusions The promising results suggest that the interventions were well accepted by the patients and their families, and were associated with improvement in multiple domains including suicidality, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, emotion

  3. Examining self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Two feasibility open trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake F. Dear

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT has considerable public health potential for treating anxiety and depression. However, no research has examined the use of self-guided iCBT, that is, treatment without contact with a clinician, specifically for older adults. The aim of the present study was to undertake a preliminary examination of the acceptability, efficacy and health economic impact of two entirely self-guided iCBT programs for adults over 60 years of age with anxiety and depression. Two separate single-group feasibility open trials of self-guided iCBT were conducted, the Anxiety Trial (n = 27 and the Depression Trial (n = 20, using the control groups of two randomized controlled trials. The online treatment packages consisted of five online educational lessons, which were delivered over 8 weeks without clinical contact. Participants rated the interventions as acceptable with more than 90% reporting the course was worth their time and more than 70% of participants completing at least 3 of the 5 lessons within the eight weeks. Significant reductions on measures of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item; GAD-7 and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item; PHQ-9 were observed from pre-treatment to post-treatment in both the Anxiety Trial (GAD-7 Cohen's d = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.75 and the Depression Trial (PHQ-9 Cohen's d = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.73. The economic analyses indicated that there was statistically significant improvement in health-related quality of life compared to baseline and marginally higher costs associated with treatment for both the Anxiety Trial ($69.84; 95% CI: $4.24 to $135.45 and the Depression Trial ($54.98; 95% CI: $3.84 to $106.12. The results provide preliminary support for the potential of entirely self-guided iCBT for older adults with anxiety and depression and indicate larger scale and controlled research trials are warranted.

  4. 氨磺必利对痴呆患者精神行为症状的疗效分析%Effect of amisulpride on behavioral and psychological symptom of dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈震; 林勇

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察氨磺必利治疗痴呆患者精神行为症状(BPSD)的疗效及安全性.方法:对42例痴呆伴精神行为症状(BPSD)患者使用氨磺必利治疗12周,采用神经精神科问卷(NPI)评定疗效.结果:氨磺必利治疗后BPSD明显减轻,NPI各项因子得分除欣快外均明显改善(P<0.01);照料者的苦恼程度随BPSD的减轻而降低.结论:氨磺必利治疗痴呆BPSD疗效肯定,有效治疗剂量小,安全性高,同时能减轻照料者的苦恼程度.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and safety of amisulpride on behavioral and psychological symptom of dementia(BPSD).METHODS Forty-two patients diagnosed as dementia accompanied with BPSD were treated with amisulpride for 12 weeks,the therapeutic effect was assessed by questionnaire of Neuro Psychiatric Inventory(NPI).RESULTS The total score of NPI significantly decreased after treatment.All of the symptoms were significantly relieved except euphoria and apathy.The score—reduced rate of caregivers distress was positively associated with the score—reduced rate of NPI of relative patients.CONCLUSION There was a significant safety and effectiveness of the low dose amisulpride on dementia patients with BPSD,which can relieve caregivers distress.

  5. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Support Guides Why no symptoms? Because prostate cancer hardly ever starts in the most convenient part of the prostate for symptoms to occur, near the urethra (the tube that carries urine through the prostate ...

  6. Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Gout may be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can be vague and could be from other ...

  7. Pertussis Signs & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Signs and Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not for as long as 3 weeks. Early Symptoms In those who have been vaccinated: In most ...

  8. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  9. 老年性痴呆精神行为症状实施奥氮平治疗的有效性分析%Effectiveness of behavioral and psychological symptoms of senile dementia implementation of olanzapine treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炳接

    2014-01-01

    目的:对奥氮平治疗老年性痴呆精神行为症状的有效性实施分析。方法随机选取我院2012年1月-2013年12月实施治疗的120例老年性痴呆精神行为症状患者,并将其平均分成对照组和观察组两组,每组60例患者,其中对照组患者采用利培酮实施治疗,观察组患者则采用奥氮平实施治疗。对比分析两组患者的临床治疗效果和不良反应发生率。结果其中观察组患者的治疗总有效率为90.0%,对照组患者仅为76.7%,两组之间差异显著,对比具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患者的各项不良反应发生率也均明显的低于对照组,两组之间差异显著,对比具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在老年性痴呆精神行为症状中,采用奥氮平进行治疗,其不但有助于对其临床治疗效果进行提高,同时还可以有效降低患者的不良反应发生率,因此可以说其值得推广应用。%Purpose: The effectiveness of the implementation of olanzapine treatment of senile dementia behavioral and psychological symptoms of analysis. Method: I randomly selected hospital in January 2012 -2013 in December implemented 120 cases of behavioral and psychological symptoms of senile dementia patients treated, and were divided into a control group and observation group two groups of 60 patients, including the control group were treated with risperidone implementation of treatment, the observation group were then implemented using olanzapine treatment. Comparative analysis of the two groups of patients with clinical outcomes and incidence of adverse reactions. Results: Observed among patients treated group total effective rate was 90.0% in the control group of patients was only 76.7%, a significant difference between the two groups, compared with statistical significance (P <0.05); the incidence of adverse reactions observed in patients also were significantly lower than the control group, a

  10. 认知行为治疗对社区抑郁症患者残留症状的影响%Effect of cognitive behavior therapy on residual symptoms of depressive patients in community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菁; 周德祥; 徐晓燕; 陈晓刚; 陆蘅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨认知行为治疗对社区抑郁症患者残留症状的影响。方法将社区中伴有残留症状的抑郁症患者60例随机分为研究组(30例)和对照组(30例)。两组均常规应用抗抑郁药物治疗,研究组在此基础上联合认知行为治疗。所有患者均随访1年。两组治疗前后采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、世界卫生组织生存质量测定量表简表(WHOQOL-BREF)进行评定。结果研究组治疗后1年末 HAMD 评分较治疗前降低(P <0.01),研究组 HAMD 评分低于对照组(P <0.01)。研究组治疗后1年末 WHOQOL-BREF 量表中生理领域、心理领域、社会关系领域评分均较治疗前降低(P <0.01);研究组 WHOQOL-BREF 量表中生理领域、心理领域、社会关系领域评分均高于对照组(P <0.01)。结论认知行为治疗能够缓解社区抑郁症患者残留症状,并能改善其生活质量。%Objective To explore the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on the residual symptoms of depressive patients in community.Methods 60 depressive patients with residual symptoms were randomly divided into study group (30 cases)treated with antidepressants combined with cognitive behavior therapy and control group (30 cases)treated with antidepressants.All the patients were followed up for 12 months and were assessed with Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD)and WHO quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF)at baseline and at the end of the follow-up.Results At the end of the 1-year follow up,score of HAMD in study group decreased significantly when compared with the baseline (P <0.01)and was significantly lower than that in control group (P <0.01).Factor scores of physical,psychological and social domain in WHOQOL-BREF at the end of the follow up in study group were significantly lower than those at baseline (P <0.01)and were significantly higher than those in control group at the endpoint (P <0.01 ).Conclusion Cognitive behavior

  11. Predictors of neurobehavioral symptoms in a university population: a multivariate approach using a postconcussive symptom questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Reinhardt, Lindsay E; Barry, David M

    2013-10-01

    Several factors have been linked to severity of postconcussive-type (neurobehavioral) symptoms. In this study, predictors of neurobehavioral symptoms were examined using multivariate methods to determine the relative importance of each. Data regarding demographics, symptoms, current alcohol use, history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), orthopedic injuries, and psychiatric/developmental diagnoses were collected via questionnaire from 3027 university students. The most prominent predictors of symptoms were gender, history of depression or anxiety, history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or learning disability diagnosis, and frequency of alcohol use. Prior mild TBI was significantly related to overall symptoms, but this effect was small in comparison to other predictors. These results provide further evidence that neurobehavioral symptoms are multi-determined phenomena, and highlight the importance of psychiatric comorbidity, demographic factors, and health behaviors to neurobehavioral symptom presentation after mild TBI.

  12. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom unde...

  13. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  14. Psychiatric symptoms as pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders are typically seen as the causes of their symptoms. This makes sense in many fields of medicine, but not in psychiatry where symptoms constitute disorders: the notion that mental disorders cause symptoms is a tautology. Biological psychiatry tries to circumvent this logical fallacy by tryi

  15. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Symptoms and Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite ... the eyes and bladder are generally not affected. Diagnosis ALS is a difficult disease to diagnose. There ...

  16. Impact of Comorbidity in Prevention of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possel, Patrick; Seemann, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Despite the well-known relevance of comorbidity, few studies have examined the impact of comorbid anxiety or externalizing symptoms on the prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents. To replicate earlier positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program of depressive symptoms and to test the hypothesis that the prevention program…

  17. 老年期痴呆精神行为症状的识别与治疗%Psychological behavior and symptoms of the senile dementia and its treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖世富

    2007-01-01

    认知缺损症状、神经症状和社会生活功能减退是老年期痴呆的主要临床表现,除此之外。几乎所有患者在病程中都表现有精神行为症状。一般称为痴呆的精神行为症状(behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia。BPSD)。BPSD给患者、家属和照料者造成许多心理痛苦。影响他们的生活质量;加重患者的认知和社会生活功能障碍;使患者早期住院治疗,增加医疗费用和护理负担。因此,正确认识和治疗痴呆的精神行为症状是临床神经精神科医师基本功之一。

  18. Somatic symptom disorder: an important change in DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E; Creed, Francis; Escobar, Javier; Sharpe, Michael; Wulsin, Lawson; Barsky, Arthur; Lee, Sing; Irwin, Michael R; Levenson, James

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the rationale for the new diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder (SSD) within DSM5. SSD represents a consolidation of a number of previously listed diagnoses. It deemphasizes the centrality of medically unexplained symptoms and defines the disorder on the basis of persistent somatic symptoms associated with disproportionate thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to these symptoms. Data are presented concerning reliability, validity, and prevalence of SSD, as well as tasks for future research, education, and clinical practice.

  19. Comparison on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia%阿尔茨海默病和血管性痴呆的精神行为症状比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 毛礼炜; 刘娟; 赵合庆; 刘春风; 李文

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿尔茨海默病(AD)和血管性痴呆(VaD)患者精神行为症状(BPSD)特点及其诊断价值.方法:用AD病理行为评分表(BEHAVE-AD)对40例AD和42例VaD患者进行评定.结果:两组患者BPSD总发生率和BE-HAVE-AD总分差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).AD组行为紊乱、攻击行为发生率(分别为45%与50%)及严重程度(评分分别为6.08±0.90分,4.60±1.27分),高于VaD组(发生率分别为16.67%与23.81%,严重程度评分分别为5.69±1.70分,3.50士1.58分),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05); VaD组的情感障碍发生率(64.29%)及严重程度(3.52±0.85分)高于AD组(42.50%,2.53土1.23分),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:AD与VaD患者的精神行为症状呈现不同的特点,AD患者行为紊乱、攻击行为表现突出,VaD患者情感障碍表现突出.%Objective: To investigate behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) characteristics in patients with Alzhermer's disease(AD) and vascular dementia(VaD). Methods: BPSD in 40 patients with AD and 42 patients with VaD were assessed by rating scale of the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer's disease (BEHAVE-AD). The results were compared and analyzed. Results: The difference of the overall incidence of BPSD and the total BEHAVE-AD score in the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The incidence and severity of behavioral disorders (45% and 6.08±0.90 points) and aggressive behavior (50%, 4.60±1.27 points) in AD group were higher than those in VaD group (incidence:16.67% and 23.81%, severity score: 5.69±1.70 points and 3.50±1.58 points), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The incidence and severity of affective disorders in VaD (64.29% and 3.52±0.85 points) group was higher than that in AD group (42.50%, 2.53±1.23 points), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion: Patients with AD and VaD show different characteristics in BPSD; patients with AD

  20. Musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S; Cuccherini, B A; Seiger, L A

    1994-02-01

    This study ascertained the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians, in order to evaluate the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) in this population. We adapted the CTD surveillance questionnaire used by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to assess the prevalence of neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, back, and knee symptoms in the year prior to the survey. Questionnaires were completed by 308 apprentices and journeymen enrolled in training classes at the local union hall. The participants were relatively young individuals, and 86% of the participants were currently working as electricians. Participants reported a high prevalence of symptoms which occurred more than three times during the past year or which lasted more than 1 week. Back symptoms and hand/wrist symptoms were experienced most frequently, by about half the population, while elbow symptoms were reported by only 15% of participants. Symptom prevalence was lower, but still notable, when defined as symptoms which had occurred at least once a month or lasted more than a week in the past year. Eighty-two percent of participants reported at least one musculoskeletal symptom using the most inclusive definition, while 57% reported two or more symptoms. This survey highlights that: 1) low back discomfort is common in young construction workers, and resulted in medical care, missed work, or light duty for almost 35% of the participants; 2) neck discomfort is also very common and required doctor visits or work modification for almost one quarter of the participants; 3) these construction workers continued to work with symptoms that are classifiable as a CTD; and 4) history of injury is correlated with the subsequent prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  1. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...... information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced...... by figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  3. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  4. Psychosocioeconomic study of medically unexplained physical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maju Mathew Koola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of studies done on medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS in Kerala, India. The objective of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and other clinical variables associated with this condition. Materials and Methods: The clinical sample was taken from the General Medicine Clinic of a tertiary care hospital, in Kerala. The referred cases meeting the criteria (N=48 for medically unexplained physical symptoms were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. The medical doctor with experience in psychiatry completed the questionnaire. Results: Most of the patients were middle-aged females from rural areas. The most common symptom reported was headache. Most of the patients had symptoms for five years or more and had seen two-to-five consultants. A majority of the patients had undergone special investigations and a few had expensive and invasive investigations. Cluster C personality disorders were the most common associated personality disorders with medically unexplained physical symptoms. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first psychosocioeconomic study on medically unexplained physical symptoms, done in Kerala, India. Medically unexplained physical symptoms cause loss of productivity and economic burden and are a major public health problem. Future studies are warranted focusing on non-pharmacological treatment, psycho-education on mind-body association, and medical models on specific cytokines associated with medically unexplained physical symptoms for personalized management, and to examine the effect of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.

  5. 抗精神病药治疗老年期痴呆精神行为症状的争议%Treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of senile dementia with antipsychotic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖世富

    2011-01-01

    @@ 老年期痴呆的临床表现除认知缺损和社会生活功能减退外,几乎所有病人在病程中都表现有精神行为症状,一般称为痴呆的精神行为症状(behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia,BPSD).早在1906年,Alzheimer报道的首例阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)病人就曾描述,病人除了认知损害外,还表现有明显的幻觉、妄想、吵闹、攻击等精神症状[1].额颞叶痴呆和Lewy体痴呆的精神行为症状更为突出,有时成为主要临床症状[2,3].横断面研究报道的BPSD总发生率多为50%~90%,其中幻觉30%~50%,妄想30%~80%,抑郁30%~40%,行为异常30%~70%[4-6].长期随访研究表明,几乎所有痴呆病人在其病程中都会出现精神行为症状[6].BPSD加重病人的认知和社会生活功能障碍,给病人、家属或照料者带来许多心理痛苦,影响他们的生活质量.BPSD是痴呆患者早期住院或需要机构护理的主要原因,增加医疗和护理负担.

  6. A prospective study of the onset of symptoms of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayle, Amy E; Wilcox, Allen J; Weinberg, Clarice R; Baird, Donna D

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide prospectively collected data on the onset of pregnancy symptoms. Two hundred twenty-one women attempting pregnancy kept daily records of the occurrence of symptoms of pregnancy. Among 136 women delivering live infants, half began experiencing symptoms by day 36 after their last menstrual period (LMP), and 89% by the end of the eighth week. Onset of symptoms occurred later in pregnancies that went on to miscarry. Among 48 women with biochemically detected pregnancy loss before 6 weeks LMP, symptoms were substantially reduced but not entirely absent. Women who smoked tobacco or marijuana tended to have delayed onset of symptoms. Nearly 90% of women with successful pregnancies experience symptoms within 8 weeks LMP. Even pregnancies lost very early (before 6 weeks) are sometimes symptomatic. The earliest symptoms do not begin until after key stages of embryogenesis, reinforcing the need for women to initiate sound health behaviors before pregnancy is apparent. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

  7. Anxiety symptoms in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Reyes, Darcel

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most frequent symptoms recognized by providers who care for persons living with HIV disease (PLWH). This evidence-based review of anxiety and HIV disease includes an overview of anxiety symptoms, their prevalence in PLWH, and co-existing mood and behavioral disorders. Harmful physiologic effects are also highlighted. Valid and reliable clinical measurement tools used for assessing anxiety include the Clinical Diagnostic Questionnaire, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Profile of Mood States, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioral therapy as a recommended intervention for the treatment of anxiety symptoms and/or anxiety disorders in PLWH. Medications for use with more severe and disabling anxiety are discussed, as well as evidence based on expert opinion for anxiety self-management.

  8. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  9. Premonitory symptoms in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Katarina; Artto, Ville; Bendtsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency and number of premonitory symptoms (PS) in migraine, the co-occurrence of different PS, and their association with migraine-related factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to Finnish migraine families between 2002 and 2013...... to obtain data on 14 predefined PS, migraine diagnoses, demographic factors, and migraine characteristics. The estimated response rate was 80%. RESULTS: Out of 2714 persons, 2223 were diagnosed with migraine. Among these, 77% reported PS, with a mean number of 3.0 symptoms compared to 30% (p ....5 symptoms (p migraine headaches. Yawning was the most commonly reported symptom (34%) among migraineurs. Females reported PS more frequently than males (81 versus 64%, p 

  10. Throat Problems (Symptom Checker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisThese symptoms may be from BRONCHITIS, PNEUMONIA or POST-NASAL DRIP.Self CareThese illnesses need prescription treatments. See your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA dry barking cough ...

  11. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tetanus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tetanus Home About Tetanus Causes and Transmission Symptoms and ...

  12. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Dermatomyositis (DM) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? For many decades, DM was considered “ polymyositis with ...

  13. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  14. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the durations of symptoms before the start of radiotherapy and treatment outcome in Stage I-III glottic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1965 to 1997, 611 glottic cancer patients from the Southern Region of Denmark were treated with primary radiotherapy....... A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p symptoms was statistically...

  15. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > Menopause > Menopause symptom relief and treatments Menopause Menopause symptom relief and treatments Working with your doctor ... on menopause symptom relief and treatments Learning about menopause treatment options Most women do not need treatment ...

  16. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Options Join the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD is ... or Dementia plus one or more suggestive features. Symptoms Explained In this section we'll discuss each ...

  17. Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... symptoms and treatments. Migraine and Other Vascular Headaches—Symptoms and Diagnosis Migraine: The most common of vascular ...

  18. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship betwe

  19. Children with ADHD and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder improved in behavior when treated with methylphenidate and adjuvant risperidone, though weight gain was also observed - Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Akbarian, Shahrokh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarzi, Amir; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-05-01

    Children with ADHD often show symptoms of oppositional defiant disorders (ODD). We investigated the impact of adjuvant risperidone (RISP) to a standard treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD and symptoms of ODD. Eighty-four children with ADHD and ODD (age: M=8.55; range: 7.28-9.95 years; 73.8% males) took part in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial lasting eight weeks. Participants were randomly assigned either to the MPH+RISP (1mg/kg/d+0.5mg/d) or to the MPH+PLCO (1mg/kg/d+placebo) condition. Symptoms of ADHD, weight, height, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Symptoms of ADHD decreased over time, but more so in the MPH+RISP than in the MPH only condition. In the MPH+RISP condition weight, waist circumference and prolactine levels increased over time. Data suggest that adjuvant RISP improved symptoms in children with ADHD and ODD, but weight gain and higher prolactine levels were also observed, which are two alarming side effects. This may become an issue, once children become adolescents, a period of life in which body shape and body self-image are closely linked to self-confidence and peer acceptance. Health care professionals should carefully balance the short-term and long-term costs and benefits of administration of RISP.

  20. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... contact with specialist care were obtained from the National Patient Register and the National Health Insurance Service Registry, while information about socioeconomic status was collected from Statistics Denmark. Main outcome measures were percentages of patients having contact with specialist care...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general...

  1. Social Sensations of Symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs...... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations...

  2. The characteristic of risperidone in ameliorating the psychological and behavioral symptoms of patients with dementia%利醅酮改善痴呆患者心理及行为症状的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海林; 沈伟; 叶勤; 刘阳; 吴瑞枝; 陆蓉

    2004-01-01

    目的:评价利醅酮治疗痴呆患者心理和行为症状(psychologicai and behavioral symptoms of dementia,BPSD)疗效与安全性.方法:应用利醅酮治疗南京医科大学脑科医院老年精神科阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer disease,AD)(n=25)、混合性痴呆(mixed dementia,MD)(n=22)、血管性痴呆(vascular dementia,VD)(n=19),1.5 mg/d,治疗6周.于治疗前后采用AD行为症状评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)、Cohen-Masfield激惹性问卷(CMAI)评定痴呆患者BPSD,采用副反应量表(TESS)评价副反应.结果:利醅酮治疗后痴呆患者的偏执与妄想观念(65%)、幻觉(2/3)、攻击行为的发生率(38%)显著低于治疗前,差异有显著性(x2=5.41,227.39,61.88;P均<0.05);治疗后攻击行为(32%)、语言攻击(30%)及总的激惹的发生率(64%)明显下降,与治疗前比较,差异有显著性(x2=40.22,52.30,31.69;P均<0.05).利醅酮治疗后痴呆患者的偏执与妄想观念、幻觉、行为紊乱,攻击行为、日夜节律紊乱,焦虑与恐惧的严重程度较治疗前明显减轻,差异有显著性(t=3.00~11.46,P均<0.05);治疗后痴呆患者的总的激惹、攻击行为、语言攻击、乱走、无目的游荡,试图出走的严重程度明显减轻,与治疗前比较,差异有显著性(t=3.45~8.79,P<0.05).利醅酮治疗的副作用主要为轻度嗜睡,肌强直,震颤(10/66).结论:利醅酮能有效改善痴呆患者的心理与行为症状,且副作用轻微.

  3. Effects of Toutongning capsule on the behaviors and symptoms of ratsw ith migraine%头痛宁胶囊对偏头痛模型大鼠行为症状学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡德利; 符艳松; 刘斌

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveToobservetheeffectsofToutongningcapsuleonthebehaviorsandsymptomsofratswith migraine.Methods Seventy-two SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control group,migraine model group, Sibelium treatment group,Toutongning high-dose group,Toutongning median-dose group,Toutongning low-dose group,with 12 rats in each group.The animal models with migraine were established by subcutaneous injection with NTG.The rats in normal control group were given 0.9%sodium chloride solution by subcutaneous injections.The appearing time and disappearing time of redness in both ears of rats after the animal models were established, terminal time of scratching head, climbing cage frequency were observed and recorded in the 6 groups.Results There were no significant differences in the terminal time of redness in both ears of rats, terminal time of scratching head and climbing cage frequency between Toutongning high-dose group,Toutongning median-dose group and Sibelium treatment group ( P >0.05),however,there were significant differences between Toutongning low-dose group and Sibelium treatment group ( P <0.05).Conclusion Toutongnning capsule can improve the behavior and symptom of rats with migraine caused by nitroglycerin,and the therapeutic effects of high-dose and median-dose Toutongning capsule are more obvious.%目的:观察头痛宁胶囊对偏头痛模型大鼠行为症状学的影响。方法健康SD大鼠72只随机分为0构.9%氯化钠溶液组、偏头痛模型组(模型组)、氟桂利嗪组、头痛宁高剂量组、头痛宁中剂量组和头痛宁低剂量组,每组12只。皮下注射硝酸甘油(NTG)制备偏头痛大鼠模型,0.9%氯化钠溶液组皮下注射0.9%氯化钠溶液。观察6组大鼠造模后双耳发红等症状出现、消失的时间和单位时间段内前肢挠头、爬笼的次数。结果头痛宁高、中剂量组耳红结束时间、挠头结束时间、爬笼次数与氟桂利嗪组比较

  4. Signs and Symptoms (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  5. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  6. Symptoms%症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome K. Jerome; 孙宝成; 徐彬

    2004-01-01

    @@ It was my liver that was out of order. I knew it was my liver that was out of order, because I had just been reading a patent liver-pill circular1, in which were detailed the various symptoms by which a man could tell when his liver was out of order. I had them all.

  7. FORSTÅ DINE SYMPTOMER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaj Aage Sparle

    Hvis du tit har smerter og andre fysiske symptomer - og lægen har svært ved at finde ud af, hvad du fejler - kan det være, du har en funktionel lidelse. Funktionel lidelse betyder, at kroppen reagerer medsymptomer, når du er udsat for psykiske belastninger. Symptomerne er lige så virkelige og...

  8. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enamel • Unexplained infertility, recurrent miscarriage • Osteopenia (mild) or osteoporosis (more serious bone density problem) • Peripheral Neuropathy • Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression How do these symptoms tend to appear in children and adults? Children tend to have the more classic signs ...

  9. Emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette K; Nielsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    . A negative classroom climate was associated with emotional symptoms (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99-1.69) and so was being part of classrooms with a high prevalence of bullying (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.0-1.60). CONCLUSION: Female sex, low OSC, single parent family, exposure to bullying and a high prevalence of bullying...

  10. 大学新生抑郁症状对自杀意念的影响:自杀行为认识的中介作用%Depression symptom and suicidal ideation in the freshmen:mediating roles of the opinion to suicide behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奕荣; 连榕; 陈坚; 柯玉英

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation of freshmen, as well as the intermediary of opinion to suicide behavior between them. Methods:A total of 1 395 freshmen (517 males and 878 females) from two universities were selected. They were assessed with the symptom checklist 90 (SCL―90) for depression symptom, questionnaire of suicide attitude (QSA) for opinion to suicide behavior, and questionnaire for suicidal ideation. Results:Depression symptom scores in freshmen were positively correlated with suicidal ideation scores (r=0.091, P ≤ 0.001), while the opinion to suicide behavior scores were negatively correlated with depression symptom scores and suicidal ideation scores (r=―0.309~―0.100, P ﹤ 0.001). In addition, the opinion to suicide behavior was intermediary between the depression and suicidal ideation of freshmen. Conclusion: The opinion to suicide behavior can partly buffer the effect of depression of freshmen on their suicidal ideation.%考察大学新生抑郁对自杀意念的关系,以及自杀行为认识在其中所起的作用。抽取福建两所高校大学新生1395名(男生517名,女生878名),采用症状自评量表(SCL―90)、自杀态度量表(QSA)、自杀意念量表,评定大学新生的抑郁症状、自杀行为认识和自杀意念。大学新生的抑郁症状与自杀意念呈正相关(r=0.091,P≤0.001),自杀行为认识分别与抑郁症状、自杀意念呈负相关(r=―0.309~―0.100,P﹤0.001)。多元回归分析显示,大学新生的自杀行为认识在抑郁与自杀意念之间起着部分中介作用(中介效应为0.03,P﹤0.05)。自杀行为认识在抑郁对大学新生自杀意念的影响中起着部分中介作用。

  11. Symptoms of Autism Among Children with Congenital Deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    Associations between congenital deafness or blindness and autism have been found. The main consequences of congenital sensory impairment, being barriers for communication, language and social interaction development, may lead to symptoms of autism. To date only few studies have been reported...... concerning individuals with congenital deafblindness. This study examines symptoms of autism among 71 children with congenital deafblindness using the Autism Behavior Checklist. The cohort of children with congenital deafblindness was found to have symptoms of autism on a level similar to children...... with another developmental disorder than autism for example intellectual disability. No association was found between severity of congenital sensory impairment and severity or type of symptoms of autism....

  12. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.

  13. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Santos da Luz1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use. Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%, auricular fullness (30.5% and humming (27.5, being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p=0,000 and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young.

  14. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young. PMID:25991931

  15. Pathways from maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms:the unique contribution of irritability symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Y.M.; Leibenluft, E.; Stringaris, A; Edward D Barker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors tested three possible pathways linking prenatal maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms. These pathways went through childhood Irritability Symptoms, Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms or Conduct Problems.METHOD: Data were collected from 3,963 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures include maternal depressive symptoms (pre- and postnatal); toddler temperament (2 years); childhood (7-13 years) ir...

  16. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ceko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning.

  17. Therapeutics for multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zacharia, Aliza Bitton

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms management in multiple sclerosis is an integral part of its care. Accurate assessment and addressing the different symptoms provides increased quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis symptoms may be identified as primary, secondary, or tertiary symptoms. Primary symptoms, such as weakness, sensory loss, and ataxia, are directly related to demyelination and axonal loss. Secondary symptoms, such as urinary tract infections as a result of urinary retention, are a result of the primary symptoms. Tertiary symptoms, such as reactive depression or social isolation, are a result of the social and psychological consequences of the disease. Common multiple sclerosis symptoms include fatigue and weakness; decreased balance, spasticity and gait problems; depression and cognitive issues; bladder, bowel, and sexual deficits; visual and sensory loss; and neuropathic pain. Less-common symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, vertigo, and tremors. Rare symptoms in multiple sclerosis include seizures, hearing loss, and paralysis. Symptom management includes nonpharmacological methods, such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support, and pharmacological methods, ie, medications and surgical procedures. The keys to symptom management are awareness, knowledge, and coordination of care. Symptoms have to be recognized and management needs to be individualized. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics include nonpharmacological strategies that consist of lifestyle modifications, rehabilitation, social support, counseling, and pharmacological agents or surgical procedures. The goal is vigilant management to improve quality of life and promote realistic expectations and hope.

  18. Reduction of suicidal ideation in patients undergoing psychotherapy in the day hospital for the treatment of neurotic and behavioral disorders and neurotic symptoms reported by them before the hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rodziński

    2015-08-01

    Patients initially reporting SI constituted approximately 1/3 in both genders and were characterized by greater intensity of neurotic disorders. Among those, women with particularly higher intensity of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, Neurasthenia and Autonomic disorders and women reporting episodes of uncontrollable hunger seemed to suffer from SI that were more resistant to the psychotherapy. As such, those subgroups of women require special attention and diligent selection of the therapeutic methods.

  19. Celiac Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... Contents What are some of the symptoms of celiac disease? Some people with celiac disease may not ...

  20. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... turn Javascript on. Photo courtesy of ABC News Symptoms Mild: Person may remain conscious or be briefly ...

  1. Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... to view a larger version of the image Symptoms It is very important to learn the signs ...

  2. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  3. Cyberbullying, problematic internet use, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.

  4. Cyberbullying, Problematic Internet Use, and Psychopathologic Symptoms among Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them. PMID:24719154

  5. Study on characteristics of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia%阿尔茨海默病和血管性痴呆患者的行为和精神症状特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆双怡; 胡喜荣; 王玉梅; 黎明; 盛建华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) characteristics and related factors in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Methods:BPSD in 41 patients with AD and 41 patients with VD were assessed by the scale of Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease (BEHAVE-AD).Results:The incidence of BPSD was 100% in all dementia patients. The difference of total BEHAVE-AD score between two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Circadian rhythm disorders (79.3%)、paranoia and delusions (43.9%) and behavior disorders (42.7%) were the common symptom clusters. Compared with VD group, the incidence of aggressive behavior was higher in AD group(P0.05).常见的症状群是日夜节律紊乱(79.3%)、偏执和妄想(43.9%)和行为紊乱(42.7%).AD组较VD组,攻击行为发生率高(P<0.05).重度VD较重度AD,情感障碍的发生率高,程度重,P均<0.05.轻中度痴呆的焦虑和恐惧症状发生率较重度患者高(P<0.05).结论:痴呆患者的BPSD发生率高,不同类型和不同严重度痴呆患者的BDSP呈现不同的特点,应予以关注.

  6. Symptom Clusters among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knishkowsky, Barry; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines recurrent psychosomatic symptoms and symptom clusters among Israeli school children (n=259). Results of a questionnaire that asked about the frequency of 8 psychosomatic and 8 organic complaints indicated that girls had a higher prevalence than boys for 8 of the symptoms, and that abdominal pain and headache were each reported as an…

  7. Prevalence of symptoms associated with mental illness in Salvadorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.

  8. Effects of paternal and maternal depressive symptoms on child internalizing symptoms and asthma disease activity: mediation by interparental negativity and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JungHa; Wood, Beatrice L; Miller, Bruce D; Simmens, Samuel J

    2011-02-01

    This study tested a hypothesized model of the relationships among parental depressive symptoms, family process (interparental negativity and negative parenting behavior), child internalizing symptoms, and asthma disease activity. A total of 106 children with asthma, aged 7 to 17, participated with their fathers and mothers. Parental depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report. Interparental and parenting behaviors were observed and rated during family discussion tasks. Child internalizing symptoms were assessed by self-report and by clinician interview and rating. Asthma disease activity was assessed according to National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines. Results of structural equation modeling generally supported interparental negativity and negative parenting behavior as mediators linking parental depressive symptoms and child emotional and physical dysfunction. However, paternal and maternal depressive symptoms play their role through different pathways of negative family process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  10. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies.

  11. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…

  12. School Age Children's Coping with Sexual Abuse: Abuse Stresses and Symptoms Associated with Four Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Coping strategies used by 84 sexually abused children ages 7-12 were evaluated along with related symptoms and factors. Avoidance behavior was associated with fewer behavioral problems but greater sexual anxiety. Internalization was associated with increased guilt, and active/social coping was associated with no symptoms or benefits. Expressive…

  13. 阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆精神行为症状的效果观察%Effect observation on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and olanzapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦素萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To Investigate the clinical efficacy on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. Methods 84 patients with senile dementia associated with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms were selected in the hospital from March 2009 to December 2011, who were divided into two groups randomly. 42 patients who used Olanzapine treatment were as the control group. 42 patients who used Aripiprazole in the treatment were as the observation group. The course of treatment was 8 weeks. After treatment of 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, AD behavioral pathology In scale (BEHAVE-AD), treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) of patients were performed. Before the treatment and after treatment of 8 weeks, minimum mental state examination was performed. Results After treatment, AD behavioral pathology in scale total score and each factor scores in the control group and observation group decreased significantly. The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions (19.0%) in the observation group was significantly lower than that In the control group (45.2%), the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Minimum mental state examination scores in the control group and observation group evaluated. Total efficiency of AD behavioral pathology In scale score and minimum mental state examination score In the observation group was slightly higher than those In the control group, while there were no significant differences between them (P > 0.05}. Conclusion Aripiprazole and Olanzapine in the treatment of senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms have equivalent clinical efficacy. But Aripiprazole has better security, which is more suitable for clinical use.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆的精神行为症状的临床疗效.方法 选取我院2009年3月~2011年12月收治的老年期痴呆伴精神行为症状患者84例,随机分为两

  14. 阿尔茨海默病精神行为症状的药物治疗%Drug therapy of Alzheimer's disease complicated with behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠军; 肖世富

    2009-01-01

    当Alzheimer医师于1907年报道首例阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)时就注意到患者除记忆、语言和学习困难等认知功能损害之外,还表现出明显的幻觉、妄想、吵闹、激越或攻击等精神症状,精神症状是AD以及其他痴呆类型常见的临床表现,曾使用非认知症状(noncognitive symptoms)、痴呆的神经精神症状(neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia,NP)等命名.

  15. 个性化认知行为疗法在中重度围绝经期症状女性患者中的应用效果%Effect of Personalized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Women with Moderate to Severe Perimenopausal Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟凯; 康汉珍; 胡启彩; 曾祥华; 洪爱军; 汤惠茹

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价个性化认知行为疗法对中重度围绝经期症状女性患者的干预效果。方法2014年7—9月对纳入58例中重度围绝经期症状女性患者从知、信、行方面实施个性化认知行为疗法,比较其干预前后改良 Kupperman症状评分及围绝经期知信行调查问卷得分情况。结果经个性化认知行为疗法干预后,58例中重度围绝经期症状女性患者改良 Kupperman各项得分较干预前均有下降,其中潮热出汗、感觉异常、失眠、易激动、抑郁、眩晕、骨关节肌肉痛及性交痛与干预前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后知、信、行评分较干预前均明显升高(P<0.01)。结论个性化认知行为疗法可有效改善中重度围绝经期女性患者相关症状,提高其预防保健意识,形成正确的健康信念,从而最终转化为行之有效的预防保健行为。%Objective To assess the effect of personalized cognitive behavioral therapy on women with moderate to severe perimenopausal symptoms in terms of their perimenopausal symptoms and perimenopausal-related knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Methods Women with moderate to severe perimenopausal symptoms were treated with personalized cognitive behavioral therapy from July to September 2014. Kupperman index and perimenopausal-related KAP questionnaire were applied for the effect of the therapy. Results After treatment, the score of each symptom in Kupperman index of 58 women were declined. And the score of hot flashes sweating, paresthesia, insomnia, irritability, depression, dizziness and joint muscle pain was significantly decreased ( P<0.05). Moreover, perimenopausal-related KAP scores were also increased significantly ( P<0.01). Conclusion Personalized cognitive behavioral therapy is effective for improving the symptoms of women with moderate to severe perimenopausal symptoms, enhancing their prevention and healthcare awareness so as to help

  16. Clinical analysis of behavioral and psychological symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia%老年性阿尔茨海默病与血管性痴呆患者的行为和精神症状的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊秋; 杨清泉; 孙晖; 王永香; 杨林; 韩明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate behavioral and psychological symptoms in elderly patients with dementia.Methods 80 elderly patients with dementia were selected in hospital from May 2011 to May 2015.40 patients were vascular dementia as control group .40 patients were Alzheimer's disease as observation group .Patients were assessed by scale of behavioral pathology in Alzheimer 's disease ( Behave-AD).Behavioral and psychological symptoms were compared between two groups .Results Incidence of paranoia and delusions ; incidence of behavior disorders; incidence of aggressive behavior ; incidence of anxiety and fear in observation group were significantly higher than control group.Paranoia and delusions score ; behavior disorder score; aggressive behavior score; anxiety and fear score in observation group were significantly higher than control group .Differences were statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion Incidence of behavioral and psychological symptoms is higher in elderly patients with dementia .Clinical manifestations of dementia patients in different types are different , which should pay close attention .%目的:探讨阿尔茨海默病痴呆患者的行为和精神症状。方法选取本院2011年5月至2015年5月诊治的痴呆性老年患者80例,其中血管性痴呆(VD)患者40例为 VD 组,阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者40例为 AD 组,均行 AD 行为评分表(Behave-AD)评定,比较两组患者的行为和精神症状。结果AD 组患者偏执和妄想发生率、行为紊乱发生率、攻击行为发生率、焦虑和恐惧发生率均明显高于 VD 组,AD 组患者偏执和妄想评分、行为紊乱评分、攻击行为评分、焦虑和恐惧评分、总评分均明显高于 VD 组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 AD 组患者幻觉发生率高于 VD 组,AD 组患者日间节律紊乱发生率、情感障碍发生率均低于 VD组,AD 组患者幻觉评分高于 VD 组,AD 组患者日间节律紊乱评分

  17. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes.

  18. Vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome.

  19. TrkB overexpression in mice buffers against memory deficits and depression-like behavior but not all anxiety- and stress-related symptoms induced by developmental exposure to methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina N Karpova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental exposure to low dose of methylmercury (MeHg has a long-lasting effect on memory and attention deficits in humans, as well as cognitive performance, depression-like behavior and the hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnfin mice. The Bdnf receptor TrkB is a key player of Bdnf signaling. Using transgenic animals, here we analyzed the effect of the full-length TrkB overexpression (TK+ on behavior impairments induced by perinatal MeHg. TK overexpression in the MeHg-exposed mice enhanced generalized anxiety and cue memory in the fear conditioning test. Early exposure to MeHg induced deficits in reversal spatial memory in the Morris water maze test and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test in only wild-type mice but did not affect these parameters in TK+ mice. These changes were associated with TK+ effect on the increase in Bdnf 2, 3, 4 and 6 transcription in the hippocampus as well as with interaction of TK+ and MeHg factors for Bdnf 1, 9a and truncated TrkB.T1 transcripts in the prefrontal cortex. However, the MeHg-induced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and open field tests was ameliorated by TK+ background only in the open field test. Moreover, TK overexpression in the MeHg mice did not prevent significant stress-induced weight loss during the period of adaptation to individual housing in metabolic cages. These TK genotype-independent changes were primarily accompanied by the MeHg-induced hippocampal deficits in the activity-dependent Bdnf 1, 4 and 9a variants, TrkB.T1, and transcripts for important antioxidant enzymes glyoxalases Glo1 and Glo2 and glutathione reductase Gsr. Our data suggest a role of full-length TrkB in buffering against memory deficits and depression-like behavior in the MeHg mice but propose the involvement of additional pathways, such as the antioxidant system or TrkB.T1 signaling, in stress- or anxiety-related responses induced by developmental MeHg exposure.

  20. Orem自理模式对血管性痴呆患者行为和精神症状的康复效果%Rehabilitation Efficacy of Orem Self-care Mode on Psychological and Behavioral Symptoms of Patients with Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建中; 李鹏鹏; 王瑛; 俞皎; 唐红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the rehabilitation efficacy of Orem self -care mode on the psychological and behavioral symptoms of patients with vascular dementia (VD).Methods 63 patients with VD who met the inclusion criteria ,were divided into the control group and the observation group ,30 cases each in random order .The two groups of patients were treated with donepezil to improve cogni-tion,while the observation group used Orem self -care mode on the basis of that .Two groups respectively used the clinical global impres-sions scale(CGI)to assess the effect before the intervention and 6 weeks after the intervention,also adopting the BEHAVE -AD to assess the psychological and behavior symptoms of dementia .Results CGI-SI scores of the observation group after the intervention was differ-ent from that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (t=5.751,P<0.01).BEHAVE-AD total scores and behavioral disorders ,aggressive behavior ,emotional symptoms factor scores of the observation group after the intervention were all differ -ent from those of the control group,and the differences were respectively statistically significant (t=5.022~7.157,P<0.01).Conclu-sion Application of Orem self -care mode shows a significant role in the improvement of psychological and behavioral symptoms of pa -tients with VD.%目的:探讨Orem自理模式对血管性痴呆患者行为和精神症状的康复效果。方法符合纳入标准的血管性痴呆患者63例,按随机顺序分为对照组和观察组。两组患者均给予多奈哌齐改善认知治疗,观察组在此基础上运用Orem自理模式,两组分别在干预前和干预6周后采用临床疗效总评定量表CGI-SI评定其临床疗效,同时采用Alzheimer病行为病理学评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)评定患者的行为和精神症状。结果观察组在干预后CGI-SI分与对照组比较差异有显著性(t=5.751,P<0.01),BEHAVE-AD总分及行为紊乱、攻击行为、

  1. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950416 A clinicopathological study on mental andnervous symptoms in uremia.CUI Xiaoying(崔晓英),et al.Dept Intern Med,202nd Hosp,PLA,Shenyang110003.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1995;28(1):26-28.Mental and nervous symptoms,brainstem auditoryevoked potential(BAEP),brain computed tomography(CT) scans and pathological changes were studied in34 uremic patients.It was shown that mental depres-sion was the most common symptom.The latency of

  2. 认知行为疗法对慢性精神分裂症患者强迫症状的疗效观察%Observation of effects of cognitive behavior therapy on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵衍山; 马文华; 周之平; 王娟; 施潇潇; 胡小平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate effects of cognitive behavior therapy on obsessive-compulsive symptoms of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Methods:66 patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into observation group (33 cases) and control group (33 cases). The observation group adopted cognitive behavior therapy combined with traditional therapy, while control group only received traditional therapy. Two groups were evaluated by Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale and clinical global impression-severity of illness ( CGI-S) at 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Results:At the end of 3 and 6 months, there were significant differences in the scores of Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale and CGI-S of observation group before and after the treatment, and between observation group and control group (P0. 05). Conclusions:The effects of cognitive behavior therapy on the obsessive compulsive symptoms of the patients with chronic schizophrenia are obvious;therefore, it is worth to be promoted.%目的::探讨认知行为疗法对慢性精神分裂症患者强迫症状的治疗效果。方法:将66例伴有强迫症状的慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各33例。观察组患者采取传统治疗联合认知行为疗法,对照组患者只采用传统治疗;两组患者均以Yale-Brown强迫量表、临床疗效总评量表( CGI-SI)作3、6个月的评定。结果:3、6月末观察组患者的Yale-Brown强迫量表及CGI-SI评分与治疗前和与对照组同期比较,均有显著性差异(P0.05)。结论:认知行为疗法对慢性精神分裂症患者强迫症状的疗效明显,值得推广。

  3. ADHD symptoms in children with FXS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kelly; Hatton, Deborah; Hammer, Julie; Sideris, John; Hooper, Stephen; Ornstein, Peter; Bailey, Donald

    2006-11-01

    Parent- and teacher-report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were examined using problem behavior and DSM-IV symptom inventory questionnaires for 63 children with full mutation fragile X syndrome (FXS) and 56 children without disabilities matched on mental age (MA). Prevalence rates of ADHD symptoms varied depending on type of measure (problem behavior or DSM-IV criteria), subscale (ADHD-inattentive or ADHD-hyperactive), scoring method (continuous T-scores or categorical scores based on DSM-IV algorithm), and rater (parent or teacher). Overall, 54-59% of boys with FXS met diagnostic behavioral criteria for either ADHD-inattentive type only, ADHD-hyperactive type only, or ADHD-combined type based on parent or teacher report. Boys with FXS were rated as having clinically high scores or met diagnostic criteria at higher rates than expected for the general population and had higher raw scores than their MA-matched peers. Parent ratings of boys with FXS resulted in higher ADHD-inattentive type and ADHD-hyperactive type T-scores than teachers. Boys who were rated as meeting DSM-IV criteria were more likely to be taking psychotropic medication and to have younger mental ages. Parents were substantially more likely than teachers to rate boys as meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD-inattentive type, while teachers were only slightly more likely than parents to rate boys as meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD-hyperactive type. Teachers were more likely than parents to rate boys as meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD when boys had lower levels of FMRP.

  4. Persistent Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Persistent negative symptoms represent an alternative approach for assessing negative symptoms in the context of clinical trials. Persistent negative symptoms are designed to capture those symptoms that lead to functional impairment but are currently understudied and for which there are no currently available effective treatments. Persistent negative symptoms differ from the 2 most commonly used approaches: primary, enduring negative symptoms or deficit symptoms and negative symptoms broadly ...

  5. Etiological and Clinical Features of Childhood Psychotic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Cannon, Mary; Ambler, Antony; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Houts, Renate; Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Context It has been reported that childhood psychotic symptoms are common in the general population and may signal neurodevelopmental processes that lead to schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether these symptoms are associated with the same extensive risk factors established for adult schizophrenia. Objective To examine the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms by testing whether these symptoms share the risk factors and clinical features of adult schizophrenia. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study of a nationally representative birth cohort in Great Britain. Participants A total of 2232 twelve-year-old children followed up since age 5 years (retention, 96%). Main Outcome Measure Children’s self-reported hallucinations and delusions. Results Children’s psychotic symptoms are familial and heritable and are associated with social risk factors (eg, urbanicity); cognitive impairments at age 5; home-rearing risk factors (eg, maternal expressed emotion); behavioral, emotional, and educational problems at age 5; and comorbid conditions, including self-harm. Conclusions The results provide a comprehensive picture of the construct validity of children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms. For researchers, the findings indicate that children who have psychotic symptoms can be recruited for neuroscience research to determine the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. For clinicians, the findings indicate that psychotic symptoms in childhood are often a marker of an impaired developmental process and should be actively assessed. PMID:20368509

  6. A longitudinal study of family obligation and depressive symptoms among Chinese American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Cookston, Jeffrey T

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this 2-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of Chinese American adolescents was to examine how family obligation behaviors and attitudes change over time; how gender, nativity, and birth order predict these trajectories; and whether family obligation relates to depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that family obligation behaviors decreased over the 2-year period but that family obligation attitudes were stable. Moreover, foreign-born adolescents reported higher levels of family obligation behavior than U.S.-born adolescents, and firstborn adolescents reported higher family obligation attitudes than laterborn adolescents. There were no gender differences in family obligation behaviors or attitudes. The findings also suggest that initial higher levels of family obligation were associated with subsequently fewer depressive symptoms. Finally, changes in family obligation behaviors related to changes in depressive symptoms over time such that increasing family obligation behaviors related to decreasing depressive symptoms. The results highlight the importance of understanding the role of family obligation to Chinese American adolescents' mental health.

  7. Reductions in experiential avoidance as a mediator of change in symptom outcome and quality of life in acceptance-based behavior therapy and applied relaxation for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Elizabeth H; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A; Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    As a field, we lack information about specific mechanisms that are responsible for changes that occur over the course of treatments for anxiety disorders (Kazdin, 2007). Identifying these mechanisms would help streamline evidence-based approaches, increase treatment response rates, and aid in the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based approaches in diverse contexts. The current study examined reductions in experiential avoidance (EA; Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996), attempts to control or eliminate distressing internal experiences, regardless of behavioral consequences, as a potential mechanism of change in participants with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) receiving either acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) or applied relaxation (AR). Participants' EA scores across treatment on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) were used to calculate slopes, which were used as predictors in a series of linear regressions. Greater change in EA across treatment significantly predicted change in worry (PSWQ) and quality of life (QOLI) across both treatments. These results contribute to the body of literature on common mechanisms of change across traditional CBTs and mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches.

  8. Efficacy and safety study of Olanzapine or Quetiapine joint Donepezil in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia%奥氮平或喹硫平联合多奈哌齐治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状的疗效和安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉琦; 徐文炜; 程灶火; 吴越; 顾君; 汤莉; 季萍; 李桂林

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨奥氮平或喹硫平联合多奈哌齐治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状的疗效和安全性.方法 将103例伴精神行为症状的痴呆患者随机分为奥氮平联合多奈哌齐组(A组)与喹硫平联合多奈哌齐组(B组).治疗前和研究结束时进行简易智力状态检查(MMSE)评分.在治疗后的第2、4、6、8周末以痴呆病理行为评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)减分率评定疗效,以副反应量表(TESS)记录治疗中各项药物不良反应.结果 两组MMSE评分均较治疗前提高2分以上,治疗结束后两组组内比较,差异均有统计学意义(均P < 0.05).治疗前后BEHAVE-AD量表评分两组组内比较,至第4周末时均明显下降,差异有高度统计学意义(均P < 0.01).A组有效率为88.46%(46/52),显著有效率为67.31%(35/52);B组有效率为86.27%(44/51),显著有效率为64.71%(33/51),两组疗效比较差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05).两组均无不能耐受的不良药物反应.结论 奥氮平或喹硫平联合多奈哌齐治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状安全有效.%Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of Olanzapine or Quetiapine joint Donepezil in the treatment of Alzheimer's behavioral and psychological symptoms. Methods 103 patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia patients were randomly divided into a combination of Olanzapinewith Donepezil group (group A) and the Quetiapine with Donepezil group (group B). The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores were evaluated before treatment and the end of the study. The efficacies were evaluated in 2, 4, 6, 8 weekend of the treatment by reduced rate of the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer's disease scale (BEHAVE-AD), the treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) was used to record the adverse reactions. Results Two sets of MMSE scores than before treatment, increased by more than two scores after the end of the treatment within the two groups were statistically significant different (all P 0

  9. Coparenting Problems with Toddlers Predict Children's Symptoms of Psychological Problems at Age 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomo; Christopher, Caroline; Mann, Tanya; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether coparenting during toddlerhood predicts children's later symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, affective disorder, and somatic complaints. When children were 2 years old, 108 middle-class nonclinical families were observed in triadic interactions to assess two domains of dyadic coparenting (competitive and cooperative), as well as each parent's individual competitive behavior toward the spouse. Teachers and mothers reported children's symptoms of psychological problems at age 7. Independent of cooperative coparenting and each parents' individual harsh parenting, competitive coparenting predicted children's symptoms of ADHD and ODD. Interactions with child gender indicated that competitive coparenting predicted ADHD symptoms in boys (not in girls) and teacher-reported (not mother-reported) somatic complaints in girls (not in boys). ODD and ADHD symptoms were also predicted by fathers' (not mothers') individual competitive behaviors. The children of parents who were both low in competitive behaviors had the lowest teacher-rated symptoms of affective disorder.

  10. 青少年常见身心病理症状流行情况及其对6个月后自杀和自伤行为的影响%Situation of common psychosomatic symptom in adolescent and its influence on 6 months later suicide and self-injurious behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧; 陶芳标; 黄蕾; 万宇辉; 孙莹; 苏普玉; 郝加虎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of common psychosomatic symptoms among Chinese adolescents and the influence on 6 months later suicide and self-injurious behavior.Methods Based on the cluster sampling method,the participants who were recruited from 8 cities from 3 areas in China,including Eastern areas (Beijing,Shaoxing and Guangzhou),Middle areas( Ezhou,Harbin and Taiyuan ) and Western areas (Guiyang and Chongqing ),were administered by multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents ( MSQA ) in March 2008.Demographics,life style,psychosomatic symptoms,suicide and self-injurious behavior were also assessed.A total of 17 622 questionnaires were valid at baseline.Six months later,14 407 questionnaires were eligible for two waves investigation.Analysis of Pearson chi-square and logistic model regression analysis were employed to compare the incidence of psychosomatic symptoms,suicide and self-injurious behaviors among different areas and to explore the possible risk factors of those symptoms and behaviors.Results At baseline,rates of total common physiological and psychological symptoms were 24.1% ( 4255/17 622 ) and 30.9% ( 5447/17 622 ),respectively,with the highest being eating and drinking too much(6.4%,1130/17 622) and hardly feel ease to learn at home ( 11.8%,2087/17 622).In males,the rate of common psychological symptoms(30.7%,2637/8599) was higher than physiological symptoms ( 24.0%,2061/8599 ) ( P < 0.05 ) ; in females,the rate of common psychological symptoms ( 31.1%,2810/9023 ) was higher than physiological symptoms ( 24.3 %,2194/9023) (P <0.05 ).The rate of the common psychosomatic symptoms in senior high school students (46.8%,2905/6208) were significantly higher than those in middle high school students (37.3%,2337/6262) and college students ( 33.2%,1711/5152 ) ( all P values < 0.05 ).Students from Western areas had the highest incidences of the common physiological and psychological symptoms (30.2%,1471

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Varying Interactions at Diagnosis and During Transition to Insulin Pump Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah L; Peterson, Claire M; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T; Muir, Andrew B; Laffel, Lori M

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the associations between depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation and bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of T1D. Study participants were 103 youth in 2 distinct groups: newly diagnosed (New) or transitioning to pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]; "Pump"), who completed questionnaires regarding symptoms of depression, emotion dysregulation, and bulimia. Glycemic control (A1c), height, weight, and questionnaires were evaluated within 10 days of diagnosis (n = 58) or at education/clinic visit before starting insulin utilizing CSII (n = 45). In the newly diagnosed group, only depression accounted for significant variance in bulimia scores (β = .47, P symptoms and emotion dysregulation were associated with greater bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation, an indicator of poor coping/behavioral control, could help explain adoption of disordered eating behaviors in youth with T1D who are transitioning to pump therapy.

  12. Symptoms in Children After Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Atay Turan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of symptoms resulted from chemotherapy in children. Materials and Methods: In this study 46 children and adolescents who had chemotherapy in a pediatric oncology clinic of an oncology hospital were included. Sociodemographic questionnaire and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (10-18 years were used as data collection tool. Results: In this survey the mean age of children with cancer was 13.47±2.14 years and the majority of them (41.3% were monitored with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma diagnosis. The most common symptoms in children who had chemotherapy in hospital were fatigue (76.1%, feeling nervous (69.6%, alopecia (65.2%, nausea (60.9% and feeling sad (60.9%, while the least common symptoms were swelling in the arms/legs (8.7% and problems in urination (6.5%. The most troublesome symptoms were dizziness (66.6%, difficulty in swallowing (64.3%, pain (47.8% and hair loss (43.4%. Conclusions: It was seen that the children still experience high prevalence of post-treatment symptoms, they had more intense psychological symptoms and physical symptoms caused more discomfort.

  13. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  14. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  15. Betahistine for symptoms of vertigo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdin, Louisa; Hussain, Kiran; Schilder, Anne G M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vertigo is a symptom in which individuals experience a false sensation of movement. This type of dizziness is thought to originate in the inner ear labyrinth or its neural connections. It is a commonly experienced symptom and can cause significant problems with carrying out normal activi

  16. Sintomas psicóticos e cognitivos associados à busca de tratamento por dependentes de substâncias: um estudo qualitativo Psychotic and cognitive symptoms associated to treatment seeking behavior: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há algumas décadas, busca-se compreender melhor o processo subjacente ao comportamento de procura de tratamento por usuários que fazem uso nocivo ou são dependentes de substâncias psicoativas. Os modelos atualmente propostos baseiam-se principalmente na análise epidemiológica de certas características individuais quanto ao poder que têm de influenciar esse comportamento de disposição para tratamento. OBJETIVOS: Interpretar e compreender possíveis significados pessoais associados a alterações psicopatológicas, sobre como podem se relacionar à procura de tratamento, na visão dos próprios pacientes. MÉTODO: Pesquisa qualitativa com entrevistas semidirigidas com amostra intencional de 13 dependentes de substâncias que procuraram tratamento. RESULTADOS: Houve relatos espontâneos de alterações de forma, curso e conteúdo de pensamento e juízo de realidade, alterações de sensopercepção, de atenção, memória e linguagem. Os membros da amostra pareceram relacioná-las à motivação para tratamento. Os dados foram interpretados considerando o contexto psicocultural dos entrevistados e seus quadros clínicos de síndrome de dependência, de abstinência e de comorbidade. CONCLUSÕES: Pesquisas qualitativas contribuem para aprimorar os modelos explicativos sobre procura de tratamento por dependentes de substâncias. Investigar clinicamente alterações psicopatológicas parece poder contribuir para motivar pacientes para tratamentos específicos do uso disfuncional de substâncias.During the last few decades it is aimed to better understand the process underlying treatment seeking behavior by harmful or dependent psychoactive substances users. The currently proposed models are mainly based on the epidemiological analysis of certain number of individual characteristics, as they have the power to influence this behavior of readiness for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To interpret and understand possible personal meanings associated with

  17. Associations between attachment-related symptoms and later psychological problems among international adoptees: results from the FinAdo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Mäkipää, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2015-02-01

    We examined the associations between attachment-related symptoms (symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD), symptoms of disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED), and clinging) and later psychological problems among international adoptees. The study population comprised internationally adopted children (591 boys and 768 girls, 6-15 years) from the ongoing Finnish Adoption (FinAdo) study. Data were gathered with self-administered questionnaires both from adoptive parents and from adoptees aged over 9 years. Attachment-related symptoms were measured using of a short (8-item) questionnaire and later behavioral/emotional problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Five to Fifteen (FTF) scale for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. RAD and DSED symptom subscales were associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems and ADHD. Especially the mixed type of attachment-related symptoms was strongly associated with later emotional and behavioral problems.

  18. 喹硫平治疗老年痴呆患者精神行为症状的临床观察%Quetiapine for the behavioral and psychological symptoms in senile dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜良; 刁秋莺; 张恒铭

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察喹硫平与奋乃静对老年痴呆患者的疗效和安全性.方法 将52例老年痴呆患者随机分成两组:研究组给予喹硫平治疗,剂量范围为50~400 mg/d(26例);对照组给予奋乃静治疗,剂量范围为6~16 mg/d(26例),观察8周.采用简易智力状态检查(MMSE)、老年临床评定量表(SCAG)、副反应量表(TESS)分别于入组前和入组第8周末时进行评定,比较两组的疗效和安全性.结果 治疗结束时,两组较入组时MMSE评分均非常显著增高(P<0.01)、SCAG评分均显著减低(P<0.01或0.05);研究组和对照组的不良反应发生率分别为为30.8%和46.2%,研究组明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 喹硫平治疗老年痴呆的疗效好,不良反应少,适合临床应用.%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of quetiapine and perphenazine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Metbods 52 patients were randomly assigned to receive quetiapine of SO - 400mg daily ( 26 patients, study group), or perphenazine of 6-16mg daily ( 26 patients, control group )for 8 weeks. The efficacy and safety of the two therapies was compared between the two groups by using the Mini-mental State Examination ( MMSE ), Sandoz Clincal Assessment Geriatric ( SCAG ), and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS ) 8 weeks after treatment. Results At the completion of treatment, the scores on MMSE were significantly higher ( P< 0.01 ), and those on SCAG were significantly lower in both groups ( P< 0.01 or P< 0.05 ), as compared with the baseline scores. The rate of adverse reactions was significantly lower in the study group than in the control group ( 30.8% vs. 46.2%, P< 0.05 ) Conclusions Quetiapine has a better efficacy in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and has fewer adverse reactions. It is suitable for clinical use.

  19. Behavior characteristics and cognitive function in the first-episode children with or without obsessive-com-pulsive symptoms%伴强迫症状的首发儿童精神分裂症患者的认知功能和病前行为特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华锋; 郭素芹; 邵荣荣; 郭芳; 张红梅; 郭敬华; 李玉玲; 张杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查伴与不伴强迫症状的儿童精神分裂症患者之间病后认知功能和病前行为特征的差异。方法选取儿童精神分裂症患者149例为患者组,72名正常儿童为对照组。根据学龄儿童情感障碍和精神分裂症问卷(the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime ver⁃sion,K-SADS-PL)将患者组患儿分为伴强迫症状组(70例)与不伴强迫症状组(79例)。采用Achenbach儿童行为量表(child behaviour check-list , CBCL)回顾性调查所有入组儿童6~10岁的行为特征;采用中国韦氏儿童智力测验、Stroop色—词测验、连线测验、视觉空间记忆、迷宫测验对所有入组儿童进行认知功能的评估。结果CBCL量表测评显示,两患者组既往行为问题总分均高于对照组(P<0.01),社会能力总分均低于对照组(P<0.05);伴强迫组学校情况(P<0.01)、分裂强迫(P<0.01)以及体诉因子分(P<0.01)均高于不伴强迫组。认知功能测评显示,两患者组所有因子评分均低于对照组(P<0.05),伴强迫组常识(P<0.01)、木块(P<0.01)、Stroop色—词关联测验(P<0.01)以及视觉空间记忆评分(P<0.01)低于不伴强迫组。病前行为特征与病后认知功能相关分析显示,伴强迫组社会能力总分与类同评分呈正相关(r=0.31,P<0.01);不伴强迫组行为问题总分与木块评分(r=-0.31,P<0.01)、拼凑评分(r=-0.32,P<0.01)呈负相关。结论伴强迫症状的首发儿童精神分裂症患者病前存在更多的行为问题,病后认知功能更差。伴与不伴强迫症状的首发儿童精神分裂症患者病后认知功能均与病前行为问题、社会能力存在相关关系。%Objective To investigate cognitive function and behavior characteristics in the childhood onset schizo⁃phrenia patients with or without obsessive-compulsive symptoms

  20. Cognitive functions and behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with vascular dementia%阿尔茨海默病和血管性痴呆患者的认知功能和精神行为症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽君; 张楠; 程焱; 杜红坚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Methods: Totally 115 outpatients with mild-to-moderate dementia who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) dementia diagnosis criteria, were recruited in this case-controlled study. The cognitive function, including memory, language, attention, etc, and the behavioral and psychological symptoms, including delusions, illusions, agitation, depression, apathy irritability, aberrant motor behavior, etc, were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), World Health Organization-University of California, Los Angeles, auditory verbal learning test (WHO-UCLA AVLT), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) in 61 patients with AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and 54 patients with VD according to NINDS-AIREN criteria. Results: AD patients had lower scores in languages of MMSE scale and delayed recall of objects and prolonged memory recognition in the WHO-UCLA AVLT, while VD patients had lower scores in attention of the MMSEscale [(5.6 ±1.9) vs. (6.7±1.5),(1.3±1.9) vs. (2.8±3.2),(2.9±3.3) vs. (5.9±3.8),(1.0± 1.2) vs. ( 1.7 ± 1.9); Ps < 0. 05]. The rate of apathy, agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior in AD group was significantly higher than that in VD group in the test of the NPI scale, while the rate of depression symptoms were more common in VD group than in AD group (P <0. 05). Conclusion: The cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between AD and VD patients are different. AD patients are worse in language ability and memory, while VD patients perform worse in attention. AD patients are more likely to have apathy, agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and VD patients are more likely to have depression. It is help to distinguish AD and VD patients by evaluating

  1. Marcadores neurobiológicos e psicométricos da eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no transtorno de estresse pós-traumático associado a sintomas dissociativos: relato de caso Neurobiological and psychometric markers of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in post-traumatic stress disorder with dissociative symptoms: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lages

    2011-01-01

    different psychopathologies, including dissociation, potentially affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in a patient with PTSD and dissociative symptoms based on psychophysiological and psychometric measures at different time points throughout the course of treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient is a 38-year old man diagnosed with PTSD, major depression, and dissociative symptoms, resistant to pharmacotherapy. Psychological treatment lasted for 4 months and consisted of one weekly therapy session and three weekly coaching sessions. Physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, sympathovagal balance, and cortisol and psychometric measures (negative and positive affect, resilience, and post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms were obtained before, during (once a month and after treatment. COMMENTS: Results showed a decrease in sympathovagal balance and an increase in heart rate, vagal tone and cortisol levels during the course of treatment. Treatment also lead to a decrease in negative affect and in post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms, as well as to an increase in resilience, social support and positive affect scores. These results suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms. Moreover, the treatment seems to be able to normalize PTSD-related physiological parameters in the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems.

  2. 认知行为疗法联合药物治疗改善慢性前列腺炎患者临床症状的疗效观察%Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy combined with drug treatment to improve the clinical symptoms of patients with chronic prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小滨; 曾媛媛; 谭友果; 刘跃江; 黄俊; 曾柯

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察认知行为疗法联合药物治疗改善慢性前列腺炎(CP)患者焦虑抑郁情绪、尿路刺激症状、慢性疼痛、性功能障碍的疗效.方法 将240例CP患者随机分为两组,对照组120例,采用临床常规方法进行治疗;治疗组120例,在接受临床常规治疗的同时联合认知行为治疗,疗程12周,治疗前后分别用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、国际慢性前列腺炎症状评分(NIH-CPSI)和国际勃起功能指数-5(IIEF-5)评分对治疗组和对照组患者进行评估,最后对各项结果进行统计学分析.结果 12周治疗结束后,患者前列腺炎临床症状和性功能障碍改善程度治疗组明显优于对照组(P<0.01),焦虑抑郁症状改善情况治疗组显著优于对照组(P<0.01).结论 认知行为疗法联合药物治疗可有效改善慢性前列腺炎(CP)患者的焦虑抑郁情绪、尿路刺激症状、慢性疼痛和性功能障碍.%Objective To observe the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy combined with drug treatment to improve the anxiety and depression,urinary tract irritation,chronic pain,sexual dysfunction in patients with chronic prostatitis (CP).Methods Two hundred and forty patients with CP were randomly divided into two groups,the control group (n=120) and the study group (n=120).Patients in the control received clinical routine drug treatment,while those in the study group received cognitive behavioral therapy combined with drug treatment,both for 12 weeks.The patients were evaluated with Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score before and after treatment.The results were statistically analyzed.Results After 12 weeks of treatment,the degree of improvement of clinical symptoms and sexual dysfunction in the study group was significantly better than that in the control group(P<0.01),anxiety and

  3. Turning symptoms into allies: utilization approaches with posttraumatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M

    1993-01-01

    Adult patients with symptoms connected to the trauma of childhood sexual abuse often present in therapy with multiple symptoms and life difficulties and offer a challenge to even the most experienced clinician. In this paper, I describe my work with three such patients who were crippled in different ways by symptoms that had proved resistant to years of various therapeutic interventions. In every case, I accepted and utilized these symptoms as positive resources for successful and rapid change. Patients were then taught self-utilization approaches which allowed them to sustain and extend initial improvements. I conclude that the indirect utilization principle introduced by Milton Erickson provides an effective method to use in approaching some of the more persistent patterns of posttraumatic symptomatology related to childhood sexual abuse.

  4. Beyond symptom self-report: use of a computer "avatar" to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W

    2016-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  5. Evidence-based approaches to other symptoms in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Sydney Morss; Apostol, Colleen C

    2010-01-01

    Dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, and sleep disturbances are common and distressing in advanced cancer. We updated previous systematic reviews of how these symptoms can be alleviated with targeted literature searches. The approach to these symptoms requires comprehensive symptom assessment; treating underlying causes when benefits exceed risks; prioritizing treatment, as patients usually have many symptoms; and addressing psychosocial and spiritual distress. For dyspnea, evidence supports systemic opioids and nonpharmacological treatments such as a fan. The strongest evidence supports metoclopramide for cancer-related nausea and octreotide for bowel obstruction. For anorexia, enteral or parenteral nutrition is indicated with obstruction and expected prognosis of at least 6 weeks. Evidence supports several drugs for appetite affecting quality of life. For fatigue, evidence supports psychosocial interventions and methylphenidate. For insomnia, evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy in cancer; no sleep agents have superior effectiveness.

  6. Clinical comparison and investigation of curative effects by olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease%奥氮平、利培酮治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状疗效的临床比较探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕经纬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical effects by olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods A total of 102 patients with Alzheimer’s disease were randomly divided into olanzapine group and risperidone group, with 51 cases in each group. The olanzapine group received olanzapine tablets for treatment, and the risperidone group received risperidone tablets for treatment. Improvements of clinical symptoms were observed in 2, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), dementia pathological behavior score (BE-HAVE) and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were taken. Condition of adverse drug reactions was evaluated. Results The olanzapine group had total effective rate as 92.2%, and the risperidone group had that as 90.2%. Their difference had no statistical significance (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference of scores in hostile suspicion, disturbance of thought, behavior disorders, anxiety-depression, and bigotry between the two groups after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment (P>0.05). The olanzapine group had lower PANSS score in 2 and 4 weeks of treatment than the risperidone group, and the difference had statistical significance (P0.05)。两组治疗后2、4、8周敌对猜疑、思维障碍、行为紊乱、焦虑抑郁、偏执等评分比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。奥氮平组在治疗2、4周时 PANSS 评分低于利培酮组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。利培酮组发生锥体外系反应和恶心例数多于奥氮平组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论奥氮平和利培酮治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状均有较好的疗效,但奥氮平起效更快,不良反应较少,患者耐受性更好。

  7. Contrastive Analysis on Cognitive Function,Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms Between Patients With Alzheimer′s Disease and With Vascular Dementia%阿尔茨海默病与血管性痴呆患者认知功能、精神行为症状的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娜; 成亚纯

    2016-01-01

    Objective to compare the cognitive function,behavioral and psychological symptoms between patients with Alzheimer′s disease(AD)and with vascular dementia(VD),to provide references for differential diagnosis. Methods From August 2013 to August 2014 in the Department of Neurology,People′s Hospital of Yingchen,a total of 48 patients with AD were selected as AD group,a total of 52 patients with VD were selected as VD. MMSE score,WHO-UCLA AVLt score and incidence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were compared between the two groups. Results Language competence score,memory score,delayed memory score and long - term memory score of VD group were statistically significantly higher than those of AD group,calculative ability and attention scores of VD group were statistically significantly lower than those of AD group (P 0. 05). No statistically significant differences of anxiety or fear, hallucination,delusion or delusion,or diurnal rhythm disorders was found between the two groups( P > 0. 05),incidence of mood disorders of VD group was statistically significantly higher than that of AD group,while incidence of aggressive behaviour and behavior disorders of VD group was statistically significantly lower than that of AD group,respectively( P 0.05)。两组患者焦虑和恐惧、幻觉、妄想和偏执及日夜节律紊乱发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);VD 患者情感障碍发生率高于 AD 组,攻击行为和行为紊乱发生率低于 AD 组(P <0.05)。结论 AD 患者语言能力、记忆力(特别是延时记忆和长时记忆)较差,且更易出现攻击行为、行为紊乱、日夜节律紊乱症状;而 VD 患者注意力较差,且更易出现情感障碍。

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  9. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

  10. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  11. The effect of exercise intervention on social function and symptom behavior of chronic schizophrenia patients%运动干预对慢性精神分裂症患者社会功能及症状行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨运动干预在慢性精神分裂症患者中的应用效果。方法将我院2014年1月至2014年7月住院治疗的40例慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组采用常规护理,观察组在对照组的基础上给予运动干预,比较两组患者干预前后社会功能及症状行为的变化。结果两组患者干预前的社会功能和症状行为均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。8周后,观察组在日常生活能力、动性和交往情况、社会技能等社会功能方面的评分高于对照组,在焦虑抑郁、缺乏活力、思维障碍等症状行为方面的评分均低于对照组,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论运动干预能有效提高慢性精神分裂症患者的社会功能,改善患者的病情,促进康复。%Objective To explore the application effect of exercise intervention in chronic schizophrenia patients.Methods 40 patients with chronicschizophrenia treated in our hospital from January2014 to July2014 were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, the control group was given routine nursing, the observation group was given exercise intervention based on the control group.The change of social function and symptoms behavior before and after the intervention of the two groups were compared.Results There were no statistical significance between the two groups in social and behavioral symptomsbefore the intervention. After 8 weeks, social function score in daily life ability, mobility and communication, social skills in the observation group was higher than that in the control group.But symptoms behavioral score in the anxiety and depression, lack of energy, thought disorder was lower than that in the control group, the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusions Exercise intervention can effectively improve social function and symptoms behavior of chronic schizophrenia patients,it can promote rehabilitation.

  12. 结节性硬化症所致精神障碍1例%Psychiatric symptoms in an individual with tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaojin LIU; Jinli GAO

    2012-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare disorder with no specific treatment. In some cases psychological symptoms are the initial presenting symptoms, making the differential diagnosis difficult. We describe a patient with tuberous sclerosis who developed psychiatric symptoms and discuss the use of low-dose quetiapine to control her emotional and behavioral symptoms.

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...

  14. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  15. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  17. 阿茨海默病与血管性痴呆患者心理和行为症状的比较%Comparative study of psychological and behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗颖

    2012-01-01

      目的:比较阿茨海默病与血管性痴呆患者的心理和行为症状(Psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia, BPSD).方法:收集阿茨海默病(Alzheimer’s Disease, AD)和血管性痴呆(Vascular Dementia, VD)患者各30例,采用 Alzheimer 病行为症状评定量表(the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease rating scale,BEHAVE-AD),Cohen-Mansfield 激惹性问卷(the cohen-mansfield agitation inventory,CMAI)评定患者的 BPSD.结果:① AD、VD 两组的行为紊乱发生率均高,但差异无统计学意义;AD 组焦虑与恐惧发生率高于 VD 组,VD 组焦虑与恐惧的严重程度重于 AD组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).② VD 组乱走、无目的游荡的发生率高于 AD 组(P <0.05),但严重程度相似;AD 组试图出走的严重程度重于 VD 组(P <0.05),但发生率无差异.两组在偏执与妄想观念、幻觉、攻击行为、日夜节律紊乱、情感障碍的发生率与严重程度上无明显差异.结论:本组 AD、VD 患者均呈现出不同类型的 BPSD,而其严重程度不尽相同.针对其 BPSD 的特点进行相关治疗,对痴呆 BPSD 的预后有重要的意义.%  Objective: To compare the psychological and behavioral symptoms of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Method:30 cases of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia were enrolled respectively. Patients with BPSD were assessed by behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease rating scale and the cohen-mansfield agitation inventory. Result:① Both AD and VD groups had high incidence of behavioral disorders but the difference had no statistical significance. AD group had higher incidence of anxiety and fear than VD group. VD group had more severe anxiety and fear than AD group and the difference had statistical significance ( P<0.05).② VD group had higher incidence of random walking and aimless wandering than AD group (P<0.05) but they had similar severity. AD group had more severity

  18. Avolition, Negative Symptoms, and a Clinical Science Journey and Transition to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, William T; Frost, Katherine H; Whearty, Kayla M; Strauss, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    The concepts and investigations reviewed above suggest the following * Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome that can be deconstructed into meaningful domains of psychopathology. * Individual patients vary substantially on which domains are present as well as severity. * Negative symptoms are common in persons with schizophrenia, but only primary negative symptoms are a manifestation of schizophrenia psychopathology in the "weakening of the wellsprings of volition" sense that Kraepelin described. * The failure to distinguish primary from secondary negative symptoms has profound consequences as viewed in the vast majority of clinical trials that report negative symptom efficacy without regard for causation and without controlling for pseudospecificity. * Schizophrenia is now broadly defined with positive psychotic symptoms, and a subgroup with primary negative symptoms is a candidate disease entity. * Evidence of negative symptoms as a taxon supports the separate classification of persons with primary negative symptoms. * Negative symptoms are an unmet therapeutic need. * Two factors best define the negative symptom construct and these may have different pathophysiological and treatment implications. * The avolitional component may not be based on a diminished capacity to experience pleasure, but difficulty using mental representations of affective value to guide decision-making and goal-directed behavior. Part II in this volume by Strauss et al. will address the range of laboratory-based investigations of negative symptoms, clarify current hypotheses and theories concerning negative symptom pathology, and address future directions for negative symptom research and clinical care.

  19. Síntomas, percepción y demanda de atención en salud mental en niños y adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Mental symptoms perceptions of healthcare needs, and health care seeking behaviors, among children and adolescents in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Javier Caraveo-Anduaga

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de síntomas emocionales y conductuales en niños y adolescentes. Identificar las manifestaciones que son percibidas por los padres como necesidades potenciales de atención para sus hijos, y estimar la búsqueda de servicios de salud mental. Material y métodos. Los datos proceden de una encuesta efectuada de julio a noviembre de 1995 en hogares y fue representativa de las personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad del Distrito Federal, México. Se investigó la presencia de 27 síntomas en todos y cada uno de los hijos de entre 4 a 16 años de edad que vivían con el adulto entrevistado, así como de la percepción y búsqueda de ayuda para los menores sintomáticos. En el análisis se utilizó la regresión logística. Resultados. Se obtuvo información acerca de 1 685 menores. La mitad de la población resultó sintomática. La necesidad de atención fue solamente considerada para 25%, y la búsqueda de atención para 13%. Los síntomas de internalización fueron percibidos más frecuentemente y llevados a la consulta por los padres. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren un retraso en la atención. Los datos del estudio serán de utilidad para los clínicos y para la planeación de las políticas y programas de salud mental en los servicios de atención primaria.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of behavioral and emotional symptoms in children and adolescents; to identify parents' perception of their children's healthcare needs; and to estimate the frequency of seeking mental healthcare services. Material and Methods. A household survey was carried out between July and November 1995 in Mexico City. The survey was representative of persons aged 18 to 65 years. Study subjects were 1685 children 4 to 16 years of age and living in the same household as their parents. Informant parents provided data on their children regarding the presence of 27 symptoms, their perceptions of healthcare needs of symptomatic

  20. Beyond Symptom Counts for Diagnosing Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral health disorders. Although there is substantial evidence of heterogeneity of symptom presentations, DSM diagnoses of CD and ODD are formally diagnosed on the basis of symptom counts without regard to individual symptom patterns. We used unidimensional item response theory (IRT) two-parameter logistic (2PL) models to examine item parameters for the individual symptoms of CD and ODD using data on 6,491 adolescents (ages 13-17) from the National Comorbidity Study: Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). For each disorder, the symptoms differed in terms of severity and discrimination parameters. As a result, some adolescents who were above DSM diagnostic thresholds for disruptive behavior disorders exhibited lower levels of the underlying construct than others below the thresholds, based on their unique symptom profile. In terms of incremental benefit, our results suggested an advantage of latent trait scores for CD but not ODD.

  1. The impact of parenting on the associations between child aggression subtypes and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Casey A; Fite, Paula J

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated parenting behaviors (i.e., parental monitoring, inconsistent discipline, parental involvement, positive parenting, and corporal punishment) as moderators of the link between proactive and reactive aggression and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a community sample of 89 children ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.44, SD = 1.14; 56 % male). Reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely positively associated with ODD symptoms. Additionally, inconsistent discipline moderated the association between proactive, but not reactive, aggression and ODD symptoms, such that proactive aggression was associated with ODD symptoms only when levels of inconsistent discipline were high. Findings appear to suggest that associations between these aggression subtypes and ODD symptoms are influenced by different factors, with inconsistent discipline indicated in the association between proactively aggressive behavior and ODD symptoms. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  2. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold.

  3. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  4. 哌罗匹隆与喹硫平治疗老年痴呆患者精神行为症状的对照研究%Control study on perospirone and quetiapine in the treatment of senile dementia patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 王炎; 刘丽娜

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical effi cacy and safety of perospirone and quetiapine in the treatment of senile dementia patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms. METH ODS: 106 cases of senile dementia patients were randomly divided into the perospirone group and the quetiapine group. The efficacy and adverse reaction were evaluated by Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD ) , Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory ( CMAI ) , Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activity of Daily Life (ADD and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS) in baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, the efficia-cy rate was 82. 0% in perospirone group and 85. 7% in quetiapine group. There were no significant differences between the two groups (F >0. 05). The scores of BEHAVE-AD and other factors were significantly decreased after the 12 weeks of treatment with perospirone, especially factors of hallucinations, behavior disorders and aggressive behavior (P<0. 01). The MMSE and ADL scores of two groups after the 12 weeks of treatment were higher than the scores before treatment, but there were no significant differ ences between before and after treatment. The adverse reactions of perospirone group was lower than that of quetiapine group, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION;Compared with quetiapine, per ospirone has similar efficacy and safety in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symp toms of senile dementia, and fewer adverse reac tions were found in perospirone group.%目的:探讨哌罗匹隆治疗老年痴呆患者精神行为症状(BPSD)的临床疗效及安全性.方法:将106例老年痴呆患者随机分成哌罗匹隆组和喹硫平组,于治疗前及治疗后12周采用阿尔茨海默病病理行为评分表(BEHAVE-AD)、Cohen-Mansfied激越问卷(CMAI)、简易智力状态检查(MMSE)、日常生活能力评分(ADL)、不良反应量表(TESS)评价疗

  5. 奥氮平与利培酮治疗痴呆患者精神行为症状的对照研究%The comparative study of olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of dementia patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文平; 赵祖安; 白玉红; 曾丽苹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of Olanzapine and Risperidone in the treatment of dementia patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms. Methods 80 senile dementia patients were selected and divided into two groups randomly, Olanzapine group (40 cases) and Risperidone group (40 cases). Before the treatment and the treatment for two, four and eight weeks, the two groups were both given the BEHAVE-AD scale to evaluate the efficacy and TESS scale to evaluate the adverse reactions. Results In the treatment of the 8th week, the differences of all the BE-HAVE-AD scales compared with before the treatment in the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In the treatment of the 2nd week, the difference of total scales compared with before the treatment in the Olanzapine group was statistically significant (P < 0.01), the Risperidone group was not; but at the 8th week the difference of efficiency rate between the two groups was not statistically significant. In security, the difference of total adverse reactions rate was not statistically significant, but the incidence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in the Risperidone group was higher than in the Olanzapine group(P < 0.05). Conclusion The efficacy of Olanzapine and Risperidone in the treatment of dementia patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms are equal, but Olanzapine works faster, side effects are less, so Olanzapine is more suitable to treat dementia patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms.%目的 观察奥氮平和利培酮治疗老年痴呆患者精神行为症状的疗效和安全性.方法 将80例老年痴呆患者随机分为奥氮平组和利培酮组,每组各40例,共观察8周.治疗前及治疗第2、4、8周末分别用BEHAVE-AD量表评定疗效,用TESS量表评定不良反应.结果 奥氮平组和利培酮组在治疗第8周末,BEHAVE-AD量所有项目评分与治疗前比较,差异均有高度统计学意义(均P < 0.01),

  6. Effect of ziprasidone on senile dementia complicated with psychiatric and behavioral symptoms and the influ-ence on glucose and lipid metabolism%齐拉西酮治疗老年期痴呆精神行为异常的疗效及对糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨齐拉西酮治疗老年期痴呆精神行为异常的临床疗效及对糖脂代谢的影响。方法将118例老年期痴呆精神行为异常患者随机分为利培酮组与齐拉西酮组,分别接受利培酮及齐拉西酮口服治疗,疗程3个月。采用痴呆病理行为评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)及副反应量表(TESS)评分2组临床疗效及不良反应,并比较2组治疗前后糖脂代谢指标的改变。结果治疗后3个月2组BEHAVE-AD评分显著下降(P<0.05),但组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);利培酮组体质量增加、月经异常及泌乳等不良反应发生率显著高于齐拉西酮组(P<0.05);治疗后利培酮组空腹血糖、胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C )及胰岛素均显著高于齐拉西酮组( P<0.05)。结论齐拉西酮与利培酮治疗老年期痴呆精神行为异常疗效相当,但齐拉西酮不良反应少,对糖脂代谢无明显影响。%Objective To explore the effect of ziprasidone on senile dementia complicated with psychiatric and behavioral symptoms and the influence on glucose and lipid metabolism .Methods 118 cases of senile dementia complicated with psychiat-ric and behavioral symptoms were randomly divided into risperidone group and ziprasidone group .The course of treatment was 3 months .BEHAVE-AD and TESS scales were used to evaluate the effectiveness and the rate of side effect .The indexes of glu-cose and lipid metabolism were compared between two groups .Results After treatment ,BEHAVE-AD scores greatly de-creased in two groups (P 0 .05);Weight gain ,lactation and menstruation abnormality rates in risperidone group were much higher than those in ziprasidone group (P<0 .05);Compared with ziprasidone group ,fasting blood glucose ,TC ,LDL-C and insulin of risperidone group great-ly increased (P<0 .05) .Conclusion ziprasidone and risperidone have equivalent clinical efficacy in treatment of senile dementia

  7. The case control study of clinical symptoms and cognitive function between starting young and middle-aged depression patients with and without attempted suicide behavior%伴与不伴自杀行为首发中青年抑郁症患者临床症状及认知功能的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 叶兰仙

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of clinical symptoms and cognitive function between starting young and middle-aged depression patients with and without attempted suicide behavior.Methods Depressive patients were divided into two groups.One group was composed of patients with attempted suicide behavior (n =62),the other group was composed of patients without attempted suicide behavior(n =61).The cognitive function were measured by WAIS-RC,Wechsler Memorv Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting test(WCST).The patients were evaluated by symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90).Results There were significant differences in the score of depressive factor between tow groups,such as attempted suicide (2.90 ± 1.00,2.51 ± 0.76).There were significant differences in some nenuropsychological test between tow groups,such as long-term memory (35.28 ± 6.87,41.60 ±4.24),short-term memory (51.32 ± 13.41,118.98 ± 10.95),intelligence quotient(107.41 ± 15.78,118.98 ± 10.95),total quizzes number (73.18 ± 27.02,64.14 ± 28.71),perseverative errors (32.77 ± 17.93,23.73 ± 13.64).Conclusions There are certain characteristics on clinical symptoms of depressive patients with attempted suicide.The low cognitive function levels play an important role in the risk of suicide in depressive patients.%目的 比较伴与不伴有自杀行为的首发中青年抑郁症患者临床症状及认知功能的差异.方法 采用韦氏成人智能量表、韦氏记忆量表、威斯康星卡片分类测验对62例伴有自杀行为的抑郁症患者(研究组)和61例不伴有自杀行为的抑郁症患者(对照组)进行认知功能的对照性评估,同时进行症状自评量表(SCL-90)的评定.结果 ①研究组的抑郁因子评分[(2.90±1.00)分]与对照组[(2.51±0.76)分]差异有统计学意义(P=0.04 <0.05).②研究组的长时记忆、短时记忆、智商数、总测验数和持续错误数[分别为(35.28 ±6.87)分,(51.32±13.41)分,(107.41±15.78)分,(73.18±27.02)分,(32.77±17.93)

  8. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  9. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pituitary tumors? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Symptoms of Functioning Tumors The symptoms of functioning tumors ...

  10. What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the case. Hormone therapy such as estrogen or birth control pills, given to reduce menopausal symptoms, may cause these endometriosis symptoms to continue. Endometriosis-Related Pain Researchers know that pain is a primary symptom ...

  11. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  12. Does self-efficacy mediate the association between socioeconomic background and emotional symptoms among schoolchildren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Nielsen, Line

    2016-01-01

    in the association between occupational social class (OSC) and emotional symptoms. METHODS: Data stem from the cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-aged Children-Methodology Development Survey 2012 (HBSC-MDS) conducted among 11-15-year old schoolchildren in two Danish municipalities. Participation rate was 76......-efficacy. Promotion of personal competences like self-efficacy may reduce emotional symptoms among all socioeconomic groups, thereby reducing socioeconomic inequalities in emotional symptoms....

  13. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings...

  14. Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landälv, Daniel; Malmström, Lennart; Widén, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  15. Adolescents′ reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Landälv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents′ attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  16. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  17. Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Scientists believe that changes in the brain may ...

  18. Ketogenic diet improves core symptoms of autism in BTBR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, David N; Svedova, Julia; Cote, Jessica L; Sandau, Ursula; Rho, Jong M; Kawamura, Masahito; Boison, Detlev; Masino, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders share three core symptoms: impaired sociability, repetitive behaviors and communication deficits. Incidence is rising, and current treatments are inadequate. Seizures are a common comorbidity, and since the 1920's a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet has been used to treat epilepsy. Evidence suggests the ketogenic diet and analogous metabolic approaches may benefit diverse neurological disorders. Here we show that a ketogenic diet improves autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse. Juvenile BTBR mice were fed standard or ketogenic diet for three weeks and tested for sociability, self-directed repetitive behavior, and communication. In separate experiments, spontaneous intrahippocampal EEGs and tests of seizure susceptibility (6 Hz corneal stimulation, flurothyl, SKF83822, pentylenetetrazole) were compared between BTBR and control (C57Bl/6) mice. Ketogenic diet-fed BTBR mice showed increased sociability in a three-chamber test, decreased self-directed repetitive behavior, and improved social communication of a food preference. Although seizures are a common comorbidity with autism, BTBR mice fed a standard diet exhibit neither spontaneous seizures nor abnormal EEG, and have increased seizure susceptibility in just one of four tests. Thus, behavioral improvements are dissociable from any antiseizure effect. Our results suggest that a ketogenic diet improves multiple autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse model. Therefore, ketogenic diets or analogous metabolic strategies may offer novel opportunities to improve core behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

  19. Ketogenic diet improves core symptoms of autism in BTBR mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders share three core symptoms: impaired sociability, repetitive behaviors and communication deficits. Incidence is rising, and current treatments are inadequate. Seizures are a common comorbidity, and since the 1920's a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet has been used to treat epilepsy. Evidence suggests the ketogenic diet and analogous metabolic approaches may benefit diverse neurological disorders. Here we show that a ketogenic diet improves autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse. Juvenile BTBR mice were fed standard or ketogenic diet for three weeks and tested for sociability, self-directed repetitive behavior, and communication. In separate experiments, spontaneous intrahippocampal EEGs and tests of seizure susceptibility (6 Hz corneal stimulation, flurothyl, SKF83822, pentylenetetrazole were compared between BTBR and control (C57Bl/6 mice. Ketogenic diet-fed BTBR mice showed increased sociability in a three-chamber test, decreased self-directed repetitive behavior, and improved social communication of a food preference. Although seizures are a common comorbidity with autism, BTBR mice fed a standard diet exhibit neither spontaneous seizures nor abnormal EEG, and have increased seizure susceptibility in just one of four tests. Thus, behavioral improvements are dissociable from any antiseizure effect. Our results suggest that a ketogenic diet improves multiple autistic behaviors in the BTBR mouse model. Therefore, ketogenic diets or analogous metabolic strategies may offer novel opportunities to improve core behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

  20. Traumatic brain injury–Modeling neuropsychiatric symptoms in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oz eMalkesman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year in the United States, approximately 1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI. Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms—and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies—are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential.

  1. The Relation between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Deborah L.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3-8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal…

  2. Psychiatric disorders as first symptom in AIDS patients. A three-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, P B; Indaco, A; Perrella, O; Di Pietro, G; Morlino, M; Orefice, G

    1990-04-01

    The authors report three cases of AIDS presenting with psychiatric symptoms. In two cases the initial symptoms were behavioral disorders and grandiose delusion; in the third case, which started with depression, an opportunistic infection of the central nervous system was diagnosed.

  3. "Sitting on pins and needles": characterization of symptom descriptions in clinical notes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Tyler B; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Palmer, Miland N; Shen, Shuying; South, Brett R; Divita, Guy; Carter, Marjorie; Redd, Andrew; Butler, Jorie M; Samore, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Patients report their symptoms and subjective experiences in their own words. These expressions may be clinically meaningful yet are difficult to capture using automated methods. We annotated subjective symptom expressions in 750 clinical notes from the Veterans Affairs EHR. Within each document, subjective symptom expressions were compared to mentions of symptoms in clinical terms and to the assigned ICD-9-CM codes for the encounter. A total of 543 subjective symptom expressions were identified, of which 66.5% were categorized as mental/behavioral experiences and 33.5% somatic experiences. Only two subjective expressions were coded using ICD-9-CM. Subjective expressions were restated in semantically related clinical terms in 246 (45.3%) instances. Nearly one third (31%) of subjective expressions were not coded or restated in standard terminology. The results highlight the diversity of symptom descriptions and the opportunities to further develop natural language processing to extract symptom expressions that are unobtainable by other automated methods.

  4. “Sitting on Pins and Needles”: Characterization of Symptom Descriptions in Clinical Notes”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Tyler B.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Palmer, Miland N.; Shen, Shuying; South, Brett R.; Divita, Guy; Carter, Marjorie; Redd, Andrew; Butler, Jorie M.; Samore, Matthew

    Patients report their symptoms and subjective experiences in their own words. These expressions may be clinically meaningful yet are difficult to capture using automated methods. We annotated subjective symptom expressions in 750 clinical notes from the Veterans Affairs EHR. Within each document, subjective symptom expressions were compared to mentions of symptoms in clinical terms and to the assigned ICD-9-CM codes for the encounter. A total of 543 subjective symptom expressions were identified, of which 66.5% were categorized as mental/behavioral experiences and 33.5% somatic experiences. Only two subjective expressions were coded using ICD-9-CM. Subjective expressions were restated in semantically related clinical terms in 246 (45.3%) instances. Nearly one third (31%) of subjective expressions were not coded or restated in standard terminology. The results highlight the diversity of symptom descriptions and the opportunities to further develop natural language processing to extract symptom expressions that are unobtainable by other automated methods. PMID:24303238

  5. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms.

  6. Parental monitoring in late adolescence: relations to ADHD symptoms and longitudinal predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Thorell, Lisa B

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to replicate Stattin and Kerr's (2000) study on parental monitoring and adolescents' deviant behavior, to extend their findings to ADHD symptoms, and to examine the longitudinal predictors (8-18 years) of parental knowledge and child disclosure. Results showed that conduct problems were primarily associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure, but not with parental solicitation and control. A similar pattern was observed for ADHD symptoms. However, while the relations for conduct problems were generally independent of ADHD symptoms, the relations for ADHD symptoms were primarily non-significant after controlling for conduct problems. Moreover, early behavior problems, but not insecure/disorganized attachment, were associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure in adolescence. In conclusion, child disclosure is primarily associated with deviant behavior rather than ADHD, and early child problem behavior is a more important predictor of child disclosure (implicating reciprocal relations between these two constructs) than is insecure/disorganized attachment.

  7. Relationship between appetite levels and anxiety symptoms in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elihud Salazar

    2012-06-01

    Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.

  8. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  9. Patients’ Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, K. Annika; Sanderman, R.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether patients’ expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and comorbi

  10. Patients' Outcome Expectations Matter in Psychological Interventions for Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Schroevers, Maya J.; Tovote, Annika; Sanderman, Robbert; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether patients' expectations of treatment outcome predict treatment completion, homework compliance, and depressive symptom improvement in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Study participants were patients with diabetes and comorbi

  11. Diabetes Complications and Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies testing the potential impact of diabetes complications on depression are limited. The present study examined the longitudinal associations between diabetes complications and the risk and recurrence/persistence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from...... a prospective community cohort telephone survey of adults with diabetes (N= 1,314). Diabetes complications and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report (Diabetes Complications Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively) at baseline and annually for 5 years. Statistical models adjusted...... for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and diabetes characteristics. RESULTS: The number of diabetes complications at baseline was positively associated with a greater risk of elevated depressive symptoms, with the highest risk found for those with 4-6 complications at baseline (RR= 2.73, 95% CI= [1.64, 4...

  12. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  13. Prodromal non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Clelia; Benincasa, Dario; Pisani, Vincenzo; Buttarelli, Francesca R; Giovannelli, Morena; Pontieri, Francesco E

    2007-01-01

    The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, and tremor depend upon degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Recent neuropathological studies show that the Lewy bodies, the intraneuronal landmark of PD, accumulate in several neuronal cell types in the brain. An ascending gradient of pathological involvement, from the medulla oblongata to neocortical areas has been reported. Thus the original view of PD as a disease characterized by selective damage of the dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon should be updated into the concept of a severe multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder. Additionally, the neuropathological alterations outside the substantia nigra are soundly correlated with the non-motor symptoms of PD. As a result of these findings, interest is growing in the identification of prodromal non-motor symptoms of PD. Indeed, data from the literature suggest that autonomic disturbances, olfactory dysfunctions, depression and sleep disorders (in particular REM-sleep behavior disorder) may represent prodromal non-motor symptoms of PD. Several tests are available to detect most of these symptoms. Thus, the identification of prodromal non-motor symptoms may contribute to the precocious diagnosis of PD, and might be useful in the future to test the efficacy of neuroprotective agents. PMID:19300544

  14. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being.

  15. Promoting resilience in children with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Sánchez-Hernández

    Full Text Available A pilot study was conducted with the primary objective to study the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral intervention inspired by the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP; Gillham, Jaycox, Reivich, Seligman, & Silver, 1990; Seligman, Reivich, Jaycox, & Gillham, 2005, for the prevention of depression in students from primary education. The main components of the program include modifying explanatory style and resolving interpersonal problems. Results indicated that there was significant improvement from pre-test to post-test in the experimental group for children with "high depressive symptoms" compared with controls. Qualitative analysis were consistent with this trend. Conclusions in light of these results are discussed and potential directions for future research are recommended.

  16. Full remission and relapse of obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral group therapy: a two-year follow-up Remissão completa e recaídas dos sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos depois da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo: dois anos de acompanhamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tusi Braga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the results obtained with 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy with obsessive-compulsive patients were maintained after two years, and whether the degree of symptom remission was associated with relapse. METHOD: Forty-two patients were followed. The severity of symptoms was measured at the end of cognitive-behavioral group therapy and at 18 and 24 months of follow-up. The assessment scales used were the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: The reduction in symptom severity observed at the end of treatment was maintained during the two-year follow-up period (F = 57.881; p OBJETIVO: Avaliar se os resultados obtidos com 12 sessões de terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo para pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo foram mantidos depois de dois anos do final do tratamento e se o grau de remissão dos sintomas esteve associado às recaídas. MÉTODO: Quarenta e dois pacientes foram acompanhados. A gravidade dos sintomas foi avaliada no final da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo, 18 e 24 meses após o término do tratamento. As escalas utilizadas para avaliação foram Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Beck Depression Inventory e Beck Anxiety Inventory. RESULTADOS: A redução da gravidade dos sintomas observada no final do tratamento foi mantida durante o período de dois anos de acompanhamento (F = 57,881; p < 0,001. Ao final do tratamento, 9 (21,4% pacientes apresentaram remissão completa, 22 (52,4% remissão parcial e 11 (26,2% não apresentaram mudança na Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Dois anos depois, 13 pacientes (31,0% apresentaram remissão completa dos sintomas, 20 (47,6% apresentaram remissão parcial, e 9 (21,4% não apresentaram mudança na Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. A remissão completa dos sintomas ao

  17. Estudo epidemiológico dos sintomas do transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade e transtornos de comportamento em escolares da rede pública de Florianópolis usando a EDAH Epidemiological study on symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavior Disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC using the EDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Schilling Poeta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH é uma patologia caracterizada por desatenção, hiperatividade e impulsividade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo epidemiológico dos sintomas do transtorno do déficit de atenção e do transtorno de conduta em escolares da rede pública de Florianópolis usando a Escala para la evaluación del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperatividad (EDAH. MÉTODOS: Fizeram parte do estudo 1.898 escolares (1.001 do sexo masculino e 897 do sexo feminino, matriculados em cinco escolas da rede pública de Florianópolis, de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental, com idades entre 6 e 12 anos. O instrumento utilizado foi a Escala de Farré e Narbona, preenchida pelos professores e pais, que classifica a criança com o predomínio dos sintomas de hiperatividade, déficit de atenção, transtorno de conduta,hiperatividade com déficit de atenção e TDAH associado com transtorno de conduta (global. RESULTADOS: Dentre os 1.898 escolares, 95 (5% apresentaram os sintomas do transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade associado ao transtorno de conduta. Em relação ao sexo, a freqüência foi maior nos meninos, na proporção de 3:1. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados encontrados nesta pesquisa corroboram os da literatura. A distribuição dos subtipos do TDAH por sexo é similar à informada na literatura.OBJECTIVE: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pathology characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The purpose of this article is to conduct an epidemiological study on symptoms of ADHA and behavior disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC. METHOD: The study involved 1.898 students (1.001 males and 897 females enrolled in five public schools of Florianópolis, from the 1st up to the 4th grades, aged 6 to 12. The instrument used was the EDAH, filled out by teachers and parents, which classifies children with predominance of the

  18. 麻痹性痴呆和阿尔茨海默病患者的认知和精神行为症状比较%Comparison of cognitive functions and behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with general paresis of insane and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辛茹; 宁玉萍; 施海姗; 侯乐; 郑东; 谭燕; 钟笑梅; 罗新妮

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较麻痹性痴呆(general paresis of insane,GPI)和阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)患者认知和精神行为症状的异同,为临床鉴别诊断提供线索.方法 本研究为病例对照研究.选取广州市脑科医院神经内科住院的GPI患者50例,AD患者61例,采用临床痴呆评估量表(CDR)对痴呆程度进行分级,采用简易精神状态检查(MMSE)、蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)、阿尔茨海默病评定量表认知部分(ADAS-cog)、神经精神问卷(NPI)对两组患者的认知功能和精神行为症状进行评估并比较两组差异.结果 (1)认知量表评分:GPI和AD患者的各认知量表总分在不同痴呆程度组间差异有统计学意义,且MMSE总分和MoCA总分均随痴呆程度递减,ADAS-cog总分随痴呆程度递增;GPI组和AD组比较:仅在轻度患者中,GPI组的MMSE总分显著高于AD组(分;GPI:20.63±5.87,AD:14.32±5.05,F=7.697,P=0.008),ADAS-cog记忆因子分显著低于AD组[GPI:13.66 (8.33),AD:23.00 (10.50),Z=-3.205,P=0.001],其余各认知量表评分两组间差异无统计学意义.(2) NPI量表评分:GPI患者不同痴呆程度组间差异有统计学意义,轻度GPI组的NPI总分低于中、重度组患者,而AD患者的NPI总分在不同程度组间差异无统计学意义;GPI组和AD组比较:轻度GPI和AD患者的NPI总分及各因子分差异无统计学意义,中度GPl患者欣快、食欲两因子分显著高于AD患者,重度GPI患者NPI总分、幻觉、妄想、抑郁因子分显著高于AD患者.结论 GPI患者精神行为症状的改变模式与AD患者有明显差异,可为临床鉴别诊断GPI和AD提供重要线索.%Objective To compare the cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between patients with general paresis of insane (GPI) and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods Fifty patients with GPI and sixty-one patients with AD from Guangzhou Brain Hospital were recruited in this case-control study.The severity of dementia

  19. Efficacy and safety study of the donepezil combined olanzapine flow in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia%多奈哌齐合并奥氮平治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状的疗效和安全性对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉琦; 徐文炜; 程灶火; 吴越; 顾君; 汤莉; 季萍; 李桂林

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨多奈哌齐合并奥氮平治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状的疗效和安全性.方法:103例伴精神行为症状的痴呆病人随机分为多奈哌齐合并奥氮平组与单用奥氮平组.治疗前和研究结束时进行简易智力状态检查(MMSE)评分,在治疗2、4、6、8周末以痴呆病理行为评定量表(BEHAVE-AD)减分率评定疗效:≥60%为显效,≥30%为有效,<30%为无效.以副反应量表(TESS)评定记录治疗中各项药物不良反应.结果:多奈哌齐合并奥氮平组MMSE评分较治疗前提高2分以上,治疗结束后组内比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.060,P<0.05).治疗前后BEHAVE-AD量表评分两组组内比较,至第4周末时均明显下降,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05).多奈哌齐合并奥氮平组有效率为88.46%,显效率为67.31%;单用奥氮平组有效率70.59%,显效率为45.10%,两组比较有效率和显效率差异均有统计学意义(x2=5.067,P<0.05;x2=5.701,P<0.05).两组均无不能耐受的不良药物反应.结论:多奈哌齐合并奥氮平治疗老年痴呆精神行为症状安全有效且优于单用奥氮平.%AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of donepezil combined olanzapine or single olanzapine in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms. METHODS: 103 dementia patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms were randomly divided into donepezil combined olanzapine group and the single olanzapine group. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score were evaluated before treatment and the end of the study. The efficacies were evaluated in 2,4,6,8 weekend of the treatment by reduced rate of the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer' s Disease Scale ( BEHAVE-AD) , ≥60% was markedly effective, > 30% was effective, <30% was not effective. The treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) assessment record treatment of the adverse drug reactions. RESULTS: The MMSE scores of donepezil combined olanzapine group

  20. The Comparison of Psychological and Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia between Alzheimer Disease,Mixed Dementia and Vascular Dementia%阿尔茨海默病、阿尔茨海默病混合型及血管性痴呆患者心理及行为症状的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 李海林; 叶勤; 吴瑞枝; 陆蓉

    2003-01-01

    目的比较阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer Disease,AD)、AD混合型痴呆(Mixed dementia,MD)、血管性痴呆(Vascular dementia,VD)心理和行为症状(Psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia,PBSD)的特征.方法 AD、MD及VD患者各30名参加本研究.采用Alzheimer病行为症状评定量表(The Begavioral Pathlolgy in Alzheiner Disease Rating Scale,BEHAVE-AD)、Cohen-Masfield激惹性问卷(The Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory,CMAI)评定痴呆患者BPSD.结果 AD患者激惹、焦虑与恐惧发生率较高,VD患者无目的游荡发生率、严重程度较低,MD患者BPSD症状无特异性.结论 AD、VD患者BPSD症状有特异性,MD患者BPSD表现无特异性.

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions.

  2. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  3. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  4. Avoidance, Safety Behavior, And Reassurance Seeking In Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beesdo-Baum, K.; Jenjahn, E.; Höfler, M.; Lüken, U.; Becker, E.S.; Hoyer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The behavioral symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are not well characterized. This study examines behavioral symptoms in patients with GAD compared to healthy participants, their change during behavioral therapy, and their role for predicting short- and long-term outcome. Meth

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online ...

  6. Functional bowel symptoms and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P R; Barrett, J S; Muir, J G

    2013-10-01

    It is well recognised that ingestion of food is a trigger for functional bowel symptoms, particularly those associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients often use manipulation of diet as a means of controlling symptoms. Despite description of multiple dietary methods, few have scientific backing or quality evidence of efficacy. One approach is to define how specific food components influence the pathophysiology of IBS and then rationally design dietary approaches. For example, short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP)) cause luminal distension, which is a major stimulus for the development of symptoms in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. By determining food content of FODMAP, a diet in which foods low in FODMAP are favoured over those high in FODMAP can be designed. Observational, comparative and randomised controlled treatment and rechallenge studies have shown that such an approach is efficacious in the majority of patients with IBS. The low FODMAP diet is now the primary dietary therapy for such patients. Similar approaches can be applied to other food components, including proteins (such as gluten), fats and natural bioactive food chemicals. Such approaches have suggestions of efficacy, but the evidence base remains underdeveloped. An additional and important consideration for any dietary therapy is its nutritional adequacy and potential adverse health effects. Dietary manipulation is now a key management strategy in patients with functional bowel symptoms. Future well-designed interventional studies will lead to refinement of dietary approaches taken and to a better understanding of their long-term safety.

  7. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  8. The Signaling Theory of Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander Steinkopf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Placebo research shows that the subjective quality of care and social support, as well as the patients’ expectations of treatment, influence therapeutic outcomes. However, this phenomenon, known as the placebo effect, does not usually cure the disease, but rather can provide symptomatic relief: It may soothe symptoms such as pain, swelling, or nausea that constitute part of an immune response. The function of this mechanism remains unclear. This article puts forward the Signaling Theory of Symptoms (STS as a possible explanation. According to STS, discernible aspects of an immune response, such as pain, swelling, or nausea, not only serve a defensive and healing function but also a signaling function: symptoms signal the need for care and treatment to potential helpers. Once help and treatment are granted, the signaling function is fulfilled and the symptoms diminish. This mechanism may have been a significant advantage in preindustrial environments, when sufferers depended on extensive social support and personal treatment. Nowadays, from the point of view of modern materialist medicine, the mobilization of social support no longer seems so crucial, and thus the placebo effect has been assigned a somewhat mysterious quality.

  9. Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Leonid

    2010-07-01

    Massage therapy is widely used by patients with fibromyalgia seeking symptom relief. We performed a review of all available studies with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials to determine whether massage therapy can be a viable treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. Extensive narrative review. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2009) were searched for the key words "massage", "massotherapy", "self-massage", "soft tissue manipulation", "soft tissue mobilization", "complementary medicine", "fibromyalgia" "fibrositis", and "myofascial pain". No language restrictions were imposed. The reference lists of all articles retrieved in full were also searched. The effects of massage on fibromyalgia symptoms have been examined in two single-arm studies and six randomized controlled trials. All reviewed studies showed short-term benefits of massage, and only one single-arm study demonstrated long-term benefits. All reviewed studies had methodological problems. The existing literature provides modest support for use of massage therapy in treating fibromyalgia. Additional rigorous research is needed in order to establish massage therapy as a safe and effective intervention for fibromyalgia. In massage therapy of fibromyalgia, we suggest that massage will be painless, its intensity should be increased gradually from session to session, in accordance with patient's symptoms; and the sessions should be performed at least 1-2 times a week.

  10. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010381 Clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome:retrospective study in forty-five patients. GUAN Yuzhou(管宇宙),et al. Dept Neurol,PUMC & CAMS,Bejing 100730. Chin J Neurol 2010;331-334. Objective To analyze the symptoms and signs in forty-five Lambert-Eaton myasthenia syndrome (LEMS)patients

  11. Symptoms as the main problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Rask, Mette Troellund

    2016-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger tilfredsheden hos patienter, der blev afsluttet i almen praksis uden specifik diagnose, dvs. hvor lægen efter afsluttet konsultation kun kunne anføre "symptom" eller "problem" som slutdiagnose. Det drejer sig om ca. 1/3 af alle helbredsrelaterede konsultationer i almen....... Tidligere undersøgelser af patienter med medicinsk uforklarede symptomer (MUS) eller funktionelle lidelser har ligeledes vist utilfredshed blandt patienterne, men denne undersøgelse peger nu på, at utilfredsheden også findes hos den store gruppe af patienter, der henvender sig med almindelige symptomer. Da...... håndtering af patienter med symptomer såvel i tidlig fase som ved langvarige tilstande er en kerneopgave for almen praksis, tyder patienternes tilbagemelding på, at der er behov for øget fokus på dette område i forskning, undervisning og den kliniske hverdag. Undersøgelsen bygger på spørgeskemaoplysninger...

  12. In palliative cancer care symptoms mean everything

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, S.C.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis aims to provide deeper insight into symptoms of cancer patients in palliative care, in order to improve the adequacy of decision-making for optimizing symptom control. Several aspects of symptoms and symptom management were investigated as were some aspects of communication and consultati

  13. Stress Symptoms: Effects on Your Body and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to manage your stress can have numerous health benefits. Explore stress management strategies, such as: Regular physical activity Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation, yoga, tai chi or getting a massage Keeping a ...

  14. Cuidados de enfermagem ao idoso com Demência que apresenta sintomas comportamentais La atención de enfermería a los ancianos con Demencia y con síntomas comportamentales Nursing care for the aged with Dementia and with behavioral symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cardoso Pestana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available No curso das demências, os transtornos comportamentais são altamente prevalentes e estão freqüentemente associados ao stress dos cuidadores. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar na literatura os tipos de demências que apresentam sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos associados; descrever o manejo não farmacológico destes distúrbios e descrever a atuação da enfermagem neste contexto. Foi pesquisada a literatura nas áreas de geriatria e enfermagem. Tornou-se evidente que a assistência de enfermagem prestada ao idoso demenciado vai muito além dos cuidados básicos e depende da participação ativa da família. A identificação de estratégias para minimizar e manejar os sintomas comportamentais é uma importante contribuição que a enfermagem pode dar para a geriatria.En el curso de la demencia, los trastornos de comportamiento son muy prevalentes y se asocian frecuentemente con el estrés de los cuidadores. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar en la literatura científica los tipos de demencias asociadas a los trastornos de comportamiento y síntomas psicológicos, describir el manejo no-farmacológico de estas alteraciones y describir las intervenciones de enfermería en este contexto. La Literatura en los campos de la geriatría y de enfermería fue investigada. Se hizo evidente que los cuidados de enfermería prestados a las personas mayores con demencia va más allá de la atención básica y depende de la participación activa de la familia. La identificación de estrategias para minimizar y manejar los síntomas de comportamiento es una importante contribución que la enfermería puede ofrecer a la geriatría.In the course of dementia, behavioral disorders are highly prevalent and are frequently associated with the stress of caregivers. This study aims to identify in scientific literature the types of dementia associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD; describe the non

  15. 喹硫平治疗神经内科门诊阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状的效果分析%The analysis of therapeutic effects of psychological and behavioral symptoms for Alzheimer's Disease patients in neurology outpatient department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐家萍; 赵雄飞; 赵志茹; 张芮娟

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析神经内科门诊阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状治疗效果.方法 选取在我院门诊就诊的伴精神行为症状的阿尔茨海默病患者80例,随机分为喹硫平组和利培酮组各40人,喹硫平组服用喹硫平;利培酮组服用利培酮观察所有患者治疗前后BEHAVE-AD、治疗效果、不良反应出现情况进行记录和分析.结果 两组治疗前、治疗后2周BEHAVE-AD与疗效分级差异无统计学意义,P=0.8829,但是治疗后4周,喹硫平组BEHAVE-AD(10.5±5.6)小于利培酮组(12.8±4.3),差异有统计学意义,P=0.0427;喹硫平组出现锥体外系反应比率(5.00%)小于利培酮组(25.00%),差异有统计学意义,P=0.0123.结论 喹硫平对于控制阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状的短期疗效优于利培酮,安全性也更优,值得推广.%Objective To analyze therapeutic effects of psychological and behavioral symptoms for Alzheimer's Disease patients in neurology outpatient department.Methods 80 outpatients with Alzheimer's Disease and psychological and behavioral symptomswere chosen and randomly divided to risperidone groupand quetiapine.Their BEHAVE-AD,therapeutic effects,side effects before and after treatment were noted and analysed.Results Before and 2-week after treatment BEHAVE-AD and therapeutic rank of two groups were not significantly different,P=0.8829,but 4-week after treatment BEHAVE-AD of quetiapine group (10.5±5.6) was less risperidone group (12.8±4.3),whose difference was significant,P=0.0427.Extrapyramidal system reaction ratios of quetiapine group (5.00%) was less than risperidone group (25.00%),whose difference was significant,P =0.0123.Conclusion Quetiapine is better than risperidone in short therapeutic effects to control psychological and behavioral symptoms for Alzheimer's Disease,and security of quetiapine is also better.

  16. 居家和养老院阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状的比较分析%Comparative analysis in psychological and behavioral symptom of patients with Alzheimer's disease in home and resthome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符霞; 张美芬; 张俊娥; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解居住环境对阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)患者精神行为症状的影响.方法 采用神经精神量表分别调查100例居家及100例养老院阿尔茨海默病患者的精神行为症状,运用SPSS13.0统计软件包对收集的数据进行统计分析.结果 养老院患者的"幻觉"、"焦虑"、"异常的动作行为"及"睡眠紊乱"得分及其总均分显著高于居家患者;居家与养老院的AD患者在"异常的动作行为"、"情绪淡漠,冷漠"、"幻觉"、"睡眠紊乱"、"焦虑"、"抑郁/情绪低落"及"食欲/进食障碍"方面的发生程度显著不同,其中养老院患者"睡眠紊乱"中的"体质量下降"条目发生程度较轻,其余均较居家患者严重.结论 处于不同环境的患者其精神行为症状的发生情况有所不同,养老院患者症状偏重,因而呼吁家属应尽量让AD患者居住家中.%Objective To understand the influene of inhabited environment on psychological and be-havioral symptom of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzbeimer's disease. Methods Nenrepsychiatric in-ventory was used to measure the occurrence of BPSD of 100 home and 100 resthome patients with Alzheimer's disease.Tbe data were analyzed with software SPSS version 13.0. Results The scores of hallucinations, anxi-ety,aberrant motor behavior and sleep disturbance in resthome patients were significant higher than those of home patients.There was significantly difference in the extent of occurrence in aberrant motor behavior, apathy/ indifference, hallucinations, sleep disturbance, anxiety,depression/dysphoria and appetite/eating disorders be-tween home and resthome patients,among which the extent of occurrence in resthome patients was higher except for body weight decreasing and appetite/eating disoniers. Conclusions The occurrence of BPSD is different according to different inhabited environment, symptoms of resthome patients are worse, so families should be ap-pealed as far as possibile to allow AD

  17. [On the symptomatological meaning of the others-intruding symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, R

    1994-01-01

    There is a group of patients who insist as follows: "Someone comes into my room during my absence and removes, conceals or steals my belongings. In addition the intruder sometimes scatters about dirty things." "A young man living just across from my room is always observing me and criticizing my behavior." The others-intruding symptoms like those above are frequently harbored by the female patients of paranoia and schizophrenia. However, these symptoms are rarely seen in male patients. My study shows that fourteen out of fifty-six female employees patients having the paranoic or schizophrenic symptoms had the so-called others-intruding symptoms. At the time of visiting the psychiatric department of the center, the ages of the patients varied from 18 to 51 years old and five cases were in their thirties. Ten patients were single and two cases were divorced. Most of these patients were living alone. In some cases, the others-intruding symptoms faded away after the patients began living with their family members. In eight cases, there was a change of residence before the appearance of the symptoms. The patients have the following character traits: assertive, obstinate, unstable, unsociable and lacking adaptability. Although some patients showed mood fluctuations, they consistently displayed their delusion which distinguished them from maniac depressive patients. More than half of the patients showed neither the severe personality disorders nor rapid deterioration which are typically seen in the schizophrenic process. The patients of others-intruding symptoms have the same experience as those of mysophobia. The patients believe someone or something dirty invade their private space and deprive them of their cleanliness, freedom and security. In contrast, the patients of anthrpophobia and egorrhea feel that they are shunned by others because of something dirty which goes out of the patient's ego and threatens others. Usually the delusion of persecution accompanies the

  18. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...

  19. Clinical symptoms and symptom signatures of Alzheimer's disease subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Khalid; Flory, Michael; Soininen, Hilkka

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder that involves several different mechanisms. Over 99% of AD patients suffer from the sporadic form of the disease. Based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)(1-42), total tau, and ubiquitin--the markers associated with the histopathological hallmarks of the disease (Aβ plaques and abnormally hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles)--previous studies identified five subgroups of AD. Here we report the potential diagnostic predictive value of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in aged individuals for AD and differences in the prevalence of these symptoms in the CSF marker-based subgroups of the disease. Analysis of 196 clinically diagnosed AD or Alzheimer with Lewy body, and 75 non-AD neurological and non-neurological control cases, all from a single center, showed that the presence of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, or tremors individually, or the presence of any of these, could diagnose AD with sensitivities and specificities of 14% and 99%; 30% and 99%; 15% and 99%; 16% and 100%; 16% and 96%; and 47% and 92%, respectively. The pattern of the prevalence of the above symptoms varied from AD subgroup to subgroup. Presence of any of these symptoms, as well as presence of each individual symptom except tremors, significantly differentiated AD subgroups from the predominantly control cluster. These findings encourage the exploration of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in identifying various subgroups of AD for stratification of patients for clinical trials to develop therapeutic drugs. This study is for the special issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease honoring Inge Grundke-Iqbal who made several seminal contributions in AD research.

  20. Pharmacotherapy,cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination for insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms%药物及认知-行为疗法联合治疗稽延性失眠症状的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志斌; 王思远

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination on insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms. Methods:105 patients were randomized into 3 groups for analysis. In cogni-tive- behavior therapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients were treated with sleep hygiene program,cognitive therapy and relaxation therapy. In pharmacotherapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients received a 0. 8mg alprazolam each night. In combination group(n ﹦ 35),patients were trea-ted with both cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. All patients were treated by 4 weeks. The changes in results of subjec-tive(sleep diaries)measures were obtained at the end of the therapy and 16-week follow-up. Results:Sleep diary showed that,com-pared to the time before treatment,patients in all groups experienced extension in total sleep time,shortening in sleep latency and in-crease in sleep efficiency at the end of experiment(P < 0. 05). When the experiment ended,patients in combination group showed the greatest improvement rate on each item of outcome. At the end of 16-week follow-up,patients in cognitive-behavior therapy group were found to have the greatest improvement rate on shortening of sleep latency and increase of sleep efficiency,being equal to those in com-bination group. Conclusion:Pharmacotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy alone may achieve short-term efficacy in insomnia pa-tients with protracted withdrawal symptoms and the latter therapy may lead to a greater long-term improvement. The combined use of pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy may give efficacy faster,and the sustained efficacy may be equal to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy.%目的:比较药物疗法、认知-行为疗法及联合应用对稽延性失眠症状的治疗效果。方法:采集稽延性失眠症状患者105例,随机分为3组:心理治疗(认知-行为疗法)组(n ﹦35),接受睡眠卫生指导、认知疗法和