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Sample records for behavioral symptoms

  1. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    JoaquimCerejeira; ElizabetaMukaetova-Ladinska

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elatio...

  2. Behavioral inhibition and PTSD symptoms in veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental bias to respond to novel stimuli with avoidance behaviors, is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether BI accounts for additional variance in PTSD symptom severity beyond that accounted for by general anxiety. Here, 109 veterans (mean age 50.4 years, 9.2% female) provided self-assessment of PTSD symptoms, state and trait anxiety, combat exposure, and current (adult) and retrospective (childhood) BI. Adult BI was ...

  3. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia

  4. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoaquimCerejeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes

  5. Behavioral symptoms and caregiver burden in dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Shaji, K. S.; George, Roy K.; Prince, Martin J.; K S Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dementia care in developing countries will continue to be provided by co-resident caregivers at home. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are difficult to manage at home. Interventions leading to reduction or remission of reduction or remission of BPSD will be of immense help in the management of these patients. Materials and Methods: The nature and prevalence of BPSD in a community sample of patients with dementia was assessed by a clinician. The impact of th...

  6. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...... to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor...

  7. Assessment and management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kales, Helen C.; Gitlin, Laura N.; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, wandering, and a variety of inappropriate behaviors. One or more of these symptoms will affect nearly all people with dementia over the course of their illness. These symptoms are among the most complex, stressful, and costly aspects of care, and they lead to a myriad of poor patient health outcomes, healthcare problems, and income loss for fa...

  8. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5 y

  9. Development and Pilot Investigation of Behavioral Activation for Negative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Hilary; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Keeley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Negative symptoms cause functional impairment and impede recovery from psychosis, not least, because of limited developments in empirically validated treatments. This article details a pilot evaluation of a behavioral activation (BA) treatment with eight people presenting with psychosis and marked negative symptoms. The rationale for this…

  10. Pharmacologic therapy for behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariot, P N; Ryan, J M; Porsteinsson, A P; Loy, R; Schneider, L S

    2001-05-01

    Behavioral signs and symptoms in dementia are common, morbid, classifiable, and treatable. The current state-of-the-art approach is to evaluate carefully for social or environmental causes, intercurrent medical conditions, or other triggers of the behavior and attempt to deal with those directly. When these conservative steps fail, there may be a role for medication. A rational approach typically hinges on matching the most dominant behavioral target symptoms to the most relevant medication class, the key information of which is summarized. PMID:11375140

  11. [Pharmacological treatment of behavioral symptoms in dementia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryelewicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive manifestations usually are the primary abnormalities in dementia. In most cases cognitive deterioration arise in association with behavioral disturbances, and may accelerate institutionalization of patients. Noncognitive symptoms are distressing for both patients and their caregivers. These symptoms are described as "behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia--BPSD" or neuropsychiatric symptoms. BPSD occurs in all types of dementia, and often are among the most prominent symptoms in the clinical course of the disease. Some disturbances like agitation and aggression may be disruptive and life-treating for patients and surrounding people. Non-pharmacological interventions should be recommended as a first line treatment unless BPSD symptoms are severe, persistent or recurrent. Drug treatment should have a specific target symptom. Atypical antipsychotics are widely used as the first line pharmacological approach to treat BPSD. Antidepressants, anxiolytics and antiepileptic's are also used. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine may delay the onset of BPSD and reduce the severity of some symptoms. Effective and safe treatment of BPSD should significantly improves the quality of life of patients and their caregivers. PMID:25141581

  12. Aggressive behavior, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Michele Sicolo,1 Lucia Spinelli,1 Franco Mastroianni,2 Adriana Pastore,1 Francesco Craig,3 Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli31Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, Hospital Polyclinic of Bari, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 2Geriatrics Unit, Hospital “Miulli”, Acquaviva delle Fonti; 3Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro,” Bari, ItalyAbstract: Patients with dementia often have neuropsychiatric symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptoms and progressive cognitive decline by assessing cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior in a sample of elderly subjects. The study sample consisted of 201 subjects admitted to nursing homes. For the purpose of the present study each subject was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The results show that aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms are associated with progressive cognitive decline in elderly subjects. Early assessment of these conditions can promote rational therapeutic strategies that may improve the quality of life and delay institutionalization for elderly patients.Keywords: neuropsychiatric symptoms, dementia, behavioral and psychological syndromes of dementia (BPSD, progressive cognitive decline

  13. [Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: cognition and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients. PMID:24026132

  14. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL)...

  15. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth C Hersch; Sharon Falzgraf

    2007-01-01

    Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL)...

  16. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Nilamadhab

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are an integral part of dementia syndrome. They increase morbidity and burden, affect quality of life and impact cost of care. This review aims to study the features of BPSD, their assessment and management. Collection and Analysis of Data: Literature of BPSD was searched in PUBMED and the relevant cross references were accessed. Conclusions: Available literature suggests that BPSD can manifest in multiple ways; the common comp...

  17. Characteristic Symptoms and Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)

  18. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms

  19. [Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD): how to proceed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, Egemen

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is very high in dementia patients. Alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems are involved in the pathogenesis of BPSD. These symptoms complicate the therapy and outcome. Because of multimorbidity and polpharmacy the therapy of BPSD is difficult and needs continuous clinical observation of the patients. Non-pharmacological interventions must be the first choice of therapy before medication and may accompany the pharmacological treatment. Several non-pharmacological interventions are available and summarized in the following therapy recommendations of the Swiss medical societies. Pharmacological interventions are often accompanied by severe adverse events in dementia patients. Their use must be limited in time and quantity. A critical survey of pharmacological therapy options in dementia is necessary. PMID:25791049

  20. Drug Therapy for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Feng, Ting-Yi; Yang, Shilin; Preter, Maurice; Zhou, Jiang-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Dementia, which can be induced by diverse factors, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the decline of cognitive function. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include depression, agitation, and aggression. Dementia causes a heavy burden on patients and their caregivers. Patients with BPSD should be assessed comprehensively by practitioners and offered appropriate non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy. Nonpharmacologic therapy has been recommended as the basal treatment for BPSD; however, pharmacologic therapy is required under many situations. Medications, including antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, sedative and hypnotic agents, mood stabilizers, cholinesterase inhibitors, and amantadine, are extensively used in clinical practice. We have reviewed the progression of pharmacologic therapy for BPSD. PMID:26644152

  1. Eating disorders: scales to assess symptoms and risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders are a group of syndromes that have in common,psychopathological traits that are largely determined by their physical appearance. Theyare much more common in women than in men, predominantly in young people. Thereis increased incidence of eating disorders, which are the result of improved knowledgeand the increasingly early implementation of better instruments for symptoms, riskfactors and the availability of well defined diagnostic criteria.Objective: to identify key validated scales to detect symptoms and risk behaviors foreating disorders in adolescents and adults.Methodology: thematic review of publications in which they occur, validate andanalyze different scales to assess symptoms and risk behaviors for ED. Electronicsearch was conducted from 1984 to 2011 in English and Spanish. We included all typesof publications. We reviewed the abstracts and full papers were selected that addressedscales to assess symptoms and risk factors for eating behavior disorders.Results: 539 abstracts were obtained on TCA. We reviewed 75 articles identified sixcomplete and validated scales to identify symptoms and risk behaviors. Scale SCOFF(Sick, Control, Outweigh, Fat, Food. Scale EDE-Q. (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire self-report. Scale EAT (Eating Attitudes Test in versions 40 and 26questions. Scale EDI (Eating Disorder Inventory. Scale BULIT (Bulimia Test andversion revised (BULIT-R. Scale BITE (Bulimia Test of Edinburg.Conclusion: the SCOFF scale stands out to be simple and easy to apply orally orin writing. EAT scale, in both versions, is considered the gold standard to identifysymptoms and risk behaviors for eating disorder behavior.RESUMEN:Introducción: los trastornos de comportamiento alimentario (TCA son un grupo desíndromes que tienen en común rasgos psicopatológicos fuertemente determinadospor la apariencia física. Son mucho más frecuentes en mujeres que en varones,predominando en jóvenes. Hay aumento

  2. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  3. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  4. Relationships between Child Emotional and Behavioral Symptoms and Caregiver Strain and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen L.; Feinn, Richard; Bernard, Stanley; Brereton, Maria; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disturbance often have difficulties in multiple symptom domains. This study investigates the relationships between child symptoms and caregiver strain and parenting stress among 177 youth and their caregivers participating in a school-based system of care. Youth were grouped by symptom domain and included…

  5. Problematic eating behaviors in adolescents with low self-esteem and elevated depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Elizabeth A; Gamboz, Julie; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2008-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that low self-esteem may be an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationships between low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and eating disorders in adolescents. The present study investigated whether low self-esteem was associated with depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors. Measures of low self-esteem and problematic eating behaviors were administered to a sample of 197 adolescent primary-care patients. Depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors were assessed ten months later. Youths with low self-esteem were at greater risk for high levels of depressive symptoms and eating disorder symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the association of low self-esteem with problematic eating behaviors. PMID:18928903

  6. Parenting behaviors and posttraumatic symptoms in relation to children’s symptomatology following a traumatic event

    OpenAIRE

    Valentino, Kristin; Berkowitz, Steven; Stover, Carla S.

    2010-01-01

    Child- and caregiver-report about parenting behaviors, and caregiver-report of their own symptoms were examined in relation to children’s symptomatology following a potentially traumatic event (PTE) among 91 youth. Child- report of hostile/coercive parenting was a salient predictor of child PTSD, internalizing symptoms and personal adjustment. Caregivers’ own trauma symptoms predicted caregiver-report of child PTSD, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but not child-reported child sympto...

  7. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  8. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira; Marcia Radanovic; Patrícia Cotting Homem de Mello; Patrícia Cardoso Buchain; Adriana Dias Barbosa Vizzotto; Celestino, Diego L.; Florindo Stella; Piersol, Catherine V.; Orestes V. Forlenza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systemat...

  9. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...

  10. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents’ appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptio...

  11. Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia: a practicing psychiatrist's viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    E. Mintzer, Jacobo; F. Mirski, Dario; S. Hoernig, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease typically presents with two often overlapping syndromes, one cognitive, the other behavioral. The behavioral syndrome is characterized by psychosis, aggression, depression, anxiety, agitation, and other common if less well-defined symptoms subsumed under the umbrella entity “behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia” (BPSD), itself divided into a number of subsyndromes: psychosis, circadian rhythm (sleepwake) disturbance, depression, anxiety, and agitation, it is B...

  12. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  13. Behavioral Group Therapy Effect on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Fakour

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children and adolescents physical and psychological integrity threatening occur after disasters, whereby post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction. Psychological debriefing is a way for prevention and reducing PTSD symptoms. Many studies have shown the efficacy of behavioral therapy in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Few evidence is available for using these techniques in combination for prevention and treatment of PTSD symptoms. This study compared the efficacy of psychological debriefing and cognitive behavioral group therapy combination on Bam earthquake related PTSD symptoms in children with a control group. Methods: In a control trial, we evaluated the efficacy of one session psychological debriefing and three sessions of group behavioral therapy in Bam earthquake adolescent survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The mean age of participants was 9.07 (SD=1.7 years and no one had sever PTSD or other psychiatric disorder that needed pharmacological interventions. Before and after interventions we evaluated PTSD symptoms by use of K-SADS questionnaire and compared them with the control group. Results: The study included 100 persons, of whom 20 persons were excluded during intervention because of migration. The mean values of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience and avoidance were reduced after interventions. This reduction was statistically significant only for symptoms of re-experience. In control group the mean values of PTSD symptoms increased during study which was statistically significant. The two groups showed statistically significant differences of symptom reduction in total PTSD symptoms, re-experience and avoidance. No difference was detected for hyper arousal. Conclusion: Psychological debriefing and group behavioral therapy may have preventive effect on PTSD symptoms and may reduce symptoms of re-experience.

  14. Symptom Severity and Challenging Behavior in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jina; Dixon, Dennis R.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Granpeesheh, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of challenging behaviors in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) population is often assumed to be high but relatively little research has actually been published on it. Furthermore, challenging behaviors are likely to impede progress in evidence-based treatment programs, such as early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). Little…

  15. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD. PMID:24926775

  16. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  17. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…

  18. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Eating Disorder-Related Symptoms, Behaviors, and Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver SP; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Pei-Chi Liao, Thomas; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom,...

  19. Depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents: Examining longitudinal effects of cultural stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-07-01

    This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. PMID:25899132

  20. Effects of turmeric on Alzheimer's disease with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Hishikawa, Nozomi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Amakusa, Yoshinobu; Tanno, Yuhei; Tuji, Yoshitake; Niwa, Hisayoshi; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Krishna, U. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe here three patients with the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) whose behavioral symptoms were improved remarkably as a result of the turmeric treatment, which is the traditional Indian medicine. Their cognitive decline and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) were very severe. All three patients exhibited irritability, agitation, anxiety, and apathy, two patients suffer from urinary incontinence and wonderings. They were prescribed turmeric powder capsules and started r...

  1. Behavioral Markers of Coping and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Sexually Abused Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Danielle N.; Kaplow, Julie B.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined coping and psychiatric symptoms in a longitudinal sample of sexually abused children. Coping was behaviorally coded from children's forensic interviews in the aftermath of sexual abuse. Using principal components analysis, coping behaviors were found to cluster into 3 categories: avoidant, expressive, and positive affective coping. Avoidant coping had predictive utility for a range of psychiatric symptoms, including depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and dis...

  2. Antipsychotics for the Treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Liperoti, Rosa; Pedone, Claudio; Corsonello, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), i.e. verbal and physical aggression, agitation, psychotic symptoms (hallucinations and delusions), sleep disturbances, oppositional behavior, and wandering, are a common and potentially severe problem complicating dementia. Their prevalence is very high and it is estimated that up to 90% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may present at least one BPSD. Beside the obvious impact on the quality of life of people with dementia, BPS...

  3. Eating disorders: scales to assess symptoms and risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro; Boneu-Yépez Deiby John; Muñoz-Méndez José Tomás; Almanza-Obredor Pedro Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: eating disorders are a group of syndromes that have in common,psychopathological traits that are largely determined by their physical appearance. Theyare much more common in women than in men, predominantly in young people. Thereis increased incidence of eating disorders, which are the result of improved knowledgeand the increasingly early implementation of better instruments for symptoms, riskfactors and the availability of well defined diagnostic criteria.Objective: to identif...

  4. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior. PMID:24882503

  5. ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

  6. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  7. The Role of Sensory Modulation Deficits and Behavioral Symptoms in a Diagnosis for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Robles, Ruth; Doval, Eduardo; Jane, Ma Claustre; da Silva, Pedro Caldeira; Papoila, Ana Luisa; Virella, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To contribute to the validation of the sensory and behavioral criteria for Regulation Disorders of Sensory Processing (RDSP) (DC:0-3R, 2005), this study examined a sample of toddlers in a clinical setting to analyze: (1) the severity of sensory modulation deficits and the behavioral symptoms of RDSP; (2) the associations between sensory and…

  8. Psychotic Symptoms, Anger, and Anxiety as Determinants of Agrresive Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Nederlof (Angela F.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAs an introduction on the topic of this dissertation, it might be interesting to look at some other cases of psychiatric patients that displayed clear-cut aggressive behavior towards other persons: Case 1. Twenty-nine-year-old man, who stabbed his mother’s fiancé in the chest with the in

  9. The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, J. W.; Busch, A. M.; Weeks, C. E.; Landes, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream…

  10. An exploratory examination of risk-taking behavior and PTSD symptom severity in a veteran sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Thad Q; Leskela, Jennie; James, Lisa M; Thuras, Paul D; Voller, Emily; Weigel, Rebecca; Yutsis, Maya; Khaylis, Anna; Lindberg, Jamie; Holz, Kenna Bolton

    2012-04-01

    The present study conducted an exploratory examination of the relationship between self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and an expanded definition of risk-taking behaviors among 395 veterans at a large Midwestern Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated rates of substance use, thrill seeking, aggression, risky sexual practices, and firearm possession. Results indicated that suicidal ideation and aggressive driving behavior were among the most frequently reported. The present findings hold significant public health implications and highlight the need to attend to risk-taking behaviors in treatment planning. PMID:22594128

  11. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.

  12. The Nature of Clinical Depression: Symptoms, Syndromes, and Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Busch, Andrew M; Weeks, Cristal E; Landes, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss the traditional behavioral models of depression and some of the challenges analyzing a phenomenon with such complex and varied features. We present the traditional model and suggest that it does not capture the complexity of the phenomenon, nor do syndromal models of depression that dominate the mainstream conceptualization of depression. Instead, we emphasize ideographic analysis and present depression as a maladaptive dysregulation of an ultimately adaptive elicit...

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior. PMID:26239058

  14. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim H; Lee KJ

    2014-01-01

    Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77) and control subjects (n=37) were included in ...

  15. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee(이복, Bok-Rye, 례)

    2014-01-01

    Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77) and control subjects (n=37) were included...

  16. Gender Differences in the Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms on Community Couples' Intimacy Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Kaitlin E.; Leifker, Feea R.; Blandon, Alysia Y.; Marshall, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    Problems in intimate relationships frequently occur among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study includes examination of whether deficits in the intimacy process occur among couples affected by PTSD, and whether gender differences exist in the association between PTSD symptom severity and intimate behaviors. Heterosexual community couples in which at least 1 partner was experiencing elevated symptoms of PTSD were video-recorded while discussing positive and negative...

  17. Cancer-related intrusive thoughts predict behavioral symptoms following breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, A; Bower, JE; Stanton, AL; Ganz, PA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral symptoms are common in breast cancer survivors, including disturbances in energy, sleep, and mood, though few risk factors for these negative outcomes have been identified. Our study examined intrusive thoughts as a predictor of lingering symptoms in breast cancer survivors in the year following treatment. Method: Data come from the Moving Beyond Cancer psychoeducational intervention trial, aimed at easing the transition from patient to survivor. Women (n = 558) complete...

  18. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Shook, Devon A.; James, Joette D.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that over 30% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 20% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new...

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Behavior, and Toddler Internalizing Outcomes: A Moderated Mediation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Alexandra C.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children’s outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive...

  20. Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor underlying transitions between internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Aldao, Amelia; Wisco, Blair E; Hilt, Lori M

    2014-02-01

    The high degree of comorbidity among mental disorders has generated interest in identifying transdiagnostic processes associated with multiple types of psychopathology. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema conceptualized rumination as one such transdiagnostic process associated with depression, anxiety, substance abuse, binge eating, and self-injurious behavior. The degree to which rumination accounts for the co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, however, has never been tested. We used a sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months to examine (a) the reciprocal prospective associations between rumination and aggressive behavior in adolescents, (b) whether rumination explained the longitudinal associations of aggressive behavior with depression and anxiety symptoms, and (c) gender differences in these associations. Rumination predicted increases over time in aggressive behavior, and aggression was associated with increases in rumination over time only for boys. Rumination fully mediated the longitudinal association of aggression with subsequent anxiety symptoms and of both depression and anxiety symptoms with subsequent aggression in boys but not girls. Rumination did not explain the association between aggression and subsequent depressive symptoms for either boys or girls. These findings provide novel evidence for the role of rumination as a transdiagnostic factor underlying transitions between internalizing and externalizing symptoms among males during early adolescence. Interventions aimed at reducing rumination may have beneficial influences on multiple forms of psychopathology and on the development of comorbidity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24661155

  1. Classroom changes in ADHD symptoms following clinic-based behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions. PMID:22678107

  2. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  3. Boredom, depressive symptoms, and HIV risk behaviors among urban injection drug users

    OpenAIRE

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    Boredom is closely aligned with depression, but is understood to be conceptually distinct. Little is known about boredom among active drug users and the potential association with depression and HIV risk. Current IDUs (n=845) completed a baseline behavioral survey including socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported boredom, depressive symptoms (CESD score), and HIV risk behaviors. One-third of the sample reported high boredom in the past week. In multivariate analysis, those who report...

  4. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane Yemane; Gelaye Bizu; Terasaki Dale J; Williams Michelle A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. Th...

  5. Quantitative evaluation of severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in patients with vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Yoshida, Sohei; Liu, Qian; Wu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jin; Cai, Ding-Fang

    2013-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for vascular dementia (VD). Changes of 51 patients with VD in BPSD between the first and 24th week were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale, in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) represented by diurnal activity (DA), evening activity (EA), and nocturnal activity (NA), and the relationships were analyzed. ...

  6. NMDA Neurotransmission Dysfunction in Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Jhen; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Tsai, Guochuan E

    2012-01-01

    Dementia has become an all-important disease because the population is aging rapidly and the cost of health care associated with dementia is ever increasing. In addition to cognitive function impairment, associated behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) worsen patient’s quality of life and increase caregiver’s burden. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia and both behavioral disturbance and cognitive impairment of Alzheimer’s disease are thought to be assoc...

  7. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

    OpenAIRE

    Azermai M

    2015-01-01

    Majda Azermai Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation...

  8. Non-pharmacological Management of Behavioral Symptoms in Frontotemporal and Other Dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Cynthia; Ketelle, Robin; Merrilees, Jennifer; Miller, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Worldwide prevalence of dementia is predicted to double every 20 years. The most common cause in individuals over 65 is Alzheimer's disease (AD), but in those under 65, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is as frequent. The physical and cognitive decline that characterizes these diseases is commonly accompanied by troublesome behavioral symptoms. These behavioral symptoms contribute to significant morbidity and mortality among both patients and caregivers. Medications have been largely ineffective in managing these symptoms and carry significant adverse effects. Non-pharmacological interventions have been recommended to precede the utilization of pharmacological treatments. This article reviews the research about these interventions with special attention to the variations by etiology, especially FTD. The authors offer recommendations for improving utilization of these strategies and future research recommendations. PMID:26750129

  9. Evaluating Behavior in Mouse Models of the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia: Which Test for Which Symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernay, Aurélia; Sellal, François; René, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting people in their early sixties, characterized by dramatic changes in individual and social behavior. Despite the heterogeneity in the presentation of the clinical symptoms of bvFTD, some characteristic changes can be highlighted. Social disinhibition, changes in food preferences as well as loss of empathy and apathy are commonly described. This is accompanied by a characteristic and dramatic atrophy of the prefrontal cortex with the accumulation of protein aggregates in the neurons in this area. Several causative mutations in different genes have been discovered, allowing the development of transgenic animal models, especially mouse models. In mice, attention has been focused on the histopathological aspects of the pathology, but now studies are taking interest in assessing the behavioral phenotype of FTD models. Finding the right test corresponding to human symptoms is quite challenging, especially since the frontal cortex is much less developed in mice than in humans. Although challenging, the ability to detect relevant prefrontal cortex impairments in mice is crucial for therapeutic approaches. In this review, we aim to present the approaches that have been used to model the behavioral symptoms of FTD and to explore other relevant approaches to assess behavior involving the prefrontal cortex, as well as the deficits associated with FTD. PMID:26517704

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Conflict Behaviors on Depressive Symptoms in Young Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated relationship dynamics contributing to gender differences in depression by testing longitudinal associations between observed conflict behaviors and depressive symptoms in young couples. Direct effects of psychological aggression, positive engagement, and withdrawal, as well as indirect effects via relationship satisfaction were considered. Participants were 68 heterosexual couples involving men from the Oregon Youth Study who remained in a stable relationship across at...

  11. Improving work style behavior in computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical

  12. Agitation-associated behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of agitation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and to characterize the associated behavioral symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospe

  13. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section

  14. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  15. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  16. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  17. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  18. L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves the Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sarah Farid; El-hamamsy, Manal H.; Zaki, Osama K.; Badary, Osama A.

    2013-01-01

    L-Carnitine was proposed as a potential treatment for patients diagnosed with autism to ameliorate the behavioral symptoms associated with the disease. Thirty children diagnosed with autism were randomly assigned to receive (100 mg/kg bodyweight/day) of liquid L-carnitine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) for 6 months. Measurements included changes in…

  19. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  20. The Effects of Haloperidol on Discrimination Learning and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lowell T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The double-blind and placebo controlled study with 45 autistic children (ages 2-7) found that the drug, haloperidol, showed powerful therapeutic effects in reducing behavioral symptoms when administered for 4 weeks at doses raging from 0.25 to 4.0 milligrams/day. Learning effects were not found. (Author/DB)

  1. Impact of Adult Day Services on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Greene, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether adult day service (ADS) use was associated with reductions in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in individuals with dementia. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design to compare a group of 133 persons with dementia (PWDs) who initially enrolled in an ADS program to a…

  2. Brief Behavioral Interventions for Symptoms of Depression and Insomnia in University Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…

  3. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  4. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Maladjustment: The Mediating Role of Parental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported…

  5. [Experience of a care pathway for psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delphin-Combe, Floriane; Martin-Gaujard, Géraldine; Roubaud, Caroline; Fortin, Marie-Eve; Husson, Françoise; Rouch, Isabelle; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are present in more than eighty percent of patients, resulting in a significant decrease of quality of life of patients and caregivers. To provide the most appropriate and early response to behavioral disorders, a specific care pathway, unique in France, has been created within the Memory Center at the Hospices Civils of Lyon. It includes a consultation "Behavior" aimed to intervention and guidance, a Cognitive-Behavioral Unit for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in a comprehensive care of the patient during 3 to 4 weeks, and an Alzheimer's disease mobile team, which can assess the BPSD in the patient's living environment at home or in nursing homes, appraise drug treatments and environment, and give training for caregivers. This care pathway is aimed to provide individualized and early care for behavioral crises secondary prevention, taking into account the psychological, neuropsychological and somatic context of the behavioral disorders occurrence. PMID:24333821

  6. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: the effects of physical activity at adult day service centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Erin L; Zarit, Steven H; Braungart, Elizabeth R; Rovine, Michael R; Femia, Elia E

    2005-01-01

    Adult day services (ADS) are an increasingly popular option for caregivers of people with dementia, but there is little research on the effects of activities on the behavior and mood of the client. This study examines participation by 94 individuals in different types of adult day-care activities and their association with changes in behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for the client during a three-month span. Three domains of BPSD were examined: restless behaviors, mood behaviors, and positive behaviors. Using growth curve modeling, results show that the restless and mood behavior domains, on average, were stable over three months, whereas positive behaviors increased. For all three behavior domains there were individual differences in average level of BPSD. Average rate of change for individuals also varied from the mean for restless and mood behaviors. Physical activities, social activities, engaging activities, and watching and listening activities, along with a day-care dosage variable, were used as covariates to explain these individual differences in change. Engaging activities explained some of the individual variance for restless behaviors; as individuals increased one increment in engaging activities, they had fewer restless behavior problems over time. These results suggest that some features of programming may be related to improvements in restless behavior. PMID:16003933

  7. Involvement of hippocampal excitability in amyloid β-induced behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Ide, Kazuki; Adlard, Paul Anthony; Bush, Ashley Ian; Takeda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    In patients with Alzheimer's disease, in addition to the core symptoms, i.e., cognitive dysfunction, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) such as aggression, anxiety, and hallucinations are known to occur frequently. Because various environmental factors influence the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease, in the present study, BPSD-like behavioral abnormality of Amyloid β (Aβ)1-42-injected mice was assessed under social isolation, which induces behavioral abnormality. Aβ protein (500 pmol) was injected into the lateral ventricle of mice, which were individually housed. Two and three weeks after injection into adult mice, the rate of mice that exhibited aggressive behavior, i.e., biting attacks and wrestling, to the total mice, was markedly increased by Aβ injection. Aβ-injected adult mice also showed anxiety-like behavior, in addition to cognitive decline. Serum corticosterone level was markedly increased by Aβ injection. When excitability of hippocampal neurons was checked using hippocampal slices, KCl-induced presynaptic activity was enhanced in hippocampal slices prepared from Aβ-injected mice. These results suggest that social isolation housing of Aβ1-42-injected adult mice induces BPSD-like behavioral abnormality in addition to cognitive decline. It is likely that behavioral abnormality of Aβ1-42-injected adult mice is associated with excitability of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, which is associated with the elevated corticosterone level. PMID:27432231

  8. Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mościcka-Teske

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542

  9. Cognitive behavioral therapy for symptoms of trauma and traumatic grief in refugee youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura K; Cohen, Judith A; Ellis, B Heidi; Mannarino, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    The diverse clinical presentation of refugee children and adolescents after their traumatic experiences requires a treatment model that can mitigate a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Refugee populations also require interventions that can adjust to the wide-ranging experiences likely encountered during preflight, flight, and resettlement. There is some evidence that immigration stressors or social stressors, such as discrimination, are associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugee youth. Therefore refugee youth may benefit from multiple levels of services, ideally integrated. This article focuses on the mental and behavioral health component of services for refugee youth. PMID:18558314

  10. A novel analytical framework for dissecting the genetic architecture of behavioral symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Deo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, a categorical classification system is often utilized as a simple way for conceptualizing an often complex clinical picture. This approach provides an unsatisfactory model of mental illness, since in practice patients do not conform to these prototypical diagnostic categories. Family studies show notable familial co-aggregation between schizophrenia and bipolar illness and between schizoaffective disorders and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, revealing that mental illness does not conform to such categorical models and is likely to follow a continuum encompassing a spectrum of behavioral symptoms. RESULTS AND METHODOLOGY: We introduce an analytic framework to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity present in complex psychiatric disorders based on the conceptual paradigm of a continuum of psychosis. The approach identifies subgroups of behavioral symptoms that are likely to be phenotypically and genetically homogenous. We have evaluated this approach through analysis of simulated data with simulated behavioral traits and predisposing genetic factors. We also apply this approach to a psychiatric dataset of a genome scan for schizophrenia for which extensive behavioral information was collected for each individual patient and their families. With this approach, we identified significant evidence for linkage among depressed individuals with two distinct symptom profiles, that is individuals with sleep disturbance symptoms with linkage on chromosome 2q13 and also a mutually exclusive group of individuals with symptoms of concentration problems with linkage on chromosome 2q35. In addition we identified a subset of individuals with schizophrenia defined by language disturbances with linkage to chromosome 2p25.1 and a group of patients with a phenotype intermediate between those of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with linkage to chromosome 2p21. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented

  11. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  12. Parenting Behaviors of Anxious Mothers and Youth Internalizing Symptoms: A Preliminary Cross-Ethnic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Weersing, V. Robin

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study examined youth report (ages 7 to 15) of maternal parenting behaviors (Psychological Control and Acceptance) and their association with internalizing symptoms in the children of clinically anxious non-Hispanic white and Latina mothers (N = 28). Compared to non-Hispanic white mothers, Latina mothers were rated by their children as higher in Psychological Control; a significant group difference in maternal Acceptance was not detected. Across the entire sample, lower maternal Acceptance was associated with higher somatic symptoms, and unexpectedly, higher Psychological Control was associated with lower youth anxiety. Ethnic-specific associations also emerged: higher maternal Psychological Control was associated with increased somatic symptoms in Latino youths, and lower Acceptance was associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white youths. Broadly, results suggest that the linkages between parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and youth emotional functioning may vary by cultural context. This exploratory study helps to generate hypotheses for larger studies; recommendations for further investigation of these phenomena are suggested. PMID:27308185

  13. Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Sang Oh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD. We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD. Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Results Age (± standard deviation was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes. Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD.

  14. Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Joong-Seok; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD). Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Results Age (± standard deviation) was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes. Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD. PMID:26090082

  15. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitiv...

  16. Overt Social Support Behaviors: Associations With PTSD, Concurrent Depressive Symptoms and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Crevier, Myra G.; Marchand, André; NACHAR, NADIM; GUAY, STÉPHANE

    2013-01-01

    Women are twice as likely as men to develop a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gender differences in social support after a traumatic event might partially explain this disparity. However, the portrait of the links among PTSD, depression, social support, and gender is still unclear. This study examined behaviors of individuals with PTSD and their significant other in relation to PTSD and concurrent depressive symptoms, and tested gender as a moderator of these associations. Observed over...

  17. Effect of Management of Patients with Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa on Symptoms and Impulsive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sernec, Karin; Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to provide further and up to date information on the evaluation of the management of Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa at the Eating Disorders Unit (EDU) of the Ljubljana Psychiatric Clinic, based upon detailed assessment of the eating disorders specific and non specific symptoms of impulsive behaviors, highly correlated with these entities. 34 female patients with anorexia (restrictive or purgative type) and 38 female patients with Bulimia nervosa (purgative or non-purgat...

  18. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the pu...

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    A Abollahi; AM Nazar; J Hasani; M Darharaj; A Behnam Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12). The experimental group was participated in eight se...

  20. CONJOINT TRAJECTORIES OF DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR PREDICTING SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the conjoint trajectories of depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior from adolescence (age 14) into young adulthood (age 24) as predictors of substance use disorders (SUDs) in adulthood (age 32). Of the 816 participants, 52% were African American, and 48% were Puerto Rican. After we obtained the conjoint trajectory groups using Mplus, we performed logistic regression analyses using SAS to compare the Bayesian Posterior Probability (BPP) of each of the conjoint trajecto...

  1. Predictors of Time to Discharge in Patients Hospitalized for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, Tatsuru; Kitamura, Maki; Hino, Shoryoku; Kurata, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims In Japan, more than 50,000 patients with dementia are housed in psychiatric facilities, a trend precipitated by prolonged hospitalizations. This study aimed to determine predictors for the time to discharge in patients hospitalized for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Methods Medical charts of patients admitted to an acute psychogeriatric ward for treatment of BPSD were reviewed. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to evaluate relationships betwe...

  2. Association between Subcortical Lesions and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmqvist, Sebastian; Sarwari, Agmall; Wattmo, Carina; Bronge, Lena; ZHANG Yi; Wahlund, Lars Olof; Nägga, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: The most devastating features of Alz-heimer's disease (AD) are often the behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD). There is controversy as to whether subcortical lesions contribute to BPSD. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BPSD and subcortical lesions (white-matter lesions and lacunes) in AD. Methods: CT or MRI from 259 patients with mild-to-moderate AD were assessed with the Age-Related White Matter Changes scale. Line...

  3. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Gupta; Abhijit Dasgupta; Geeta Anjum Khwaja; Debashish Chowdhury; Yogesh Patidar; Amit Batra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) between vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Associ...

  4. APP transgenic mice for modelling behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Lalonde, R.; Fukuchi, K; Strazielle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzeimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, sponta...

  5. Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mannu P; Rinaldi S; Fontani V; Castagna A

    2011-01-01

    Piero Mannu1, Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna11Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Department of Neuro Psycho Physio Pathology, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC) i...

  6. Safety and efficacy of antipsychotic drugs for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are commonly used in the treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Materials and Methods: We present a qualitative review of the data on the efficacy and safety of antipsychotic drugs for BPSD. We more specifically examine safety issues with an especial focus on recent research. We examine two safety studies in detail to provide readers with a critical perspective. Results: Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs both attenuate...

  7. Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Joong-Seok; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD). Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occu...

  8. Missing Data Analysis in Drug-Naïve Alzheimer's Disease with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Yong Tae; Yang, YoungSoon; Park, Sang-Gue

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To clarify the effects of missing values due to behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on the neuropsychological tests, this study describes the pattern of missing values due to BPSD, and its influence on tests. Materials and Methods Drug-naïve probable AD patients (n=127) with BPSD and without BPSD (n=32) were assessed with Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery including measures of memory, intelligence, and executive functi...

  9. Violent and Disruptive Behavior among Drug-Involved Prisoners: Relationship with Psychiatric Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Peter D; Melnick, Gerald; Jiang, Lan; Hamilton, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies’ Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought insertion/control ideation (OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8–75.2), antis...

  10. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azermai M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Majda Azermai Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Keywords: behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms, dementia, interventions, nonpharmacological intervention

  11. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life. PMID:27372508

  12. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD between vascular dementia (VaD and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l′Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for probable VaD and VCI-ND on the lines of the Canadian study of health and aging. The severity of cognitive impairment and the behavioral/psychological symptoms were studied by means of the clinical dementia rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI respectively. Results: All patients with VaD and 89% of those with VCI-ND had at least one BPSD. The mean no. of symptoms per patient and the total NPI scores were higher in VaD than in VCI-ND. Apathy and night-time behavior disturbances were significantly more common and severe in VaD. Conclusions: BPSD are very common both in VCI-ND and in VaD. The profile of BPSD is similar in both groups, albeit more severe in VaD. The net burden of BPSD is higher in VaD as compared to VCI-ND.

  13. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, Karyn B.; Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R. Hiles; Call, Casey D.; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S.; Cross, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the current study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training utilizing Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavior...

  14. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Xiaoqi; Liu Ailing; Li Yanping; Fan Yiou; Ma Guansheng; Xu Guifa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the rela...

  15. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Cui; Li-Ying Cui; Ming-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Guang Li; Jun-Fang Ma; Jia Fang; Qing-Yun Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background:The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described,but its practical meaning,namely its impact on caregiver burden,has not been clearly documented in Chinese population.This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population,and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden.Methods:Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale,Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version,the Frontal Assessment Battery,and the Caregiver Burden Inventory.Results:Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees,with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration.Irritability,logopenia,and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list.Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden,with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors.Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected,caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden,physical burden,and total burden than those with no behavioral change.Conclusions:Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND,and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique.Besides,abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers' burden.

  16. The Relation Between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6–10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent traini...

  17. The Longitudinal Associations Between Discrimination, Depressive Symptoms, and Prosocial Behaviors in U.S. Latino/a Recent Immigrant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Oshri, Assaf; Streit, Cara; Martinez, Miriam M; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lizzi, Karina; Soto, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The links between discrimination and adjustment in U.S. Latino/a immigrant adolescents is an important but understudied phenomenon. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal associations (across 1 year) among discrimination, prosocial behaviors, and depressive symptoms in U.S. Latino immigrant adolescents using two competing models: associations between discrimination and prosocial behaviors via depressive symptoms (mental health strain model), and associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms via prosocial behaviors (prosociality strain model). Participants were 302 Latino/a recent immigrant adolescents (53.3 % boys, M age = 14.51 years at Time 1, SD = .88 years) who completed measures of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and prosocial behaviors at 6-month intervals. The results provided support for both proposed models. The discussion examines the importance of prosocial behaviors in understanding adjustment and effects of discrimination among recently immigrated U.S. Latino adolescents. PMID:26597783

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  19. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Developmental Functioning, Autistic Symptoms, and Coexisting Behavior Problems in Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Sigan L; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the female presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood. We investigated sex differences in developmental profiles using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, autistic symptoms on the ADOS-G, and coexisting behavior problems on the CBCL in 157 boys and 42 girls with ASD aged 1.5–3.9 years. Overall, boys and girls evidenced a markedly similar pattern of developmental profiles, autism symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems, although subtle diffe...

  20. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ‎

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Maddineshat; Sodabe Keyvanloo; Hossein Lashkardoost; Mina Arki; Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr‎

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences.Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery...

  1. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azermai, Majda

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. PMID:26170729

  2. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  3. Yokukansan improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by suppressing dopaminergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Kenji; Kurita, Masatake; Nishino, Satoshi; Teranishi, Mika; Numata, Yukio; Sato, Tadahiro; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have shown equal efficacy in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in our previous study, their mechanisms of action are different from one another. Monoamines have attracted attention for their key roles in mediating several behavioral symptoms or psychological symptoms through synaptic signaling. We aimed to clarify the monoamines changed by treatment with each drug in patients with BPSD. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites are correlated with pharmacological treatments. This was an 8-week, rater-blinded, randomized, flexible-dose, triple-group trial. In total, 90 subjects were recruited and subsequently three different drugs were allocated to 82 inpatients with BPSD. We examined BPSD data from patients who completed 8 weeks of treatment. Eventually, we analyzed 42 patients (yokukansan: 17; risperidone: 9; fluvoxamine: 16). Homovanillic acid, a metabolite of dopamine, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, a metabolite of noradrenaline, in their plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. All three drugs showed equal significant efficacy between baseline and study endpoint. By contrast, biomarkers showed mutually different changes. Patients in the yokukansan group had significantly decreased plasma homovanillic acid levels from baseline. Conversely, patients in the risperidone and fluvoxamine groups exhibited no significant changes in plasma homovanillic acid levels from baseline. Yokukansan contains geissoschizine methyl ether, which is known to have a partial agonist effect on dopamine D2 receptors. An improvement in BPSD condition with the intake of yokukansan is suggested to occur through a suppressed dopaminergic function, which is similar to the effect of aripiprazole. PMID:27042075

  4. Anxiety Disorders in Typically Developing Youth: Autism Spectrum Symptoms as a Predictor of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…

  5. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  6. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  7. Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannu P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Piero Mannu1, Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna11Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Department of Neuro Psycho Physio Pathology, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment.Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Activity of Daily Living (ADL, the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles.Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress, the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL after the second REAC treatment cycle.Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment.Keywords: anxiety, depression, insomnia, behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD

  8. Chronologically overlapping occurrences of nicotine-induced anxiety- and depression-related behavioral symptoms: effects of anxiolytic and cannabinoid drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayase Tamaki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and depression are among the most frequently-observed psychiatric symptoms associated with nicotine (NC. In addition to the similarity to other addictive drugs, these NC-induced symptoms are characteristic in that the opposite behavioral effects, i.e. anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, which may reinforce the habitual use of NC, have also been reported. In the present study, the time course of anxiety- and depression-related behavioral alterations was examined in mice. Furthermore, based on the reported similarity in the mechanisms responsible for NC-induced anxiety- and depression-related symptoms, as well as the contribution of brain cannabinoid (CB receptors to these behavioral symptoms, the effects of anxiolytics and CB receptor ligands (CBs against these behavioral symptoms were investigated. Results Repeated subcutaneous NC treatments (0.3 mg/kg, 4 days, compared with a single treatment (0.5 mg/kg, caused both prolonged anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus-maze test, and prolonged depressive effects in the forced swimming test, even at 120 min time point after the last NC treatment. A transient anxiolytic preference for open arms was also observed in the elevated plus-maze test. Among the anxiolytics and CBs, the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100135 and the endogenous mixed CB agonist/antagonist virodhamine (VD, when administered intraperitoneally before each NC treatment, provided the strongest antagonistic effects against the anxiety-related symptoms. However, against the depression-related symptoms, only VD provided significant antagonistic effects in both single and repeated treatment groups. Conclusion The present results support the presence of a chronological overlap of NC-induced anxiety- and depression-related behavioral symptoms, and the contribution of brain CB receptors to these behavioral symptoms. The repeated NC-induced prolongation of these behavioral symptoms and the early transient

  9. Yokukansan improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by suppressing dopaminergic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeyoshi K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Takeyoshi,1,2 Masatake Kurita,1–3 Satoshi Nishino,2,3 Mika Teranishi,1 Yukio Numata,2 Tadahiro Sato,2 Yoshiro Okubo11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 2Sato Hospital, Koutokukai, Nanyo, Yamagata, 3Department of Cellular Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, JapanAbstract: Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have shown equal efficacy in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in our previous study, their mechanisms of action are different from one another. Monoamines have attracted attention for their key roles in mediating several behavioral symptoms or psychological symptoms through synaptic signaling. We aimed to clarify the monoamines changed by treatment with each drug in patients with BPSD. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites are correlated with pharmacological treatments. This was an 8-week, rater-blinded, randomized, flexible-dose, triple-group trial. In total, 90 subjects were recruited and subsequently three different drugs were allocated to 82 inpatients with BPSD. We examined BPSD data from patients who completed 8 weeks of treatment. Eventually, we analyzed 42 patients (yokukansan: 17; risperidone: 9; fluvoxamine: 16. Homovanillic acid, a metabolite of dopamine, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, a metabolite of noradrenaline, in their plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. All three drugs showed equal significant efficacy between baseline and study endpoint. By contrast, biomarkers showed mutually different changes. Patients in the yokukansan group had significantly decreased plasma homovanillic acid levels from baseline. Conversely, patients in the risperidone and fluvoxamine groups exhibited no significant changes in

  10. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy ‎on ‎symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS ‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maddineshat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences.Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the studentsResults: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012. Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012.‎Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎

  11. Needs in Nursing Homes and Their Relation with Cognitive and Functional Decline, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Rita; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Fernandes, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI). To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 81 standard deviation (SD = 10) years. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE) and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS). Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met (r s = -0.425), unmet (r s = -0.369) and global needs (r s = -0.565). Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet (r s = 0.683) and global needs (r s = 0.407), and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) and unmet (r s = 0.181) and global needs (r s = 0.254). Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met (r s = 0.642), unmet (r s = 0.505) and global needs (r s = 0.796) were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated. PMID:27148044

  12. Needs in Nursing Homes and Their Relation with Cognitive and Functional Decline, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Rita; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Fernandes, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI). To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 81 standard deviation (SD = 10) years. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE) and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS). Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met (rs = −0.425), unmet (rs = −0.369) and global needs (rs = −0.565). Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet (rs = 0.683) and global needs (rs = 0.407), and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) and unmet (rs = 0.181) and global needs (rs = 0.254). Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met (rs = 0.642), unmet (rs = 0.505) and global needs (rs = 0.796) were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated. PMID:27148044

  13. Automated Tracking and Quantification of Autistic Behavioral Symptoms Using Microsoft Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Young; Kim, Ryunhyung; Kim, Hyunsun; Kang, Yeonjune; Hahn, Susan; Fu, Zhengrui; Khalid, Mamoon I; Schenck, Enja; Thesen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has risen significantly in the last ten years, and today, roughly 1 in 68 children has been diagnosed. One hallmark set of symptoms in this disorder are stereotypical motor movements. These repetitive movements may include spinning, body-rocking, or hand-flapping, amongst others. Despite the growing number of individuals affected by autism, an effective, accurate method of automatically quantifying such movements remains unavailable. This has negative implications for assessing the outcome of ASD intervention and drug studies. Here we present a novel approach to detecting autistic symptoms using the Microsoft Kinect v.2 to objectively and automatically quantify autistic body movements. The Kinect camera was used to film 12 actors performing three separate stereotypical motor movements each. Visual Gesture Builder (VGB) was implemented to analyze the skeletal structures in these recordings using a machine learning approach. In addition, movement detection was hard-coded in Matlab. Manual grading was used to confirm the validity and reliability of VGB and Matlab analysis. We found that both methods were able to detect autistic body movements with high probability. The machine learning approach yielded highest detection rates, supporting its use in automatically quantifying complex autistic behaviors with multi-dimensional input. PMID:27046572

  14. [Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, Egemen; Bopp-Kistler, Irene; Buerge, Markus; Fischlin, Regina; Georgescu, Dan; Giardini, Umberto; Hatzinger, Martin; Hemmeter, Ulrich; Justiniano, Isabella; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas; Mosimann, Urs P; Mueri, Renè; Munk, Anna; Popp, Julius; Schmid, Ruth; Wollmer, Marc A

    2014-01-29

    In patients with dementia, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent findings that accompany deficits caused by cognitive impairment and thus complicate diagnostics, therapy and care. BPSD are a burden both for affected individuals as well as care-givers, and represent a significant challenge for therapy of a patient population with high degree of multi-morbidity. The goal of this therapy-guideline issued by swiss professional associations is to present guidance regarding therapy of BPSD as attendant symptoms in dementia, based on evidence as well as clinical experience. Here it appears to be of particular importance to take into account professional experience, as at this point for most therapeutic options no sufficiently controlled clinical trials are available. A critical discussion of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention is necessary, as this patient-population is particularly vulnerable for medication side-effects. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on incorporating and systematically reporting psycho-social and nursing options therapeutic intervention. PMID:24468453

  15. Diversional and physical nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Suzanne; Barba, Beth; Stump, Maria

    2015-02-01

    This article is the last of a four-part series addressing the use of non-pharmacological interventions for older adults with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). These types of interventions are used to prevent, lessen, or eliminate BPSD, thereby reducing patient reliance on psychoactive medications. These interventions are easy to use, cost-effective, and simple to implement. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' psychoactive medication reduction initiative encourages all staff to use nonpharmacological interventions to manage BPSD. As with any attempt to handle BPSD, health care professionals and staff need a tool-box of interventions, as what works one day may not work the next and what works with one older adult may not work with another. This article describes the categories of diversional and physical nonpharmalogical interventions, presents the evidence supporting their use, and provides information on effective implementation. PMID:25531298

  16. Staff compliance with protocols to improve the management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita; Bird, Michael; Davison, Tanya; MacPherson, Sarah; Hallford, David; Seedy, Melissa

    2015-02-01

    Using data from a larger study investigating the effectiveness of a structured clinical protocol to manage individuals in residential facilities who experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), the current study investigated whether external clinical support in using the protocol with specific residents increased compliance in its use, over and above only providing a generic workshop about the protocol and management of BPSD. Results indicated that provision of the workshop, in addition to clinical support, was associated with significantly higher compliance. However, compliance was only found to be related to positive outcomes when staff received the generic workshop and not clinical support. When clinical support was provided, compliance was not related to outcomes or worse outcomes. These findings, when considered in the context of the results of the larger trial, suggest that the relationship among clinical support, compliance with BPSD protocols, and clinical outcomes for residents and staff is complex and needs further investigation. PMID:25019958

  17. RELATION OF GUILT, SHAME, BEHAVIORAL AND CHARACTEROLOGICAL SELF-BLAME TO DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN ADOLESCENTS OVER TIME

    OpenAIRE

    TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; Cole, David A.; Felton, Julia W.; CIESLA, JEFFREY A.

    2008-01-01

    In a two-wave, longitudinal study, 221 nonreferred adolescents completed measures of guilt, shame, Behavioral self-blame (BSB), Characterological self-blame (CSB), depressive symptoms measures, and attributional style. Goals were to examine similarities between Tangney’s (1996) conceptualization of guilt and shame and Janoff-Bulman’s (1979) conceptualization of BSB and CSB in adolescents. Specific aims were (1) to examine the relation of depressive symptoms and depressive cognitions to shame,...

  18. Breathing Biofeedback as an Adjunct to Exposure in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Hastens the Reduction of PTSD Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaura Polak, A.; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and a...

  19. An approach to and the rationale for the pharmacological management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi Manjari; Vibha Deepti

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsi...

  20. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  1. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan F. Andrade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  2. Perceived Peer Delinquency and Externalizing Behavior Among Rural Youth: The Role of Descriptive Norms and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    Little research has examined the way in which perceptions of peer behavior (i.e., descriptive norms) influence externalizing behavior among rural adolescents. Using a social norms framework, the current study examined gender differences in the relationship between perceived delinquency among friends and externalizing behavior in a sample of rural adolescents. Based on previous research, the authors proposed that adolescents experience negative emotional responses when they believe that their peers are engaging in delinquency, which subsequently influences externalizing behavior. Consequently, internalizing symptoms were explored as a mediator of the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior. Data came from the NC-ACE Rural Adaptation Project, a longitudinal panel study of adolescents in two rural, economically disadvantaged counties with exceptional racial/ethnic diversity (29 % White, 25 % African American, 25 % American Indian, 12 % Mixed Race/Other, 9 % Hispanic/Latino). Using multiple group structural equation modeling (N = 3489; 51 % female), results indicated that perceived friend delinquency was significantly related to externalizing behavior and this relationship did not vary by gender. Internalizing symptoms fully mediated the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior and the path between perceived friend delinquency and internalizing symptoms was stronger for males. Implications of these relationships for prevention and intervention programming for externalizing behavior were highlighted. PMID:26519368

  3. Social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation, and maternal expectations independently predict maternal depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John; Jalaludin, Bin; Kemp, Lynn; Phung, Hai; Barnett, Bryanne; Tobin, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify latent variables that can be used to inform theoretical models of perinatal influences on postnatal depressed mood and maternal-infant attachment. A routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney in 2000. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 46 psychosocial and health-related variables. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were surveyed at 2-3 weeks for depressive symptoms. Nonlinear principal components analysis was undertaken to identify dimensions that might represent latent variables. Correlations between latent variables and EPDS >12 were assessed by logistic regression. A five-dimension solution was identified, which accounted for 51% of the variance among the items studied. The five dimensions identified were maternal responsiveness, social exclusion, infant behavior, migrant social isolation, and family size. In addition, the variable maternal expectation contributed significantly to total variance and was included in the regression analysis. Regression on EPDS >12 was predictive for all variables except for maternal responsiveness, which was considered an outcome variable. The findings are consistent with the proposition that social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation among migrant mothers, and maternal expectations are determinants of maternal mood. PMID:23408743

  4. Shen-zhi-ling oral liquid improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weidong; Wang, Qiudong; Kwak, Shin; Song, Yu; Qin, Baofeng; Wang, Mingzhe; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Shen-Zhi-Ling oral liquid (SZL) on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among 98 patients with AD and BPSD enrolled (mean age, 57.2 ± 8.9 years old), 91 (M = 55, F = 36; mean age, 57.2 ± 9.7 years old) completed the study. Patients took either SZL (n = 45) or placebo granules (n = 46) in a double-blind manner for 20 weeks while maintaining other anticognitive medications unchanged. Changes in BPSD between week 0, week 10, week 20, and week 25 were assessed using the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer's disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) represented by diurnal activity (DA), evening activity (EA), and nocturnal activity (NA) according to actigraphic recordings. SZL but not placebo oral liquid delayed the development of BPSD significantly according to the changes in some of the clinical scores and the EA and NA parameters of DFA at week 20 compared with week 0. No side effects were observed in laboratory tests. The results indicate that SZL might delay the development of BPSD in AD patients and thus is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use. PMID:24959193

  5. Sluggish cognitive tempo in psychiatrically hospitalized children: factor structure and relations to internalizing symptoms, social problems, and observed behavioral dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    As research examining sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) advances, it is important to examine the structure and validity of SCT in a variety of samples, including samples of children who are clinically-distressed but not referred specifically for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study used a large sample of psychiatrically hospitalized children (N = 680; 73 % male; 66 % African American) between the ages of 6 and 12 to examine the latent structure of SCT, ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), depression, and anxiety using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results of the CFA analyses demonstrated that SCT is distinct from these other dimensions of child psychopathology, including ADHD inattention, depression, and anxiety. Regression analyses indicated that SCT symptoms were positively associated with depression and, to a lesser degree, anxiety. SCT symptoms were also positively associated with children's general social problems, whereas SCT symptoms were negatively associated with an observational measure of behavioral dysregulation (i.e., frequency of time-outs received as a part of a manualized behavior modification program). These associations were significant above and beyond relevant child demographic variables (i.e., age, sex, race), children's other mental health symptoms (i.e., ADHD, ODD, depression, anxiety symptoms), and, for all relations except child anxiety, parents' own anxiety and depression symptoms. PMID:23359144

  6. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ru Zhang; Jing Chen; Zi-Jiao Yang; Hui-Jun Zhang; Yun-Ting Fu; Yun Shen; Pei-Cheng He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).However, little is known regarding the relation between the severity of RBD and the different domains of cognitive impairment.The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the domains of cognitive impairment in patients with PD and RBD, and (2) to explore risk factors for PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and the relationship between RBD severity and impairment in different cognitive domains in PD.Methods: The participants were grouped as follows: PD without RBD (PD-RBD;n =42), PD with RBD (PD + RBD;n =32), idiopathic RBD (iRBD;n =15), and healthy controls (HCs;n =36).All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological assessment of attention and working memory, executive function, language, memory, and visuospatial function.The information of basic demographics, diseases and medication history, and motor and nonmotor manifestations was obtained and compared between PD-RBD and PD + RBD groups.Particular attention was paid to the severity of RBD assessed by the RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) and the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), then we further examined associations between the severity of RBD symptoms and cognitive levels via correlation analysis.Results: Compared to PD-RBD subjects, PD + RBD patients were more likely to have olfactory dysfunction and their Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were higher (P < 0.05).During neuropsychological testing, PD + RBD patients performed worse than PD-RBD patients, including delayed memory function, especially.The MCI rates were 33%, 63%, 33%, and 8% for PD-RBD, PD + RBD, iRBD, and HC groups, respectively.RBD was an important factor for the PD-MCI variance (odds ratio =5.204, P =0.018).During correlation analysis, higher RBDSQ and RBDQ-HK scores were significantly associated with poorer performance on the Trail Making Test-B (errors) and

  7. The effect of acculturation and discrimination on mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among adolescent migrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the role of acculturation, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in predicting the mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among 1.5 and second generation non-Jewish adolescents born to migrant families compared with native-born Jewish Israeli adolescents in Israel. Participants included n = 65 1.5 migrant adolescents, n = 60 second generation migrant adolescents, and n = 146 age, gender, and socioeconomic matched sample of native-born Jewish Israelis. Participants completed measures of acculturation pattern, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem as well as measures of mental health symptoms and risk behaviors. Results show that migrant adolescents across generations reported worse mental health symptoms compared with native-born Jewish Israelis. However, only the 1.5 generation migrants reported higher engagement in risk behaviors compared with second generation migrants and native-born Jewish Israelis. Our findings further showed that acculturation plays an important role in predicting the mental health status of migrant youth, with those characterized with integrated acculturative pattern reporting lower mental health symptoms compared with assimilated acculturation pattern. Importantly, contextual factors, such as higher perception of discrimination in the receiving culture as well as individual factors such as lower self-esteem and female gender were strongly associated with worse mental health symptoms. The findings manifest the complex relationship between contextual factors and individual level variables in the acculturative process of migrants as well as the importance of examining the effect of migration generation on mental health outcomes. PMID:22686145

  8. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body

  9. Influence of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Toddler Behaviors: An Emerging Developmental Cascade of Genetic and Environmental Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pemberton, Caroline K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Ge, XiaoJia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental cascade of both genetic and environmental influences on toddlers’ behavior problems through the longitudinal and multi-generational assessment of psychosocial risk. We used data from the Early Growth and Development Study, a prospective adoption study, to test the intergenerational transmission of risk through the assessment of adoptive mother, adoptive father, and biological parent depressive symptoms on toddler behavior problems. Given that depression i...

  10. Relations Between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6–13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised. Results indicated that, compared to parents of non-clinical children, parents of clinically anxious...

  11. Antipsychotic, antidepressant, and cognitive-impairment properties of antipsychotics: rat profile and implications for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; WESOŁOWSKA, ANNA; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Many dementia patients exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD), including psychosis and depression. Although antipsychotics are frequently prescribed off-label, they can have marked side effects. In addition, comparative preclinical studies of their effects are surprisingly scarce, and strategies for discovery of novel pharmacotherapeutics are lacking. We therefore compared eight antipsychotics in rat behavioral tests of psychosis, antidepressant-like activity, and cognitive impa...

  12. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Sex Moderate the Pathway from Clinical Symptoms to Adaptive Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic sy...

  13. Panic symptoms and elevated suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals: Moderating effects of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Brian J; Norr, Aaron M; Capron, Daniel W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are highly prevalent among trauma exposed individuals and have been associated with a number of adverse outcomes. Despite high suicide rates among trauma exposed individuals, research to date has not examined the potential relation between panic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behaviors among this high risk population. The current study tested the association of panic with suicidal ideation and behaviors among a large sample of trauma exposed smokers. Community participants (N=421) who reported a lifetime history of trauma exposure were assessed concurrently for current panic, suicidal ideation and behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses. Those who met criteria for a current panic disorder diagnosis were removed from analyses to allow for the assessment of non-PD related panic in line with the recent addition of the PA specifier applicable to all DSM-5 disorders. Findings indicated that panic symptoms were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors beyond the effects of depression and number of trauma types experienced. Further, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status significantly moderated this relationship, indicating that the relationship between panic and suicidal ideation and behaviors is potentiated among individuals with a current PTSD diagnosis. This investigation suggests that panic symptoms may be a valuable clinical target for the assessment and treatment of suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals. PMID:26050924

  14. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  15. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  16. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Developmental Functioning, Autistic Symptoms, and Coexisting Behavior Problems in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the female presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood. We investigated sex differences in developmental profiles using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, autistic symptoms on the ADOS-G, and coexisting behavior problems on the CBCL in 157 boys and 42 girls with ASD aged 1.5-3.9 years. Overall,…

  17. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of…

  18. The Relationship between Manic Symptoms on the Dash II and YMRS and Feeding/Mealtime Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laud, Rinita B.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first to assess whether a relationship between manic symptoms and feeding/mealtime behavior problems exists in individuals with ID. Participants were compared across three groups (manic, non-manic psychiatrically impaired, and controls) on the diagnostic assessment for the severely handicapped-revised (DASH-II) and young…

  19. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors across Adolescence: Associations with Histories of Suicide Attempt and Ideation in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between adolescent problem trajectories and suicide risk outcomes in 361 community participants. Depressive symptoms (self-report) and externalizing behaviors (parent report) were assessed six times from grades 5 to 10. Parallel process linear growth curves indicated that lifetime suicide attempt history assessed to age 25…

  20. A new simple score (ABS) for assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Yamashita, T; Hishikawa, N; Ohta, Y; Deguchi, K; Sato, K; Matsuzono, K; Nakano, Y; Ikeda, Y; Wakutani, Y; Takao, Y

    2015-03-15

    In addition to cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are another important aspect of most dementia patients. This study was designed for a new simple assessment of BPSD. We first employed a clinical survey for the local community with sending an inquiry letter to all members (n=129) of dementia caregiver society, and then attempted to create a new BPSD score for dementia with 10 BPSD items. This new simple BPSD score was compared to a standard-detailed BPSD score neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) for a possible correlation (n=792) and a time to complete (n=136). Inter-rater reliability was examined comparing scores between main and second caregivers (n=70) for AD. Based on the clinical survey for local caregivers, a new BPSD score for dementia (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) was newly created, in which each BPSD item was allotted by an already-weighted score (maximum 1-9) based on the frequency and severity, and was finalized with taking temporal occurrences into account. ABS was filled by the main caregiver with a full score of 44, was well correlated with NPI (r=0.716, **pBPSD assessment, with a good correlation to NPI but a shorter time, and with a high inter-rater reliability. Thus ABS is useful for evaluating BPSD for mild to moderate dementia patients. PMID:25662676

  1. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. PMID:26996984

  2. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression During the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; MILANAK, MELISSA e.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117) completed eight sessions of BA-TE that included two phases of treatment: (a) behavioral activation (BA) in which some activities involved situational exp...

  3. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression during the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117)…

  4. An approach to and the rationale for the pharmacological management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Manjari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsiveness in an otherwise "incurable" and progressive disease, but also improves the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers alike. The caregiver burden is greatly decreased by an efficient management of BPSD. This review discusses the implications and boundaries of the term BPSD and unravels each symptom and its identification. Manifestations of psychological symptoms such as delusion, hallucination, misidentification, psychosis, depression, apathy, and anxiety are briefly described. Correct identification of behavior symptoms such as wandering, agitation, catastrophic reaction, disinhibition, and delirium has been outlined. While the subtle differences in each entity make the precise identification difficult, the different therapeutics of each make the exercise necessary. Pharmacological recommendations and side effects of medications have been mentioned thereafter. The review will help in the identification and correct pharmacological management of BPSD.

  5. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in South African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:16137645

  6. Help seeking behavior of women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms: a meta-ethnographic synthesis of patient delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Khakbazan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. METHODS: The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach (1988, through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. FINDINGS: The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women's decision-making about utilizing health services. CONCLUSION: Help seeking

  7. Fibromyalgia symptom reduction by online behavioral self-monitoring, longitudinal single subject analysis and automated delivery of individualized guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Collinge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog that analyzes personal self-monitoring data and delivers data-based feedback over time. Materials and Methods: Subjects were self-referred, anonymous, and recruited via publicity on FM advocacy websites. Standardized instruments assessed health status, self-efficacy, and locus of control at baseline and monthly during participation. Subjects were encouraged to complete the SMARTLog several times weekly. Within-subject, univariate, and multivariate analyses were used to derive classification trees for each user associating specific behavior variables with symptom levels over time. Results: Moderate use (3 times weekly x 3 months increased likelihood of clinically significant improvements in pain, memory, gastrointestinal problems, depression, fatigue, and concentration; heavy use (4.5 times weekly x five months produced the above plus improvement in stiffness and sleep difficulties. Conclusions: Individualized, web-based behavioral self-monitoring with personally-tailored feedback can enable FM sufferers to significantly reduce symptom levels over time.

  8. Paroxetine treatment, following behavioral suppression of PTSD-like symptoms in mice, prevents relapse by activating the infralimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentefour, Yassine; Rakibi, Youness; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Garcia, René

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies have shown that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remission, induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, is associated with increased prefrontal activation during post-treatment symptom provocation. Other studies have shown that continuation SSRI treatment after remitting from PTSD reduces the rate of relapse. The aim of the present preclinical study was to investigate the relationship between post-treatment prefrontal changes and PTSD relapse prevention. Avoidance conditioning (with a 1.5-mA foot-shock), avoidance extinction and a trauma priming exposure (with a 0.3-mA foot-shock) were used in mice to induce, suppress and reactivate PTSD-like symptoms (including avoidance, fear sensitization, enhanced contextual fear, and anxiety-like behavior), respectively. Paroxetine, injected at 8 mg/kg/day (7 days), was used as SSRI treatment. PTSD-like symptoms were present for at least 30 days and resistant to paroxetine treatment. However, after extinction training (suppressing all PTSD-like symptoms), paroxetine treatment prevented symptom reactivation. Paroxetine treatment also induced infralimbic neuronal activation. However, infralimbic functional tetrodotoxin inactivation abolished the preventive effect of paroxetine treatment on symptom reactivation. The data reveal a potential ability of treatments inducing infralimbic activation to provide prophylactic protection against PTSD relapse. PMID:26706692

  9. Frontal Lobe Activity and Affective Behavior of Infants of Mothers with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In comparison to infants of mothers who had no symptoms of depression, infants of mothers with symptoms exhibited reduced left frontal lobe activity during play and failed to exhibit increased right frontal lobe activity during distress. Infants of symptomatic mothers showed less distress during maternal separation than infants of nonsymptomatic…

  10. Patterns of depressive symptoms and social relating behaviors differ over time from other behavioral domains for young people with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Bourke, Jenny; Einfeld, Stewart L; Tonge, Bruce J; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    People with intellectual disabilities are at a higher risk for experiencing behavioral, emotional, and psychiatric problems in comparison with the general population. People with Down syndrome have been reported as experiencing fewer behavioral problems than others with intellectual disability, although still at a greater level than the non-intellectually disabled population, except for depression and Alzheimer disease. The aim of this study was to describe the trajectories of subscales of behavior, including depressive symptoms, communication disturbance, anxiety, disruptiveness, and social relating abilities, for young adults with Down syndrome.Families of young adults with Down syndrome living in Perth, Western Australia, participated in a questionnaire study over 8 years, 2004 (n = 255), 2009 (n = 191), and 2011 (n = 188). Questionnaires collected information about young person characteristics and family functioning. The parent-completed Developmental Behavior Checklist-Adult (DBC-A) and Developmental Behavior Checklist-Primary Carer Version (DBC-P) were used to measure emotional and behavioral problems. These measures include the following subscales: disruptive, communication and anxiety disturbances, self-absorbed, antisocial, depressive, and social relating.DBC score declined from 2004 to 2011 reflecting an improvement in behavior in the self-absorbed (coeff -0.011, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.031, -0.008), anxiety (coef -0.009 95%CI -0.129, -0.006), communication disturbances (coeff -0.008, 95% CI -0.012, -0.005) and disruptive/antisocial behavior (coeff -0.013, 95% CI -0.016, -0.009) subscales. Subscales for depressive symptoms and social relating problems decreased less (coeff -0.003, 95% CI -0.007, -0.0001) (coeff -0.003 95% CI -0.007, 0.001). Young people who were lower functioning were reported as exhibiting significantly more behavioral problems across every subscale when compared with those who were higher functioning.Behavior of

  11. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: how long does every behavior last, and are particular behaviors associated with PRN antipsychotic agent use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Philippe; McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric; Richard, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) affect approximately all residents in nursing homes at some point; however, the course of BPSD among this group is not well known. The goal of the current study was to describe the course of each measured BPSD over a period of 6 months. A secondary explorative objective was to identify which BPSD are associated with as-needed (PRN) antipsychotic drug use. This secondary analysis study of 146 nursing home residents was drawn from a prospective, observational, multisite (N = 7) cohort study. Results showed that BPSD lasted for an average of 2.3 months, and the BPSD saying things that do not make sense had the longest duration, with 3.6 months. PRN antipsychotic drug administration was associated with nocturnal BPSD and requesting help unnecessarily. Within 3 months, most BPSD were resolved by usual care; use of PRN antipsychotic medication was not associated with behaviors that put the residents or their caregivers at risk. PMID:25369585

  12. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS): Improving academic performance among college students with PTSD symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Katrín Mjöll Halldórsdóttir 1991

    2015-01-01

    Children from the age of 10-15 years old receiving the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) have shown reduction in PTSD symptoms, and in some cases improvements in academic performance. Potentially, CBITS could also be effective to improve academic performance among university students. This study aims to test that hypothesis with a sample of 28 students from Methodist University, Fayetteville North Carolina. Students were randomly assigned to either experimental g...

  14. A Pilot Study Examining Depressive Symptoms, Internet Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Asian Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    Lemieux, AF; Nehl, EJ; Lin, L; Tran, A; Yu, F; Wong, FY

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we present a preliminary examination of the association of depression level, internet use, meeting sexual partners online, and unprotected sexual activity among Asian men who have sex with men (MSM). Because depression level has been previously linked to increased levels of sexual risk behavior, and heightened levels of Internet use has been linked to greater depressive symptoms, the present pilot research jointly examines these factors. We found that those with higher l...

  15. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Browne, Dillon T; Rosemary Tannock

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) refer...

  16. Relationship between Dementia Severity and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Yatabe, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Kaneda, Keiichiro; HONDA, KAZUKI; Yuki, Seiji; Ogawa, Yusuke; Imamura, Toru; Kazui, Hiroaki; Kamimura, Naoto; Shinagawa, Syunichiro; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Mori, Etsuro; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in the clinical manifestation of dementia. Although most patients with dementia exhibit some BPSD during the course of the illness, the association of BPSD with the stage of dementia remains unclear. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of severity of dementia on the expression of BPSD in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Ninety-seven patients wi...

  17. Impact of cholinesterase inhibitors on behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Noll; Ayub, Amir; Boustani, Malaz A.; Fox, Chris; Farlow, Martin; Maidment, Ian; Howard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) in improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Data sources We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Registry, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1966 to 2007. We limited our search to English Language, full text, published articles and human studies. Data extraction We included randomized, double-blind, placebo-control...

  18. Randomized Effectiveness Trial of an Internet, Pure Self-Help, Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Greg; Kelleher, Chris; Hornbrook, Matt; DeBar, Lynn; Dickerson, John; Gullion, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated an Internet-delivered, cognitive behavioral skills training program versus a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition targeting depression symptoms in youth ages 18 to 24. Potential participants were mailed a recruitment brochure; if interested they accessed the study website to complete an online consent and baseline assessment. Intervention participants could access the website at their own pace and at any time. Reminder postcards were mailed periodically to encourage...

  19. Cholinergic-serotonergic imbalance contributes to cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Alloza, M; Gil-Bea, F.J. (Francisco J.); Diez-Ariza, M. (Mónica); Chen, C. P.; Francis, P.T.; Lasheras, B.; Ramirez, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not simply a consequence of neurodegeneration, but probably result from differential neurotransmitter alterations, which some patients are more at risk of than others. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is that an imbalance between the cholinergic and serotonergic systems is related to cognitive symptoms and psychological syndromes of dementia (BPSD) in patients with AD. Cholinergic and serotonergic functions were assessed in...

  20. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Hiles Howard, Amanda R.; Parris, Sheri R.; Call, Casey D.; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S.; Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre–post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral p...

  1. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Andersen, Sandra B; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L;

    2011-01-01

    Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interac...

  2. The Relationship of Challenging Behaviors to Severity and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Wilkins, Jonathan; Macken, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Challenging behaviors were assessed in 313 children, and it was demonstrated that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited greater levels of challenging behavior than both normally developing controls and children with psychopathology or atypical development. Next, we examined the relation between challenging behaviors and symptoms…

  3. Cognitive processes as mediators of the relation between mindfulness and change in social anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica R; Price, Matthew; Schmertz, Stefan K; Johnson, Suzanne B; Masuda, Akihiko; Calamaras, Martha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether pretreatment mindfulness exerts an indirect effect on outcomes following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive processes of probability and cost bias (i.e., overestimations of the likelihood that negative social events will occur, and that these events will have negative consequences when they do occur) were explored as potential mediators of the relation between mindfulness and social anxiety symptom change. People with higher levels of mindfulness may be better able to benefit from treatments that reduce biases because mindfulness may aid in regulation of attention. Sixty-seven individuals with a primary diagnosis of social phobia identifying public speaking as their greatest fear received eight sessions of one of two types of exposure-based CBT delivered according to treatment manuals. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, probability bias, cost bias, and social anxiety symptoms. Mediation hypotheses were assessed by a bootstrapped regression using treatment outcome data. Pretreatment mindfulness was not related to change in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. However, mindfulness had an indirect effect on treatment outcome via its association with probability bias, but not cost bias, at midtreatment. These findings were consistent across three metrics of social anxiety symptoms. Mindfulness may play a role in response to CBT among individuals with social phobia through its relation with probability bias--even when the treatment does not target mindfulness. PMID:24147809

  4. Drugs used to relieve behavioral symptoms in people with dementia or an unacceptable chemical cosh? Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Clive; Cream, Julia

    2005-03-01

    As clinicians we talk about "the best interests of our patients". How can a treatment which doubles the rate of cognitive decline, triples the rate of stroke, doubles mortality, substantially increases falls and fractures and reduces quality of life be beneficial, especially, as in real life, once neuroleptics are started they are rarely discontinued with cumulative adverse effects? As there is clearly no rational reason for prescribing, we need to consider other explanations. We would suggest the following: Therapeutic impotence: Doctors, especially specialists feel they need to do something, and prescribing a familiar drug is the easiest option. Ignorance: Doctors are either unaware of the substantial evidence of harm with neuroleptics or are swayed by slick marketing information, portraying atypical neuroleptics in an "over-safe" light that does not reflect the actual data. Placebo effect: If neuroleptics are prescribed, the majority of patients experience an improvement in BPSD symptoms. This reinforces the apparent value of this practice, as we like to take the credit for any improvements that occur. The reality is that the majority of people would have experienced a comparable improvement with monitoring. Bowing to pressure: Sometimes the pressure to respond can be great, and a prescription is an easy way to relieve the pressure. This is understandable, and reflects a similar phenomenon to that of general practioners prescribing antibiotics for sore throats. In neither situation does it represent good practice. Lack of skills to implement non-pharmacological alternatives: The main evidence for alternative treatment options are for therapies that by and large are not a core part of the physician or psychiatrist's skill-base, such as psychological interventions. Doctors therefore feel uncomfortable pursuing these options. Why for example is so little time spent on the nonpharmacological interventions that everyone agrees should be the first line of treatment

  5. Temperament and Social Support in Adolescence: Interrelations with Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Temperament and perceived family and friend support were significantly related to depressive symptoms and delinquent activity in 975 adolescents (high school sophomores and juniors) in western New York. Results suggest that part of the influence of temperamental difficulty may be a result of reduced levels of family and friend support. (SLD)

  6. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  7. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. Purpose This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Methods Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms...

  8. The Role of Child Gender, Problem Behaviors, and the Family Environment on Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Findings from Mothers of Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…

  9. Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) Measures of Self- and Social Perception to Give Interpersonal Meaning to Symptoms: Anxiety as an Exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2005-01-01

    Current symptom-based diagnosis, although important, lacks theoretical underpinning that might give meaning to psychiatric symptoms. The structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) fills this void, operationalizing interpersonal theory for investigation of relational aspects of psychopathology. To provide an example of how SASB may be utilized…

  10. School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. Results: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). Conclusions: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea. PMID:26841886

  11. Effects of a Multi-Component Behavioral Intervention (MCI) for Insomnia on Depressive and Insomnia Symptoms in Individuals with High and Low Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kirsten; Sidani, Souraya; Epstein, Dana R.

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia and depression are prevalent and co-occurring conditions that are associated with significant impairment of life. Previous research indicates that cognitive-behavioral interventions for insomnia (CBT-I) can improve both insomnia and depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether a multi-component behavioral intervention (MCI) improved both insomnia and depressive symptoms in persons presenting with insomnia and high levels of depression. The sample consisted of 3...

  12. [Cognitive behavioral therapy of residual symptoms in patients with juvenile depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaz'mina, O Iu; Oleĭchik, I V; Zeziulia, T N; Krylova, E S

    2002-01-01

    There were forty patients (mean age 20.7 years) who met the ICD-10 criteria of diagnosis of affective disorder (items F31-F33)--juvenile depression, successfully treated with antidepressants in psychiatric hospital and later on maintenance therapy for correction of residual symptoms. The duration of follow-up study was 2 years. All the patients were randomised into two groups, the first one receiving psychopharmacotherapy combined with cognitive behavioural therapy and the second--only the former one. In both groups, the antidepressant dosing was continuously decreased up to complete withdrawal. In the first group, patients revealed significantly fewer residual symptoms after antidepressants treatment compared with the second group, which was assigned only to psychopharmacotherapy. Also, depression relapse frequency tended to be lower in the first group than in the second one (15% vs 35%) but the differences were insignificant. The authors emphasize that further studies of cognitive behavioural therapy in depression relapse prevention are needed. PMID:12378877

  13. Mediators of the Relation Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Internalizing and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McCarty, Carolyn A.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on a normative sample of 224 youth and their biological mothers, this study tested 4 family variables as potential mediators of the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms in early childhood and child psychological outcomes in preadolescence. The mediators examined included mother–child communication, the quality of the mother–child relationship, maternal social support, and stressful life events in the family. The most parsimonious structural equation model suggested that h...

  14. Relations Among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child’s life. The results indicated that, in this diverse sample of families living in predominantly low-income rural communities (N = 705), higher levels of early IPV were associated with in...

  15. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy ‎on ‎symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) ‎

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Maddineshat; Sodabe Keyvanloo; Hossein Lashkardoost; Mina Arki; Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr‎

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences.Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery...

  16. Shen-Zhi-Ling Oral Liquid Improves Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Weidong Pan; Qiudong Wang; Shin Kwak; Yu Song; Baofeng Qin; Mingzhe Wang; Yoshiharu Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Shen-Zhi-Ling oral liquid (SZL) on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among 98 patients with AD and BPSD enrolled (mean age, 57.2 ± 8.9 years old), 91 (M = 55, F = 36; mean age, 57.2 ± 9.7 years old) completed the study. Patients took either SZL (n = 45) or placebo granules (n = 46) in a double-blind manner for 20 weeks while maintaining other anticognitive m...

  17. Involvement of the Serotonergic System in Cognitive and Behavioral Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, M.J.; Aisa, B; Garcia-Alloza, M; Gil-Bea, F.J. (Francisco J.); Marcos, B.

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive disorder characterized by dementia, but often featuring behavioral and psychological syndromes (BPSD), such as depression, overactivity, psychosis or aggressive behavior. Traditional treatments for BPSD are neuroleptics and sedatives, which are not devoid of serious adverse effects. Neurochemically, the classical hallmark of AD is the disruption of basal forebrain cholinergic pathways and consequent cortical cholinergic denervation of the neoc...

  18. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Li

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction.

  20. Parenting styles and weight-related symptoms and behaviors with recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria

    2008-02-01

    With the incidence of eating disorders increasing in recent years, the role of parents in the pathology of these illnesses is of great interest, particularly the impact of their parenting style. Few studies have investigated the connection between parenting styles and adolescent eating disorders. Reviewed here are key studies on parenting style categorized into the following four broad areas related to eating disorder pathology: food-related symptoms, feeding style, research on ethnic populations, and populations with eating disorders. The results reflect previous findings on the benefits of the authoritative parenting style. Suggestions for parenting programs and further research are included. PMID:18254872

  1. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  2. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bicanic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  3. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups. PMID:25819701

  4. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva; de Roos, Carlijn; van Wesel, Floryt; Sinnema, Gerben; van de Putte, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS), including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years). STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own. PMID:24936285

  5. The moderating role of distress tolerance in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and suicidal behavior among trauma-exposed substance users in residential treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D.; Tull, Matthew T.; Bagge, Courtney L.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is associated with greater risk for suicidal behavior than either disorder alone. Research highlights the relevance of PTSD symptoms in particular to suicide risk within this population. Research has also provided support for an association between distress tolerance (DT) and both PTSD symptoms and suicidal behavior. This study examined the role of DT in the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and suicidal behavior in a sample of 164 SUD inpatients with a history of Criterion A traumatic exposure. Results indicated that DT moderated the relationship between PTSD symptoms (overall, re-experiencing, and hyperarousal) and medically-attended suicide attempts, with the magnitude of the relationship increasing at higher levels of DT. PMID:22852782

  6. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himaman Winanda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards where ants die on sapling leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected workers that mediate the expression of the death grip phenotype. Results We found that infected ants behave as zombies and display predictable stereotypical behaviors of random rather than directional walking, and of repeated convulsions that make them fall down and thus precludes returning to the canopy. Transitions from erratic wandering to death grips on a leaf vein were abrupt and synchronized around solar noon. We show that the mandibles of ants penetrate deeply into vein tissue and that this is accompanied by extensive atrophy of the mandibular muscles. This lock-jaw means the ant will remain attached to the leaf after death. We further present histological data to show that a high density of single celled stages of the parasite within the head capsule of dying ants are likely to be responsible for this muscular atrophy. Conclusions Extended phenotypes in ants induced by fungal infections are a complex example of behavioral manipulation requiring coordinated changes of host behavior and morphology. Future work should address the

  7. The relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors in a predominantly Hispanic sample of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P; Colin, Jessie M; Provencio Vasquez, Elias; McCain, Gail C

    2008-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and safer sex messages, many men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to participate in high-risk sexual behaviors, which may make them vulnerable to HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors in a predominantly Hispanic sample of MSM. This correlational study sampled 205 MSM (M = 37 years of age, SD = +/-8) representing the diverse ethnic composition of South Florida. This sample consisted of ethnic minorities (79%) with a large number of foreign-born men (69%). Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of self-esteem had a statistically significant relationship to lower levels of safer sexual behaviors. Lower income, lower educational level, and preference for Spanish language were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms; lower income was associated with lower levels of self-esteem; and foreign birth and a preference for Spanish language were associated with lower levels of safer sex behaviors. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of self-esteem were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this sample of MSM. Further research needs to be directed at culturally specific mental health and HIV prevention strategies for these vulnerable MSM. PMID:19477795

  8. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  9. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  10. Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment as compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aim of this study is to characterize behavior in MCI compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older patients. DESIGN

  11. The effectiveness of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research was made to assign the effect of planned health education given to climacteric women on menopausal symptoms, menopausal attitude and health behaviors. Methods: The research was carried between January 2002-February 2003 in the district of Abdurrahman Gazi Primary Health department which lies in the borders of metropolitan municipality of Erzurum. 2761 climacteric women between the age of 40-60 formed the population of the research. In sample selection, because of knowing the frequency of event and the number of individuals in the population; the formula of, n=N . t2 . pq / y2 .(N-1 + t2 . pq was used and samples are assigned as 337. Afterresearch problem had been assigned on 337 women, the research was made control group with pretest-posttest of quasi experimental design on 100 women who were selected proper to the aim of the research, 50 of which was experiment, the rest was control group. But 87 women 44 of which was control, 434 of which was experiment group completed the research. Results: According to the research results, after planned health education given by the researcher, decrease in common menopausal symptoms and increase in point averages of menopausal attitude (t=4.697, p=.000 and health promotion life style behaviors (t=7.127, p=.000 were determined. Conclusion: After planned health education given to the women in climacteric period, positive health behaviors can be developed so as to make women live a more peaceful life. According to these result, it can be suggested to health professionals to mind education programs about climacteric period.

  12. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. PMID:26595479

  13. Is there an association between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Zschoche M; Schlarb AA

    2015-01-01

    Maria Zschoche, Angelika Anita Schlarb Faculty of Psychology and Sports Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany Purpose: Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to pr...

  14. Rumination as a Transdiagnostic Factor Underlying Transitions Between Internalizing Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior in Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Wisco, Blair E.; Aldao, Amelia; Hilt, Lori M.

    2014-01-01

    The high degree of comorbidity among mental disorders has generated interest in identifying transdiagnostic processes associated with multiple types of psychopathology. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema conceptualized rumination as one such transdiagnostic process associated with depression, anxiety, substance abuse, binge eating, and self-injurious behavior. The degree to which rumination accounts for the co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, however, has never been tested. We...

  15. Yokukansan improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by suppressing dopaminergic function

    OpenAIRE

    Takeyoshi K; Kurita M; Nishino S; Teranishi M; Numata Y; Sato T.; Okubo Y

    2016-01-01

    Kenji Takeyoshi,1,2 Masatake Kurita,1–3 Satoshi Nishino,2,3 Mika Teranishi,1 Yukio Numata,2 Tadahiro Sato,2 Yoshiro Okubo11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 2Sato Hospital, Koutokukai, Nanyo, Yamagata, 3Department of Cellular Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, JapanAbstract: Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have shown ...

  16. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  17. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy and an alternative medicine approach in reducing symptoms of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane

    2016-05-30

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (pCBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required. PMID:27058159

  18. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7–11 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baselin...

  19. Exploring Patients' Views of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Website for the Self-Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Bishop, Felicity L; Ellis, Matthew; Moss-Morris, Rona; Everitt, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to have positive effects on the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. A factorial pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial (called MIBS) tested the potential effectiveness of a self-management CBT-based website alongside two medications: methylcellulose and mebeverine, and a placebo. The results showed no significant differences in quality of life or symptom severity measures, but enablement and participant’s globa...

  20. How Well Does Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treat Symptoms of Complex PTSD? An Examination of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors Within A Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Resick, Patricia A.; Nishith, Pallavi; Griffin, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Are brief cognitive-behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also effective for the wider range of symptoms conceptualized as complex PTSD? Female rape victims, most of whom had extensive histories of trauma, were randomly assigned to cognitive-processing therapy, prolonged exposure, or a delayed-treatment waiting-list condition. After determining that both types of treatment were equally effective for treating complex PTSD symptoms, we divided the sample of 121 particip...

  1. The role of smoking expectancies in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and smoking behavior among women exposed to intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Weinberger, Andrea H.; McKee, Sherry A.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem associated with negative health consequences, including higher rates of tobacco smoking. Smoking expectancies are related to motivation to quit and relapse. IPV-exposed women endorse higher rates of PTSD symptoms, which are related to smoking and smoking expectancies. The present study sought to examine the relationship among smoking behavior, smoking expectancies, and PTSD symptoms among IPV-exposed women. Participants were 83 women ...

  2. Telemonitoring of Daily Activity and Symptom Behavior in Patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Tabak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated the activity behavior of patients with COPD in detail compared to asymptomatic controls, and the relationship between subjective and objective activities (awareness, and readiness to change activity behavior. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with COPD (66.0 years; FEV1% predicted: 44.9% and 21 healthy controls (57.0 years participated. Objective daily activity was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as amount of activity in counts per minute (cpm. Patients' baseline subjective activity and stage of change were assessed prior to measurements. Results. Mean daily activity in COPD patients was significantly lower compared to the healthy controls ( cpm versus  cpm, . COPD patients showed a temporary decrease in objective activities in the early afternoon. Objective and subjective activities were significantly moderately related and most patients (55.3% were in the maintenance phase of the stages of change. Conclusions. COPD patients show a distinctive activity decrease in the early afternoon. COPD patients are moderately aware of their daily activity but regard themselves as physically active. Therefore, future telemedicine interventions might consider creating awareness of an active lifestyle and provide feedback that aims to increase and balance activity levels.

  3. Cynical hostility, socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and symptom load: a cross-sectional analysis in a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab;

    2004-01-01

    behaviors. After adjustment the effects of hostility on health remained with odds ratios of 2.1 (1.7-2.6) for women and 2.3 (1.8-2.8) for men.CONCLUSION: After adjustment for socioeconomic position, cynical hostility has an effect on self-reported high symptom load, and this effect is not mediated by health......OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cross-sectional association between cynical hostility and high symptom load in a Danish population-based study. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate to what extent health risk behaviors mediated this association. METHODS: Data were based on a postal questionnaire in a...... potential mediators were alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and BMI. RESULTS: Higher cynical hostility was associated with self-reported symptom load. Health behaviors did not seem to mediate this effect. Socioeconomic position was a strong confounder for the effect on both health and health...

  4. Exercise training for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto; Demougeot, Laurent; Pillard, Fabien; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Rolland, Yves

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessed the effects of exercise on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, including depression) in people with dementia (PWD). Secondary outcomes for the effects of exercise were mortality and antipsychotic use. Twenty studies were included in this review (n=18 in the meta-analysis). Most studies used a multicomponent exercise training (n=13) as intervention; the control group was often a usual care (n=10) or a socially-active (n=8) group. Exercise did not reduce global levels of BPSD (n=4. Weighted mean difference -3.884; 95% CI -8.969-1.201; I(2)=69.4%). Exercise significantly reduced depression levels in PWD (n=7). Standardized mean difference -0.306; 95% CI -0.571 to -0.041; I(2)=46.8%); similar patterns were obtained in sensitivity analysis performed among studies with: institutionalized people (p=0.038), multicomponent training (p=0.056), social control group (p=0.08), and low risk of attrition bias (p=0.11). Exploratory analysis showed that the principal BPSD (other than depression) positively affected by exercise was aberrant motor behavior. Exercise had no effect on mortality. Data on antipsychotics were scarce. In conclusion, exercise reduces depression levels in PWD. Future studies should examine whether exercise reduces the use (and doses) of antipsychotics and other drugs often used to manage BPSD. PMID:26369357

  5. HIV infection, genital symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Indian truck drivers from a large transportation company in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent

  6. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  7. Separating Family-Level and Direct Exposure Effects of Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring Externalizing Symptoms: Bridging the Behavior Genetic and Behavior Teratologic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Ryne; Massey, Suena H; Clark, Caron A C; Burns, James L; Mustanski, Brian S; Cook, Edwin H; O'Brien, T Caitlin; Makowski, Beth; Espy, Kimberly A; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been robustly associated with externalizing problems and their developmental precursors in offspring in studies using behavioral teratologic designs (Wakschlag et al., Am J Public Health 92(6):966-974, 2002; Espy et al., Dev Psychol 47(1):153-169, 2011). In contrast, the use of behavior genetic approaches has shown that the effects commonly attributed to MSDP can be explained by family-level variables (D'Onofrio et al., Dev Psychopathol 20(01):139-164, 2008). Reconciling these conflicting findings requires integration of these study designs. We utilize longitudinal data on a preschool proband and his/her sibling from the Midwest Infant Development Study-Preschool (MIDS-P) to test for teratologic and family level effects of MSDP. We find considerable variation in prenatal smoking patterns both within and across pregnancies within families, indicating that binary smoking measures are not sufficiently capturing exposure. Structural equation models indicate that both conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms showed unique effects of MSDP over and above family level effects. Blending high quality exposure measurement with a within-family design suggests that it is premature to foreclose the possibility of a teratologic effect of MSDP on externalizing problems. Implications and recommendations for future studies are discussed. PMID:26581695

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  9. Improving the Appropriateness of Antipsychotic Prescribing for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD): A Pilot Study of the Psychotropic Use Monitoring (PUM) Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Zhen Yap; Ee Heok Kua; Sui Yung Chan; Joyce Yu-Chia Lee

    2014-01-01

    In nursing homes, antipsychotic prescribing decisions (APDs) for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) depend on the nursing staff’s feedback. Inappropriate APDs can result in the lack of timeliness, objectivity and important clinical information when nursing staff’s feedback on residents’ behavior and pharmacotherapy outcomes. Currently, there are no reported interventions for improving psychiatrists’ APDs through nursing staff’s monitori...

  10. Impact of cholinesterase inhibitors on behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noll Campbell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Noll Campbell1, Amir Ayub2, Malaz A Boustani2, Chris Fox3, Martin Farlow4, Ian Maidment3, Robert Howard51Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana; 3University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; 5King’s College, London, United KingdomObjective: To determine the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs in improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Registry, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL from 1966 to 2007. We limited our search to English Language, full text, published articles and human studies.Data extraction: We included randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in managing BPSD displayed by AD patients. Using the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF guidelines, we critically appraised all studies and included only those with an attrition rate of less than 40%, concealed measurement of the outcomes, and intention to treat analysis of the collected data. All data were imputed into pre-defined evidence based tables and were pooled using the Review Manager 4.2.1 software for data synthesis.Results: We found 12 studies that met our inclusion criteria but only nine of them provided sufficient data for the meta-analysis. Among patients with mild to severe AD and in comparison to placebo, ChEIs as a class had a beneficial effects on reducing BPSD with a standard mean difference (SMD of −0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]; −0.18, −0.01 and a weighted mean difference (WMD of −1.38 neuropsychiatry inventory point (95% CI; −2.30, −0.46. In studies with mild AD patients, the WMD was −1.92 (95% CI; −3.18, −0.66; and in studies

  11. Obtaining Information from Family Caregivers Is Important to Detect Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms and Caregiver Burden in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Yamagami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study are to clarify the differences between the difficulties in daily life experienced by patients with both mild cognitive impairment (MCI and chronic disease and those experienced by healthy elderly individuals. Methods: We assessed (a cognitive function; (b gait ability; (c behavioral and psychological symptoms (observed at home; (d activities of daily living (observed at home; (e family caregiver burden, and (f intention to continue family caregiving of 255 cognitively normal and 103 MCI subjects attending adult day care services covered by long-term care insurance, and compared the two groups. Results: Subjects with MCI display more behavioral and psychological symptoms than cognitively normal subjects, posing a heavy caregiver burden (p Conclusion: Information regarding the behavioral and psychological symptoms displayed at home by patients with MCI can only be obtained from family caregivers living with the patients. To provide early-stage support for elderly patients with MCI, adult day care workers should collect information from family caregivers regarding behavioral and psychological symptoms observed at home.

  12. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  13. Detection of Symptoms of Prevalent Mental Health Disorders of Childhood with the Parent Form of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Abdou, Annmary S.; Twyford, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the criterion-related validity of score inferences from the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Parent Form" (BESS Parent) for the detection of symptoms of prevalent mental health disorders of childhood. The BESS Parent was administered to 99 parents of first- through fifth-grade students, along with the "Child Behavior…

  14. Executive functions and basic symptoms in adolescent antisocial behavior: a cross-sectional study on an Italian sample of late-onset offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Mallamace, Domenico; Mento, Carmela; Zoccali, Rocco; Bruno, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) and other cognitive impairments, such as lower IQ and verbal deficits, have been associated with the pattern of antisocial and delinquent behavior starting in childhood (early-onset), but not with late-onset antisocial behavior. Beyond objective measures of ECF, basic symptoms are prodromal, subjectively experienced cognitive, perceptual, affective, and social disturbances, associated with a range of psychiatric disorders, mainly with psychosis. The goal of the present study was to examine ECF and basic symptoms in a sample of late-onset juvenile delinquents. Two-hundred nine male adolescents (aged 15-20 years) characterized by a pattern of late-onset delinquent behavior with no antecedents of Conduct Disorder, were consecutively recruited from the Social Services of the Department of Juvenile Justice of the city of Messina (Italy), and compared with nonantisocial controls matched for age, educational level, and socio-demographic features on measures for ECF dysfunction and basic symptoms. Significant differences between late-onset offenders (completers=147) and control group (n=150) were found on ECF and basic symptoms measures. Chi-square analysis showed that a significantly greater number of late-onset offending participants scored in the clinical range on several ECF measures. Executive cognitive impairment, even subtle and subclinical, along with subjective symptoms of cognitive dysfunction (basic symptom), may be contributing factor in the development and persistence of antisocial behaviors displayed by late-onset adolescent delinquents. The findings also suggest the need for additional research aimed to assess a broader range of cognitive abilities and specific vulnerability and risk factors for late-onset adolescent offenders. PMID:24405775

  15. Antipsychotic, antidepressant, and cognitive-impairment properties of antipsychotics: rat profile and implications for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Wesołowska, Anna; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Many dementia patients exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD), including psychosis and depression. Although antipsychotics are frequently prescribed off-label, they can have marked side effects. In addition, comparative preclinical studies of their effects are surprisingly scarce, and strategies for discovery of novel pharmacotherapeutics are lacking. We therefore compared eight antipsychotics in rat behavioral tests of psychosis, antidepressant-like activity, and cognitive impairment as a basis for preclinical evaluation of new drug candidates. The methods used in this study include inhibition of MK-801-induced hyperactivity, forced swim test (FST), passive avoidance (PA), spontaneous locomotor activity, and catalepsy. The drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like activity in the MK-801 test but with diverse profiles in the other models. Risperidone impaired PA performance, but with some dose separation versus its actions in the MK-801 test. In contrast, clozapine, olanzapine, lurasidone, and asenapine showed little or no dose separation in these tests. Aripiprazole did not impair PA performance but was poorly active in the MK-801 test. Diverse effects were also observed in the FST: chlorpromazine was inactive and most other drugs reduced immobility over narrow dose ranges, whereas clozapine reduced immobility over a wider dose range, overlapping with antipsychotic activity. Although the propensity of second-generation antipsychotics to produce catalepsy was lower, they all elicited pronounced sedation. Consistent with clinical data, most currently available second-generation antipsychotics induced cognitive and motor side effects with little separation from therapeutic-like doses. This study provides a uniform in vivo comparative basis on which to evaluate future early-stage drug candidates intended for potential pharmacotherapy of BPSD. PMID:24599316

  16. Novel arylsulfonamide derivatives with 5-HT₆/5-HT₇ receptor antagonism targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; Pawłowski, Maciej; Mitka, Katarzyna; Jaśkowska, Jolanta; Kowalski, Piotr; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Wasik, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2014-06-12

    In order to target behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), we used molecular modeling-assisted design to obtain novel multifunctional arylsulfonamide derivatives that potently antagonize 5-HT(6/7/2A) and D2 receptors, without interacting with M1 receptors and hERG channels. In vitro studies confirmed their antagonism of 5-HT(7/2A) and D2 receptors and weak interactions with key antitargets (M1R and hERG) associated with side effects. Marked 5-HT6 receptor affinities were also observed, notably for 6-fluoro-3-(piperidin-4-yl)-1,2-benzoxazole derivatives connected by a 3-4 unit alkyl linker with mono- or bicyclic, lipophilic arylsulfonamide moieties. N-[4-[4-(6-Fluoro-1,2-benzoxazol-3-yl)piperidin-1-yl]butyl]benzothiophene-2-sulfonamide (72) was characterized in vitro on 14 targets and antitargets. It displayed dual blockade of 5-HT6 and D2 receptors and negligible interactions at hERG and M1 receptors. Unlike reference antipsychotics, 72 displayed marked antipsychotic and antidepressant activity in rats after oral administration, in the absence of cognitive or motor impairment. This profile is particularly attractive when targeting a fragile, elderly BPSD patient population. PMID:24805037

  17. The effectiveness of mother training based on the model of positive parenting on the rate of behavioral disorders symptoms in deaf students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Pakzad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Hearing loss affects human adjustment with environment and may be followed by mental complications such as behavioral problems. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of group behavioral management training of mothers based on the model of positive parenting on the rate of behavioral disorders of primary school deaf students in Isfahan.Methods: The research method was semi-experimental with pre and post-test plan and control group. Using multi-stage sampling method, 30 mothers whose children demonstrated behavioral disorders symptoms were chosen and randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. Data gathering was by parents’ form of child behavior checklist with confirmed validity and reliability. The obtained data was analyzed using covariance analysis method.Results: The results showed that there is significant difference between performance of experimental and control groups on the reduction of behavioral disorders symptoms in the post-test (p<0.001.Conclusion: It could be concluded that mother training based on the positive parenting model is effective on reducing behavioral disorders of their deaf child, and thus can be applied as an effective intervention method.

  18. The Association Between the Burden on Formal Caregivers and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) in Korean Elderly in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Ah; Oh, Younjae

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are sources of psychological distress for caregivers who take care of people with dementia. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BPSD and the burden on formal caregivers of nursing homes in South Korea. Results showed that the total severity score of BPSD had a statistically significant positive correlation with the total distress score. Agitation/Aggression was the most distressing symptom for registered nurses and care workers. These findings suggest that there is a need for improved treatments for BPSD, to help mitigate its burden on formal caregivers. PMID:26397440

  19. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  20. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson′s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ru Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: When PD-RBD and PD + RBD patients have equivalent motor symptoms, PD + RBD patients still have more olfactory dysfunction and worse daytime somnolence. RBD is an important risk factor for MCI, including delayed memory. Deficits in executive function, verbal delayed memory, and visuospatial function were consistently associated with more severe RBD symptoms.

  1. Internalizing Symptoms and Affect of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study with an Urban African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Deanna E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cobb, Harriet C.

    1999-01-01

    Self-reported internalizing symptoms of seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) and regular education students were compared using the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children. The SED group reported significantly higher levels of internalizing distress than the regular education group. Results are discussed in terms of future research needs and…

  2. The association between parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and the clinical significance of child ADHD symptom change following behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management. PMID:24668566

  3. Trauma symptoms, internalized stigma, social support, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive gay and bisexual MSM who have sought sex partners online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Kaylee E; Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-03-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the highest risk group for HIV infection. One reason is the increased use of the Internet to meet potential sex partners, which is associated with greater sexual risk behavior. To date, few studies have investigated psychosocial predictors of sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men seeking sex partners online. The purpose of the current study was to test a conceptual model of the relationships between trauma symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis, internalized HIV stigma, and social support on sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual MSM who seek sex partners online. A sample of 142 gay and bisexual MSM recruited on- and offline completed a comprehensive online assessment battery assessing the factors noted above. A number of associations emerged; most notably internalized HIV stigma mediated the relationship between trauma-related symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis and sexual risk behavior with HIV-negative and unknown serostatus sex partners. This suggests that gay and bisexual MSM who are in greater distress over their HIV diagnosis and who are more sensitive to HIV stigma engage in more HIV transmission risk behavior. As sexual risk environments expand with the increasing use of the Internet to connect with others for sex, it is important to understand the predictors of sexual risk behavior so that tailored interventions can promote sexual health for gay and bisexual MSM seeking sex online. PMID:26461452

  4. Treating maladaptive grief and posttraumatic stress symptoms in orphaned children in Tanzania: group-based trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Karen; Dorsey, Shannon; Gong, Wenfeng; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel; Cohen, Judith A; Itemba, Dafrosa; Manongi, Rachel; Whetten, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to test the feasibility and child clinical outcomes for group-based trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for orphaned children in Tanzania. There were 64 children with at least mild symptoms of grief and/or traumatic stress and their guardians who participated in this open trial. The TF-CBT for Child Traumatic Grief protocol was adapted for use with a group, resulting in 12 weekly sessions for children and guardians separately with conjoint activities and 3 individual visits with child and guardian. Using a task-sharing approach, the intervention was delivered by lay counselors with no prior mental health experience. Primary child outcomes assessed were symptoms of grief and posttraumatic stress (PTS); secondary outcomes included symptoms of depression and overall behavioral adjustment. All assessments were conducted pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Results showed improved scores on all outcomes posttreatment, sustained at 3 and 12 months. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for baseline to posttreatment were 1.36 for child reported grief symptoms, 1.87 for child-reported PTS, and 1.15 for guardian report of child PTS. PMID:25418514

  5. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT(2C)R agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT(2C)R activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT(2C)R agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT(2C)R protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT(2C)R can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT(2C)R may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:26432939

  6. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms Intensity, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic abdominal pain, bowel habit variations, and lack of structural causes. Symptom intensity has a statistical relation with patients' quality of life (QOL and mental health. The first objective of the present study was to develop and provide a therapeutic plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS that was operated for the very first time in Iran. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of these treatments on IBS symptoms intensity, health-related QOL, and psychological health among patients with IBS. Methods: The participants were 15 women with IBS. The participants were diagnosed on the basis of ROME-III diagnosis criteria. The data collection tools consisted of IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R used to evaluate mental health. Data were collected during the weeks of 0, 4, 12, and 24, during the treatment process. The extracted data was examined statistically via repeated measures MANOVA in SPSS software. Results: CBT has a significant effect on IBS symptoms reduction, QOL improvement, and mental health promotion of the patients. The effect of the therapeutic plan persisted until the follow-up stage. Conclusion: According to the results, applied CBT can be specifically implemented as an effective treatment for IBS. Therefore, the use of this treatment is advised.

  7. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth’s Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothes...

  8. The development and testing of the quality use of medications in dementia (QUM-D): a tool for quality prescribing for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Peisah, Carmelle; Strukovski, Julie-Anne; Wijeratne, Chanaka; Mulholland, Rosalind; Luscombe, Georgina; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are virtually ubiquitous in dementia. Excessive recourse to use of psychotropics which have high risk to benefit ratio remains a global problem. We aimed to identify components of quality prescribing in BPSD to develop a tool for quality prescribing and to test this tool. Methods: We used Delphi methodology to identify elements of quality prescribing in BPSD. The tool was tested by a range of medical and nursing professional...

  9. Two cases of Alzheimer’s disease showing deterioration of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia induced by switching from rivastigmine to donepezil

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Takemi; Takamatsu, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine, in addition to donepezil, which has been on the market over 10 years, have been available for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) since 2011 in Japan, leading a new stage in the medical treatment of AD. We studied two AD patients showing sudden deterioration of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) associated with switching from rivastigmine to donepezil after the clinical trial of rivastigmine. In the patients, rivastigmine s...

  10. Relationship between antipsychotic drug use and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care.

    OpenAIRE

    Lövheim, Hugo; Sandman, Per-Olof; Kallin, Kristina; Karlsson, Stig; Gustafson, Yngve

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) commonly occur among cognitively impaired people in geriatric care. BPSD are often managed with antipsychotic drugs, despite the associated serious health risks. The aim of the present study was to discover factors associated with the use of antipsychotics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in all geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden, which included 2017 residents aged 65 years and over with cognitive im...

  11. Reduction of Behavioral Psychological Symptoms of Dementia by Multimodal Comprehensive Care for Vulnerable Geriatric Patients in an Acute Care Hospital: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Miwako; Ito, Mio; Ishikawa, Shogo; Takebayashi, Yoichi; Tierney, LawrenceJr.

    2016-01-01

    Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) is a key challenge in geriatric dementia care. A multimodal comprehensive care methodology, Humanitude, with eye contact, verbal communication, and touch as its elements, was provided to three geriatric dementia patients for whom conventional nursing care failed in an acute care hospital. Each episode was evaluated by video analysis. All patients had advanced dementia with BPSD. Failure of care was identified by patient’s ...

  12. Correlation of polymorphism of APOE and LRP genes to cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Chengzhi; Han, Tao; Wang, Min; Jiang, Meng; Liu, Bin; Hu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the correlation of polymorphism of APOE and LRP genes to cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Method: AD cases, VD cases and healthy control cases totaling 237, 255 and 234 were recruited, respectively. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was performed to evaluate cognitive impairment. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were ado...

  13. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia and Antipsychotic Drug Use in the Elderly with Dementia in Korean Long-Term Care Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are known predictors of institutionalization, lower quality of life, and caregiver distress. Guidelines recommend initial management with non-pharmacological means, but antipsychotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of certain BPSD. Objectives The objective of the current study is to analyze the prevalence of BPSD and antipsychotic drug use in long-term care facilities in Korea. Methods Retrospective chart review and c...

  14. The Effects of an Uninterrupted Switch from Donepezil to Galantamine without Dose Titration on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Shoichi; Horie, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Aims To elucidate the efficacy of galantamine on cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in outpatients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) who have switched from donepezil to galantamine. Materials and Methods We performed an uninterrupted switch from donepezil to galantamine without a washout period or dose titration in 44 ambulatory outpatients with amnestic MCI (n = 12) or mild-to-moderate AD (n = 32). Three months after the swi...

  15. Improving Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Acute Care: Evidence and Lessons Learned From Across the Care Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eleanor S; Karel, Michele J

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of Alzheimer disease and related dementias increases, dementia-related behavioral symptoms present growing threats to care quality and safety of older adults across care settings. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) such as agitation, aggression, and resistance to care occur in nearly all individuals over the course of their illness. In inpatient care settings, if not appropriately treated, BPSD can result in care complications, increased length of stay, dissatisfaction with care, and caregiver stress and injury. Although evidence-based, nonpharmacological approaches to treating BPSD exist, their implementation into acute care has been thwarted by limited nursing staff expertise in behavioral health, and a lack of consistent approaches to integrate behavioral health expertise into medically focused inpatient care settings. This article describes the core components of one evidence-based approach to integrating behavioral health expertise into dementia care. This approach, called STAR-VA, was implemented in Veterans' Health Administration community living centers (nursing homes). It has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the severity and frequency of BPSD, while improving staff knowledge and skills in caring for people with dementia. The potential for adapting this approach in acute care settings is discussed, along with key lessons learned regarding opportunities for nursing leadership to ensure consistent implementation and sustainability. PMID:27259128

  16. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown. PMID:20452044

  17. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. PMID:27429050

  18. Glaucoma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up You can help find a cure for glaucoma Give now Signs & Symptoms The most common types ... have completely different symptoms. Symptoms of Open-Angle Glaucoma Most people who develop open-angle glaucoma don’ ...

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  20. Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Bekelaar, Kim; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pati

  1. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  2. [Long-term effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on pain coping among inpatient orthopedic rehabilitation of chronic low back pain and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Gemp, Stephan; Mohr, Beate; Schulze, Julian; Tlach, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Beneficial effects on psychological measures in orthopedic inpatient rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and co-exist-ing depressive symptoms have been shown only for multidisciplinary approaches that incorporate psychotherapeutic interventions. Aim of this study was to verify these findings for pain coping outcomes (pain-related psychological disability, pain-related coping). Short-, mid-, and long-term effects of a standard pain management program that was either solely provided or combined with a supplemental cognitive-behavioral depression management were examined in a consecutive sample of n=84. Patients in both groups showed long-term beneficial effects in pain coping measures. Thus, the standard rehabilitation revealed specific and long-term effects on pain coping. However, further evidence suggests that diagnosis-specific psychotherapeutic treatment elements are required to improve psychological symptoms. PMID:24838435

  3. Sedentary Behavior and Sleep Duration Are Associated with Both Stress Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Keun Ok; Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress symptoms. Moreover, mental illness is linked with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. However, it is not clear whether sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts independent of physical activity. Thus, our study aimed to identify if sedentary time and sleep duration were associated with both stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The participants in present cross-sectional study were 4,674 general Korean adults (1,938 male; 2,736 female), aged ≥ 20 years. Prolonged sedentary time (≥ 420 min/day) was significantly associated with the increased risk of stress symptoms (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62) compared with sedentary time of sleep time (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38) compared with sleep duration of ≥ 7 h/day. Moreover, prolonged sedentary time (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42 in ≥ 420 min/day vs. sleep duration (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62 in ≤ 5 h/day vs. ≥ 7 h/day) were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal thoughts after adjusting for confounding factors including physical activity. Thus, prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are independently associated with both the risk of stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. From a public health perspective, reducing sedentary time and improvement of sleep deprivation may serve as an effective strategy for preventing mental illness. PMID:26596898

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solv...

  5. Neuropsychological correlates of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, frontal variant of frontotemporal, subcortical vascular, and lewy body dementias: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological correlates of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in patients affected by various forms of dementia, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontal-variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). 21 fvFTD, 21 LBD, 22 AD, and 22 SIVD patients matched for dementia severity received a battery of neuropsychological tests and the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI). The possible association between performance on neuropsychological tests and severity of BPSD was assessed by correlational analysis and multivariate regression. BPSD were present in 99% of patients. Most behavioral symptoms were not related to a particular dementia group or to a specific cognitive deficit. Euphoria and disinhibition were predicted by fvFTD diagnosis. Hallucinations correlated with the severity of visuospatial deficits in the whole sample of patients and were predicted by LBD diagnosis. Apathy, which was found in all dementia groups, correlated with executive functions and was predicted by both reduced set-shifting aptitude and fvFTD diagnosis. The results confirm the high prevalence of BPSD in the mild to moderate stages of dementia and show that most BPSD are equally distributed across dementia groups. Most of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms are independent dimensions of the dementia syndromes. Nevertheless, hallucinations in LBD and euphoria and disinhibition in fvFTD are related to the structural brain alterations that are responsible for cognitive decline in these dementia groups. Finally, apathy arises from damage in the frontal cortical areas that are also involved in executive functions. PMID:24254701

  6. The influence of caregivers and behavioral and psychological symptoms on nursing home placement of persons with Alzheimer’s disease: A matched case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Candace N; Miller, Margaret C; Lane, Marcia; Cornman, Carol; Sarsour, Khaled; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver characteristics may influence the decision to provide care at home or in a nursing home, though few studies examine this association near the actual time of nursing home placement. Using a matched case–control design, this study investigates the association between (1) total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score, (2) the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-4 (an agitation/aggression subscale), and (3) individual domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and nursing home placement. Methods: Data from the South Carolina Alzheimer’s disease Registry provides an opportunity to expand the literature by looking at cases at the time of nursing home care eligibility/placement and allowing for propensity-score-matched controls. Cases (n = 352) entered a nursing home within 6 months of study initiation; controls (n = 289) remained in the community. Registry data were combined with caregiver survey data, including the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Conditional logistic regression was applied. Results: A 10% increase in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score implied a 30% increase in odds of nursing home admission (odds ratio: 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 1.14–1.50), having married or male caregivers predicted nursing home placement. Cases versus controls were significantly more likely to have behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia related to agitation/aggression 1 month prior to nursing home admission. Conclusion: Interventions targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia without available effective interventions in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver support services are necessary to prevent or delay nursing home admission. PMID:27606063

  7. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  8. Personality traits, behavioral and psychological symptoms and cognitive decline in patients at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pocnet C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis was to study personality characteristics of patients at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and more specifically to describe personality and its changes over time, and to explore its possible links with psychological and symptoms (BPS) and cognitive level. The results were compared to those of a group of participants without cognitive disorder through three empirical studies. In the first study, the findings showed significant personality changes that ...

  9. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention ...

  10. Protective Factors Enhancing Prosocial Behavior and Preventing Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms among Adolescents Living in Forster Care Homes

    OpenAIRE

    E. Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria; Roshani, Mehrnoosh; Hassanabadi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on Problem Based Theory, this study investigated a broad array of putative protective factors associated with psychopathological symptoms and prosodical behaviour. Methods: Participants were 140 orphan adolescent girls and boys living in foster care homes in Tehran, chosen with convenience sampling procedures. Using a cross-sectional design this study examined the individual and interactive properties of protective factors in this high-risk population. Results: Findings with ...

  11. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  12. Depressive symptoms and problematic internet use among adolescents: analysis of the longitudinal relationships from the cognitive-behavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Problematic Internet use-frequently called Internet addiction or compulsive use-represents an increasingly widespread problem among adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relations between the presence of depressive symptoms and various components of problematic Internet use (i.e., the preference for online relationships, use of the Internet for mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and the manifestation of negative outcomes). Consequently, a longitudinal design was employed with two times separated by a 1 year interval. The sample consisted of 699 adolescents (61.1% girls) between 13 and 17 years of age. The results indicated that depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted an increase in preference for online relationships, mood regulation, and negative outcomes after 1 year. In turn, negative outcomes at time 1 predicted an increase in depressive symptoms at time 2. These results entail several practical implications for the design of prevention programs and the treatment of problematic Internet use. PMID:25405784

  13. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  14. Different Patterns of Correlation between Grey and White Matter Integrity Account for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovac, Elena; Serra, Laura; Spanò, Barbara; Giulietti, Giovanni; Torso, Mario; Cercignani, Mara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2016-06-21

    Behavioral disorders and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are known to correlate with grey matter (GM) atrophy and, as shown recently, also with white matter (WM) damage. WM damage and its relationship with GM atrophy are reported in AD, reinforcing the interpretation of the AD pathology in light of a disconnection syndrome. It remains uncertain whether this disconnection might account also for different BPSD observable in AD. Here, we tested the hypothesis of different patterns of association between WM damage of the corpus callosum (CC) and GM atrophy in AD patients exhibiting one of the following BPSD clusters: Mood (i.e., anxiety and depression; ADmood), Frontal (i.e., dishinibition and elation; ADfrontal), and Psychotic (delusions and hallucinations; ADpsychotic) related symptoms, as well as AD patients without BPSD. Overall, this study brings to light the strict relationship between WM alterations in different parts of the CC and GM atrophy in AD patients exhibiting BPSD, supporting the hypothesis that such symptoms are likely to be caused by characteristic patterns of neurodegeneration of WM and GM, rather than being a reactive response to accumulation of cognitive disabilities, and should therefore be regarded as potential markers of diagnostic and prognostic value in AD. PMID:26836635

  15. Behavioral avoidance and self-reported fainting symptoms in blood/injury fearful individuals: an experimental test of disgust domain specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Connolly, Kevin M; David, Bieke

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the specificity of disgust in predicting avoidance in blood/injury (BI) phobia. Participants high (n=38) and low (n=46) in BI fear completed measures of disgust across multiple domains and severity of BI-related fear. They then completed three randomly presented behavioral avoidance tasks (BATs) that consisted of exposure to a 15'' severed deer leg (BI task), a live spider (spider task), and a 'contaminated' cookie (cookie task). Fainting symptoms associated with each BAT were recorded as well. When controlling for gender and BI fear group membership, mutilation disgust contributed unique variance to avoidance on the BI task and animal disgust contributed unique variance to avoidance on the spider task. None of the disgust domains contributed unique variance to avoidance on the cookie task. For the high BI fear group, self-reported fainting symptoms were more pronounced during the BI and spider BAT than during the cookie BAT. Although mutilation disgust was significantly associated with self-reported fainting symptoms on the BI task among the high BI fear group, this relationship became nonsignificant when controlling for BI-related fear severity. Implications of the domain specificity of disgust and its relevance for understanding fainting responses in BI phobia are discussed. PMID:17920808

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampi, Rajesh R; Tampi, Deena J

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the available data on the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search of 5 major databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Collaboration, yielded a total of 5 RCTs. One study compared diazepam to thioridazine, 1 trial compared oxazepam to haloperidol and diphenhydramine, 1 trial compared alprazolam to lorazepam, 1 trial compared lorazepam to haloperidol, and 1 trial compared intramuscular (IM) lorazepam to IM olanzapine and placebo. The data indicates that in 4 of the 5 studies, there was no significant difference in efficacy between the active drugs to treat the symptoms of BPSD. One study indicated that thioridazine may have better efficacy than diazepam for treating symptoms of BPSD. In 1 study, the active drugs had greater efficacy in treating BPSD when compared to placebo. There was no significant difference between the active drugs in terms of tolerability. However, in 2 of the 5 studies, about a third of the patients were noted to have dropped out of the studies. Available data, although limited, do not support the routine use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of BPSD. But these drugs may be used in certain circumstances where other psychotropic medications are unsafe for use in individuals with BPSD or when there are significant medication allergies or tolerability issues with certain classes of psychotropic medications. PMID:25551131

  17. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management on depression and anxiety symptoms of patients with epilepsy and migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Dehghanifiroozabadi; Gholamreza Manshaee; Zahra Danae Sij; Gholamreza Sharifzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Patients with chronic diseases are markedly at the risk of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. Results of various researches have shown the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management on depression and anxiety. The aim of the current study was a comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management on “depression” and “anxiety” of patients with epilepsy and migraine. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental clini...

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for climacteric symptoms in breast cancer patients experiencing treatment-induced menopause: design of a multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Marc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature menopause is a major concern of younger women undergoing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in women with a history of breast cancer. Non-hormonal medications show a range of bothersome side-effects. There is growing evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and physical exercise can have a positive impact on symptoms in naturally occurring menopause. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of these interventions among women with breast cancer experiencing treatment-induced menopause. Methods/design In a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of CBT/relaxation, of physical exercise and of these two program elements combined, in reducing menopausal symptoms, improving sexual functioning, reducing emotional distress, and in improving the health-related quality of life of younger breast cancer patients who experience treatment-induced menopause. 325 breast cancer patients (aged Discussion Cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise are potentially useful treatments among women with breast cancer undergoing treatment-induced, premature menopause. For these patients, hormonal and non-hormonal therapies are contraindicated or have a range of bothersome side-effects. Hence, research into these interventions is needed, before dissemination and implementation in the current health care system can take place. Trial registration The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1165 and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00582244.

  19. Two cases of Alzheimer's disease showing deterioration of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia induced by switching from rivastigmine to donepezil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takemi Kimura, Junichi TakamatsuDivision of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kikuchi Hospital, Koshi, Kumamoto, JapanAbstract: Rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine, in addition to donepezil, which has been on the market over 10 years, have been available for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD since 2011 in Japan, leading a new stage in the medical treatment of AD. We studied two AD patients showing sudden deterioration of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD associated with switching from rivastigmine to donepezil after the clinical trial of rivastigmine. In the patients, rivastigmine seemed to be more beneficial than donepezil for the control of BPSD. Although It was not obvious whether their different responses to the two cholinesterase inhibitors were due to the different pharmacological profiles, ie, the presence of inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in rivastigmine, a particular cholinesterase inhibitor might be more effective in particular AD cases. Further investigations are needed to confirm the difference, and to identify the measures for selecting the most appropriate medication for each AD patient.Keywords: rivastigmine, donepezil, cholinesterase inhibitors, switching, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, neuropsychiatric inventory, Japanese, Alzheimer's disease

  20. Reexperiencing symptoms, dissociation, and avoidance behaviors in daily life of patients with PTSD and patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaltz, Monique C; Michael, Tanja; Meyer, Andrea H; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2013-08-01

    Panic attacks are frequently perceived as life threatening. Panic disorder (PD) patients may therefore experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors explored this in 28 healthy controls, 17 PTSD patients, and 24 PD patients with agoraphobia who completed electronic diaries 36 times during 1 week. Patient groups frequently reported dissociation as well as thoughts, memories, and reliving of their trauma or panic attacks. PTSD patients reported more trauma/panic attack thoughts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.9) and memories (IRR = 2.8) than PD patients. Patient groups relived their trauma or panic attacks equally frequently, and reported comparable bodily reactions and distress associated with trauma or panic attack memories. Clinical groups avoided trauma or panic attack reminders more often than healthy controls (avoidance of trauma- or panic attack-related thoughts (IRR = 8.0); avoidance of things associated with the trauma or panic attack (IRR = 40.7). PD patients avoided trauma or panic attack reminders less often than PTSD patients (avoidance of trauma- or panic attack-related thoughts [IRR = 2.5]; avoidance of things associated with the trauma or panic attack [IRR = 4.1]), yet these differences were nonsignificant when controlling for functional impairment. In conclusion, trauma-like symptoms are common in PD with agoraphobia and panic attacks may be processed similarly as trauma in PTSD. PMID:23893375

  1. Anthrax: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arms, or hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... tiredness Body aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  2. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  3. Better super safe than slightly sorry? : Reciprocal relationships between checking behavior and cognitive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffolo, M.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) is characterized by intrusive frightening thoughts, images or impulses (obsessions; e.g., “did I stab my partner while doing the dishes?”) to which patients respond with repetitive behavior (compulsions; e.g., checking the knives and scissors in the house or callin

  4. The study of cognitive – behavior training effectiveness on decreasing depresive symptoms in community therapy center resident addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Discussion: The results show that psychological interventions in cognitive behavioral approach played a very crucial role in reducing depression in the addict's resident at the therapeutic community. Therefore, depression, that is one of the relapse risk factors, could be obviated and more success gained.

  5. The COMTval158met polymorphism is associated with symptom relief during exposure-based cognitive-behavioral treatment in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Jan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT represents a learning process leading to symptom relief and resulting in long-term changes in behavior. CBT for panic disorder is based on exposure and exposure-based processes can be studied in the laboratory as extinction of experimentally acquired fear responses. We have recently demonstrated that the ability to extinguish learned fear responses is associated with a functional genetic polymorphism (COMTval158met in the COMT gene and this study was aimed at transferring the experimental results on the COMTval158met polymorphism on extinction into a clinical setting. Methods We tested a possible effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism on the efficacy of CBT, in particular exposure-based treatment modules, in a sample of 69 panic disorder patients. Results We present evidence that panic patients with the COMTval158met met/met genotype may profit less from (exposure-based CBT treatment methods as compared to patients carrying at least one val-allele. No association was found with the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotypes which is presented as additional material. Conclusions We were thus able to transfer findings on the effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism from an experimental extinction study obtained using healthy subjects to a clinical setting. Furthermore patients carrying a COMT val-allele tend to report more anxiety and more depression symptoms as compared to those with the met/met genotype. Limitations of the study as well as possible clinical implications are discussed. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registry name: Internet-Versus Group-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Panic Disorder (IP2. Registration Identification number: NCT00845260, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00845260

  6. Live Music Therapy as an Active Focus of Attention for Pain and Behavioral Symptoms of Distress During Pediatric Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sumathy; Ramesh, Bhuvaneswari; Dixit, Priyanka B; Venkatesh, Soma; Das, Prarthana; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany

    2016-07-01

    A total of 100 children coming for routine immunization to pediatric outpatient department were included and were divided into experiment (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Experiment group received live music therapy during immunization procedure. Control group received no intervention. The Modified Behavior Pain Scale (MBPS), 10-point pain levels, and 10-point distress levels were documented by parents. Duration of crying was recorded by investigators. Pre- and postimmunization blood pressures and heart rates of parents holding the children were also measured and recorded by investigators. Independent and paired t tests were used for analysis. All 3 domains of the Modified Behavior Pain Scale and duration of crying showed significant improvement (P Music therapy could be helpful to children, parents, and health care providers by reducing discomfort of the child during pediatric immunization. PMID:26450983

  7. Shame and Guilt in Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Association with Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Erik; Ström, Peter; Stünkel, Angela; Mörtberg, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also ...

  8. Better super safe than slightly sorry? : Reciprocal relationships between checking behavior and cognitive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Toffolo, M.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) is characterized by intrusive frightening thoughts, images or impulses (obsessions; e.g., “did I stab my partner while doing the dishes?”) to which patients respond with repetitive behavior (compulsions; e.g., checking the knives and scissors in the house or calling their partner to ensure he or she is alive) to suppress these unwanted thoughts and prevent misfortunes from happening (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Repeated checking is one of the mo...

  9. Winter Day Lengths Enhance T Lymphocyte Phenotypes, Inhibit Cytokine Responses, and Attenuate Behavioral Symptoms of Infection in Laboratory Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Kampf-Lassin, August; Yee, Jason R.; Galang, Jerome; McMaster, Nicholas; Kay, Leslie M.

    2007-01-01

    Annual variations in day length (photoperiod) trigger changes in the immune and reproductive system of seasonally-breeding animals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether photoperiodic changes in immunity depend on concurrent photoperiodic responses in the reproductive system, or whether immunological responses to photoperiod occur independent of reproductive responses. Here we report photoperiodic changes in enumerative, functional, and behavioral aspects of the immune system, an...

  10. Protective Behavioral Strategies and the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Matthew P.; Martin, Jessica L.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40% of college students reported engaging in heavy episodic or “binge” drinking in the 2 weeks prior to being surveyed. Research indicates that college students suffering from depression are more likely to report experiencing negative consequences related to their drinking than other students are. The reasons for this relationship have not been well-studied. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine whether use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), defined as cognit...

  11. A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: Design and methods of project ACT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Gitlin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laura N Gitlin1, Laraine Winter1, Marie P Dennis1, Walter W Hauck21Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health (CARAH, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Formely Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Currently Sycamore Consulting, LLC New Hope, PA, USA; 3Funded by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Nursing Research (Grant # R01 AG22254. Clinical trial registration #NCT00259480.Abstract: Project ACT is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological home-based intervention to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and caregiver distress. The study targets 272 stressed racially diverse family caregivers providing in-home care to persons with moderate stage dementia with one or more behavioral disturbances. All participants are interviewed at baseline, 4-months (main trial endpoint, and 6-months (maintenance. The four-month intervention involves up to 13 visits from an occupational therapist who works with families to problem-solve potential triggers (communication style, environmental clutter contributing to behaviors, and instruct in strategies to reduce caregiver stress and manage targeted behaviors. To rule out infection or other potential medical contributors to behaviors, a nurse obtains blood and urine samples from the dementia patient, and conducts a medication review. Participants in the no-treatment control group are offered the nurse arm and one in-home session following trial completion at 6-months. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of this multi-component, targeted psycho-social treatment approach, and the measures used to evaluate quality of life improvements for persons with dementia and their families.Keywords: family caregiving, environmental modification, home care, occupational

  12. Correlation of polymorphism of APOE and LRP genes to cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Chengzhi; Han, Tao; Wang, Min; Jiang, Meng; Liu, Bin; Hu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the correlation of polymorphism of APOE and LRP genes to cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Method: AD cases, VD cases and healthy control cases totaling 237, 255 and 234 were recruited, respectively. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was performed to evaluate cognitive impairment. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were adopted to evaluate BPSD. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein gene (LRP) genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: (1) Frequencies of APOEε4 allele in AD group and VD group were significantly higher than that of the control (PBPSD in AD group was considerably higher that of non-APOEε4 carriers (PBPSD in AD. PMID:26885125

  13. Demographic and Socioenvironmental Characteristics of Black and White Community-Dwelling Caregivers and Care Recipients' Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Fawn A; Farran, Carol J; Barnes, Lisa L; Whall, Ann L; Redman, Richard W; Struble, Laura M; Dunkle, Ruth E; Fogg, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the association between caregiver background characteristics and care recipients' behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Black and White community-dwelling family caregivers. Using logistic regression models, caregiver/care recipient dyad data from the Aging Demographics and Memory Study were used to describe associations between caregiver background characteristics (i.e., demographic and socioenvironmental variables) and care recipients' BPSD (i.e., hallucinations, delusions, agitation, depression) (N = 755). Results showed that Black caregivers were more likely to be female, younger, an adult child, have less education, and live in the South (p ≤ 0.05); they were less likely to be married. Several caregiver background characteristics were associated with care recipients' depression and agitation, but not with other BPSD. Caregiver background characteristics may play a role in the recognition and reporting of BPSD and should be considered when working with families of individuals with dementia. PMID:25756250

  14. Seasonal variations in mood and behavior associate with common chronic diseases and symptoms in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2016-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess how seasonality is associated with some of the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the general Finnish population. The global seasonality score (GSS) was used to measure the magnitude of seasonality in 4689 participants, in addition to which they reported the extent to which the seasonal variations in mood and behavior were experienced as a problem. Regression models and the odds ratios were adopted to analyze the associations adjusted for a range of covariates. Seventy percent of the participants had seasonal variations in sleep duration, social activity, mood, or energy level, and forty percent those in weight and appetite. Angina pectoris and depression were significantly associated with seasonality throughout the analysis. Hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, other (than rheumatoid) joint diseases and other (than depressive) psychological illnesses were significantly associated with experiencing a problem due to the seasonal variations, with an increase in the GSS, and with seasonal affective disorder and its subsyndromal form. The co-occurrence of the seasonal variations in mood and behavior with certain common NCDs warrants future research to have insights into the etiology and potentially shared pathways and mechanisms of action. PMID:27086231

  15. Evidence for the involvement of the kainate receptor subunit GluR6 (GRIK2) in mediating behavioral displays related to behavioral symptoms of mania

    OpenAIRE

    Shaltiel, G.; Maeng, S; Malkesman, O.; B. Pearson; Schloesser, RJ; Tragon, T; Rogawski, M; Gasior, M.; Luckenbaugh, D; Chen, G.; Manji, HK

    2008-01-01

    The glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6 or GRIK2, one of the kainate receptors) gene resides in a genetic linkage region (6q21) associated with bipolar disorder (BPD), but its function in affective regulation is unknown. Compared with wild-type (WT) and GluR5 knockout (KO) mice, GluR6 KO mice were more active in multiple tests and super responsive to amphetamine. In a battery of specific tests, GluR6 KO mice also exhibited less anxious or more risk-taking type behavior and less despair-type manifesta...

  16. Reduction of Behavioral Psychological Symptoms of Dementia by Multimodal Comprehensive Care for Vulnerable Geriatric Patients in an Acute Care Hospital: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Miwako; Ito, Mio; Ishikawa, Shogo; Takebayashi, Yoichi; Tierney, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) is a key challenge in geriatric dementia care. A multimodal comprehensive care methodology, Humanitude, with eye contact, verbal communication, and touch as its elements, was provided to three geriatric dementia patients for whom conventional nursing care failed in an acute care hospital. Each episode was evaluated by video analysis. All patients had advanced dementia with BPSD. Failure of care was identified by patient's shouting, screaming, or abrupt movements of limbs. In this case series, conventional care failed for all three patients. Each element of care communication was much shorter than in Humanitude care, which was accepted by the patients. The average of the elements performed during the care was eye contact 0.6%, verbal communication 15.7%, and touch 0.1% in conventional care and 12.5%, 54.8%, and 44.5% in Humanitude care, respectively. The duration of aggressive behavior of each patient during care was 25.0%, 25.4%, and 66.3% in conventional care and 0%, 0%, and 0.3% in Humanitude, respectively. In our case series, conventional care was provided by less eye contact, verbal communication, and touch. The multimodal comprehensive care approach, Humanitude, decreased BPSD and showed success by patients' acceptance of care. PMID:27069478

  17. HIV Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  18. An association between the location of white matter changes and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzuchou Lin; Yihui Lin; Linli Kao; Yihui Kao; Yuanhan Yang; Pingsong Chou; Mengni Wu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The frontal lobe may be involved in circuits associated with depression, apathy, aggression, and other psychiatric symptoms. Although white matter changes (WMC) are related to the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it is unclear which part of the WMC may play the most important role in BPSD. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the location of WMC and the severity of BPSD in AD patients. Methods: Among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease between 2009 and 2014, 387 patients were retrospectively reviewed after those with pre‐existing organic brain syndrome, psychiatric diseases, or toxic‐metabolic encephalopathy were excluded. Patients’ demographic and laboratory data, WMC measured with brain computed tomography and scored using the age‐related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale, and neuropsychological tests, including the cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI), the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE), the clinical dementia rating scale with sum‐box (CDR‐SB), and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) were analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference in the NPI between patients with and without a history of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. No significant difference in the NPI was identified between different sexes or different Apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles. The NPI score was significantly correlated with the duration of education (r=–0.4515, P=0.0172), CASI (r=–0.2915, P Conclusions:WMC involving the right frontal lobe may play an important role in the BPSD in AD patients during their dementia diagnosis. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether controlling the risk factors of WMC can slow the progression of BPSD.

  19. Predicting the outcome of a cognitive-behavioral group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonneveld Lyonne NL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT is effective for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS, some therapists in clinical practice seem to believe that CBT outcome will diminish if psychiatric comorbidity is present. The result is that patients with a psychiatric comorbidity are redirected from treatment for UPS into treatment for mental health problems. To explore whether this selection and allocation are appropriate, we explored whether CBT outcomes in UPS could be predicted by variables assessed at baseline and used in routine-practice assessments. Methods Patients (n=162 with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or chronic pain disorder were followed up until one year after they had attended a CBT group training. The time-points of the follow-up were at the end of CBT (immediate outcome, three months after CBT (short-term outcome, and one year after CBT (long-term outcome. CBT outcome was measured using the Physical Component Summary of the SF-36, which was the primary outcome measure in the randomized controlled trial that studied effectiveness of the CBT group training. Predictors were: 1. psychological symptoms (global severity score of SCL-90, 2. personality-disorder characteristics (sum of DSM-IV axis II criteria confirmed, 3. psychiatric history (past presence of DSM-IV axis I disorders, and 4. health-related quality of life in the mental domain (mental component summary of SF-36. The effect of this predictor set was explored using hierarchical multiple regression analyses into which these predictors had been entered simultaneously, after control for: a. pretreatment primary outcome scores, b. age, c. gender, d. marital status, and e. employment. Results The predictor set was significant only for short-term CBT outcome, where it explained 15% of the variance. A better outcome was predicted by more psychological symptoms, fewer personality-disorder characteristics, the presence of a psychiatric

  20. Symptom Management of Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a treatment approach for the symptom management of bulimia that is a synthesis of various techniques, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, response prevention, relapse training, and psychodynamic therapy. The model has been a useful teaching tool for staff and patients in both group and individual formats. Addresses the challenges of…

  1. Ethnic Variables and Negative Life Events as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behaviors in Latino College Students: On the Centrality of "Receptivo a los Demás"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Tina; Kahle, Emma R.; Hernandez, Viviana; Kim, Jean M.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined ethnic variables (viz., multigroup ethnic identity and other group orientation) along with negative life events as predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in a sample of 156 (38 male and 118 female) Latino college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the…

  2. Diphtheria Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  3. The Effects of an Uninterrupted Switch from Donepezil to Galantamine without Dose Titration on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Sasaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To elucidate the efficacy of galantamine on cognition and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in outpatients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD who have switched from donepezil to galantamine. Materials and Methods: We performed an uninterrupted switch from donepezil to galantamine without a washout period or dose titration in 44 ambulatory outpatients with amnestic MCI (n = 12 or mild-to-moderate AD (n = 32. Three months after the switch, the efficacy of galantamine was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and NPI Brief Questionnaire Form (NPI-Q, respectively, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: NPI scores improved significantly on BPSD, especially on delusions, agitation and aberrant motor activity in AD patients (p = 0.027; improvement was remarkable in patients with moderate AD (MMSE score 10-19; p = 0.007, while insignificant in those with MCI (MMSE score ≥24; p = 0.648. The NPI-Q score also improved significantly regarding both the severity of the disease (p = 0.009 and caregiver distress (p = 0.012 in AD patients. MMSE scores hardly improved in either MCI (p = 0.394 or AD patients (p = 0.265. Conclusions: An uninterrupted switch from donepezil to galantamine could be a useful alternative treatment option for AD patients whose BPSD are unresponsive to donepezil, or whose caregivers are not satisfied with donepezil treatment.

  4. Tratando os sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos da demência (SCPD Treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Caramelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na demência, também denominados de sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos da demência (SCPD, têm prevalência elevada no curso clínico da doença de Alzheimer e de outras desordens relacionadas. A relevância dessas manifestações é bem reconhecida, estando relacionada a evolução clínica mais desfavorável, maior sobrecarga do cuidador e maior incidência de institucionalização, entre outros fatores. O objetivo desta conferência clínica é procurar responder a algumas questões relacionadas a este tema, com o intuito de oferecer aos leitores uma breve atualização sobre o assunto. Os seguintes tópicos foram selecionados para discussão: se a nomenclatura SCPD é adequada para denominar essas manifestações clínicas; se há uma forma de classificar e como diagnosticar esses sintomas; qual a sua prevalência, seu impacto no curso clínico das demências e quais os fatores de risco associados ao seu aparecimento; quais as bases fisiopatológicas conhecidas; e, finalmente, como abordar esses pacientes e também suas famílias e cuidadores, do ponto de vista terapêutico, tanto em relação a intervenções farmacológicas quanto não farmacológicas.Neuropsychiatric disturbances in dementia, also named behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, are highly prevalent in the clinical course of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. The clinical relevance of these manifestations is well recognized, being related to a poor clinical outcome, greater caregiver burden and to higher institutionalization rates, among others. This clinical conference attempts to respond to some questions related to this subject, in order to offer a brief update to the readers. The following topics are discussed: if the nomenclature BPSD is adequate for these clinical manifestations; how to classify and to diagnose these symptoms; how prevalent they are; which is their impact on the clinical course of the

  5. Long-term effects of a cognitive-behavioral training program for the management of depressive symptoms among patients in orthopedic inpatient rehabilitation of chronic low back pain: a 2-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Tlach, Lisa; Hampel, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the 2-year outcome of a cognitive-behavioral training program for the management of depressive symptoms for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and co-existing depressive symptoms compared with the standard rehabilitation. Therefore, a quasi-experimental 3 × 2 × 5 (treatment condition × gender × time) repeated measures design with five assessment points (pre-treatment, post-treatment, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up) was employed among N ...

  6. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: what works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehle, Julia; Opmeer, Brent C; Boer, Frits; Mannarino, Anthony P; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-02-01

    To prevent adverse long-term effects, children who suffer from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) need treatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an established treatment for children with PTSS. However, alternatives are important for non-responders or if TF-CBT trained therapists are unavailable. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a promising treatment for which sound comparative evidence is lacking. The current randomized controlled trial investigates the effectiveness and efficiency of both treatments. Forty-eight children (8-18 years) were randomly assigned to eight sessions of TF-CBT or EMDR. The primary outcome was PTSS as measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). Secondary outcomes included parental report of child PTSD diagnosis status and questionnaires on comorbid problems. The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale was administered during the course of treatment. TF-CBT and EMDR showed large reductions from pre- to post-treatment on the CAPS-CA (-20.2; 95% CI -12.2 to -28.1 and -20.9; 95% CI -32.7 to -9.1). The difference in reduction was small and not statistically significant (mean difference of 0.69, 95% CI -13.4 to 14.8). Treatment duration was not significantly shorter for EMDR (p = 0.09). Mixed model analysis of monitored PTSS during treatment showed a significant effect for time (p EMDR are effective and efficient in reducing PTSS in children. PMID:24965797

  7. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  8. Creating a Safe Climate in a Youth Agency by Recognizing Signs and Symptoms Which Lead to Aggressive Behavior and Acts of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowe, Ralph

    The causes and symptoms of violence among children and adolescents can be complex and difficult to control. A strategy that was designed to help one youth center's staff, volunteers, and members recognize the signs and symptoms of verbal and physical violence is described here. The youth facility is located in a crime-ridden part of an urban…

  9. 青少年抑郁情绪和违纪行为的共存——孰因孰果?%Co-occurrence of Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯金芹; 郭菲; 陈祉妍

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To examine the mechanism of the co-occurrence of adolescents' depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors with the cross-lagged model.Methods:A total of 886 individuals in early adolescence and 580 individuals in middle adolescence participated in the longitudinal study,and the percentage of male was 50% and 46.2%,respectively.CES-D and YSR were used to measure adolescents' depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors.Results:For boys,delinquent behaviors significantly predicted depressive symptoms in favor of the failure model in early adolescence; while depressive symptoms significantly predicted delinquent behaviors in middle adolescence,supporting the acting out model; For girls,delinquent behaviors and depressive symptoms were reciprocally predicted by each other in both early and middle adolescence.Conclusion:The relationship between depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors is gender-dependent.%目的:采用交叉滞后模型探讨青少年抑郁情绪和违纪行为共存的机制.方法:886名青春早期(11-13岁)和580名青春中期(14-16岁)的青少年参加了三轮追踪测量,其中男生的比例分别为50%和46.2%.采用流调中心抑郁量表(CES-D)和行为问题问卷(YSR)来测量青少年的抑郁情绪和违纪行为.结果:对于男生来说,在青春发展早期,违纪行为显著预测抑郁情绪的产生,支持失败模型理论;在青春发展中期,抑郁情绪显著预测违纪行为的产生,支持释放模型理论.对于女生来说,违纪行为和抑郁情绪相互影响,不存在发展阶段的差异.结论:抑郁情绪和违纪行为的关系存在性别差异.

  10. Somatic symptoms in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Both painful and nonpainful somatic symptoms essentially characterize clinical states of depressive mood. So far, this well-established psychopathological knowledge has been appreciated only insufficiently by the official diagnostic sys-terms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IVTR) and the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (ICD-10). From a perspective of primary ...

  11. Adjunctive treatment with high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Yue; Xu, Wenwei; Liu, Xiaowei; Xu, Qing; Tang, Li; Wu, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) occur in 70-90% of patients at different stages of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but the available methods for managing these problems are of limited effectiveness. Aim Assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on BPSD and cognitive function in persons with AD. Methods Fifty-four patients with AD and accompanying BPSD wer...

  12. Risk behaviors for eating disorders and depressive symptoms: a study of female adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Major Depression Inventory (MDI to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370 = 14.18; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings indicated a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and eating disorders (χ2 = 14.71; Wald = 12.90; p = 0.001. The authors concluded that depressive symptoms were related to eating disorders in female adolescents. Thus, girls with some level of depression showed a greater tendency to adopt disordered eating as a daily habit.

  13. Risk behaviors for eating disorders and depressive symptoms: a study of female adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and eating disorders in female adolescents. The sample included 371 girls ranging from 12 to 16 years of age in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI) to evaluate eating disorders and depressive symptoms, respectively. The linear regression model showed that 18% of the EAT-26 scores were influenced by MDI (F(1, 370) =...

  14. Burden of menstrual symptoms in Japanese women – an analysis of medical care-seeking behavior from a survey-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka E

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erika Tanaka,1 Mikio Momoeda,2 Yutaka Osuga,3 Bruno Rossi,4 Ken Nomoto,5 Masakane Hayakawa,5 Kinya Kokubo,6 Edward CY Wang1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Integrated Women's Health, St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Market Access, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 5Medical Affairs Women's Health and Dermatology, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 6Consumer Goods/Service and Healthcare Industry Consulting Department, Nomura Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan Background: Menstrual symptoms are associated with various health problems in women of reproductive age, and this may impact their quality of life. Despite this, Japanese women are likely to hesitate seeking a specialist's medical help for their menstrual symptoms. Purpose: To study subject parameters including symptom severity, gynecological disorders, and treatments in medical care-seeking women (outpatient and women opting for self-care (nonvisit, to identify reasons why Japanese women do not see a gynecologist, and to document the benefit of gynecologist visits by assessing the impact on women's daily lives. Methods: Two online surveys were conducted among women aged 15–49 years. Sampling was structured to approximate the age and geographic distribution in Japan. Results of the first survey and part of the second survey on the overall current burden of menstrual symptoms are reported in a separate publication. Further outcomes from the second survey reported in this paper included data from the outpatient (n=274 and nonvisit (n=500 groups on symptom severity, gynecological disorders, medical treatment use, reasons for not seeking medical care, and the improvement of daily life. Results: The outpatient group tended to have greater symptom severity compared to the nonvisit group. Uterine fibroids, dysmenorrhea

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study Examining Health Behaviors and Health Care Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens; Vestergaard, Mogens

    bruges til at skærpe opmærksomheden over for denne patientgruppe hos de praktiserende læger, hvor op mod 90 % af alle patienter med depression bliver diagnosticeret og behandlet. Background: Depressive symptoms is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI......), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear and it remains unknown whether subgroups of patients are at a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the risk of new cardiovascular events and/or death in patients with depressive symptoms following first-time MI taking into account...... 2009 and 31 December 2009, and followed up until 31 July 2012. Depressive symptoms were found in 18.6% using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D$8). A total of 239 new cardiovascular events, 95 deaths, and 288 composite events (239 new cardiovascular events and 49 deaths) occurred during...

  16. Changes in Parenting Behaviors, Attachment, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation in Attachment-Based Family Therapy for Depressive and Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, Maya S.; Diamond, Gary M.; Diamond, Guy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) was associated with decreases in maternal psychological control and increases in maternal psychological autonomy granting, and whether such changes were associated with changes in adolescents' attachment schema and psychological symptoms. Eighteen suicidal adolescents and their…

  17. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Subsequent Inflammation in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease : Prospective Findings From the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Na, Bee Ya; Cohen, Beth E.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression has been associated with inflammation in patients with coronary heart disease. However, it is uncertain whether depressive symptoms lead to inflammation or vice versa. Method: The authors evaluated 667 outpatients with established coronary heart disease from the Heart and Soul

  18. Self-compassion influences PTSD symptoms in the process of change in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies: A study of within-person processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asle eHoffart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAlthough self-compassion is considered a promising change agent in the treatment of PTSD, no studies of this hypothesis exist. This study examined the within-person relationship of self-compassion components (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, self-judgment, isolation, over-identification and subsequent PTSD symptoms over the course of therapy. Method: PTSD patients (n = 65 were randomized to either standard prolonged exposure, which includes imaginal exposure (IE to the traumatic memory, or modified prolonged exposure, where imagery re-scripting (IR of the memory replaced IE as the imagery component of prolonged exposure in a 10 week residential program. They were assessed weekly on self-compassion and PTSD symptom measures. The centering method of detrending was used to separate the variance related to the within-person process of change over the course of treatment from between-person variance. Results: The self-compassion components self-kindness, self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification had a within-person effect on subsequent PTSD symptoms. These relationships were independent of therapy form. The within-person relationship between self-judgment and subsequent PTSD symptoms was stronger in patients with higher initial self-judgment. By contrast, there were few indications that within-person variations in PTSD symptoms predict subsequent self-compassion components. Conclusion: The results support the role of self-compassion components in maintaining PTSD and imply the recommendation to facilitate decrease of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification and increase of self-kindness in the treatment of PTSD patients. The reduction of self-judgment appears to be most important, especially for patients with a high initial level of self-judgment.

  19. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, with the ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone fractures ...

  20. The effectiveness of mother training based on the model of positive parenting on the rate of behavioral disorders symptoms in deaf students

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboobeh Pakzad; Salar Faramarzi; Amir Ghamarani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim : Hearing loss affects human adjustment with environment and may be followed by mental complications such as behavioral problems. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of group behavioral management training of mothers based on the model of positive parenting on the rate of behavioral disorders of primary school deaf students in Isfahan.Methods: The research method was semi-experimental with pre and post-test plan and control group. Using multi-stage sam...

  1. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-08-16

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and related conditions like Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  2. Symptoms of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties in the Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes – results of a national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lene Juel; Birkebæk, Niels; Mose, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. RESULTS: Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples......OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological difficulties in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes using both child/adolescent and caregiver reports, and to investigate associations between these symptoms and metabolic control, adherence, and quality of life. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHOD: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8-17 years) recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y), while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The participants also completed...

  3. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  4. Self-compassion influences PTSD symptoms in the process of change in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies: a study of within-person processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffart, Asle; Øktedalen, Tuva; Langkaas, Tomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Although self-compassion is considered a promising change agent in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no studies of this hypothesis exist. This study examined the within-person relationship of self-compassion components (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, self-judgment, isolation, over-identification) and subsequent PTSD symptoms over the course of therapy. Method: PTSD patients (n = 65) were randomized to either standard prolonged exposure, which includes ima...

  5. Anti-inflammatory cytokine gene therapy decreases sensory and motor dysfunction in experimental Multiple Sclerosis: MOG-EAE behavioral and anatomical symptom treatment with cytokine gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sloane, Evan; Ledeboer, A.; Seibert, W.; Coats, B.; van Strien, M.; MAIER, S. F.; Johnson, K. W.; Chavez, R.; Watkins, L.R.; Leinwand, L; Milligan, E. D.; Van Dam, A M

    2008-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that presents clinically with a range of symptoms including motor, sensory, and cognitive dysfunction as well as demyelination and lesion formation in brain and spinal cord. A variety of animal models of MS have been developed that share many of the pathological hallmarks of MS including motor deficits (ascending paralysis), demyelination and axonal damage of central nervous system (CNS) tissue. In recent years, neuropathic pain ha...

  6. Childhood antisocial behaviors as predictors of psychotic symptoms and DSM-III-R borderline criteria among inpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, G; Hull, J W; Clarkin, J F; Yeomans, F E

    1999-01-01

    Structured clinical interviews of 107 female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were used to determine whether antisocial personality disorder (APD) diagnostic criteria evident prior to age 15 could be used to predict current Axis I and Axis II psychopathology. Diagnostic information was gathered using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R-Patient Version (SCID-P). Childhood APD criteria were subjected to principal-components analysis, and three factors--rule-breaking, assault, and sadism--emerged. The severity of the childhood APD criteria was related to psychotic symptoms, as well as to the unstable relationships and labile affect BPD criteria and the current overall severity of BPD criteria. Sadism predicted psychotic symptoms and BPD severity, while rule-breaking predicted unstable relationships and BPD severity. Childhood APD severity also had a larger effect on BPD severity than on psychotic symptoms. Possible explanations for these findings are explored and discussed. PMID:10228925

  7. Correlative factors of behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with vascular dementia%血管性痴呆精神行为学症状的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红芳; 潘小玲; 孔慧梅; 邵慧军; 占婷婷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with vascular dementia (VaD),investigate the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms and such correlative factors as cognitive disturbance,age,education level of the patients,and explore the internal relations among Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) items. Methods NPI and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were introduced to assess the behavioral and psychological symptoms in 120patients with VaD and 61 healthy elders (control group). Results The VaD patient group had significantly higher scores in 8 items,including delusion,hallucination,agitation,dysphoria,apathy,irritability,aberrant motor and appetite/eating changes in the NPI list,as compared with the control group (P<0.05),with the points ranked from the highest by dysphoria,apathy and irritability.Among the 8 items in the NPI list, delusion, apathy and aberrant motor were significantly correlated with cognitive disturbance; and aberrant motor was correlated with age and education level.Besides that,NPI factor analysis showed that 3 behavioral sub-syndromes,psychosis,mood disorder and behavioral disturbance,exited. Conclusion Behavioral and psychological symptoms were common in VaD patients,and the frequency and severity of appearing of behavioral and psychological symptoms were correlated with cognitive disturbance,age,and education level of different degrees; in addition,each sub-syndrome may have common pathophysiologic mechanism.%目的 了解血管性痴呆(VaD)患者的精神行为学症状特点及与认知障碍、年龄、受教育程度等因素的相关性,探讨神经精神科问卷(NPI)中不同因子之间的内在联系. 方法 采用NPI和简易智能状态检查量表(MMSE),分别评价120例VaD患者和61例健康老年人的精神行为学症状. 结果 VaD组患者NPI量表中的妄想、幻觉、激越、抑郁/心境恶劣、淡漠、易激惹、异常行为、食欲和饮食障碍等8个症

  8. Psychiatric symptoms in an individual with tuberous sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qiaojin; Gao, Jinli

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tuberous sclerosis is a rare disorder with no specific treatment. In some cases psychological symptoms are the initial presenting symptoms, making the differential diagnosis difficult. We describe a patient with tuberous sclerosis who developed psychiatric symptoms and discuss the use of low-dose quetiapine to control her emotional and behavioral symptoms.

  9. Five-Year Prospective Evaluation of the Development of Borderline Symptoms in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents Who Engage in Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Kendra J.

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a form of psychopathology characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability with emotion regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and sense of self. While not a required diagnostic marker, the majority of individuals with BPD engage in some form of deliberate self-harm (e.g., suicide attempts, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior) or suicide-related behavior (e.g., suicidal ideation, suicide threats). Longitudinal data from a sample o...

  10. Migraine- and dystonia-related disease-mutations of Na+/K+-ATPases: Relevance of behavioral studies in mice to disease symptoms and neurological manifestations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Doganli, Canan; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The two autosomal dominantly inherited neurological diseases: familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) and familial rapid-onset of dystonia-parkinsonism (Familial RDP) are caused by in vivo mutations of specific alpha subunits of the sodium–potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase). Intriguingly, patients...... with classical FHM2 and RDP symptoms additionally suffer from other manifestations, such as epilepsy/seizures and developmental disabilities. Recent studies of FHM2 and RDP mouse models provide valuable tools for dissecting the vital roles of the Na+/K+-ATPases, and we discuss their relevance to the...

  11. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2015-01-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3–6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children’s levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the tem...

  12. Correlation between depressive symptoms and network addiction, social support, and C behavior among vocational college students%高职学生抑郁与网络成瘾、社会支持、C型行为关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓丽; 刘春莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of network addiction, social support, and C behavior on depressive symptoms among vocational college students and to provide basis for mental health education among students. Methods Totally 1 662 vocational college students were investigated with stratified cluster sampling method. Results Among the students,46. 6% had depression symptoms(44. 6% for the males and 47. 3% for the females). Depression symptom detection rates were 64. 7% and 64. 1% in the students with network dependence and internet addiction. The depression symptom detection rates were 72. 9% and 90. 1% in the students with pro-C behavior and C behavior. Depression symptom detection rates were 67. 5% and 85.7% in the students with less social support and without social support. All the differences observed were statistically significant(P <0. 05 for all). Conclusion Depressive symptom detection rate is high in vocational college students in Ningxia. There are interactions among social support, network addiction, C behavior and depression.%目的 了解社会支持、网络成瘾与C型行为对高职学生抑郁的影响,为高职学生心理健康教育提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽取宁夏5所高职院校共1 662名在校学生进行自填式问卷调查.结果 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率为46.6%,其中女生为47.3%,男生为44.6%;网络依赖与网络成瘾学生抑郁发生率分别为64.7%、64.1%,高于网络使用正常学生的43.7%;社会支持不足和社会支持缺乏学生的抑郁发生率分别为67.5%、85.7%,高于社会支持正常的学生;具有偏C和C型行为学生抑郁发生率分别为72.9%、90.1%,高于偏非C和非C型行为学生抑郁发生率,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);网络成瘾、C型行为、社会支持为抑郁发生的影响因素并与抑郁存在明显相关关系(r=0.193、r=0.453、r=-0.366).结论 宁夏高职学生抑郁发生率较高,与网络成瘾

  13. Progress on application of cognitive behavior therapy in psychosomatic symptoms care of cancer patients%认知行为疗法在癌症病人身心症状护理中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健慧; 商丽艳; 徐燕

    2015-01-01

    It summarized the application and effect of domestic and foreign cognitive behavior therapy in com-mon somatic symptoms (pain,fatigue,nausea and vomiting)and psychological symptoms (anxiety,depression) of cancer patients.It pointed out the existing problems and faced challenges in current researches and put for-ward the corresponding suggestions,in order to further popularize the application of cognitive behavior therapy in clinical cancer patients.%概述国内外认知行为疗法在癌症病人常见躯体症状(疼痛、疲乏、恶心呕吐等)以及心理症状(焦虑、抑郁)中的应用情况、效果,指出当前研究中存在的问题和面临的挑战,并提出相应建议,以推广认知行为疗法在临床癌症病人中的应用。

  14. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  15. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  16. Connecting with Parents: Mothers' Depressive Symptoms and Responsive Behaviors in the Regulation of Social Contact by One- and Young Two-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Cheng, Nina; Day, William H.

    2009-01-01

    When children act to involve mothers in positive interaction, they influence the amount, timing, and content of parent-child exchanges. By assessing children's smiling and positive initiation, we examined child behaviors that function to create positive interaction. In a non-clinical North American sample of 103 mothers and their 14- to…

  17. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Kapp, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828;…

  18. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy with respect to psychological symptoms and recovering autobiographical memory in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarian F; Bajoghli H; Haghighi M; Kalak N; Holsboer-Trachsler E; Br; De, S.

    2015-01-01

    Fatemehsadat Akbarian,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2,3 Mohammad Haghighi,4 Nadeem Kalak,5 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,5 Serge Brand5,6 1Psychology and Counseling Organization of Iran, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand; 4Research...

  19. Common Factors of Meditation, Focusing, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Longitudinal Relation of Self-Report Measures to Worry, Depressive, and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Among Nonclinical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Tomoko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Meditation has a long tradition with substantial implications for many psychotherapies. It has been postulated that meditation may cultivate therapeutic processes similar to various psychotherapies. A previous study used joint factor analysis to identify five common factors of items of scales purported to capture psychological states cultivated by meditation, focusing, and cognitive behavioral therapy, namely, refraining from catastrophic thinking, logical objectivity, self-observation, accep...

  20. Social, behavioral, and sleep characteristics associated with depression symptoms among undergraduate students at a women’s college: a cross-sectional depression survey, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Katherine T; Bohnert, Ashley E; Ambrose, Alex; Davis, Destiny Y; Jones, Dina M; Matthew J Magee

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between student characteristics and depression among students attending women’s colleges (single-sex institutions of higher education that exclude or limit males from admission) is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of depression and determine behavioral and social characteristics associated with depression among students attending a women’s college. Methods We administered a cross-sectional Internet-based survey between April and May 20...

  1. Two cases of Alzheimer's disease showing deterioration of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia induced by switching from rivastigmine to donepezil

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura T; Takamatsu J

    2012-01-01

    Takemi Kimura, Junichi TakamatsuDivision of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kikuchi Hospital, Koshi, Kumamoto, JapanAbstract: Rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine, in addition to donepezil, which has been on the market over 10 years, have been available for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) since 2011 in Japan, leading a new stage in the medical treatment of AD. We studied two AD patients showing sudden deterioration of behavioral and psychological sympto...

  2. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  3. Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD)-no easy solution%痴呆的精神行为症状的管理——并非易事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen F.K. CHIU; S.W.LI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is a hot topic because these commonly seen symptoms in persons with dementia are quite difficult to manage.As highlighted in the comments by Xiao[1],the administration of antipsychotics is controversial because the use of antipsychotic medications in persons with dementia is associated with increased mortality,increased risk of stroke and worsened cognitive function[2,3].Xiao recommends that more long-term follow-up studies on the management of the BPSD be conducted to give clinicians better guidance on the treatment of this complex condition.This recommendation is particularly pertinent for Chinese populations.Two studies from Hong Kong showed that patients with the BPSD who were treated with antipsychotic medications did not have an increased risk of cerebrovascular accidents[4]or mortality[5].Clearly,more studies should be conducted in populations of different ethnicity to confirm or disprove the presumed risks of antipsychotic medications in patients with dementia.

  4. Effects of an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (iCBT) Program in Manga Format on Improving Subthreshold Depressive Symptoms among Healthy Workers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shimazu, Akihito; Umanodan, Rino; Kawakami, Sonoko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a new Internet-based computerized cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) program in Manga format, the Japanese cartoon, for workers and to examine the effects of the iCBT program on improving subthreshold depression using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design among workers employed in private companies in Japan. Method All workers in a company (n = 290) and all workers in three departments (n = 1,500) at the headquarters of another large comp...

  5. DBS in the basolateral amygdala improves symptoms of autism and related self-injurious behavior: a case report and hypothesis on the pathogenesis of the disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Volker; Fricke, Oliver; Bührle, Christian P.; Lenartz, Doris; Maarouf, Mohammad; Treuer, Harald; Jürgen K. Mai; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    We treated a 13-year-old boy for life-threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe Kanner's autism with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the amygdaloid complex as well as in the supra-amygdaloid projection system. Two DBS-electrodes were placed in both structures of each hemisphere. The stimulation contacts targeted the paralaminar, the basolateral (BL), the central amygdala as well as the supra-amygdaloid projection system. DBS was applied to each of these structures, but only stimula...

  6. Effects of an Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT program in Manga format on improving subthreshold depressive symptoms among healthy workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Imamura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a new Internet-based computerized cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT program in Manga format, the Japanese cartoon, for workers and to examine the effects of the iCBT program on improving subthreshold depression using a randomized controlled trial (RCT design among workers employed in private companies in Japan. METHOD: All workers in a company (n = 290 and all workers in three departments (n = 1,500 at the headquarters of another large company were recruited by an invitation e-mail. Participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (N = 381 for each group. A six-week, six-lesson iCBT program using Manga (Japanese comic story was developed. The program included several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem solving, and relaxation. The intervention group studied the iCBT program at a frequency of one lesson per week. Depression (Beck Depression Inventory II; BDI-II was assessed as a primary outcome at baseline, and three- and six-month follow-ups for both intervention and control groups were performed. RESULTS: The iCBT program showed a significant intervention effect on BDI-II (t = -1.99, p<0.05 with small effect sizes (Cohen's d: -0.16, 95% Confidence Interval: -0.32 to 0.00, at six-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The present study first demonstrated that a computerized cognitive behavior therapy delivered via the Internet was effective in improving depression in the general working population. It seems critical to improve program involvement of participants in order to enhance the effect size of an iCBT program. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000006210.

  7. [Depressive symptoms and negative symptoms during schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, S; Langlois, S; Assouly-Besse, F; Petit, M

    1995-06-01

    Taking into account the wellknown frequency of depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia and the rare studies about their evolution, several questions can be raised: How do these different symptoms move? Are there specific characters of each of them? First, stability of negative symptoms evaluated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) was studied among 57 schizophrenic patients at admission and at discharge. The course of negative symptoms was compared to that of depressive MADRS (Montgomery et Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and akinetic symptoms (Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale). All the subscores of the SANS decreased significantly but 4 items belonging to the affective flattening subscale and one item belonging to the alogia subscale did not vary significantly, showing the necessity of taking into account the individual items of the SANS rather than the subscale scores to evaluate the course of negative symptoms. Changes in all the SANS subscores except the alogia and anhedonia subscores were associated with variations in scores of other scales. Correlations between the changes of negative symptoms and the changes of depressive symptoms showed the necessity to do more specific scales, for example, scales for depression in schizophrenia. Langlois-Théry et al. (1994) evaluated among 53 schizophrenic patients stabilized with neuroleptic treatment, depressive symptomatology with Echelle de Ralentissement Dépressif (ERD, Widlöcher, 1983) and MADRS, negative symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and akinesia (ESRS), to determinate whether ERD composed of 3 subscores (motor, ideic and subjective) could be able to evaluate the depressive symptomatology, independently of the measures of negative and akinetic symptomatology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7628337

  8. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A: a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Csilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there are no empirically validated treatments of good quality for adolescents showing suicidality and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. Risk factors for suicide are impulsive and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, depression, conduct disorders and child abuse. Behind this background, we tested the main hypothesis of our study; that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents is an effective treatment for these patients. Methods Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT has been developed by Marsha Linehan - especially for the outpatient treatment of chronically non-suicidal patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The modified version of DBT for Adolescents (DBT-A from Rathus & Miller has been adapted for a 16-24 week outpatient treatment in the German-speaking area by our group. The efficacy of treatment was measured by a pre-/post- comparison and a one-year follow-up with the aid of standardized instruments (SCL-90-R, CBCL, YSR, ILC, CGI. Results In the pilot study, 12 adolescents were treated. At the beginning of therapy, 83% of patients fulfilled five or more DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. From the beginning of therapy to one year after its end, the mean value of these diagnostic criteria decreased significantly from 5.8 to 2.75. 75% of patients were kept in therapy. For the behavioral domains according to the SCL-90-R and YSR, we have found effect sizes between 0.54 and 2.14. During treatment, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior reduced significantly. Before the start of therapy, 8 of 12 patients had attempted suicide at least once. There were neither suicidal attempts during treatment with DBT-A nor at the one-year follow-up. Conclusions The promising results suggest that the interventions were well accepted by the patients and their families, and were associated with improvement in multiple domains including suicidality, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, emotion

  9. About Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms Early signs and symptoms Mild Alzheimer's ... more about other early signs of Alzheimer's » Mild Alzheimer's disease As the disease progresses, people experience greater ...

  10. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these ...

  11. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  12. Listeriosis: Definition and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Commercially Produced, Prepackaged Caramel Apples Recall & Advice to Consumers Advice to Consumers en Español Case Count Maps Epi Curves Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Oasis Brands, Inc. Cheese Recall & Advice to Consumers and Cheese ...

  13. Examining self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Two feasibility open trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake F. Dear

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT has considerable public health potential for treating anxiety and depression. However, no research has examined the use of self-guided iCBT, that is, treatment without contact with a clinician, specifically for older adults. The aim of the present study was to undertake a preliminary examination of the acceptability, efficacy and health economic impact of two entirely self-guided iCBT programs for adults over 60 years of age with anxiety and depression. Two separate single-group feasibility open trials of self-guided iCBT were conducted, the Anxiety Trial (n = 27 and the Depression Trial (n = 20, using the control groups of two randomized controlled trials. The online treatment packages consisted of five online educational lessons, which were delivered over 8 weeks without clinical contact. Participants rated the interventions as acceptable with more than 90% reporting the course was worth their time and more than 70% of participants completing at least 3 of the 5 lessons within the eight weeks. Significant reductions on measures of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item; GAD-7 and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item; PHQ-9 were observed from pre-treatment to post-treatment in both the Anxiety Trial (GAD-7 Cohen's d = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.75 and the Depression Trial (PHQ-9 Cohen's d = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.73. The economic analyses indicated that there was statistically significant improvement in health-related quality of life compared to baseline and marginally higher costs associated with treatment for both the Anxiety Trial ($69.84; 95% CI: $4.24 to $135.45 and the Depression Trial ($54.98; 95% CI: $3.84 to $106.12. The results provide preliminary support for the potential of entirely self-guided iCBT for older adults with anxiety and depression and indicate larger scale and controlled research trials are warranted.

  14. Somatic symptom disorder: An important change in DSM

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, JE; Creed, F; Escobar, J; M Sharpe; Wulsin, L; Barsky, A; Lee, S; Irwin, DE; Levenson, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale for the new diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder (SSD) within DSM5. SSD represents a consolidation of a number of previously listed diagnoses. It deemphasizes the centrality of medically unexplained symptoms and defines the disorder on the basis of persistent somatic symptoms associated with disproportionate thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to these symptoms. Data are presented concerning reliability, validity, and prevalence of SSD, as well as tas...

  15. Early psychosis symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia in the pathways to help-seeking. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Psychiatry, the Aga Khan University, Karachi, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: A total of 93 patients were interviewed in the pathways to care of schizophrenia. The diagnosis was based on ICD-10 criteria. The pathways to care were assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire. The onset, course and symptoms of psychosis were assessed through Interview for Retrospective Assessment at Age at Onset of Psychosis (IROAS). Results: Fifty five (59%) participants were male while 41% (n=38%) were female. Using IROAS, 108 symptoms were identified as concerning behaviour. Alternatively, 60 (55%) concerning behaviours were reported in the open-ended inquiry of the reasons for help seeking as assessed by the pathways to care questionnaire with a statistically significant difference between most symptoms category. The difference was most pronounced (p < 0.001) for depressed mood (66%), worries (65%), tension (63%), withdrawal/mistrust (54%) and loss of self-confidence (53%). Thought withdrawal (22%) and passivity (15%) were elicited only through structured interview (IROAS). When symptoms were categorized together, about 83% of the subjects presented with affective and non-specific prodromal symptoms. Roughly, 10% of the subjects presented with positive symptoms and 3% presented with the negative symptoms of psychosis. The non-specific, affective symptoms appear to predominate the prodromal phase of the illness. Conclusion: Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia include non-specific, affective symptoms. Attention needs to be paid on identifying the prodromal symptoms and change in social functioning in order to identify those who are at risk of long term psychosis. (author)

  16. Medications for Ataxia Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ropinirole (Requip) Rigidity : Pramipexole (Mirapex), Ropinirole (Requip) Sleep Disorders/Parasomnias (vivid dreams, nightmares, acting out dreams, sleepwalking) : Clonazepam. Sleep apnea symptoms must be evaluated with ...

  17. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...... information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced by...... figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  18. Psychosocioeconomic study of medically unexplained physical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maju Mathew Koola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of studies done on medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS in Kerala, India. The objective of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and other clinical variables associated with this condition. Materials and Methods: The clinical sample was taken from the General Medicine Clinic of a tertiary care hospital, in Kerala. The referred cases meeting the criteria (N=48 for medically unexplained physical symptoms were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. The medical doctor with experience in psychiatry completed the questionnaire. Results: Most of the patients were middle-aged females from rural areas. The most common symptom reported was headache. Most of the patients had symptoms for five years or more and had seen two-to-five consultants. A majority of the patients had undergone special investigations and a few had expensive and invasive investigations. Cluster C personality disorders were the most common associated personality disorders with medically unexplained physical symptoms. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first psychosocioeconomic study on medically unexplained physical symptoms, done in Kerala, India. Medically unexplained physical symptoms cause loss of productivity and economic burden and are a major public health problem. Future studies are warranted focusing on non-pharmacological treatment, psycho-education on mind-body association, and medical models on specific cytokines associated with medically unexplained physical symptoms for personalized management, and to examine the effect of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy.

  19. Effects of gender and cognitive-behavioral management of depressive symptoms on rehabilitation outcome among inpatient orthopedic patients with chronic low back pain: a 1 year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Hampel, Petra; Graef, Thomas; Krohn-Grimberghe, Bernhard; Tlach, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Psychological factors have been found to be of major importance for the transition from acute to chronic low back pain (CLBP). Although some evidence has been provided that depressive symptoms occur secondarily to CLBP, psychological treatment modules that specifically address depressive symptoms are not yet included in German inpatient rehabilitation programs. In this study, a standard rehabilitation program for patients with CLBP and depressive symptoms was compared to a standard rehabilita...

  20. [Medically unexplained symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Kemal

    2002-01-01

    Patients with physical symptoms for which no medical explanation can be found are relatively common in general practice. Patients with medically unexplained symptoms are frequently frustrating to physicians both in primary and secondary care and utilize health sources disproportionately. They frequently attend both primary care units and hospitals and are usually not satisfied with the care they receive. Medically unexplained symptoms in patient populations are strongly associated with psychiatric pathology and with anxiety and depression in particular. They are also linked to personality pathology, childhood adversity, adult trauma or medically unexplained symptoms in childhood. The predictive value of alexithymia in determining these symptoms is controversial. Patients who have high negative affectivity or neuroticism tend to score high on measures of physical symptoms. These symptoms have a high degree of co-occurrence. The same person may meet the diagnostic criteria for several functional somatic syndromes simultaneously. The clinician should be aware of the cultural and social shaping of the bodily experience of these patients and hence acknowledge the somatic nature and reality of the symptoms. The clinician should make the person feel understood and establish a positive collaborative relationship. This would enable him/her to correct misconceptions about the disease and give a positive explanation of symptoms. Antidepressant therapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy have been proved to be moderately effective in this group of patients. Because of the high disability that might be caused by these symptoms, psychiatrists and primary and secondary care physicians should pay careful attention to this clinical condition. These symptoms may also aid us in challenging the long-held idea of mind-body dualism which is inherent in Western biomedicine. PMID:12794657

  1. Premonitory symptoms in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Katarina; Artto, Ville; Bendtsen, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency and number of premonitory symptoms (PS) in migraine, the co-occurrence of different PS, and their association with migraine-related factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to Finnish migraine families between 2002 and 2013...... to obtain data on 14 predefined PS, migraine diagnoses, demographic factors, and migraine characteristics. The estimated response rate was 80%. RESULTS: Out of 2714 persons, 2223 were diagnosed with migraine. Among these, 77% reported PS, with a mean number of 3.0 symptoms compared to 30% (p < 0.......001) and 0.5 symptoms (p < 0.001) among 491 persons with non-migraine headaches. Yawning was the most commonly reported symptom (34%) among migraineurs. Females reported PS more frequently than males (81 versus 64%, p < 0.001) and experienced a higher number of different symptoms (mean 3.3 versus 1.8, p...

  2. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov;

    2015-01-01

    understanding proceeds from an initial subliminal awareness by way of attribution of meaning and subsequent management, with and without professional involvement. We introduce theoretical perspectives from phenomenology, semiotics, social interactionism, and discourse analysis. Drew Leder’s phenomenological...... language constructs social interaction. Symptoms are situated in culture and context, and trends in modern everyday life modify symptom understanding continuously. Our analysis suggests that a symptom can only be understood by attention to the social context in which the symptom emerges and the dialogue...... is a social and relational phenomenon of containment, and regulating the situation where the symptoms originate implies adjusting containment. Discourse analysis, as presented by Jonathan Potter and Margaret Wetherell, provides a tool to notice the subtle ways in which language orders perceptions and how...

  3. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  4. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with trichrome. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Giardiasis is the most frequently diagnosed intestinal parasitic disease ... joints 2 , 7 , 8 . Sometimes, the symptoms of giardiasis might seem to resolve, only to come back ...

  5. Social Sensations of Symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations......The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs and....../symptoms; differential recognition of symptoms; and the embodied sociality of treatment....

  6. Symptoms and Warning Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Symptoms and Warning Signs Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents Anorexia Nervosa emaciation (extremely thin from lack of nutrition) relentless ...

  7. Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may flare up or worsen. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is an MUS that interferes with the normal functioning of the large intestine. It is characterized by a group of symptoms, ...

  8. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... Blood Disorders Bone Marrow Examination Blood disorders can cause various symptoms in almost any area of the ...

  9. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more serious bone density problem) • Peripheral Neuropathy • Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression How do these symptoms tend to appear in children and adults? Children tend to have the more classic signs ...

  10. Cold symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  11. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the muscles of the jaw, or "lockjaw". Tetanus symptoms include: Headache Jaw cramping Sudden, involuntary muscle ... sweating High blood pressure and fast heart rate Tetanus complications include: Uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction of the ...

  12. Frontotemporal Disorders: Common Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s Alzheimer's Basics Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caregiving Other Dementias Publications FAQs ...

  13. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... care and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their.......17-2.95). CONCLUSIONS: Educational level influence contact with specialist care among patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms. Future studies should investigate inequalities in access to the secondary healthcare system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  14. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gracely, Richard H.; M. Catherine Bushnell; Marta Ceko

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with g...

  15. Symptoms of 'lactose intolerance'

    OpenAIRE

    Korpela, Riitta

    2001-01-01

    Factors affecting or confounding the symptoms of lactose intolerance were examined by us in randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blind studies on healthy adult subjects. Evaluation of the diagnostic methods of lactose intolerance showed that cut-off values, according to the blood glucose values, varied widely. This result was based on a postal questionnaire, sent to all Finnish health centres. Symptoms were seldom recorded for a sufficiently long period. In carefully diagnosed lactose in...

  16. Depressive symptoms and observed eating in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-04-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  17. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; A.M. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship betwe

  18. Childhood psychopathology and development of adult schizotypal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and the higher risk for adult schizotypal symptomatology following behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders at child and adolescent age.

  19. Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstedt, Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A…

  20. Characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David G; Learned, Nicole; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05-2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18-7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50-4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12-10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems. PMID:22362259

  1. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars;

    2005-01-01

    . A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p < 0.0001) with a hazard ratio of 1.045 (95% CI 1.023, 1.069). Other significant factors included tumor stage and radiation dose, whereas duration of treatment time was borderline significant (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of symptoms was statistically...

  2. Emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette K; Nielsen, Line;

    2015-01-01

    . A negative classroom climate was associated with emotional symptoms (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99-1.69) and so was being part of classrooms with a high prevalence of bullying (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.0-1.60). CONCLUSION: Female sex, low OSC, single parent family, exposure to bullying and a high prevalence of bullying......BACKGROUND: Large proportions of schoolchildren suffer from emotional symptoms and there are large variations across schools. It is unknown to what degree this variation is due to composition of schoolchildren in each school or to contextual factors. Objectives are to identify factors at individual......, classroom and school levels associated with emotional symptoms. METHOD: Data stem from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study 2010 including 4922 schoolchildren aged 11-15-years from a random sample of schools and including data from school leaders...

  3. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Men on Parole

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Leake, Barbara; ALBARRÁN, CYNTHIA R.; Zhang, Sheldon; Hall, Elizabeth; Farabee, David; Marlow, Elizabeth; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study describes correlates of high levels of depressive symptoms among recently paroled men in Los Angeles who reside in a community substance abuse treatment program and report homelessness. Cross-sectional data were obtained from male residents who were released on parole within the last 30 days (N=157) to assess parental relationship, self-esteem, social support, coping behaviors, drug and alcohol use behaviors, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information. Results indicated ...

  4. Impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part II. Job tension, psychophysiological symptoms, and indices of distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three Mile Island (TMI) workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only) in comparison with workers interviewed at the Peach Bottom Plant. At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worrry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and symptoms was evident. Demoralization was greater primarily among TMI non-supervisory workers. The impact of the accident was not greater among TMI workers living closer to the plant. Presence of a preschool child at home enhanced the impact of the accident, but primarily among TMI supervisors. 39 references, 17 tables

  5. FORSTÅ DINE SYMPTOMER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaj Aage Sparle

    Hvis du tit har smerter og andre fysiske symptomer - og lægen har svært ved at finde ud af, hvad du fejler - kan det være, du har en funktionel lidelse. Funktionel lidelse betyder, at kroppen reagerer medsymptomer, når du er udsat for psykiske belastninger. Symptomerne er lige så virkelige og...

  6. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience symptoms associated with their tumor(s) and/or treatment(s). People with brain tumors often suffer from: Headaches Seizures Sensory (touch) and motor (movement control) loss Deep venous thrombosis (DVT, or blood clot) Hearing loss Vision loss ...

  7. Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fainting (syncope), irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias), or sudden cardiac death. Children with cardiomyopathies of a metabolic nature may have ... are arrhythmias, heart block, blood clots and sudden death. Similar to the other ... is extremely rare in children and there are usually no signs or symptoms ...

  8. Symptoms of Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? How Is Ovarian Cancer Treated? Information for Health Care Providers Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links ... I Know About Screening? How Is Uterine Cancer Treated? Statistics Rates by ...

  9. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  10. Symptoms of Autism Among Children with Congenital Deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    Associations between congenital deafness or blindness and autism have been found. The main consequences of congenital sensory impairment, being barriers for communication, language and social interaction development, may lead to symptoms of autism. To date only few studies have been reported...... concerning individuals with congenital deafblindness. This study examines symptoms of autism among 71 children with congenital deafblindness using the Autism Behavior Checklist. The cohort of children with congenital deafblindness was found to have symptoms of autism on a level similar to children with...... another developmental disorder than autism for example intellectual disability. No association was found between severity of congenital sensory impairment and severity or type of symptoms of autism....

  11. 大学新生抑郁症状对自杀意念的影响:自杀行为认识的中介作用%Depression symptom and suicidal ideation in the freshmen:mediating roles of the opinion to suicide behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奕荣; 连榕; 陈坚; 柯玉英

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation of freshmen, as well as the intermediary of opinion to suicide behavior between them. Methods:A total of 1 395 freshmen (517 males and 878 females) from two universities were selected. They were assessed with the symptom checklist 90 (SCL―90) for depression symptom, questionnaire of suicide attitude (QSA) for opinion to suicide behavior, and questionnaire for suicidal ideation. Results:Depression symptom scores in freshmen were positively correlated with suicidal ideation scores (r=0.091, P ≤ 0.001), while the opinion to suicide behavior scores were negatively correlated with depression symptom scores and suicidal ideation scores (r=―0.309~―0.100, P ﹤ 0.001). In addition, the opinion to suicide behavior was intermediary between the depression and suicidal ideation of freshmen. Conclusion: The opinion to suicide behavior can partly buffer the effect of depression of freshmen on their suicidal ideation.%考察大学新生抑郁对自杀意念的关系,以及自杀行为认识在其中所起的作用。抽取福建两所高校大学新生1395名(男生517名,女生878名),采用症状自评量表(SCL―90)、自杀态度量表(QSA)、自杀意念量表,评定大学新生的抑郁症状、自杀行为认识和自杀意念。大学新生的抑郁症状与自杀意念呈正相关(r=0.091,P≤0.001),自杀行为认识分别与抑郁症状、自杀意念呈负相关(r=―0.309~―0.100,P﹤0.001)。多元回归分析显示,大学新生的自杀行为认识在抑郁与自杀意念之间起着部分中介作用(中介效应为0.03,P﹤0.05)。自杀行为认识在抑郁对大学新生自杀意念的影响中起着部分中介作用。

  12. Update on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Neugroschl, Judith A

    2009-04-01

    The neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia can lead to a decreased quality of life, rapid cognitive decline, early patient institutionalization, tremendous caregiver burden, and increased cost of care. A thorough assessment to evaluate and treat any underlying causes of symptoms is essential. With the lack of an approved drug to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, nonpharmacologic interventions take on added importance. Behavioral management, cognitive stimulation therapy, and caregiver and health care staff education have shown the most promise to reduce symptom burden over the long term. The antipsychotic drugs have been the traditional choice of medications to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, but safety problems emerged with their use, leading to the issuance of label changes ("black box" warnings) by the Food and Drug Administration. Aside from antipsychotic drugs, multiple classes of medications have been tried to treat such symptoms but long-term data showing efficacy and safety are often lacking. PMID:19400596

  13. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  14. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  15. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  16. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ceko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning.

  17. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  18. Reduction of suicidal ideation in patients undergoing psychotherapy in the day hospital for the treatment of neurotic and behavioral disorders and neurotic symptoms reported by them before the hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rodziński

    2015-08-01

    Patients initially reporting SI constituted approximately 1/3 in both genders and were characterized by greater intensity of neurotic disorders. Among those, women with particularly higher intensity of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, Neurasthenia and Autonomic disorders and women reporting episodes of uncontrollable hunger seemed to suffer from SI that were more resistant to the psychotherapy. As such, those subgroups of women require special attention and diligent selection of the therapeutic methods.

  19. Celiac Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... Contents What are some of the symptoms of celiac disease? Some people with celiac disease may not feel ...

  20. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lewy body dementia now! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD ... an umbrella term for two related clinical diagnoses, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. The ...

  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Traumatic Events (3 items) NIMH (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People ... is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest ...

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page ... Symptoms What's the Clinical Course of CFS? Chronic fatigue syndrome can be misdiagnosed or overlooked because its ...

  3. Symptoms of Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  4. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  5. Prevalence of symptoms associated with mental illness in Salvadorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.

  6. Parenting and Children’s Internalizing Symptoms: How Important are Parents?

    OpenAIRE

    Sluis, van der, R.M.; Steensel, van, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Parenting behaviors are associated with children’s internalizing symptoms, however, it is not often examined which factors could possibly influence this relationship. The goals of this study were twofold. One goal was to examine whether the association between parenting and children’s internalizing symptoms would increase if parenting behaviors were assessed behaviorally and in a context where the child displayed specific anxious behaviors. Another goal was to examine whether this relationshi...

  7. Symptoms of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O

    1985-07-01

    Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357

  8. Neurological Symptoms of Hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a bone metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL), which encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). This disease is characterized by disrupted bone and tooth mineralization, and reduced serum AP activity. Along with bone and tooth symptoms, many neurological symptoms, seizure, encephalopathy, intracranial hypertension, mental retardation, deafness, and growth hormone deficiency (GHD), are frequently found in HPP patients. Seizure occurs in severe HPP types soon after birth, and responds to pyridoxine, but is an indicator of lethal prognosis. Encephalopathy rarely presents in severe HPP types, but has severe sequelae. Intracranial hypertension complicated in mild HPP types develops after the age of 1 year and sometimes need neurosurgical intervention. Mental retardation, deafness and GHD are more frequently found in Japanese HPP patients. Mental retardation occurs in all HPP types. Deafness in perinatal lethal type is both conductive and sensorineural. GHD develops in all but perinatal lethal type and the diagnosis tends to delay. The pathogenesis of these neural features of HPP might be due to impairment of both vitamin B6 metabolism and central nervous system development by ALPL mutations. PMID:26219717

  9. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies.

  10. The Relationship between Parental Depressive Symptoms, Family Type, and Adolescent Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Sebastian Sieh; Johanna Maria Augusta Visser-Meily; Anne Marie Meijer

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 8...

  11. Group prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P; Schulman, Peter; Tryon, Alyssa M

    2007-06-01

    To prevent depression and anxiety, we delivered a brief, classroom-based cognitive-behavioral workshop along with ongoing Web-based materials and e-mail coaching to college students at risk for depression. At risk was defined as having mild to moderate depressive symptoms on a self-report measure of depression. Two hundred forty students were randomized into either an eight-week workshop that met in groups of 10, once per week for 2 h or into an assessment-only control group. We plan to track participants for 3 years after the workshop and here we report the 6 month preventive effects on depression and anxiety. The workshop group had significantly fewer depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms than the control group, but there was no significant difference between the conditions on depression or anxiety episodes at 6 month follow up. The workshop group had significantly better well being than the control group, and the workshop group had significantly greater improvement in optimistic explanatory style than the control group. Improved explanatory style was a significant mediator of the prevention effects from pre- to post-workshop for depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as for improved well being. PMID:17074301

  12. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    REISING, MICHELLE M.; Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms an...

  13. Increases in Manic Symptoms After Life Events Involving Goal Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri L; Sandrow, David; Meyer, Björn; Winters, Ray; Miller, Ivan; Solomon, David; Keitner, Gabor

    2000-01-01

    Bipolar disorder has been conceptualized as an outcome of dysregulation in the behavioral activation system (BAS), a brain system that regulates goal-directed activity. On the basis of the BAS model, the authors hypothesized that life events involving goal attainment would promote manic symptoms in bipolar individuals. The authors followed 43 bipolar I individuals monthly with standardized symptom severity assessments (the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen M...

  14. 个性化认知行为疗法在中重度围绝经期症状女性患者中的应用效果%Effect of Personalized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Women with Moderate to Severe Perimenopausal Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟凯; 康汉珍; 胡启彩; 曾祥华; 洪爱军; 汤惠茹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of personalized cognitive behavioral therapy on women with moderate to severe perimenopausal symptoms in terms of their perimenopausal symptoms and perimenopausal-related knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Methods Women with moderate to severe perimenopausal symptoms were treated with personalized cognitive behavioral therapy from July to September 2014. Kupperman index and perimenopausal-related KAP questionnaire were applied for the effect of the therapy. Results After treatment, the score of each symptom in Kupperman index of 58 women were declined. And the score of hot flashes sweating, paresthesia, insomnia, irritability, depression, dizziness and joint muscle pain was significantly decreased ( P<0.05). Moreover, perimenopausal-related KAP scores were also increased significantly ( P<0.01). Conclusion Personalized cognitive behavioral therapy is effective for improving the symptoms of women with moderate to severe perimenopausal symptoms, enhancing their prevention and healthcare awareness so as to help them lead a healthy life in perimenopausal period.%目的:评价个性化认知行为疗法对中重度围绝经期症状女性患者的干预效果。方法2014年7—9月对纳入58例中重度围绝经期症状女性患者从知、信、行方面实施个性化认知行为疗法,比较其干预前后改良 Kupperman症状评分及围绝经期知信行调查问卷得分情况。结果经个性化认知行为疗法干预后,58例中重度围绝经期症状女性患者改良 Kupperman各项得分较干预前均有下降,其中潮热出汗、感觉异常、失眠、易激动、抑郁、眩晕、骨关节肌肉痛及性交痛与干预前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后知、信、行评分较干预前均明显升高(P<0.01)。结论个性化认知行为疗法可有效改善中重度围绝经期女性患者相关症状,提高其预防保健意识,形成正确的健康信念,从而最

  15. TrkB overexpression in mice buffers against memory deficits and depression-like behavior but not all anxiety- and stress-related symptoms induced by developmental exposure to methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina N Karpova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental exposure to low dose of methylmercury (MeHg has a long-lasting effect on memory and attention deficits in humans, as well as cognitive performance, depression-like behavior and the hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnfin mice. The Bdnf receptor TrkB is a key player of Bdnf signaling. Using transgenic animals, here we analyzed the effect of the full-length TrkB overexpression (TK+ on behavior impairments induced by perinatal MeHg. TK overexpression in the MeHg-exposed mice enhanced generalized anxiety and cue memory in the fear conditioning test. Early exposure to MeHg induced deficits in reversal spatial memory in the Morris water maze test and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test in only wild-type mice but did not affect these parameters in TK+ mice. These changes were associated with TK+ effect on the increase in Bdnf 2, 3, 4 and 6 transcription in the hippocampus as well as with interaction of TK+ and MeHg factors for Bdnf 1, 9a and truncated TrkB.T1 transcripts in the prefrontal cortex. However, the MeHg-induced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and open field tests was ameliorated by TK+ background only in the open field test. Moreover, TK overexpression in the MeHg mice did not prevent significant stress-induced weight loss during the period of adaptation to individual housing in metabolic cages. These TK genotype-independent changes were primarily accompanied by the MeHg-induced hippocampal deficits in the activity-dependent Bdnf 1, 4 and 9a variants, TrkB.T1, and transcripts for important antioxidant enzymes glyoxalases Glo1 and Glo2 and glutathione reductase Gsr. Our data suggest a role of full-length TrkB in buffering against memory deficits and depression-like behavior in the MeHg mice but propose the involvement of additional pathways, such as the antioxidant system or TrkB.T1 signaling, in stress- or anxiety-related responses induced by developmental MeHg exposure.

  16. Effect of the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ICS 205-930 and MDL 72222 on 5-HTP-induced head shaking and behavioral symptoms induced by 5-methoxy-N,N,dimethyltryptamine in rats: comparison with some other 5-HT receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, G T; Tolcsvai, L

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ICS 205-930 and MDL 72222 on head shaking behavior induced by L-5-HTP and behavioral symptoms induced with 5-methoxy-N,N,-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) in rats was evaluated. Both drugs dose-dependently reduced L-5-HTP-induced head shaking but were at least 600 times less potent than pirenperone and ketanserin and at least 50 times less potent than methysergide. ICS 205-930 and MDL 72222 were more than 1000 times less potent than pirenperone or methysergide and 100 times less potent than ketanserin in blocking 5-MeODMT-induced forepaw treading and tremor. Since it appears that head shakes induced by L-5-HTP are mediated by 5-HT2 receptors, these data suggest that ICS 205-930 and MDL 72222 do not significantly interact with 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Furthermore, the data suggest that ICS 205-930 and MDL 72222 lack appreciable antagonistic activity at the 5-HT receptor(s) mediating those behavioral effects induced by 5-MeODMT. PMID:3114804

  17. Depressive Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Varying Interactions at Diagnosis and During Transition to Insulin Pump Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah L; Peterson, Claire M; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T; Muir, Andrew B; Laffel, Lori M

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the associations between depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation and bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of T1D. Study participants were 103 youth in 2 distinct groups: newly diagnosed (New) or transitioning to pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]; "Pump"), who completed questionnaires regarding symptoms of depression, emotion dysregulation, and bulimia. Glycemic control (A1c), height, weight, and questionnaires were evaluated within 10 days of diagnosis (n = 58) or at education/clinic visit before starting insulin utilizing CSII (n = 45). In the newly diagnosed group, only depression accounted for significant variance in bulimia scores (β = .47, P depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation were associated with greater bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation, an indicator of poor coping/behavioral control, could help explain adoption of disordered eating behaviors in youth with T1D who are transitioning to pump therapy. PMID:27137457

  18. Neuroacanthocytosis Presenting with Psychiatric Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Srivatsa,; Jacob, Rajesh; Tharyan, Prathap; Vijayan, Joy; Alexander, Mathew

    2004-01-01

    An adult male presented with dyskinetic movements of the face and choreiform movements associated with dysphagia and vocaltics.Obsessive compulsive symptoms and depressive symptoms occurred 3 months after the onset of the illness.Peripheral blood smear revealed an excess of acanthocytes. A diagnosis of neuroacanthocytosis was made and he was started on treatment.

  19. Depressive symptoms over time in women partners of men with and without alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Wong, Maria M; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A

    2006-08-01

    In a sample of 202 adult women and their families, the authors examined the effects of their male partners' alcohol problems and antisociality, the women's alcohol problems and antisociality, family conflict, and offspring behavioral problems on the women's depressive symptoms over a 3-year period. The women's antisociality and alcohol problems were more strongly related to family conflict, offspring behavioral problems, and the women's depressive symptoms than were the men's antisociality and alcohol problems. The women's antisociality and family conflict most strongly predicted increases in the women's depressive symptoms over time. In addition, family conflict mediated the effects of maternal antisociality on the women's depressive symptoms. PMID:16866600

  20. A prospective investigation of the development of borderline personality symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L Alan

    2009-01-01

    The antecedents and developmental course of borderline personality disorder symptoms were examined prospectively from infancy to adulthood using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Borderline personality disorder symptom counts were derived from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders diagnostic interview at age 28 years. Correlational analyses confirmed expected relations between borderline symptoms and contemporary adult disturbance (e.g., self-injurious behavior, dissociative symptoms, drug use, relational violence) as well as maltreatment history. Antecedent correlational and regression analyses revealed significant links between borderline symptoms in adulthood and endogenous (i.e., temperament) and environmental (e.g., attachment disorganization, parental hostility) history in early childhood and disturbance across domains of child functioning (e.g., attention, emotion, behavior, relationship, self-representation) in middle childhood/early adolescence. Process analyses revealed a significant mediating effect of self-representation on the relation between attachment disorganization on borderline symptoms. The findings are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework in which disturbance in self-processes is constructed through successive transactions between the individual and environment. PMID:19825270

  1. Sintomas psicóticos e cognitivos associados à busca de tratamento por dependentes de substâncias: um estudo qualitativo Psychotic and cognitive symptoms associated to treatment seeking behavior: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há algumas décadas, busca-se compreender melhor o processo subjacente ao comportamento de procura de tratamento por usuários que fazem uso nocivo ou são dependentes de substâncias psicoativas. Os modelos atualmente propostos baseiam-se principalmente na análise epidemiológica de certas características individuais quanto ao poder que têm de influenciar esse comportamento de disposição para tratamento. OBJETIVOS: Interpretar e compreender possíveis significados pessoais associados a alterações psicopatológicas, sobre como podem se relacionar à procura de tratamento, na visão dos próprios pacientes. MÉTODO: Pesquisa qualitativa com entrevistas semidirigidas com amostra intencional de 13 dependentes de substâncias que procuraram tratamento. RESULTADOS: Houve relatos espontâneos de alterações de forma, curso e conteúdo de pensamento e juízo de realidade, alterações de sensopercepção, de atenção, memória e linguagem. Os membros da amostra pareceram relacioná-las à motivação para tratamento. Os dados foram interpretados considerando o contexto psicocultural dos entrevistados e seus quadros clínicos de síndrome de dependência, de abstinência e de comorbidade. CONCLUSÕES: Pesquisas qualitativas contribuem para aprimorar os modelos explicativos sobre procura de tratamento por dependentes de substâncias. Investigar clinicamente alterações psicopatológicas parece poder contribuir para motivar pacientes para tratamentos específicos do uso disfuncional de substâncias.During the last few decades it is aimed to better understand the process underlying treatment seeking behavior by harmful or dependent psychoactive substances users. The currently proposed models are mainly based on the epidemiological analysis of certain number of individual characteristics, as they have the power to influence this behavior of readiness for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To interpret and understand possible personal meanings associated with

  2. Marcadores neurobiológicos e psicométricos da eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no transtorno de estresse pós-traumático associado a sintomas dissociativos: relato de caso Neurobiological and psychometric markers of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in post-traumatic stress disorder with dissociative symptoms: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lages

    2011-01-01

    different psychopathologies, including dissociation, potentially affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in a patient with PTSD and dissociative symptoms based on psychophysiological and psychometric measures at different time points throughout the course of treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient is a 38-year old man diagnosed with PTSD, major depression, and dissociative symptoms, resistant to pharmacotherapy. Psychological treatment lasted for 4 months and consisted of one weekly therapy session and three weekly coaching sessions. Physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, sympathovagal balance, and cortisol and psychometric measures (negative and positive affect, resilience, and post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms were obtained before, during (once a month and after treatment. COMMENTS: Results showed a decrease in sympathovagal balance and an increase in heart rate, vagal tone and cortisol levels during the course of treatment. Treatment also lead to a decrease in negative affect and in post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms, as well as to an increase in resilience, social support and positive affect scores. These results suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for PTSD patients with dissociative symptoms. Moreover, the treatment seems to be able to normalize PTSD-related physiological parameters in the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems.

  3. Cognitive functions and behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with vascular dementia%阿尔茨海默病和血管性痴呆患者的认知功能和精神行为症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽君; 张楠; 程焱; 杜红坚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Methods: Totally 115 outpatients with mild-to-moderate dementia who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) dementia diagnosis criteria, were recruited in this case-controlled study. The cognitive function, including memory, language, attention, etc, and the behavioral and psychological symptoms, including delusions, illusions, agitation, depression, apathy irritability, aberrant motor behavior, etc, were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), World Health Organization-University of California, Los Angeles, auditory verbal learning test (WHO-UCLA AVLT), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) in 61 patients with AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and 54 patients with VD according to NINDS-AIREN criteria. Results: AD patients had lower scores in languages of MMSE scale and delayed recall of objects and prolonged memory recognition in the WHO-UCLA AVLT, while VD patients had lower scores in attention of the MMSEscale [(5.6 ±1.9) vs. (6.7±1.5),(1.3±1.9) vs. (2.8±3.2),(2.9±3.3) vs. (5.9±3.8),(1.0± 1.2) vs. ( 1.7 ± 1.9); Ps < 0. 05]. The rate of apathy, agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior in AD group was significantly higher than that in VD group in the test of the NPI scale, while the rate of depression symptoms were more common in VD group than in AD group (P <0. 05). Conclusion: The cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between AD and VD patients are different. AD patients are worse in language ability and memory, while VD patients perform worse in attention. AD patients are more likely to have apathy, agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and VD patients are more likely to have depression. It is help to distinguish AD and VD patients by evaluating

  4. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  5. Transactional processes in the development of adult personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2016-08-01

    The development of adult personality disorder symptoms, including transactional processes of relationship representational and behavioral experience from infancy to early adolescence, was examined using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Significant preliminary correlations were found between early caregiving experience and adult personality disorder symptoms and between representational and behavioral indices across time and adult symptomatology. Significant correlations were also found among diverse representational assessments (e.g., interview, drawing, and projective narrative) and between concurrent representational and observational measures of relationship functioning. Path models were analyzed to investigate the combined relations of caregiving experience in infancy; relationship representation and experience in early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence; and personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. The hypothesized model representing interactive contributions of representational and behavioral experience represented the data significantly better than competing models representing noninteractive contributions. Representational and behavioral indicators mediated the link between early caregiving quality and personality disorder symptoms. The findings extend previous studies of normative development and support an organizational developmental view that early relationship experiences contribute to socioemotional maladaptation as well as adaptation through the progressive transaction of mutually informing expectations and experience. PMID:27427797

  6. Psychological Symptoms in a Sample of Latino Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ferol E.

    2000-01-01

    A study compared 31 abused and 21 non-abused Latino children on measures of depression, anxiety, behavior problems, and dissociation. Abused children had higher levels of symptoms on most measures. Scores of the abused children on self-report measures were not in the clinical range, but results of parent measures were in the clinical range.…

  7. Sleep Problems as Possible Predictors of Intensified Symptoms of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.; Smith, Angela F.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have been placing an increased importance on discovering what variables contribute to better prognosis during behavioral interventions for children with autism. This article preliminarily identifies sleep problems that may exacerbate symptoms of autism; thus, possibly influencing effectiveness of daytime interventions. A data-base of…

  8. 阿尔茨海默病与血管性痴呆患者认知功能、精神行为症状的对比分析%Contrastive Analysis on Cognitive Function,Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms Between Patients With Alzheimer′s Disease and With Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娜; 成亚纯

    2016-01-01

    Objective to compare the cognitive function,behavioral and psychological symptoms between patients with Alzheimer′s disease(AD)and with vascular dementia(VD),to provide references for differential diagnosis. Methods From August 2013 to August 2014 in the Department of Neurology,People′s Hospital of Yingchen,a total of 48 patients with AD were selected as AD group,a total of 52 patients with VD were selected as VD. MMSE score,WHO-UCLA AVLt score and incidence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were compared between the two groups. Results Language competence score,memory score,delayed memory score and long - term memory score of VD group were statistically significantly higher than those of AD group,calculative ability and attention scores of VD group were statistically significantly lower than those of AD group (P 0. 05). No statistically significant differences of anxiety or fear, hallucination,delusion or delusion,or diurnal rhythm disorders was found between the two groups( P > 0. 05),incidence of mood disorders of VD group was statistically significantly higher than that of AD group,while incidence of aggressive behaviour and behavior disorders of VD group was statistically significantly lower than that of AD group,respectively( P 0.05)。两组患者焦虑和恐惧、幻觉、妄想和偏执及日夜节律紊乱发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);VD 患者情感障碍发生率高于 AD 组,攻击行为和行为紊乱发生率低于 AD 组(P <0.05)。结论 AD 患者语言能力、记忆力(特别是延时记忆和长时记忆)较差,且更易出现攻击行为、行为紊乱、日夜节律紊乱症状;而 VD 患者注意力较差,且更易出现情感障碍。

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 4 items) NIMH (24 items) Psychotherapies (2 items) Suicide Prevention (8 items) Treatments (11 items) More Multimedia ... 4 items) NIMH (24 items) Psychotherapies (2 items) Suicide Prevention (8 items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and ...

  10. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 4 items) NIMH (24 items) Psychotherapies (2 items) Suicide Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) More Multimedia by ... 4 items) NIMH (24 items) Psychotherapies (2 items) Suicide Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and Treatment ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 4 items) NIMH (24 items) Psychotherapies (2 items) Suicide Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) More Multimedia ... 4 items) NIMH (24 items) Psychotherapies (2 items) Suicide Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and ...

  12. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

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    ... symptom, your mood swings may get better too. Memory problems Some women complain of memory problems or ... brochure alerts consumers and health care professionals to false and misleading claims of bio-identical hormone replacement ...

  13. Cystic Fibrosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Steady Advances Against Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table ... both of the baby's CFTR genes are normal. Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Testing People who have one normal and ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 4 items) NIMH (24 items) Psychotherapies (2 items) Suicide Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...

  16. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

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    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, ... Prevention (CDC) urge people to always: Wear a seat belt when driving or riding in a car ...

  17. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

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    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Suicide Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People ... of Brain Region is Associated with Response to PTSD Treatment Children of Depressed Parents at High Risk ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for Anxiety Disorders Neurologic Symptoms Common in Early HIV Infection Autism with Intellectual Disability Linked to Mother's Immune Dysfunction During Pregnancy More News From the Field... Contact Us Staff ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... blue for a few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, ... Use Linked to Manic Episodes in People with Serious Mental Illness More News From the Field... Contact ...

  4. The effect of exercise intervention on social function and symptom behavior of chronic schizophrenia patients%运动干预对慢性精神分裂症患者社会功能及症状行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨运动干预在慢性精神分裂症患者中的应用效果。方法将我院2014年1月至2014年7月住院治疗的40例慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组采用常规护理,观察组在对照组的基础上给予运动干预,比较两组患者干预前后社会功能及症状行为的变化。结果两组患者干预前的社会功能和症状行为均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。8周后,观察组在日常生活能力、动性和交往情况、社会技能等社会功能方面的评分高于对照组,在焦虑抑郁、缺乏活力、思维障碍等症状行为方面的评分均低于对照组,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论运动干预能有效提高慢性精神分裂症患者的社会功能,改善患者的病情,促进康复。%Objective To explore the application effect of exercise intervention in chronic schizophrenia patients.Methods 40 patients with chronicschizophrenia treated in our hospital from January2014 to July2014 were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, the control group was given routine nursing, the observation group was given exercise intervention based on the control group.The change of social function and symptoms behavior before and after the intervention of the two groups were compared.Results There were no statistical significance between the two groups in social and behavioral symptomsbefore the intervention. After 8 weeks, social function score in daily life ability, mobility and communication, social skills in the observation group was higher than that in the control group.But symptoms behavioral score in the anxiety and depression, lack of energy, thought disorder was lower than that in the control group, the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusions Exercise intervention can effectively improve social function and symptoms behavior of chronic schizophrenia patients,it can promote rehabilitation.

  5. Hoarding: Obsessive Symptom or Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Through media depictions, the public is becoming increasingly aware of the phenomenon of hoarding. Hoarding refers to the excessive acquisition of relatively worthless items, which eventually results in the compromise of living space and/or the daily activities of affected individuals. As a symptom, hoarding is relatively common in a significant minority of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder, symptoms typically emerge in the teens t...

  6. The impact of parenting on the associations between child aggression subtypes and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Casey A; Fite, Paula J

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated parenting behaviors (i.e., parental monitoring, inconsistent discipline, parental involvement, positive parenting, and corporal punishment) as moderators of the link between proactive and reactive aggression and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a community sample of 89 children ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.44, SD = 1.14; 56 % male). Reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely positively associated with ODD symptoms. Additionally, inconsistent discipline moderated the association between proactive, but not reactive, aggression and ODD symptoms, such that proactive aggression was associated with ODD symptoms only when levels of inconsistent discipline were high. Findings appear to suggest that associations between these aggression subtypes and ODD symptoms are influenced by different factors, with inconsistent discipline indicated in the association between proactively aggressive behavior and ODD symptoms. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:24500326

  7. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold. PMID:26518580

  8. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

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    ... Facts Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis and Treatment Sleepwalking Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Terrors Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Eating Disorder Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment REM ...

  9. What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?

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    ... Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... symptoms, may cause these endometriosis symptoms to continue. Endometriosis-Related Pain Researchers know that pain is a ...

  10. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

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    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  11. Síntomas, percepción y demanda de atención en salud mental en niños y adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Mental symptoms perceptions of healthcare needs, and health care seeking behaviors, among children and adolescents in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Javier Caraveo-Anduaga

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de síntomas emocionales y conductuales en niños y adolescentes. Identificar las manifestaciones que son percibidas por los padres como necesidades potenciales de atención para sus hijos, y estimar la búsqueda de servicios de salud mental. Material y métodos. Los datos proceden de una encuesta efectuada de julio a noviembre de 1995 en hogares y fue representativa de las personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad del Distrito Federal, México. Se investigó la presencia de 27 síntomas en todos y cada uno de los hijos de entre 4 a 16 años de edad que vivían con el adulto entrevistado, así como de la percepción y búsqueda de ayuda para los menores sintomáticos. En el análisis se utilizó la regresión logística. Resultados. Se obtuvo información acerca de 1 685 menores. La mitad de la población resultó sintomática. La necesidad de atención fue solamente considerada para 25%, y la búsqueda de atención para 13%. Los síntomas de internalización fueron percibidos más frecuentemente y llevados a la consulta por los padres. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren un retraso en la atención. Los datos del estudio serán de utilidad para los clínicos y para la planeación de las políticas y programas de salud mental en los servicios de atención primaria.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of behavioral and emotional symptoms in children and adolescents; to identify parents' perception of their children's healthcare needs; and to estimate the frequency of seeking mental healthcare services. Material and Methods. A household survey was carried out between July and November 1995 in Mexico City. The survey was representative of persons aged 18 to 65 years. Study subjects were 1685 children 4 to 16 years of age and living in the same household as their parents. Informant parents provided data on their children regarding the presence of 27 symptoms, their perceptions of healthcare needs of symptomatic

  12. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms Among Boys Across Early and Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xin; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms among 290 boys and evaluated the association of trajectory groups with child and family risk factors and children’s internalizing disorders. Anxiety symptoms were measured using maternal reports from the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1991, 1992) for boys between the ages of 2 and 10. A group-based trajectory analysis revealed 4 distinct trajectories in the development of anxiety symptoms: low, low increasing, hi...

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30–68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and social functioning and the presence of parent-reported conditions. Children with ASD and DD with ASD symptoms had mild to severe ASD risk ...

  15. Symptom Co-occurrences Associated with Smoking in Individuals with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Louise; Xian, Hong; Thomas, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of tobacco on the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease process and symptoms is complex and not clearly understood. Tobacco may be used to self-treat some symptoms but also seems to intensify others. Studies to date have not characterized co-occurring symptoms (symptom patterns) and their association with tobacco use. Methods: This study describes tobacco use in patients with relapsing-remitting MS and associated symptoms and symptom co-occurrences. In this cross-sectional study, 101 participants with an average age of 43 years completed a survey adapted from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the revised MS-Related Symptom Checklist. Data reduction was performed using factor analysis on the 43 items of the checklist, and linear regression was used to detect associations between symptom clusters (factors) and smoking. Results: Using the factor analysis result, the linear regression analysis found that tobacco use is positively associated with co-occurring symptoms and symptoms of factor 1: Mental/Emotional (anxiety, loneliness, depression, and difficulty sleeping) and factor 4: Neuro/Autonomic (urinary). Conclusions: Smoking is associated with patterns of symptoms. The study of MS and tobacco use over time will allow determination of the temporal pattern of tobacco use and MS symptoms. PMID:27551240

  16. Longitudinal changes in individual symptoms across the preschool years in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) across the preschool years in children with ADHD. It also evaluated whether preschool symptoms vary in their ability to discriminate children who later meet criteria for ADHD from typically developing children. ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed annually in 75 ethnically diverse children (46 boys) who presented with behavior problems at age 3 and met criteria for ADHD 3 years later, and in 51 typically developing children (26 boys). Children with ADHD generally exhibited stable levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity but increases in several symptoms of inattention. Most ADHD symptoms showed at least fair utility in discriminating children with and without ADHD; however, 3 symptoms of inattention (carelessness, losing things, and forgetfulness) and 1 symptom of hyperactivity/impulsivity (blurting out answers) had relatively poor utility. These symptoms demonstrated only somewhat greater utility at age 4, but by the age of 5 were better able to classify children. Children with ADHD exhibited increases in several ODD symptoms, including symptoms related to negative affect. Although most symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity appear to extend well down to age 3, more developmentally appropriate symptoms of inattention may be required to develop more sensitive assessments for 3- and 4-year-old children. PMID:24697647

  17. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD. PMID:16621440

  18. Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2008-01-01

    A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted…

  19. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  20. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  1. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in College Students: The Complex Interplay between Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation and Rumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Meaney

    Full Text Available Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan's Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression, and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables. The sample comprised 2261 college students who completed self-report measures of the aforementioned constructs. BPD symptoms, stress, family psychological illness, and alexithymia exerted direct effects on behaviors. Symptoms had an indirect effect on behaviors through rumination, alexithymia and emotional dysregulation. In addition, the relationship between symptoms and dysregulated behaviors was conditional on level of rumination and alexithymia. Implications for early identification and treatment of BPD and related behaviors in college settings are discussed.

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in College Students: The Complex Interplay between Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation and Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Rebecca; Hasking, Penelope; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan's Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression), and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables. The sample comprised 2261 college students who completed self-report measures of the aforementioned constructs. BPD symptoms, stress, family psychological illness, and alexithymia exerted direct effects on behaviors. Symptoms had an indirect effect on behaviors through rumination, alexithymia and emotional dysregulation. In addition, the relationship between symptoms and dysregulated behaviors was conditional on level of rumination and alexithymia. Implications for early identification and treatment of BPD and related behaviors in college settings are discussed. PMID:27348858

  4. Traumatic brain injury–Modeling neuropsychiatric symptoms in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oz eMalkesman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year in the United States, approximately 1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI. Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms—and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies—are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential.

  5. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, S; Hirano, C; Murase, S; Kaneko, T; Sugiyama, T; Ohtaka, K; Aoyama, T; Takei, Y; Inoko, K; Wakabayashi, S

    1989-07-01

    We investigated 61 patients (38 boys and 23 girls) under 18 years of age with obsessive-compulsive symptoms seen in the Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Hospital, from 1982 until 1986. In this period, a total of 1293 patients under 18 years of age visited the clinic. The percentage of patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 5%. The earliest onset of symptoms was at age 3 years, and the average age of onset was 11.6 years. We found no particular tendency in terms of the number of siblings and the birth order of the patients. Obsessive traits were the fundamental personality traits of patients. Moreover, according to the other characteristics of personality, the patients were subdivided into schizothymic, viscous temperament, and cyclothymic. Parents of the patients were more apt than usual to have obsessive-compulsive personalities. Psychiatric disturbances and occupations were also investigated. Incidents related to school situations commonly triggered obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The most frequently noted obsessive thought was dirt phobia, and the most common compulsive behavior was washing. School refusal and violence at home were especially common as associated symptoms of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We also describe the treatment regimen and the outcomes of the patients. PMID:2763863

  6. Assessment and management of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoteleb, Haitham; Jefferies, Edward R; Drake, Marcus J

    2016-01-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common, causing significant bother and impair quality of life. LUTS are a spectrum of symptoms that may or may not be due to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). LUTS are divided into storage, voiding or post micturition symptoms, which each need to be considered in terms of impact, mechanism and treatment options. In most patients, a mixture of symptoms is present. In order to have a better insight about which symptoms are affecting quality of life, a thorough evaluation should include medical history, examination, validated symptom questionnaires, bladder diary, and flow rate (with post void residual measurement). Other tests, particularly urodynamic tests may be needed to guide treatment selection, particularly for surgery. Management of male LUTS is tailored according to the underlying mechanisms. Different treatment modalities are available according to individual patient preference. These range from watchful waiting, behavioral and dietary modifications, and/or medications - either as monotherapy or in combination. Surgery to relieve BPO may be needed where patients have significant bothersome voiding LUTS, and are willing to accept risks associated with irreversible treatment. Interventions for storage LUTS are available, but must be selected judiciously, using particular caution if nocturia is prominent. In order to achieve better outcomes, a rational stepwise approach to decision making is needed. PMID:26654899

  7. Change in the Behavioral Phenotype of Adolescents and Adults with FXS: Role of the Family Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-05-01

    The present study examined trajectories of adaptive behavior, behavior problems, psychological symptoms, and autism symptoms in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (n = 147) over a three-year period. Adaptive behavior significantly increased over time, particularly for adolescents, and the severity of behavior problems decreased over time. Family environmental factors predicted phenotypic variables net of gender, intellectual disability status, and medication use. Maternal warmth was associated with higher levels of adaptive behavior, lower levels of autism symptoms, and decreases in behavior problems over time. Maternal depressive symptoms and criticism were associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:26861717

  8. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  9. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being. PMID:25204789

  10. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors on children’s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children’s depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and harsh–negative p...

  11. Depressive Symptoms Over Time in Women Partners of Men With and Without Alcohol Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Wong, Maria M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 202 adult women and their families, the authors examined the effects of their male partners’ alcohol problems and antisociality, the women’s alcohol problems and antisociality, family conflict, and offspring behavioral problems on the women’s depressive symptoms over a 3-year period. The women’s antisociality and alcohol problems were more strongly related to family conflict, offspring behavioral problems, and the women’s depressive symptoms than were the men’s antisociality an...

  12. Psychosocial Group Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Y Fakour; Mohammadi MR; MM Gharaei; M Momtazbakhsh

    2005-01-01

    Background: Psychological debriefing is a way for prevention and reducing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive–behavioral therapy in treatment of PTSD. Few evidence is available for using of these techniques in large scale disasters. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of psychological debriefing and cognitive-behavioral group therapy combination on Bam earthquake-related PTSD symptoms in adolescents. Methods: In a b...

  13. Involvement of the GABAergic system in depressive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Alloza, M; Tsang, S.W.T.Y. (Shirley W.T.Y.); Gil-Bea, F.J. (Francisco J.); Francis, P.T.; Lai, M K; Marcos, B.; Chen, C. P.; Ramirez, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive and neuropsychiatric (BPSD) symptoms seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) probably result from differential neurotransmitter alterations. The involvement of the glutamatergic and GABAergic system in cognitive and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) has been studied in post-mortem frontal and temporal cortex from AD patients who had been prospectively assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive impairment and with the Present Behavioral Exami...

  14. Demographic and clinical correlates of autism symptom domains and autism spectrum diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Constantino, John N.; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L.; Eng, Charis

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive Autism Network registry. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms were obtained using caregiver-reports on the So...

  15. [Language Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by progressive memory disturbance. Language symptoms are considered to be less disease specific and therefore did not attract many researchers, interest until recently. Typical patients with AD present amnesic aphasia in the early disease stage followed by transcortical sensory aphasia; however, their language symptoms are varied. Recently, the concept of logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has been developed, which is reported to have Alzheimer's neuropathology. Clinicians should verify patients' language abilities, as language can be the key to reveal their true cognitive functions. PMID:27156508

  16. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. PMID:26461486

  17. In palliative cancer care symptoms mean everything

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, S.C.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis aims to provide deeper insight into symptoms of cancer patients in palliative care, in order to improve the adequacy of decision-making for optimizing symptom control. Several aspects of symptoms and symptom management were investigated as were some aspects of communication and consultati

  18. 麻痹性痴呆和阿尔茨海默病患者的认知和精神行为症状比较%Comparison of cognitive functions and behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with general paresis of insane and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辛茹; 宁玉萍; 施海姗; 侯乐; 郑东; 谭燕; 钟笑梅; 罗新妮

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较麻痹性痴呆(general paresis of insane,GPI)和阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)患者认知和精神行为症状的异同,为临床鉴别诊断提供线索.方法 本研究为病例对照研究.选取广州市脑科医院神经内科住院的GPI患者50例,AD患者61例,采用临床痴呆评估量表(CDR)对痴呆程度进行分级,采用简易精神状态检查(MMSE)、蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)、阿尔茨海默病评定量表认知部分(ADAS-cog)、神经精神问卷(NPI)对两组患者的认知功能和精神行为症状进行评估并比较两组差异.结果 (1)认知量表评分:GPI和AD患者的各认知量表总分在不同痴呆程度组间差异有统计学意义,且MMSE总分和MoCA总分均随痴呆程度递减,ADAS-cog总分随痴呆程度递增;GPI组和AD组比较:仅在轻度患者中,GPI组的MMSE总分显著高于AD组(分;GPI:20.63±5.87,AD:14.32±5.05,F=7.697,P=0.008),ADAS-cog记忆因子分显著低于AD组[GPI:13.66 (8.33),AD:23.00 (10.50),Z=-3.205,P=0.001],其余各认知量表评分两组间差异无统计学意义.(2) NPI量表评分:GPI患者不同痴呆程度组间差异有统计学意义,轻度GPI组的NPI总分低于中、重度组患者,而AD患者的NPI总分在不同程度组间差异无统计学意义;GPI组和AD组比较:轻度GPI和AD患者的NPI总分及各因子分差异无统计学意义,中度GPl患者欣快、食欲两因子分显著高于AD患者,重度GPI患者NPI总分、幻觉、妄想、抑郁因子分显著高于AD患者.结论 GPI患者精神行为症状的改变模式与AD患者有明显差异,可为临床鉴别诊断GPI和AD提供重要线索.%Objective To compare the cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms between patients with general paresis of insane (GPI) and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods Fifty patients with GPI and sixty-one patients with AD from Guangzhou Brain Hospital were recruited in this case-control study.The severity of dementia

  19. Symptoms as the main problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Rask, Mette Troellund

    2016-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger tilfredsheden hos patienter, der blev afsluttet i almen praksis uden specifik diagnose, dvs. hvor lægen efter afsluttet konsultation kun kunne anføre "symptom" eller "problem" som slutdiagnose. Det drejer sig om ca. 1/3 af alle helbredsrelaterede konsultationer i almen...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online ...

  1. Schizophrenic Symptoms Improve with Apomorphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, Carol A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In eighteen chronic schizophrenics, subcutaneous doses of the dopamine reception agonist, apomorphine, improved psychotic symptoms. The results are interpreted as a consequence of presynaptic dopamine receptor activationby apomorphine with a subsequent decrease in dopamine-mediated neural transmission. (Author/BB)

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help.   Watch on ... for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being ...

  3. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  4. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozdzik-Zelazny A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59 were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  5. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder: Are Proliferative Symptoms Characteristic?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is an Axis II disorder that has historically encompassed a number of different psychiatric symptoms. In empirical studies, these multiple psychiatric symptoms appear to manifest as numerous comorbid Axis I and II diagnoses. In echoing these findings in primary care settings, individuals with borderline personality exhibit prolific somatic symptoms. Rather than the type of symptom, are the number of symptoms suggestive of this disorder, such that proliferative psychiatri...

  7. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  8. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed Newsletters ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed Newsletters ...

  9. Aggressive behavior, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in elderly subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Margari F; Sicolo M; Spinelli L.; Mastroianni F; Pastore A; Craig F; Petruzzelli MG

    2012-01-01

    Francesco Margari,1 Michele Sicolo,1 Lucia Spinelli,1 Franco Mastroianni,2 Adriana Pastore,1 Francesco Craig,3 Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli31Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, Hospital Polyclinic of Bari, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 2Geriatrics Unit, Hospital “Miulli”, Acquaviva delle Fonti; 3Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro,” Bari, I...

  10. 居家和养老院阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状的比较分析%Comparative analysis in psychological and behavioral symptom of patients with Alzheimer's disease in home and resthome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符霞; 张美芬; 张俊娥; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解居住环境对阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)患者精神行为症状的影响.方法 采用神经精神量表分别调查100例居家及100例养老院阿尔茨海默病患者的精神行为症状,运用SPSS13.0统计软件包对收集的数据进行统计分析.结果 养老院患者的"幻觉"、"焦虑"、"异常的动作行为"及"睡眠紊乱"得分及其总均分显著高于居家患者;居家与养老院的AD患者在"异常的动作行为"、"情绪淡漠,冷漠"、"幻觉"、"睡眠紊乱"、"焦虑"、"抑郁/情绪低落"及"食欲/进食障碍"方面的发生程度显著不同,其中养老院患者"睡眠紊乱"中的"体质量下降"条目发生程度较轻,其余均较居家患者严重.结论 处于不同环境的患者其精神行为症状的发生情况有所不同,养老院患者症状偏重,因而呼吁家属应尽量让AD患者居住家中.%Objective To understand the influene of inhabited environment on psychological and be-havioral symptom of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzbeimer's disease. Methods Nenrepsychiatric in-ventory was used to measure the occurrence of BPSD of 100 home and 100 resthome patients with Alzheimer's disease.Tbe data were analyzed with software SPSS version 13.0. Results The scores of hallucinations, anxi-ety,aberrant motor behavior and sleep disturbance in resthome patients were significant higher than those of home patients.There was significantly difference in the extent of occurrence in aberrant motor behavior, apathy/ indifference, hallucinations, sleep disturbance, anxiety,depression/dysphoria and appetite/eating disorders be-tween home and resthome patients,among which the extent of occurrence in resthome patients was higher except for body weight decreasing and appetite/eating disoniers. Conclusions The occurrence of BPSD is different according to different inhabited environment, symptoms of resthome patients are worse, so families should be ap-pealed as far as possibile to allow AD

  11. Cuidados de enfermagem ao idoso com Demência que apresenta sintomas comportamentais La atención de enfermería a los ancianos con Demencia y con síntomas comportamentales Nursing care for the aged with Dementia and with behavioral symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cardoso Pestana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available No curso das demências, os transtornos comportamentais são altamente prevalentes e estão freqüentemente associados ao stress dos cuidadores. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar na literatura os tipos de demências que apresentam sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos associados; descrever o manejo não farmacológico destes distúrbios e descrever a atuação da enfermagem neste contexto. Foi pesquisada a literatura nas áreas de geriatria e enfermagem. Tornou-se evidente que a assistência de enfermagem prestada ao idoso demenciado vai muito além dos cuidados básicos e depende da participação ativa da família. A identificação de estratégias para minimizar e manejar os sintomas comportamentais é uma importante contribuição que a enfermagem pode dar para a geriatria.En el curso de la demencia, los trastornos de comportamiento son muy prevalentes y se asocian frecuentemente con el estrés de los cuidadores. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar en la literatura científica los tipos de demencias asociadas a los trastornos de comportamiento y síntomas psicológicos, describir el manejo no-farmacológico de estas alteraciones y describir las intervenciones de enfermería en este contexto. La Literatura en los campos de la geriatría y de enfermería fue investigada. Se hizo evidente que los cuidados de enfermería prestados a las personas mayores con demencia va más allá de la atención básica y depende de la participación activa de la familia. La identificación de estrategias para minimizar y manejar los síntomas de comportamiento es una importante contribución que la enfermería puede ofrecer a la geriatría.In the course of dementia, behavioral disorders are highly prevalent and are frequently associated with the stress of caregivers. This study aims to identify in scientific literature the types of dementia associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD; describe the non

  12. Pharmacotherapy,cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination for insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms%药物及认知-行为疗法联合治疗稽延性失眠症状的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志斌; 王思远

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination on insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms. Methods:105 patients were randomized into 3 groups for analysis. In cogni-tive- behavior therapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients were treated with sleep hygiene program,cognitive therapy and relaxation therapy. In pharmacotherapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients received a 0. 8mg alprazolam each night. In combination group(n ﹦ 35),patients were trea-ted with both cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. All patients were treated by 4 weeks. The changes in results of subjec-tive(sleep diaries)measures were obtained at the end of the therapy and 16-week follow-up. Results:Sleep diary showed that,com-pared to the time before treatment,patients in all groups experienced extension in total sleep time,shortening in sleep latency and in-crease in sleep efficiency at the end of experiment(P < 0. 05). When the experiment ended,patients in combination group showed the greatest improvement rate on each item of outcome. At the end of 16-week follow-up,patients in cognitive-behavior therapy group were found to have the greatest improvement rate on shortening of sleep latency and increase of sleep efficiency,being equal to those in com-bination group. Conclusion:Pharmacotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy alone may achieve short-term efficacy in insomnia pa-tients with protracted withdrawal symptoms and the latter therapy may lead to a greater long-term improvement. The combined use of pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy may give efficacy faster,and the sustained efficacy may be equal to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy.%目的:比较药物疗法、认知-行为疗法及联合应用对稽延性失眠症状的治疗效果。方法:采集稽延性失眠症状患者105例,随机分为3组:心理治疗(认知-行为疗法)组(n ﹦35),接受睡眠卫生指导、认知疗法和

  13. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN’S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children’s externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles we...

  14. Cyberbullying, Problematic Internet Use, and Psychopathologic Symptoms among Korean Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett,; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators...

  15. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Middle School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Grills, Amie E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among peer victimization, global self-worth, social support, and internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety, social anxiety, and depression). Of particular interest were the potential mediating and moderating roles of global self-worth and social support in the anticipated relationships between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. All sixth grade children from a public middle school completed self-report measur...

  16. Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms appears to be part of the core of depression. Yet longitudinal investigation of an individual's pattern regularity, relation to clinical state, and clinical improvement reveals little homogeneity. Morning lows, afternoon slump, evening worsening - all can occur during a single depressive episode. Mood variability, or the propensity to produce mood swings, appears to be the characteristic that most predicts capacity to respond to treatment. Laboratory s...

  17. Older people's perceptions about symptoms.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Morgan; Pendleton, N; Clague, J E; Horan, M A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known of the nature and origins of the attitudes that older people have towards ageing, disease, and medical treatments. Several studies on older people in the community have suggested under-reporting of symptoms. There may be several reasons for this, including the possibility that some older people regard disease processes as a natural feature of ageing and, consequently, feel that medical intervention may have little to offer. AIM: To investigate the perceptions of ol...

  18. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  19. PTSD Symptoms Mediate Academic Stress and Drinking to Cope in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolman, Erin O.; Becker, Madelyn M.; Klanecky, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened perceptions of academic stress may increase college alcohol use behaviors, namely problem drinking and drinking to cope. Leading from prior research, the current study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as a mediator between academic stress and alcohol use behaviors. Undergraduate participants (N?=?200) completed an online…

  20. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…