WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral symptoms

  1. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  2. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  3. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler's Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother-father-infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents' depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child's life.

  4. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators Between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Tissot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.

  5. Autistic Symptoms in Childhood Arrestees: Longitudinal Association with Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 plus or minus 1.5 years) were followed up for 2 years.…

  6. What Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Affect Caregiver Burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi-Taniguchi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl B; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2018-01-01

    Patients' irritability and aggression have been linked to caregiver depression, but the behaviors that most burden caregivers are not yet definitively identified. This study examines the connection between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the burnout of caregivers caring for home-dwelling elders with dementia symptoms in Japan. 80 Japanese rural and urban family caregivers completed detailed questionnaires about their experiences in caring for demented family members. We statistically analyzed the results for correlations between types of dementia, Pines Burnout, and Caregiver Distress. BPSD symptom severity significantly correlated with caregiver distress. The dementia symptoms most strongly correlated with caregiver burnout were: aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucinations. Among the commonest symptoms, apathy, anxiety, and depression did not seriously aggravate caregiver burnout. Caregivers displayed higher burnout facing agitation/aggression, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and hallucinations. Caregivers' reported distress was surprisingly dissimilar to their burnout scores; patients' delusions and anxiety led to higher distress reporting but not to burnout. Advance diagnosis of BPSD symptoms should be helpful to support nurses and caregivers of dementia patients. Particular support should be considered for caregivers and nurses of patients expressing aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucination.

  7. [Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: cognition and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients.

  8. Relationship between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreville, Philippe; Voyer, Philippe; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Persons with dementia frequently present behavioral and psychological symptoms as well as delirium. However, the association between these has received little attention from researchers and current knowledge in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD). Participants were 155 persons with a diagnosis of dementia, 109 (70.3%) of whom were found delirious according to the Confusion Assessment Method. BSD were assessed using the Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale. Participants with delirium presented significantly more BSD than participants without delirium. More specifically, they presented more wandering/trying to leave, sleep problems, and irrational behavior after controlling for cognitive problems and use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Most relationships between participant characteristics and BSD did not differ according to the presence or absence of delirium, but some variables, notably sleep problems, were more strongly associated to BSD in persons with delirium. Although correlates of BSD in persons with delirium superimposed on dementia are generally similar to those in persons with dementia alone, delirium is associated with a higher level of BSD. Results of this study have practical implications for the detection of delirium superimposed on dementia, the management of behavioral disturbances in patients with delirium, and caregiver burden.

  9. Characteristic Symptoms and Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, N. K.; Haq, A.; Aslam, N.; Anjum, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)

  10. Reports by caregivers of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are relevant since they are frequent and cause distress to caregivers. However, they may not be reported by physicians due to the priority usually attributed to cognitive symptoms. Objectives: To verify whether BPSD is being systematically investigated by physicians even in specialized settings and whether their records on medical files are accurate. Methods: Assessment of records on medical files of BPSD reported by caregivers to 182 patients (57.1% men, mean age 67.6±13.5 years assisted in a tertiary-care behavioral neurology outpatient clinic (BNOC who also had appointments in other clinics of the same hospital. Alzheimer's disease (37.9% and vascular disease (19.2% were the most frequent causes of dementia. Results: Report/appointment ratios were 0.58 in BNOC, 0.43 in other neurological, 0.93 in psychiatric and 0.20 in non-neurological, non-psychiatric clinics. BPSD most frequently recorded in BNOC were insomnia, aggressiveness, agitation/hyperactivity, visual hallucinations, apathy, inadequate behavior and ease of crying. Sorted by psychiatrists, categories associated to more BPSD were affect/mood, thought and personality/behavior. affect/mood and sensoperception symptoms were the most frequently reported. Sorted according to Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, categories associated to more BPSD were depression/dysphoria, delusion and apathy/indifference. depression/dysphoria and agitation/ aggression symptoms were the most frequently reported. Conclusions: BPSD reported by caregivers were very diverse and were not systematically investigated by physicians. Notes in medical files often contained non-technical terms.

  11. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms

  12. Behavioral symptoms and sleep problems in children with anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Positive and negative symptom behaviors and caregiver burden in the relatives of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, H L; Mueser, K T

    1997-07-25

    The relationships of perceived severity and responsibility attribution for positive and negative symptom behaviors to caregiver burden were investigated. Two types of burden were studied: objective burden (i.e., negative consequences such as physical problems, financial difficulties, and household tension), and subjective burden (i.e., emotional distress about disturbing behaviors). Self-report measures were completed by 70 primary caregivers of persons with schizophrenia. Subjective burden was related to both the severity of positive and negative symptom behaviors, whereas objective burden was related only to the severity of negative symptom behaviors. Responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors was related only to objective burden. Caregivers who perceived patients as being less responsible for their negative symptom behaviors reported higher levels of objective burden. The relationship between responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors and objective burden remained significant, even after controlling for the severity of negative symptom behaviors. Caregivers' perceptions of patients' responsibility for positive symptom behaviors were not related to objective burden. As expected, perceived severity of negative symptom behaviors was related to objective caregiver burden, whereas severity of positive symptom behaviors was not. These findings suggest that negative symptoms may have a greater impact on role functioning that positive symptoms, leading to greater burden. However, contrary to expectations, less responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors was related to higher levels of objective caregiver burden. Caregivers who perceive patients as incapable of altering their negative symptom behaviors and meeting certain role obligations may assume extra responsibilities, leading to higher levels of objective burden. The results indicate that there may be disadvantages for caregivers associated with assuming that patients have

  14. Relationships between neuropsychological measures of executive function and behavioral measures of ADHD symptoms and comorbid behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, Solveig; Bouma, Anke; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between executive functions (EFs), as measured by neuropsychological tests, and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid behavior, as rated by parents and teachers. As intelligence and language ability

  15. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

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    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  16. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Objective Sleep Duration in Young Children with Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2017-02-01

    Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time insomnia symptoms demonstrated more overall behavioral problems than controls. Significant interactions between insomnia symptoms and objective sleep duration on scores of externalizing behaviors, mood variability and school problems were found. Profile analyses showed that children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with clinically elevated externalizing behaviors, inattention, mood variability, and school problems, while children with insomnia and short sleep duration were associated with an overall elevated profile in which internalizing behaviors were more prominent. Childhood insomnia symptoms are associated with a wide array of behavioral problems, for which objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles. Children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration had a behavioral profile consistent with limit-setting and rule-breaking behaviors, while children with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration had a behavioral profile more consistent with internalizing behaviors resembling that of psychophysiological disorders.

  17. Change in Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Adolescents and Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Bolt, Daniel; Kring, Sheilah; Lounds, Julie; Lord, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined change prospectively in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors during a 4.5 year period in 241 adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder who were 10–52 years old (mean = 22.0) when the study began. Although many individuals’ symptoms remained stable, a greater proportion of the sample experienced declines than increases in their level of autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, and there were significant improvements in mean levels of symptoms. Individua...

  18. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt...

  19. Transient Cocaine-Associated Behavioral Symptoms Rated with a New Instrument, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-lang; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pearson, Deborah; Cubells, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with a variety of behavioral symptoms. The current report describes the assessment of cocaine-related behavioral symptoms (CRB) using the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms of Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP). The CRB section, one of the three domains in the SAPS-CIP, consists of sub-domains, including Aggressive/Agitated Behavior, Repetitive/Stereotyped Behavior, Unusual Social or Sexual Behavior. Severity scores are assigned according to opera...

  20. Relationships between Child Emotional and Behavioral Symptoms and Caregiver Strain and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen L.; Feinn, Richard; Bernard, Stanley; Brereton, Maria; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disturbance often have difficulties in multiple symptom domains. This study investigates the relationships between child symptoms and caregiver strain and parenting stress among 177 youth and their caregivers participating in a school-based system of care. Youth were grouped by symptom domain and included…

  1. Problematic eating behaviors in adolescents with low self-esteem and elevated depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Elizabeth A; Gamboz, Julie; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2008-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that low self-esteem may be an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationships between low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and eating disorders in adolescents. The present study investigated whether low self-esteem was associated with depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors. Measures of low self-esteem and problematic eating behaviors were administered to a sample of 197 adolescent primary-care patients. Depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors were assessed ten months later. Youths with low self-esteem were at greater risk for high levels of depressive symptoms and eating disorder symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the association of low self-esteem with problematic eating behaviors.

  2. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  3. Effect of Behavior Management Training for Mothers With Children having ODD Symptoms

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    Mohsen Amiri

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion Overall, the findings suggest that mothers' behavioral training reduces the symptoms of ODD in children and prevents inappropriate behavior in family environment. Learning and applying principles such as avoiding punishment along with distinction between discipline and punishment, are the main principles of the training program that can reduce behavioral problems in children and increase their desirable behaviors

  4. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS such as depression, apathy, aggression, and psychosis are now recognized as core features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and there is a general consensus that greater symptom severity is predictive of faster cognitive decline, loss of independence, and even shorter survival. Whether these symptoms result from the same pathogenic processes responsible for cognitive decline or have unique etiologies independent of AD-associated neurodegeneration is unclear. Many structural and metabolic features of the AD brain are associated with individual neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. In addition, many genes have been identified and confirmed that are associated with symptom risk in a few cases. However, there are no single genes strongly predictive of individual neuropsychiatric syndromes, while functional and structural brain changes unique to specific symptoms may reflect variability in progression of the same pathological processes. Unfortunately, treatment success for these psychiatric symptoms may be lower when comorbid with AD, underscoring the importance of future research on their pathobiology and treatment. This review summarizes some of the most salient aspects of NPS pathogenesis.

  5. Getting Back to Work: Cognitive Behavioral Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Job Search Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Benjamin J; Strunk, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about how cognitive behavioral approaches to depression might explain functional impairments associated with the disorder, such as extended periods of unemployment. To address this issue, we examined 5 cognitive behavioral predictors of depressive symptom change and job search outcome. Using a sample of 75 unemployed adults, we examined cognitive style, brooding, dysfunctional attitudes, avoidance, and cognitive behavioral (CB) skills as predictors of change in depressive symptoms, job search self-efficacy, and receipt of a job offer over a 3-month period. CB skills predicted lower depressive symptoms and increased odds of having received a job offer at the follow-up. Brooding predicted change in job search self-efficacy, but not in the expected direction. CB skills appear to predict job search outcomes as well as depressive symptoms. We encourage future work examining how CB skills may affect depressive symptoms, job search behaviors, and other areas of functioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…

  7. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  8. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Morse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  9. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette’s disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using 4 methods: (1) the onset of new tic symptoms; (2) the occurrence of adverse events; (3) change in tic medications; and (4) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette’s disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of 8 sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette’s disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the longstanding concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's Disorder. PMID:26763495

  10. Depressive symptoms impact health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and quality of life in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Suzanne M; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 15% of persons with CVD have depressive symptoms, which are twice as likely to occur in women. Depressive symptoms in women being screened for CVD have not been well studied. The relationships between depressive symptoms, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors, heart disease risk awareness, cardiac risk, and quality of life (QOL) in women were investigated. Whether the effect of depressive symptoms on QOL was mediated by cardiac risk and/or health-promoting lifestyle behaviors was also examined. The Wilson-Cleary Health-Related Quality of Life Model guided this descriptive study. A convenience sample of 125 women was recruited from cardiac health screening events. The study measurements were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Framingham risk score; the Ferrans-Powers Quality of Life Index Generic Version-III; the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II; and questions related to heart disease risk, awareness of heart disease risk, health history, and demographics. Body mass index, percentage of body fat, and lipid profile were also measured. More than one-third (34%) of the women reported significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not associated with cardiac risk or risk awareness but were inversely associated with health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (r = -0.37, P lifestyle behaviors (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.97; P lifestyle behaviors mediated the association between depressive symptoms and QOL. Depressive symptoms contribute significantly to health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and QOL for women. Early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms are important for participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which could result in improved QOL.

  11. Allelic Variation of Risk for Anxiety Symptoms Moderates the Relation Between Adolescent Safety Behaviors and Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents (n=75; ages 14–17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation (β=0.37, t=2.41, p=.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors (β=0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation (β=0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety. PMID:26692635

  12. Behavioral and Psychologic Symptoms in Different Types of Dementia

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    Ming-Jang Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: A strategy of targeting type-specific BPSD may be beneficial, such as environmental stimulus control for DLB patients who are prone to have hallucinations, design of a pacing path for patients with FTD who need support for symptoms of wandering and emotional support for patients with VaD who are susceptible to depression.

  13. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms Among Overweight Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 indicate a significant reduction in binge eating symptoms following participation in a 16-week weight control interve...

  14. Augmented cognitive behavioral therapy for poststroke depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootker, J.A.; Rasquin, S.M.C.; Lem, F.C.; Heugten, C.M. van; Fasotti, L.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety poststroke. DESIGN: Multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Ambulatory rehabilitation setting. PARTICIPANTS:

  15. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms among Overweight Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…

  16. Change in Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Adolescents and Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Bolt, Daniel; Kring, Sheilah; Lounds, Julie; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This study examined change prospectively in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors during a 4.5 year period in 241 adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder who were 10-52 years old (mean=22.0) when the study began. Although many individuals' symptoms remained stable, a greater proportion of the sample experienced declines than…

  17. Supportive and cognitive behavioral group interventions on Bam earthquake related PTSD symptoms in adolescents

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    J Mahmoudi-Gharaei

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological debriefing has been widely advocated for routine use following major traumatic events. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions, art supportive therapies, and sport and recreational support activities are other interventions for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder. We assessed the effects of theses methods individually and in combination on reduction posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents who had experienced Bam earthquake. Methods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of psychological debriefing, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in 200 adolescents with PTSD symptoms who survived of Bam earthquake and compare it with a control group. Patients were randomly assigned to one of intervention programs including: group cognitive-behavioral therapy; group CBT plus art and sport interventions; art and sport interventions without group CBT; and control group. Results: Thirty one individuals were excluded because of migration. A statistically significant reduction in overall PTSD symptoms as well as in avoidance symptoms was observed after group cognitive-behavioral therapy. There was no significant difference in reduction of overall PTSD and avoidance symptoms between the other groups. Conclusion: Psychological interventions in form of group cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce the symptoms of PTSD symptoms but we couldn't find the art and sport supportive therapy alone or in combination with group CBT to be useful in this regard.

  18. Suicidal behavior in german adolescents. Prevalence and association with depressive and manic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Joana; Keller, Ferdinand; Sproeber, Nina; Koelch, Michael G; Plener, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Research in adults has identified an association between bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior. This relationship, however, has been insufficiently investigated in adolescents to date. 1,117 adolescents from 13 German schools (mean age = 14.83, SD = .63; 52.7% females) completed an extended German version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), which assesses depressive and manic symptoms during the last week, as well as the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire (SHBQ) for the assessment of lifetime suicidal behavior. In the present sample 39.4% of the girls and 23.1% of the boys reported lifetime suicidal thoughts and 7.1% of the girls as well as 3.9% of the boys a lifetime history of suicide attempts. 18.7% of the adolescent sample revealed elevated symptoms of depression and 9% elevated levels of mania symptoms. Elevated sum scores of depression and mania were associated with a higher number of suicidal ideations and suicide attempts. A block-wise regression analysis revealed that sum scores of depression and mania predicted suicidal ideations best. Concerning suicide attempts, the best predictors were age as well as depression and mania sum scores. Suicidal behavior was reported more often when adolescents demonstrate symptoms of mania as well as symptoms of depression than when they demonstrate only depressive symptoms. The presence of bipolar symptoms in adolescents should alert clinicians to the heightened possibility of suicidal behavior.

  19. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior.

  1. Behavioral Symptoms after Breast Cancer Treatment: A Biobehavioral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fagundes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer is emotionally and physically challenging. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death for women in the United States. Accordingly, women with a breast cancer history are the largest group of female cancer survivors. Psychological stress substantially augments adverse autonomic, endocrine, and immune discharge, including enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, inflammation is a key biological mechanism underlying the symptom cluster of pain, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances; there is also good evidence that inflammation contributes to breast cancer recurrence. Stress may exert direct effects on psychological and physiological risk processes. In this review, we take a biobehavioral approach to understanding predictors and mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms in breast cancer survivors.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and risky sexual behavior in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, G M Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O; Wu, Z Helen

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18-30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ≥3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.

  3. Eating disorders: scales to assess symptoms and risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro; Boneu-Yépez Deiby John; Muñoz-Méndez José Tomás; Almanza-Obredor Pedro Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: eating disorders are a group of syndromes that have in common,psychopathological traits that are largely determined by their physical appearance. Theyare much more common in women than in men, predominantly in young people. Thereis increased incidence of eating disorders, which are the result of improved knowledgeand the increasingly early implementation of better instruments for symptoms, riskfactors and the availability of well defined diagnostic criteria.Objective: to identif...

  4. Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Technology-Based Interpersonal Behaviors: A Multi-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Miller, Adam B; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of adolescents' depressive symptoms on engagement in technology-based social comparison and feedback seeking (SCFS) behaviors. A total of 816 adolescents (54.7% girls; M age =14.1 at Time 1) participated at three times points, each one year apart. Adolescents reported technology-based SCFS, depressive symptoms, and frequencies of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram). Multiple group (by gender) latent growth curve models examined concurrent and lagged effects of depressive symptoms on SCFS, controlling for adolescent's underlying trajectories of SCFS and overall frequencies of technology use. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with greater SCFS after accounting for adolescents' typical patterns of SCFS. For boys only, higher depressive symptoms were prospectively associated with later increases in SCFS. Results highlight the importance of social media as a unique context in which depressed adolescents may be at risk for maladaptive interpersonal behavior.

  5. Psychotic Symptoms, Anger, and Anxiety as Determinants of Agrresive Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Nederlof (Angela F.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAs an introduction on the topic of this dissertation, it might be interesting to look at some other cases of psychiatric patients that displayed clear-cut aggressive behavior towards other persons: Case 1. Twenty-nine-year-old man, who stabbed his mother’s fiancé in the chest with the

  6. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  7. The Role of Sensory Modulation Deficits and Behavioral Symptoms in a Diagnosis for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Robles, Ruth; Doval, Eduardo; Jane, Ma Claustre; da Silva, Pedro Caldeira; Papoila, Ana Luisa; Virella, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To contribute to the validation of the sensory and behavioral criteria for Regulation Disorders of Sensory Processing (RDSP) (DC:0-3R, 2005), this study examined a sample of toddlers in a clinical setting to analyze: (1) the severity of sensory modulation deficits and the behavioral symptoms of RDSP; (2) the associations between sensory and…

  8. White Teachers' Racial Identities, Perceptions of Students' Behaviors, and Symptoms of Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cynthia E.

    2013-01-01

    Educational research has examined factors contributing to teachers' burnout symptoms, including their perceptions of student behaviors (Ingersoll, 2003). Interestingly, teacher and students' races have been differentially related to teachers' perceptions of student behavior (Downey & Pribesh, 2004); this disparity in perceptions has been…

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Problematic Overeating Behaviors in Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Susan M; Frazier, Patricia A; Austin, S Bryn; Harlow, Bernard L; Jackson, Benita; Raymond, Nancy C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for obesity, but the range of behaviors that contribute to this association are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between self-reported PTSD symptoms in 2007, with and without comorbid depression symptoms, and three problematic overeating behaviors in 2010, and to estimate the associations of PTSD-related overeating behaviors with obesity. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses included 7438 male (n = 2478) and female (n = 4960) participants from the Growing Up Today Study (mean age 22-29 years in 2010). Three eating behavior outcomes were assessed: binge eating (eating a large amount of food in a short period of time with loss of control), top quartile of coping-motivated eating (from the Motivations to Eat scale), and top quartile of disinhibited eating (from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire). PTSD symptoms were associated with two- to threefold increases in binge eating and top-quartile coping-motivated eating; having ≥4 PTSD symptoms, relative to no PTSD symptoms, was associated with covariate-adjusted RRs of 2.7 (95% CI 2.1, 3.4) for binge eating, 2.1 (95% CI 1.9, 2.4) for the top quartile of coping-motivated eating, and 1.5 (95% CI 1.3, 1.7) for the top quartile of disinhibited eating. There was a trend toward PTSD symptoms in 2007 predicting new onset binge eating in 2010. Having depression symptoms comorbid with PTSD symptoms further increased risk of binge eating and coping-motivated eating. All eating behaviors were associated with obesity. Clinicians treating patients with PTSD should know of potential comorbid problematic eating behaviors that may contribute to obesity.

  10. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.

  11. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  12. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

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    A Abollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.

  13. The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Craven, Ruth F; Whitney, Joie

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 80% of nursing home residents who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and related dementia develop behavioral symptoms of dementia. Given the deleterious side effects of pharmacologic therapy in this population there is an urgent need for clinical trials of nonpharmacologic interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch on the frequency and intensity of behavioral symptoms of dementia. A randomized, double-blind, three-group experimental study: experimental (therapeutic touch), placebo (placebo therapeutic touch), and control (usual care). Fifty-seven residents, aged 67 to 93 years, exhibiting behavioral symptoms of dementia, were randomized to one of the three groups within each of three Special Care Units within three Long-Term Care facilities in a western Canadian province. Behavioral observation was completed every 20 minutes from 8:00AM to 6:00PM for three days pre-intervention and for three days post-intervention by trained observers who were blind to group assignment. The intervention consisted of therapeutic touch given twice daily for 5-7 minutes for three days between 10:00AM and 11:30PM and between 3:00PM and 4:30PM (N = 57). The main outcome variable was overall behavioral symptoms of dementia, consisting of six categories of behaviors: manual manipulation (restlessness), escape restraints, searching and wandering, tapping and banging, pacing and walking, and vocalization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F = 3.331, P = .033) and the Kruskal-Wallis test (chi2 = 6.661, P = .036) indicated a significant difference in overall behavioral symptoms of dementia, manual manipulation and vocalization when the experimental group was compared to the placebo and control groups. The experimental (significant) was more effective in decreasing behavioral symptoms of dementia than usual care, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in behavioral symptoms of dementia compared to usual care. Therapeutic touch offers a nonpharmacological

  14. Parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Symptoms of Major Depression in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Tonje; Steinsbekk, Silje; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-02-01

    The prospective relation between physical activity and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-defined major depression in middle childhood is unknown, as is the stability of depression. We therefore aimed to (1) determine whether there are reciprocal relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior, on one hand, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition defined symptoms of major depressive disorder, on the other and (2) assess the extent of stability in depressive symptoms from age 6 to 10 years. A community sample of children living in Trondheim, Norway, comprising a total of 795 6-year-old children was followed up at 8 (n = 699) and 10 (n = 702) years of age. Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry and symptoms of major depression were measured through semistructured clinical interviews of parents and children. Bidirectional relationships between MVPA, sedentary activity, and symptoms of depression were analyzed through autoregressive cross-lagged models, and adjusted for symptoms of comorbid psychiatric disorders and BMI. At both age 6 and 8 years, higher MVPA predicted fewer symptoms of major depressive disorders 2 years later. Sedentary behavior did not predict depression, and depression predicted neither MVPA nor sedentary activity. The number of symptoms of major depression declined from ages 6 to 8 years and evidenced modest continuity. MVPA predicts fewer symptoms of major depression in middle childhood, and increasing MVPA may serve as a complementary method to prevent and treat childhood depression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Facets of Mindfulness Mediate the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Spears, Claire A.; Peltier, MacKenzie R.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms is well-established. Dispositional mindfulness has been associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower smoking dependence, and higher odds of smoking cessation. Given that mindfulness is multi-faceted, the current study examined which facets of mindfulness might mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking behavior. Participants (n = 72) completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD), and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; subscales-Observe, Describe, Acting with Awareness, Accepting without Judgment), and indicated number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Simple mediation models (followed by multiple mediation when more than one facet was significant) tested whether mindfulness facets mediated the relationship between CESD and smoking behavior (CPD and SCQ subscales). Results indicated that 1) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was related to lower Negative Reinforcement expectancies, 2) lower depressive symptoms were associated with increased Describe, which was associated with greater perceived Negative Consequences, 3) lower depressive symptoms were associated with higher Accepting without Judgment, which was associated with lower Negative Consequences expectancies, and 4) higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher scores on Observe, which related to both greater Positive Reinforcement and Negative Consequences expectancies. Greater Accepting without Judgment and Describe aspects of mindfulness may serve as protective factors in the relationship of depressive symptoms and smoking. PMID:28083076

  17. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ‎.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls' dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012).‎ Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎.

  18. Pelvic floor symptoms improve similarly after pessary and behavioral treatment for stress incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenton, Kimberly; Barber, Matthew; Wang, Lu; Hsu, Yvonne; Rahn, David; Whitcomb, Emily; Amundsen, Cindy; Bradley, Catherine S; Zyczynski, Halina; Richter, Holly E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if differences exist in pelvic symptom distress and impact on women randomized to pessary versus behavioral therapy for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Change in symptom and condition-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) measures were compared between pessary and behavioral groups 3 months after randomization in the Ambulatory Treatments for Leakage Associated With Stress Incontinence trial. Four hundred forty-six women with symptoms of SUI were randomized to continence pessary, behavioral therapy (pelvic floor muscle training and continence strategies) or combination therapy. Validated measures utilized included urinary, prolapse, and colorectal scales of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory; urinary, prolapse, and colorectal scales of the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire; and Stress and Urge scales of the Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis. Student t test and analysis of variance were used to compare scores within and between groups. Mean age of participants was 49.8 (SD, 11.9) years; 84% were white, and 10% were African American. One hundred forty-nine were randomized to pessary, and 146 to behavioral therapy. Baseline symptoms and HRQOL scores were significantly reduced within treatment arms at 3 months after randomization, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. There was no difference in pelvic floor symptom bother and HRQOL between the pessary and behavioral therapy arms in women undergoing conservative treatment for SUI. Individualized preference issues should be considered in the approach to the nonsurgical treatment of SUI.

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  20. Maternal depressive symptoms, maternal behavior, and toddler internalizing outcomes: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children's outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive symptoms and their toddlers' temperament and internalizing behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal warmth on the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler internalizing outcomes for boys with low negative emotionality. Toddler gender and temperament moderated the relation between maternal intrusiveness and toddler internalizing outcomes, but mediation was not supported. Results highlight the important interaction between child and maternal variables in predicting child outcomes, and suggest mechanisms by and conditions under which mild maternal depressive symptomatology can be a risk factor for toddler internalizing outcomes.

  1. Premorbid personality traits in Alzheimer's disease: do they predispose to noncognitive behavioral symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, W; Frey, A; Thiesemann, R

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether premorbid personality traits predispose to noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Munich Personality Test was used to evaluate caregivers' perception of personality prior to symptom onset in 56 outpatients with probable AD. Caregivers also completed the "mood" and "disturbed behavior" scales of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients. A neuropsychiatrist rated depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale for Depression and the occurrence of personality change in four domains according to ICD-10. Under statistical control of confounding variables, results showed a moderate association between (high) premorbid neuroticism, subsequent troublesome behavior, and personality change, on the one hand, and (low) frustration tolerance and depression, on the other. Premorbid personality traits may indeed predispose to subsequent noncognitive symptoms in AD.

  2. The effects of parental depressive symptoms, appraisals, and physical punishment on later child externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A; Olson, Sheryl L; Choe, Daniel E; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2012-04-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions of their child's reciprocal affection and responsiveness, frequency of physical punishment, and child externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided ratings of externalizing behavior at T2. Structural equation modeling revealed that parents' negative attributions mediated positive relations between their depressive symptoms and frequency of physical punishment for both fathers and mothers. More frequent physical punishment, in turn, predicted increased child externalizing behavior at T2. In future research, transactional mechanisms underlying effects of clinical depression on child conduct problems should be explored at multiple stages of development. For parents showing depressive symptoms, restructuring distorted perceptions about their children's behavior may be an important component of intervention programs.

  3. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N.; Smith, April R.; Fussner, Lauren M.; Dodd, Dorian R.; Clerkin, Elise M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives ”Fast” (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; “slow” (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. Design We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Method Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Results Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Conclusion Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence. PMID:26195916

  4. Associations between television watching and car riding behaviors and development of depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xuemei; Brown, Wendy J; Lavie, Carl J; West, Delia S; Pate, Russel R; Payne, Jonathan P W; Blair, Steven N

    2015-02-01

    To examine the longitudinal association between sedentary behaviors and risk of development of depressive symptoms. The study population consisted of 4802 participants in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (1012 women and 3790 men) aged 18 to 80 years who did not report depressive moods when they completed a health survey during 1982 in which they reported their time spent watching television (TV) and riding in a car each week. All participants completed a follow-up health survey when they responded to the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Those who scored 8 or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were considered to have depressive symptoms. Among the 4802 participants, 568 reported depressive symptoms during a mean follow-up of 9.3 years. After multivariate adjustment including moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, time riding in a car, time watching TV, and combined time spent in the 2 sedentary behaviors were positively associated with depressive symptoms (each Pwatching TV, or 19 h/wk or more of combined sedentary behavior had 28%, 52%, and 74% greater risk of development of depressive symptoms than those who reported less than 5 h/wk, less than 5 h/wk, or less than 12 h/wk, respectively, after adjusting for baseline covariates and moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. The positive association between time riding in a car or time watching TV and depressive symptoms was only observed among individuals who did not meet the current physical activity guidelines. More time reported in these 2 sedentary behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms. However, the direct associations between time spent in car riding and TV viewing and depressive symptoms were only significant among those who did not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mexican American adolescents' family obligation values and behaviors: links to internalizing symptoms across time and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Tsai, Kim M; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Family obligation is an important aspect of family relationships among families from Mexican backgrounds and can have significant implications for adolescents' well-being. Prior research and theory regarding youths' obligations offer conflicting hypotheses about whether it is detrimental or beneficial for adolescents' well-being. In the current longitudinal study, we used a daily diary method among 428 Mexican American adolescents and their parents to closely examine the impact of adolescents' family obligation values and family assistance behaviors on internalizing symptoms over time. The authors closely examined the role of the family context in these associations. Results suggest that family obligation values relate to declines in adolescents' internalizing symptoms, whereas family assistance behaviors are both a protective and risk factor, depending on the family context. Only when youths provide family assistance in response to acute changes in parental physical and psychological distress do family assistance behaviors relate to increases in adolescents' internalizing symptoms.

  6. Socio-psychological mediators of the relationship between behavioral health stigma and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Bronwyn A; Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Prince, Dana M; Thompson, Azure B; Matlin, Samantha L; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2017-05-01

    The stigma associated with mental illness or addiction is significantly and positively related to psychiatric symptoms. According to Modified Labeling Theory, several processes should mediate this relationship, including rejection experiences, stigma management (secrecy coping), and social support. In the first comprehensive test of this theory, we examined a serial mediation model on three waves of data from 138 adults receiving outpatient behavioral health treatment. Participants were recruited from outpatient behavioral health clinics in a large northeastern city in the United States and completed interviews that assessed stigma, rejection experiences, stigma management, social support, and psychiatric symptoms. There was a direct effect between stigma and psychiatric symptoms and an indirect effect in which perceived rejection, secrecy coping and social support sequentially and longitudinally intervened in the stigma and psychiatric symptom relationship. Higher perceptions of stigma predicted more rejection experiences, which marginally increased secrecy coping and decreased social support. In turn, decreased social support increased psychiatric symptoms. We provide support for Modified Labeling Theory and the clinical utility of specific mediators in the relationship between stigma and psychiatric symptoms among adults in behavioral health treatment living in urban settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  8. [The Relationship Between Coping Behaviors and Symptom Distress in Elderly Patients With Cancer Undergoing Initial Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Ya-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Elderly cancer patients undergoing initial chemotherapy often suffer discomfort from medication-related symptom distress. This discomfort may affect treatment responses and outcomes negatively. This correlational, cross-sectional design study used a purposive sample of 100 patients who were both over 60 years of age and currently undergoing initial chemotherapy. The participants completed a structured questionnaire that was administered at a medical center in southern Taiwan. The questionnaire included a demographics datasheet, Coping Behavior Scale, and Symptom Distress Scale. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal Wallis tests, which were run on SPSS 19.0 software. This correlational, cross-sectional design study used a purposive sample of 100 patients who were both over 60 years of age and currently undergoing initial chemotherapy. The participants completed a structured questionnaire that was administered at a medical center in southern Taiwan. The questionnaire included a demographics datasheet, Coping Behavior Scale, and Symptom Distress Scale. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal Wallis tests, which were run on SPSS 19.0 software. Three-quarters (78%) of participants reported that they suffered from more than four distress symptoms. The top distress symptoms in terms of severity included: fatigue, poor appetite, insomnia, dry mouth, and altered bowel habits. The top distress symptoms in terms of frequency included: fatigue, dry mouth, poor appetite, insomnia, and altered bowel habits. "Problem-focused" coping was the most frequent type of coping behavior (mean = 3.19, SD = 0.24) that was used by participants. Furthermore, more frequent use of "emotions-focused" coping behaviors was associated with a greater risk of experiencing serious distress symptoms (r =.44, p < .001). Number of chronic diseases, cancer stage, and type of cancer

  9. Effects of an irritable bowel syndrome educational class on health-promoting behaviors and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, L J; Prather, C M; Phillips, S F; Zinsmeister, A R

    1998-06-01

    The degree to which patient education in the areas of diet, exercise, and stress management can improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) through healthier lifestyle behaviors is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of outpatient education on the short and long term outcomes, and the association between health-promoting behaviors and symptoms. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework. The study had a prospective longitudinal design. A consecutive sample of 52 adult outpatients with IBS attended a structured class that taught health-promoting modifications of lifestyle. Participants completed the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and selected items from a Bowel Disease Questionnaire (BDQ) before the class and 1 month and 6 months later. Spearman rank correlations were used to assess the association between HPLP and symptom scores. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compared changes in scores versus their baseline values. Response rates at 1 and 6 months were 75% and 83%, respectively. Results revealed significant 1- and 6 month-improvements in pain and Manning symptoms (p health-promoting behaviors. However, relationships among specific behaviors and specific symptoms did not consistently correspond with this improvement.

  10. A Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Symptom Management in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Paula; Given, Barbara A.; Given, Charles W.; Champion, Victoria L.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Azzouz, Faouzi; Kozachik, Sharon; Wagler-Ziner, Kim; Monahan, Patrick O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention in decreasing symptom severity in patients with advanced cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial based on cognitive behavioral theory. Setting: Six urban cancer centers in the midwestern United States. Sample: 124 patients 21 years of age or older were recruited and randomized to receive conventional care or conventional care and an intervention. Participants were newly diagnosed with stage III, stage IV, or recurrent cancer (solid tumor or non-Hodgkin lymphoma), undergoing chemotherapy, cognitively intact, and able to read and speak English. Methods: Data were gathered via telephone interviews at baseline and 10 and 20 weeks after randomization. Nurses with experience in oncology delivered a five-contact, eight-week intervention aimed at teaching patients problem-solving techniques to affect symptom severity. Main Research Variables: Gender, site of cancer, age, symptom severity and depressive symptoms at baseline, group (i.e., experimental versus control), and total symptom severity. Findings: Patients in the experimental group and those with lower symptom severity at baseline had significantly lower symptom severity at 10 and 20 weeks; the experimental difference at 20 weeks occurred primarily in those 60 years of age and younger. Depressive symptoms at baseline predicted symptom severity at 20 weeks; however, age, gender, and site of cancer did not affect symptom severity at either time point. Conclusions: Implications for Nursing: Problem-solving strategies should be included in educational programs for patients with advanced cancer, particularly those 60 years of age and younger. PMID:16270114

  11. Longitudinal Associations Among Bullying by Peers, Disordered Eating Behavior, and Symptoms of Depression During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty S; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2018-04-11

    Bullying by peers has been associated with disordered eating behavior and symptoms of depression among adolescents as both an antecedent and an outcome. Identification of the temporal pattern of associations among bullying by peers, disordered eating behavior, and depression in adolescence is needed for the optimal targeting of intervention and prevention. To assess the concurrent and longitudinal associations among bullying by peers, disordered eating behavior, and symptoms of depression using a cascade model that controlled for within-time and across-time (ie, stability paths) associations while examining cross-lag effects. In this 5-year longitudinal cohort study, 612 participants of the McMaster Teen Study were included. This ongoing Canadian study examines the associations among bullying, mental health, and educational outcomes. Data collection began in 2008 when students were in grade 5 (10 years of age) and have since been collected annually. Data analysis was performed between August 20 and October 18, 2017. Bullying by peers was assessed in grades 7 to 11 using a composite measure of 5 items. Disordered eating behavior was assessed in grades 7 to 11 using the Short Screen for Eating Disorders, and depressive symptoms were assessed in grades 7 to 11 using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition. The 612 students included in the analytic sample had a mean age (SD) of 13.03 (0.38) years in grade 7; 331 (54.1%) were girls and 392 (71.1%) were white. Bullying by peers was concurrently associated with disordered eating behavior and depressive symptoms at every time point during the 5-year period (r range [SE], 0.15-0.48 [0.04-0.08]; P peers at 2 time points (β range [SE], 0.12-0.22 [0.06-0.07]; P peers was proximally associated with multiple psychopathologic symptoms, whereas symptoms of disordered eating behavior were a key risk factor for future depressive symptoms and bullying by peers. Interventions aimed at reducing problematic

  12. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  13. Factors Influencing Maternal Behavioral Adaptability: Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.

  14. Symptoms of Persistent Behavior Problems in Children With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Orchinik, Leah J; Minich, Nori; Dietrich, Ann; Nuss, Kathryn; Wright, Martha; Bangert, Barbara; Rusin, Jerome; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children on symptom ratings of behavior problems across the first-year postinjury. Emergency departments of 2 regional children's hospitals. Parents of 176 children with mTBI and 90 children with orthopedic injury aged 8 to 15 years. Group comparisons of postinjury parent and teacher ratings of child behavior problems controlling for background factors. Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form. For younger but not older children in the sample, children with mTBI compared with children with orthopedic injury had higher postinjury ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist Total Behavior Problem scale (t264 = 3.34, P < .001) and higher rates of T-scores of 60 or more on this scale (odds ratio = 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-6.77; P = .008). For children with mTBI, hospitalization, motor vehicle accidents, loss of consciousness, and magnetic resonance imaging abnormality were associated with higher parent or teacher ratings. School-aged children with mTBI are at risk for persistent symptoms of behavior problems, especially if mTBI is more severe or occurs at a younger age. The findings justify monitoring of behavior long after injury and further research to identify risk factors for these symptoms and their association with clinical disorders.

  15. Associations between health risk behaviors and symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature to determine if health risk behaviors in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are associated with subsequent symptom burden or level of functioning. Method Using the PRISMA systematic review method we searched PubMed, Cochrane, PsychInfo and EMBASE databases with key words: health risk behaviors, diet, obesity, overweight, BMI, smoking, tobacco use, cigarette use, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity, activity level, fitness, sitting AND schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar illness, schizoaffective disorder, severe and persistent mental illness, and psychotic to identify prospective, controlled studies of greater than 6 months duration. Included studies examined associations between sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and subsequent symptom severity or functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Results Eight of the 2130 articles identified met inclusion criteria and included 508 patients with a health risk behavior and 825 controls. Six studies examined tobacco use and two studies examined weight gain/obesity. Seven studies found that patients with schizophrenia or bipolar illness and at least one health risk behavior had more severe subsequent psychiatric symptoms and/or decreased level of functioning. Conclusion Tobacco use and weight gain/obesity may be associated with increased severity of symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or decreased level of functioning. PMID:23044246

  16. Latent class analysis of eating and impulsive behavioral symptoms in Taiwanese women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The implications of impulsivity in its relationship with binge-eating or purging behaviors remain unclear. This study examined the patterns of eating behaviors and co-morbid impulsive behaviors in individuals with bulimia nervosa n optimally homogeneous classes using latent class analysis (LCA). All participants (n=180) were asked to complete a series of self-reported inventories of impulsive behaviors and other psychological measures. Information regarding the lifetime presence of symptoms of eating disorder was assessed by clinical interviews. LCA was conducted using eating disorder symptoms, impulsive behaviors, and the number of purging methods. Three latent classes of bulimic women were identified. These were women who exhibited relatively higher rates of purging, symptoms of impulsive behavior, and multiple purging methods (17.8%), women who used no more than one purging method with a low occurrence of impulsive behavior (41.7%), and women who showed higher rates of purging behaviors and the use of multiple purging methods with a low rate of impulsive behavior (41.7%). The impulsive sub-group had comparable severity of eating-related measures, frequency of binge-eating, and higher levels of general psychopathology than that of the other two sub-groups. This study provides empirical support for the existence of an impulsive subgroup with distinctive features among a non-Western group of BN patients. This study also suggests that mechanisms other than impulse dysregulation may exist for the development of binge-eating and purging behaviors in bulimia nervosa patients, or the mechanisms contributing to binge-eating and impulsive behaviors may be different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of management of patients with Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa on symptoms and impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernec, Karin; Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to provide further and up to date information on the evaluation of the management of Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa at the Eating Disorders Unit (EDU) of the Ljubljana Psychiatric Clinic, based upon detailed assessment of the eating disorders specific and non specific symptoms of impulsive behaviors, highly correlated with these entities. 34 female patients with anorexia (restrictive or purgative type) and 38 female patients with Bulimia nervosa (purgative or non-purgative type) undergoing hospital treatment at the EDU were evaluated upon admission, as well as upon discharge and three and six months after discharge, using the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Upon discharge a marked decrease in the overall symptoms was noted. The differences in symptoms incidences between the two groups were significantly specific for the individual form of eating disorder, especially upon admission, and were more pronounced in anorexia group. In later measurements, performed during the period of three and six months after discharge, a mild trend of increase in the disorder specific symptoms was detected in both groups, but was not statistically significant. In addition to binging on food, striking, quarreling and spending sprees are characteristics of patients with eating disorders, which in particular apply to the Bulimia nervosa group. Apart from the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior was also reduced during study period, while the difference in its occurrence between the two groups gradually became non-significant. The management of patients with eating disorders at the EDU was successful in both groups, confirmed by an intense reduction of the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior and increased stability recorded three and six months after discharge. The study strongly suggests that the effect of treatment regime for eating disorders can be predicted by careful assessment of the relevant symptoms and impulsive behavioral patterns.

  18. Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2016-05-15

    While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems. We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes. Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences. Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms. Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prevalence, Perceptions, and Healthcare-Seeking Behavior amongst Nigerian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus Wale Ojewola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and the factors influencing the healthcare-seeking behavior of men with LUTS. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed of 658 men selected using multi-staged sampling techniques. They were interviewed about LUTS and their healthcare-seeking behavior. The data were analysed using PASW Statistics ver. 18. Associations between specific factors and healthcare-seeking behavior were examined using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: The overall prevalence of LUTS was 59.1%. Storage symptoms (48.2% were more prevalent than voiding (36.8% or post-micturition (29.9% symptoms. Approximately a quarter (25.5% had a poor quality of life (QoL score. The average duration of symptoms before seeking help was 3.4 years. Almost half (46.8% of the men with LUTS had never sought help. Perceptions of LUTS as an inevitable part of ageing, subjective feelings of wellness, financial constraints, and fear of surgery were the most common reasons for not seeking help. The most common reasons for seeking help were to moderate-severe symptoms, impaired QoL, and fear of cancer. Severe LUTS, impaired QoL, and the concomitant presence of erectile dysfunction, dysuria, or haematuria were clinical factors that positively influenced healthcare-seeking behavior. Conclusions: In this population-based study, we found that the prevalence of LUTS was very high amongst adult males. However, only about half of these men sought medical attention. Their healthcare-seeking behavior was influenced by severity of symptoms, QoL scores, and socio-demographic factors such as educational status.

  20. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5?6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...

  1. Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

  2. Structured behavioral treatment research protocol for women with mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Borello-France, Diane; Sung, Vivian W

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim is to provide detailed rationale and methodology for the development and implementation of a perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise research protocol for women who self-chose surgical intervention and who may or may not have been offered behavioral treatments initially. This protocol is part of the ESTEEM trial (Effects of Surgical Treatment Enhanced with Exercise for Mixed Urinary Incontinence Trial) which was designed to determine the effect of a combined surgical and perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention versus surgery alone on improving mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. As part of a multi-site, prospective, randomized trial of women with MUI electing midurethral sling (MUS) surgical treatment, participants were randomized to a standardized perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention + MUS versus MUS alone. The specific behavioral intervention included: education on voiding habits, pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), bladder training (BT), strategies to control urgency and reduce/prevent urinary symptoms, and monitoring/promoting adherence to behavioral recommendations. To ensure consistency across all eight research sites in the pelvic floor disorders network (PFDN), selective behavioral treatments sessions were audiotaped and audited for protocol adherence. The behavioral intervention protocol includes individualization of interventions using an algorithm based on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) assessment, participant symptoms, and findings from the study visits. We present, here, the specific perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise interventions administered by study interventionists. This paper details a perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention research study protocol developed for women undergoing surgery for MUI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Is there an association between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zschoche M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Zschoche, Angelika Anita Schlarb Faculty of Psychology and Sports Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany Purpose: Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods: A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results: Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion: Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. Keywords: adolescents, aggressive behavior, sleep problems

  4. Gender Differences in the Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms on Community Couples' Intimacy Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kaitlin E.; Leifker, Feea R.; Blandon, Alysia Y.; Marshall, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    Problems in intimate relationships frequently occur among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study includes examination of whether deficits in the intimacy process occur among couples affected by PTSD, and whether gender differences exist in the association between PTSD symptom severity and intimate behaviors. Heterosexual community couples in which at least 1 partner was experiencing elevated symptoms of PTSD were video-recorded while discussing positive and negative aspects of their relationship. Each partner's intimacy behaviors (i.e., self-disclosure and support provision) were coded. Results of an actor-partner interdependence model indicate that husbands, but not wives, with greater PTSD symptom severity provided less support (i.e., expressions of understanding, validation, and caring) to their partners during discussions of negative aspects of their relationship. This finding supports prior literature while increasing generalizability beyond samples of male combat veterans and addressing a possible confound of prior research that has exclusively relied on self-reported intimacy. In addition, wives' PTSD symptom severity was associated with husbands engaging in more self-disclosure when discussing negative aspects of their relationship, which may have represented husbands' expression of more negative thoughts and feelings in this context. Overall, women appeared to be resilient against the potential negative impact of PTSD symptoms on their ability to continue providing intimacy behaviors to their partners. PMID:23750534

  5. Caregiver distress associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms in mild Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Pedro Balieiro Jr.

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Caregiver Distress and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementias (BPSD in mild Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Fifty patients and caregivers were interviewed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Results: 96.0% of the patients had at least one BPSD. The mean NPI total score was 19.6 (SD=18.05; range=0-78 whereas the mean Caregiver Distress Index (CDI total score was 11.5 (SD=10.41; range=0-40. For the individual symptoms, the weighted mean CDI was 2.8 (SD=1.58. All symptom CDI means were higher than 2.0 except for euphoria/elation (m=1.8; SD=1.49. There were correlations between CDI and derived measures (Frequency, Severity, FxS, and Amplitude for all symptoms, except Disinhibition and Night-time behavior. Correlations ranged between 0.443 and 0.894, with significance at p<0.05. Conclusions: All the derived measures, including amplitude, were useful in at least some cases. The data suggests that CDI cannot be inferred from symptom presence or profile. Symptoms should be systematically investigated.

  6. Trajectories of Symptom Reduction and Engagement during Treatment for Childhood Behavior Disorders: Differences across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…

  7. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  8. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  9. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  10. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  11. Restrictive Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…

  12. Disentangling the Temporal Relationship Between Parental Depressive Symptoms and Early Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Jaccard, James

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable amount of research demonstrating the relationship between parental depressive symptoms and child behavior problems, few studies have examined the direction of the relationship between these variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine transactional effects between parental depressive symptoms and child behavior problems. Participants were 209 parent-child dyads drawn from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project who completed at least 2 of 4 annual questionnaire assessments between the child’s age of 4 and 7 years. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the autoregressive paths from one year to the next year within each construct, as well as cross-lagged paths from one year to the next year between constructs. Findings indicated that parental depressive symptoms at each year predicted child behavior problems at the subsequent year and vice versa. No support was found for differential gender effects. These findings highlight the reciprocal relationship between parental depressive symptoms and child behavior problems and suggest intervention programs for young children should assess for and target parental depression when appropriate. Future research should examine these relationships across a broader developmental spectrum and in more diverse, heterogeneous samples. PMID:22963145

  13. Rigid-Compulsive Behaviors Are Associated with Mixed Bowel Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid…

  14. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Maladjustment: The Mediating Role of Parental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported…

  15. Improving work style behavior in computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical

  16. PTSD's risky behavior criterion: Relation with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie

    2017-06-01

    A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief Behavioral Interventions for Symptoms of Depression and Insomnia in University Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…

  18. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  19. Improving Work Style Behavior in Computer Workers with Neck and Upper Limb Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Ariens, G.A.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical

  20. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  1. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  2. Study the Relationship of Executive Functions with Behavioral Symptoms in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Shiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relation between autism disorder’s symptoms and cognitive capabilities can help with a better phenotype description of this disorder and can facilitate its pathological evaluation and treatment. Destruction of executive functions seems to be one of the cognitive reasons of potential phenotype in autism disorder. Thus, the present paper aims to study the relationship between executive dysfunction and autism disorder’s symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional research, 50 children with high-functioning autism were selected using convenience sampling method from Behara, Tehranpars and Roshd centers. Then, the GARS test and Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire was completed by therapists and neuropsychological tests of Strop and continuous performance test and shift attention were taken by the subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient and multi-variant regression were used for data analysis. Results: There is a significant positive relationship between selective attention with communicative and social interaction symptoms, sustained attention with social interaction symptoms and repetitive behaviors, shifting attention with communicative, social interaction and repetitive behavior symptoms (P<0.001 (P<0.01 (P<0.05. In addition, the results of regression analysis also revealed that selective attention and shifting attention can predict communication, and sustained attention can predict social interaction and repetitive behaviors symptoms (P<0.01 (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained by this study indicate the significant role of executive functions in autistic symptoms. Thus, it is recommended to consider new treatment interventions in repairing executive functions for treatment of children with autistic disorder.

  3. Acute respiratory symptoms and evacuation-related behavior after exposure to chlorine gas leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Woo; Choi, Won-Jun; Yi, Min-Kee; Song, Seng-Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed on the accidental chlorine gas leakage that occurred in a factory of printed circuit boards manufactured without chlorine. Health examination was performed for all 52 workers suspected of exposure to chlorine gas, and their evacuation-related behaviors were observed in addition to analyzing the factors that affected the duration of their acute respiratory symptoms. Behavioral characteristics during the incidence of the accidental chlorine gas leakage, the estimated time of exposure, and the duration of subjective acute respiratory symptoms were investigated. In addition, clinical examination, chest radiography, and dental erosion test were performed. As variables that affected the duration of respiratory symptoms, dose group, body weight, age, sex, smoking, work period, and wearing a protective gear were included and analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 47 workers exposed to chlorine gas, 36 (77 %) developed more than one subjective symptom. The duration of the subjective symptoms according to exposure level significantly differed, with a median of 1 day (range, 0-5 days) in the low-exposure group and 2 days (range, 0-25 days) in the high-exposure group. Among the variables that affected the duration of the acute respiratory symptoms, which were analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazard model, only exposure level was significant (hazard ratio 2.087, 95 % CI = 1.119, 3.890). Regarding the evacuation-related behaviors, 22 workers (47 %) voluntarily evacuated to a safety zone immediately after recognizing the accidental exposure, but 25 workers (43 %) delayed evacuation until the start of mandatory evacuation (min 5, max 25 min). The duration of the subjective acute respiratory symptoms significantly differed between the low- and high-exposure groups. Among the 27 workers in the high-exposure group, 17 misjudged the toxicity after being aware of the gas leakage, which is a relatively high number.

  4. Mobile Phone Sensor Correlates of Depressive Symptom Severity in Daily-Life Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Karr, Christopher J; Schueller, Stephen M; Corden, Marya E; Kording, Konrad P

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, burdensome, often recurring mental health disorder that frequently goes undetected and untreated. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have an increasingly large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the detection of daily-life behavioral markers using mobile phone global positioning systems (GPS) and usage sensors, and their use in identifying depressive symptom severity. Methods A total of 40 adult participants were recruited from the general community to carry a mobile phone with a sensor data acquisition app (Purple Robot) for 2 weeks. Of these participants, 28 had sufficient sensor data received to conduct analysis. At the beginning of the 2-week period, participants completed a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9). Behavioral features were developed and extracted from GPS location and phone usage data. Results A number of features from GPS data were related to depressive symptom severity, including circadian movement (regularity in 24-hour rhythm; r=-.63, P=.005), normalized entropy (mobility between favorite locations; r=-.58, P=.012), and location variance (GPS mobility independent of location; r=-.58, P=.012). Phone usage features, usage duration, and usage frequency were also correlated (r=.54, P=.011, and r=.52, P=.015, respectively). Using the normalized entropy feature and a classifier that distinguished participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) from those without (PHQ-9 score mobile phone sensor data, including GPS and phone usage, provided behavioral markers that were strongly related to depressive symptom severity. While these findings must be replicated in a larger study among participants with confirmed clinical symptoms, they suggest that phone sensors offer numerous clinical opportunities, including continuous monitoring of at-risk populations with

  5. Mobile Phone Sensor Correlates of Depressive Symptom Severity in Daily-Life Behavior: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Karr, Christopher J; Schueller, Stephen M; Corden, Marya E; Kording, Konrad P; Mohr, David C

    2015-07-15

    Depression is a common, burdensome, often recurring mental health disorder that frequently goes undetected and untreated. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have an increasingly large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore the detection of daily-life behavioral markers using mobile phone global positioning systems (GPS) and usage sensors, and their use in identifying depressive symptom severity. A total of 40 adult participants were recruited from the general community to carry a mobile phone with a sensor data acquisition app (Purple Robot) for 2 weeks. Of these participants, 28 had sufficient sensor data received to conduct analysis. At the beginning of the 2-week period, participants completed a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9). Behavioral features were developed and extracted from GPS location and phone usage data. A number of features from GPS data were related to depressive symptom severity, including circadian movement (regularity in 24-hour rhythm; r=-.63, P=.005), normalized entropy (mobility between favorite locations; r=-.58, P=.012), and location variance (GPS mobility independent of location; r=-.58, P=.012). Phone usage features, usage duration, and usage frequency were also correlated (r=.54, P=.011, and r=.52, P=.015, respectively). Using the normalized entropy feature and a classifier that distinguished participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) from those without (PHQ-9 score mobile phone sensor data, including GPS and phone usage, provided behavioral markers that were strongly related to depressive symptom severity. While these findings must be replicated in a larger study among participants with confirmed clinical symptoms, they suggest that phone sensors offer numerous clinical opportunities, including continuous monitoring of at-risk populations with little patient burden and

  6. Behavioral Couples Treatment for Substance Use Disorder: Secondary Effects on the Reduction of Youth Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the secondary effects of Behavioral Couples Treatment (BCT) for parents with substance use disorder on youth reports of internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms). Participants were 59 triads (father, mothers, and youth; 32 girls, 27 boys) in which one or both parents met criteria for drug or alcohol use disorder (or both). Mothers, fathers, and youth completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Two piecewise latent growth models examined whether number of sessions attended was associated with parents' relationship satisfaction or its growth over time, and in turn if parents' relationship satisfaction was uniquely associated with youth depressive/anxiety symptoms or their growth over time. A significant indirect effect at post-intervention revealed the number of sessions attended contributed to decreases in youth depressive symptoms via increases in mothers' and fathers' relationship satisfaction. Mothers' relationship satisfaction uniquely mediated the relationship between number of sessions attended and youth depressive symptoms at post-intervention. With regards to fathers, there was a non-significant trend such that increases in sessions attended was associated with decreases in youth depressive symptoms post- intervention via increasing relationship satisfaction among fathers. Findings suggest that BCT may have protective secondary effects in reducing youth reports of depressive symptoms among couples in which one or both parents have substance use disorder.

  7. Assessing family caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Carol J.; Fogg, Louis G.; McCann, Judith J.; Etkin, Caryn; Dong, Xinqi; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This measurement study operationalized family caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by testing a Caregiver Assessment of Behavioral Skill-Self Report measure (CAB-SR). Method A cross-sectional design was used. Caregivers had a family member with possible/probable AD, resided at home with the care recipient and provided the majority of care (N=82). The mail-administered assessment included the CAB-SR and other care recipient and caregiver measures. Results Preliminary CAB-SR reliability and validity were determined, using reliability, factor analytic and correlational procedures. Conclusion This measure provides a preliminary assessment of caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms of AD and shows promise for use in research and clinical intervention settings. PMID:21500018

  8. The Co-Development of Relational Aggression and Disruptive Behavior Symptoms from Late Childhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte, Alazne; Atherton, Olivia E; Robins, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Researchers have debated whether relational aggression is a developmentally-normative behavior or a sign of some underlying psychopathology. However, due to the dearth of longitudinal studies, we know little about how relational aggression and more severe forms of disruptive behavior co-develop. The present study examined bidirectional associations between relational aggression and two psychiatric disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth followed from age 10 to 16. Results showed that individuals who engaged in relational aggression tended to increase over time in ODD and CD symptoms, and conversely, individuals exhibiting symptoms of ODD and CD tended to increase in relational aggression. These findings held for boys and girls, for youth born in Mexico and the U.S., and after controlling for physical aggression. Thus, relational aggression seems to be both a developmentally-normative behavior and a predictor of future mental health problems.

  9. [Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcka-Teske, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin; Pyżalski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, ("Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie" - "Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment") by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland), and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS). As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers' abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace.

  10. Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mościcka-Teske

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542

  11. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms, nicotine addiction, and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Suezanne Tangerose; Blazer, Dan G; Orr, Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Maternal smoking is a key preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as low birthweight. In many areas of the United States, including Eastern North Carolina, rates of prenatal smoking are high. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with maternal smoking, but there remains much to learn about this relationship, especially among Black women, who have double the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes of White women. In the study reported in this paper, we investigated the relationship between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with smoking behaviors, beliefs and attitudes, environmental factors which promote smoking and nicotine addiction. Pregnant women were enrolled in the study at the first prenatal visit to the clinics of the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine of the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to each woman about smoking, smoking-related attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviors, nicotine addiction, and home environmental factors that encourage smoking. The CES-D was used to measure depressive symptoms. We used the cut-point score of 23 or greater to indicate elevated depressive symptoms, which is thought to represent major depressive disorder. The sample consisted of 810 Black women, of whom 18% were smokers. CES-D score was associated with nicotine addiction, not thinking of quitting smoking, and not expecting support from family and friends if they decided to quit. Prenatal depressive symptoms may be a barrier to smoking cessation.

  12. Association of problem behavior with sleep problems and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Katsuyoshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Maeda, Aya; Nagayama, Kunihiro; Uehara, Sawako; Saito-Sakoguchi, Yoko; Kanematsu, Kyoko; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2014-02-01

    There are few large-scale epidemiologic studies examining the associations between sleep problems, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, lifestyle and food habits and problem behaviors (PB) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among these factors in Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1840 junior high school students was carried out using questionnaires. The subjects were classified into PB or normal behavior (NB) groups using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). The scores of the sleep-related factors, sleep bruxism, lifestyle and food habits, and GERD symptoms were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors related to PB. Mean subject age was 13.3 ± 1.8 years. The PB group had significantly longer sleep latency and higher GERD symptom score (P sleep bruxism, difficulty falling asleep within 30 min, nightmares, feeling of low sleep quality, daytime somnolence, and daytime lack of motivation. Feelings of low sleep quality had the strongest association with PB, with an adjusted odds ratio of 12.88 (95% confidence interval: 8.99-18.46). PB in adolescents are associated with sleep problems, including sleep bruxism, as well as lifestyle and food habits and GERD symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Independent and Combined Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Depressive Symptoms Among Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yung; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-08-01

    Associations between levels of sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms independently and in combination with different levels of physical activity remain unclear. This study aimed to examine independent and combined associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with depressive symptoms among Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey collected data on depression levels (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), self-reported time spent in PA and SB (Japanese short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and sociodemographic variables from 2,914 adults in 2009. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the odds ratios (ORs) for being depressed (depression scores ≥16) according to independent PA levels (none, insufficient, sufficient), SB levels (low, moderate, high), and nine combinations of PA and SB categories. After adjusting for potential confounders, sufficient PA level was found to be related to lower risk of depressive symptoms independently (OR = 0.61), whereas no significant associations were observed between SB levels and depression. In the combined associations, adults in the sufficient PA/high SB (OR = 0.44), sufficient PA/moderate SB (OR = 0.56), and sufficient PA/low SB (OR = 0.57) categories were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms in comparison with the no PA/high SB category. Meeting physical activity recommendations is associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms, regardless of time spent in total sedentary behavior. These results suggest that promoting physical activity may be an effective strategy against depressive symptoms among Japanese adults.

  15. A novel analytical framework for dissecting the genetic architecture of behavioral symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Anthony J Deo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, a categorical classification system is often utilized as a simple way for conceptualizing an often complex clinical picture. This approach provides an unsatisfactory model of mental illness, since in practice patients do not conform to these prototypical diagnostic categories. Family studies show notable familial co-aggregation between schizophrenia and bipolar illness and between schizoaffective disorders and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, revealing that mental illness does not conform to such categorical models and is likely to follow a continuum encompassing a spectrum of behavioral symptoms.We introduce an analytic framework to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity present in complex psychiatric disorders based on the conceptual paradigm of a continuum of psychosis. The approach identifies subgroups of behavioral symptoms that are likely to be phenotypically and genetically homogenous. We have evaluated this approach through analysis of simulated data with simulated behavioral traits and predisposing genetic factors. We also apply this approach to a psychiatric dataset of a genome scan for schizophrenia for which extensive behavioral information was collected for each individual patient and their families. With this approach, we identified significant evidence for linkage among depressed individuals with two distinct symptom profiles, that is individuals with sleep disturbance symptoms with linkage on chromosome 2q13 and also a mutually exclusive group of individuals with symptoms of concentration problems with linkage on chromosome 2q35. In addition we identified a subset of individuals with schizophrenia defined by language disturbances with linkage to chromosome 2p25.1 and a group of patients with a phenotype intermediate between those of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with linkage to chromosome 2p21.The findings presented are novel and demonstrate the efficacy of this

  16. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

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    Berhane Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  17. Symptom reduction in young people (15 – 30 years) after a brief behavioral intervention for persistent post-concussion symptoms: An uncontrolled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mille; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    on principles from cognitive-behavioral therapy and gradual return to activities. The primary treatment objective was to reduce PCS and prevent chronification of symptoms by reducing negative illness perceptions (eg. beliefs that one cannot control the symptoms and that they will persist), and reducing......Background: About 5 – 15 % of patients with concussion experience persistent post-concussion symptoms (PCS) longer than 3 months post-injury. Currently, treatment options are limited, and no evidence-based intervention is available. Recent studies suggest that cognitive and behavioral processes may...... be involved in symptom maintenance. Aim: To explore in an uncontrolled study design: 1) the overall outcome of a newly developed, brief behavioral intervention in young patients (15 – 30 years) with persistent PCS 3 – 6 months after concussion, and 2) the hypothesised mediators, i.e. illness perceptions...

  18. The association of antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms between partners and risk for aggression in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2004-03-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were associated between romantic partners and whether the partner's antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms affected the individual's aggression toward the partner above and beyond the contribution of his or her own symptoms. Questions were examined concurrently and longitudinally for 79 couples from a young, at-risk sample. There were reliable associations between partners' antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Women's antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were significantly related to concurrent levels of men's physical and psychological aggression. Women's depressive symptoms remained significant in predicting men's psychological aggression over time. Overall, men's risk factors had little effect on their partners' aggression. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce partner violence need to consider the potential influence of partner, as well as perpetrator characteristics.

  19. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  20. Violent and disruptive behavior among drug-involved prisoners: relationship with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peter D; Melnick, Gerald; Jiang, Lan; Hamilton, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies' Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought insertion/control ideation (OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8-75.2), antisocial personality disorder (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9), and disciplinary action related to possession of controlled substances or contraband (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.3) were associated with increased risk for violent or disruptive behavior while in prison, whereas lifetime phobic symptoms (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.54) and high school graduation (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0) were associated with a decreased risk of violence and disruptive behavior in general. We conclude that, among inmates in substance abuse treatment, symptoms that increase risk for violence or disruptive behavior include thought control/insertion ideation and disciplinary infractions related to controlled substances, contraband, or failure to participate in assigned programs, as well a history of antisocial personality disorder.

  1. Transient cocaine-associated behavioral symptoms rated with a new instrument, the scale for assessment of positive symptoms for cocaine-induced psychosis (SAPS-CIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-lang; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel; Farrer, Lindsay A; Pearson, Deborah; Cubells, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with a variety of behavioral symptoms. The current report describes the assessment of cocaine-related behavioral symptoms (CRB) using the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms of Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP). The CRB section, one of the three domains in the SAPS-CIP, consists of sub-domains, including Aggressive/Agitated Behavior, Repetitive/Stereotyped Behavior, and Unusual Social or Sexual Behavior. Severity scores are assigned according to operational criteria, and range from 0 (not present) to 5 (severe). We interviewed 261 unrelated cocaine-abusing adults using the SAPS-CIP, and 243 of them met criteria for inclusion in the study. The proportion of subjects endorsing different classes of CRBs varied across categories, with 109 of 243 (44.9%) subjects reporting aggressive and agitated behaviors, 180 subjects (74.1%) repetitive/stereotyped behaviors, and 192 (79.0%) unusual social/sexual behaviors. A substantial minority of the subjects (10.3-25.1%) reported that they experienced marked-to-severe behavioral symptoms associated with cocaine use. The proportions of subjects endorsing CRB did not differ by ethnic/racial group or by sex. Correlations among the different domains of CRB were strong, but behaviors rated in the CRB section were less well correlated with psychotic symptoms, which were rated in the hallucination and delusion sections of the instrument. A variety of CRBs are common in cocaine-dependent subjects, and many of these are highly intercorrelated. CRBs also correlate with hallucinations and delusions induced by cocaine, but to a lesser degree. Our findings suggest that there may be some common vulnerability factors that contribute to both cocaine-induced psychosis and CRBs.

  2. Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms and risk-taking behavior in veterans of the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlicky, Vlad; Solomon, Zahava; Benbenishty, Rami; Levi, Ofir; Lubin, Gadi

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has revealed heightened risk-taking behavior among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined whether the risktaking behavior is a direct outcome of the traumatic exposure or whether this relationship is mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms. The sample was comprised of 180 traumatized Israeli reserve soldiers, who sought treatment in the wake of the Second Lebanon War. Combat exposure was indirectly associated with risk-taking behavior primarily through its relationship with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results of the multivariate analyses depict the implication of posttraumatic stress symptoms in risk taking behavior, and the role of self-medication and of aggression in traumatized veterans.

  3. [Delirium or behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in the elderly patient: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breil, D

    2010-09-08

    Acute confusional state, delirium, occurs in up to 80% of patients in the intensive care unit and is also a common, life-threatening and potentially preventable clinical syndrome among persons who are 65 years of age or older in general hospital. The cause of acute confusional state is typically multifactorial. Delirium and dementia are highly interrelated and dementia is the leading risk factor for delirium. So the key steps to distinguish between delirium and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are to address all evident causes, e.g. dementia, dehydration, infection, polymedication and to prevent complications and treat behavioral symptoms. First nonpharmacologic approaches should be instituted, including a calm, comfortable environment with the use of orienting influences. Pharmacologic management should be reserved for patients whose symptoms would threaten their own safety or the safety of other persons. Therapeutic drug options include modern antidepressants and neuroleptics.

  4. Potential drug–drug interactions in Alzheimer patients with behavioral symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualetti G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Sara Tognini, Valeria Calsolaro, Antonio Polini, Fabio Monzani Geriatrics Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug–drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug–drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug–drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with

  5. Effects of adolescent manic symptoms on agreement between youth, parent, and teacher ratings of behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric A; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2004-10-01

    Little is known about the extent to which manic symptoms might influence the self-report ratings of adolescents as compared to parent and teacher ratings, although there are clinical reasons to believe that mania would increase disagreement. Parents and youths between the ages of 11 and 17 years were evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (KSADS), Young Mania Rating Scale, and Child Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Based on the KSADS results, subjects were assigned to either a bipolar spectrum group (e.g., meeting criteria for a diagnosis of bipolar I, II, cyclothymia, or NOS) or a "nonbipolar" group (including depressive disorders, disruptive behaviors disorders, and other axis I diagnoses). Parents and youths both completed the Achenbach rating scales and the General Behavior Inventory (GBI). Teachers also completed the Achenbach scales. Youth self-report of manic symptoms showed lower correlations with clinician ratings than did parent ratings. Youths with a bipolar diagnosis also show poorer agreement about their depressive symptoms. There was some evidence that bipolar youths underreported symptoms, even after controlling for parent history of mood disorder. The youth's own manic symptoms partially mediated the effect of a bipolar diagnosis on rater disagreement. Diagnoses and mood ratings were based on both parent and youth interviews. Findings strongly suggest that cross-informant agreement can be substantially affected by the youth's own psychopathology. Youths with a bipolar diagnosis tend to underreport their manic symptoms compared to parental report. Results emphasize the importance of gathering collateral sources of information in evaluating juvenile mania, and also suggest that parent reported problems should not be discounted out of hand.

  6. Nigella sativa Oil Reduces Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)-Like Behavior in Haloperidol-Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tafheem; Hasan, Sheema; Pervez, Shahid; Fatima, Tasneem; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-12-01

    The symptoms of Parkinsonism and oral dyskinesia have been showing to be induced by neuroleptics that significantly affect its clinical use. In this study, we investigate whether Nigella sativa-oil (NS) (black cumin seeds)-a traditional medicine used for the seizure treatment in eastern country-may reduce the haloperidol (HAL)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)-like behavior in rats. After combine treatment with HAL (1 mg/kg) on NS (0.2 ml/rat), rats displayed a significant decreased EPS-like behavior including movement disorders and oral dyskinesia as compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that NS reduced astrogliosis in caudate and accumbens nuclei. These results suggest that NS may consider as an adjunct to antipsychotics to reduce the EPS-like side effect.

  7. New DSM-5 PTSD guilt and shame symptoms among Italian earthquake survivors: Impact on maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmassi, Claudia; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Conversano, Ciro; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Important changes were introduced concerning posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) by the DSM-5 recognizing the role of negative emotions such as guilt and shame, but little evidence is yet available on their prevalence in population assessed by means of DSM-5 criteria. In this study we explored the rates of guilt and shame DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic symptoms among Italian survivors to a massive earthquake and their possible correlation with PTSD and maladaptive behaviors. 869 residents of the town of L'Aquila exposed to the earthquake of April 6th, 2009 were investigated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) with particular attention to guilt and shame feelings. DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD was reported by 41.7% of survivors, further 11.6% endorsed at least one guilt/shame symptoms, with significantly higher rates of endorsement were in PTSD respect to No-PTSD subjects, and in the subgroup with at least one maladaptive behavior respect to those with none. There was a significant main effects of PTSD and at least one guilt/shame symptom on TALS-SR symptomatological domains. Mean TALS-SR Maladaptive coping domain score appeared significantly higher in the subgroup with at least one guilt/shame symptom. Further study are needed to investigate guilt and shame feelings in survivors to a natural disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  9. Early behavioral inhibition and increased error monitoring predict later social phobia symptoms in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in 7-year-old, behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9 years. A total of 291 children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, when they performed a Flanker task, and event-related potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. In addition, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  10. Are you getting sick? Predicting influenza-like symptoms using human mobility behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barlacchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding and modeling the mobility of individuals is of paramount importance for public health. In particular, mobility characterization is key to predict the spatial and temporal diffusion of human-transmitted infections. However, the mobility behavior of a person can also reveal relevant information about her/his health conditions. In this paper, we study the impact of people mobility behaviors for predicting the future presence of flu-like and cold symptoms (i.e. fever, sore throat, cough, shortness of breath, headache, muscle pain, malaise, and cold. To this end, we use the mobility traces from mobile phones and the daily self-reported flu-like and cold symptoms of 29 individuals from February 20, 2013 to March 21, 2013. First of all, we demonstrate that daily symptoms of an individual can be predicted by using his/her mobility trace characteristics (e.g. total displacement, radius of gyration, number of unique visited places, etc.. Then, we present and validate models that are able to successfully predict the future presence of symptoms by analyzing the mobility patterns of our individuals. The proposed methodology could have a societal impact opening the way to customized mobile phone applications, which may detect and suggest to the user specific actions in order to prevent disease spreading and minimize the risk of contagion.

  11. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  12. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  13. Gender Differences in the Behavioral Symptom Severity of Prader-Willi Syndrome

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    Masao Gito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study measured gender differences in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS in regard to the severity of behavioral symptoms. Methods. The Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version, the Childhood Routines Inventory, the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, and Japanese ADHD-RS were administered to PWS patients (45 males aged 6 to 58 and 37 females aged 6 to 45. To examine the effects that gender and genotype have on the severity of each symptom, two-way ANOVAs were conducted. Results. Significant interactions were found only in regard to FRPQ scores, such as FRPQ total score (F(1, 78 = 8.43, p<0.01. The FRPQ of male deletion (DEL individuals was higher than that of female DEL and male mUPD. The FRPQ of male maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD was lower than that of female mUPD. Conclusions. In terms of problem behaviors, routines, autistic behaviors, and hyperactivity, no significant differences were found. Food-related behaviors in DEL were more severe in males, although those in mUPD were less severe in males.

  14. The Relationship between Parental Rearing Behavior, Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

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    Ju Ryoung Moon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.

  15. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2017-09-06

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yiou; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng; Xu, Guifa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the rela...

  17. The profile of behavioral and psychological symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meena; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum; Chowdhury, Debashish; Patidar, Yogesh; Batra, Amit

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) between vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Consecutive patients presenting with cognitive impairment at least 3 months after an ischemic stroke and with a Hachinski Ischemic Score ≥4 were included. VaD was diagnosed as per National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria for probable VaD and VCI-ND on the lines of the Canadian study of health and aging. The severity of cognitive impairment and the behavioral/psychological symptoms were studied by means of the clinical dementia rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) respectively. All patients with VaD and 89% of those with VCI-ND had at least one BPSD. The mean no. of symptoms per patient and the total NPI scores were higher in VaD than in VCI-ND. Apathy and night-time behavior disturbances were significantly more common and severe in VaD. BPSD are very common both in VCI-ND and in VaD. The profile of BPSD is similar in both groups, albeit more severe in VaD. The net burden of BPSD is higher in VaD as compared to VCI-ND.

  18. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azermai M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Majda Azermai Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Keywords: behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms, dementia, interventions, nonpharmacological intervention

  19. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adult picky eaters with symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: comparable distress and comorbidity but different eating behaviors compared to those with disordered eating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Rozin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individuals not reporting picky or disordered eating) and individuals who strongly endorse attitudes associated with anorexia and bulimia (eating disordered attitudes). Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk ( N =  325) and an online support group for adult picky eaters ( N =  81). Participants were grouped based on endorsement of picky eating, ARFID symptoms, and elevated eating disordered attitudes on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The resulting four eating behavior groups were compared on measures of distress and impairment (e.g., anxiety/depression and, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, eating-related quality of life) and on measures of eating behaviors associated with picky eating (e.g., food neophobia, inflexibility about preparation and presentation of preferred foods, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and eating from a very narrow range of foods). The groups were compared using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tamhane's T2 tests. On measures of distress and impairment, participants with ARFID reported higher scores than both typical eaters and picky eaters without ARFID, and comparable scores to those with disordered eating attitudes. Three of four measures of picky eating behavior, eating inflexibility, food neophobia, and eating from a range of 20 or fewer foods, distinguished picky eaters with and without ARFID form typical eaters and those with disordered eating attitudes. Picky eaters with ARFID reported greater food neophobia and eating inflexibility

  1. Caregiver Person-Centeredness and Behavioral Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia: A Timed-Event Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea L; Roberts, Tonya J; Bowers, Barbara J; Brown, Roger L

    2015-06-01

    Evidence suggests that person-centered caregiving approaches may reduce dementia-related behavioral symptoms; however, little is known about the sequential and temporal associations between specific caregiver actions and behavioral symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify sequential associations between caregiver person-centered actions, task-centered actions, and resident behavioral symptoms and the temporal variation within these associations. Videorecorded observations of naturally occurring interactions (N = 33; 724min) between 12 nursing home (NH) residents with dementia and eight certified nursing assistants were coded for caregiver person-centered actions, task-centered actions, and resident behavioral symptoms and analyzed using timed-event sequential analysis. Although caregiver actions were predominantly person-centered, we found that resident behavioral symptoms were significantly more likely to occur following task-centered caregiver actions than person-centered actions. Findings suggest that the person-centeredness of caregivers is sequentially and temporally related to behavioral symptoms in individuals with dementia. Additional research examining the temporal structure of these relationships may offer valuable insights into the utility of caregiver person-centeredness as a low-cost strategy for improving behavioral symptom management in the NH setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Body image perceptions and symptoms of disturbed eating behavior among children and adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Munsch, Simone; Schneider, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Body image distortions such as perception biases are assumed to be precursors of eating disorders (ED). This study aims to investigate body image perceptions and symptoms of disturbed eating behavior among a sample of 11-17 year-old students in Germany. A cross-sectional survey study was carried out among 1524 students of twelve secondary schools from all school types in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). A naturalistic photograph-rating consisting of photographs of young women's bodies was used to examine children's perceptions of female bodies (i.e., perceived average body size and perceived ideal body size of young women). Also, symptoms of disturbed eating behavior were examined. Compared to statistical data, children and adolescents underestimated the average body size of young women by more than two BMI-points (estimated average BMI = 20), with no differences between boys and girls. Also, girls and boys generally held a slim female thin-ideal (perceived ideal BMI = 19.5), which is nearly three BMI-points below the average body size in the young female population. Girls showed a slightly stronger female thin-ideal than boys. Among all subgroups, early-adolescent girls (13-14 years) displayed the strongest thin-ideal internalization. Nearly one-third of this group perceived a BMI below 18 as ideal female body size. Symptoms of disturbed eating behavior were common among youth and most frequent among adolescent girls (15-17 years). Girls who displayed a bias towards underestimation of female body size and girls who displayed an underweight female thin-ideal were more likely to report harmful dieting behaviors and psychological distress associated with eating, body, and weight. This study found that 11-17 year-old girls and boys do not show accurate judgements regarding the average body size of young women. Instead, there is systematic and significant underestimation, indicating considerable perception biases, which may constitute a risk factor for the

  3. The motivation and pleasure dimension of negative symptoms: neural substrates and behavioral outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-05-01

    A range of emotional and motivation impairments have long been clinically documented in people with schizophrenia, and there has been a resurgence of interest in understanding the psychological and neural mechanisms of the so-called "negative symptoms" in schizophrenia, given their lack of treatment responsiveness and their role in constraining function and life satisfaction in this illness. Negative symptoms comprise two domains, with the first covering diminished motivation and pleasure across a range of life domains and the second covering diminished verbal and non-verbal expression and communicative output. In this review, we focus on four aspects of the motivation/pleasure domain, providing a brief review of the behavioral and neural underpinnings of this domain. First, we cover liking or in-the-moment pleasure: immediate responses to pleasurable stimuli. Second, we cover anticipatory pleasure or wanting, which involves prediction of a forthcoming enjoyable outcome (reward) and feeling pleasure in anticipation of that outcome. Third, we address motivation, which comprises effort computation, which involves figuring out how much effort is needed to achieve a desired outcome, planning, and behavioral response. Finally, we cover the maintenance emotional states and behavioral responses. Throughout, we consider the behavioral manifestations and brain representations of these four aspects of motivation/pleasure deficits in schizophrenia. We conclude with directions for future research as well as implications for treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Inattention Symptoms Are Associated With Academic Achievement Mostly Through Variance Shared With Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, André; Martinussen, Rhonda

    2015-06-05

    The main goal of the current study is to investigate whether intrinsic motivation and behavioral engagement mediate the association between inattention symptoms and academic achievement (reading, writing, and mathematics), as well as to document the extent to which inattention symptoms contribute to academic achievement due to variance overlapping with intrinsic motivation and behavioral engagement. Participants were 92 children (Grades 1-4). Data were gathered using a combination of parent and teacher reports as well as objective assessments. Results did not support the mediating role of intrinsic motivation and behavioral engagement. A commonality analysis showed that 77.44% to 82.10% of the variance explained in each academic achievement domains was due to variance shared by inattention symptoms, intrinsic motivation, and behavioral engagement. These results suggest more commonality than differences between inattention symptoms, intrinsic motivation, and behavioral engagement with regard to their association with academic achievement. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  5. Perceived social support buffers the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior: implications into suicide resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.

  6. Age-varying associations between non-marital sexual behavior and depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how non-marital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. PMID:27854469

  7. Shape of change in cognitive behavioral therapy for youth anxiety: symptom trajectory and predictors of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Skriner, Laura C; Zandberg, Laurie J

    2013-08-01

    Multilevel growth analysis was used to establish the mean growth trajectory (shape of change) for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with anxiety disorders. Two-level growth analysis was conducted to identify important between-youth predictors of session-by-session symptom change. Fifty-five youth (ages 7-17; 50.9% male) and their parents participated in a 16- to 20-week CBT that emphasized affective, cognitive, and exposure-based exercises. Multilevel growth models (MLMs) were estimated to model session symptom data taking into account an "anxiety spike" hypothesized to occur at initiation of exposure sessions. Three models were compared: a cubic curve, a log-linear curve plus an exposure covariate, and a linear curve plus exposure covariate. Two-level MLM examined the effect of demographic traits (sex, age, race/ethnicity), pretreatment symptom severity, comorbid school refusal, early treatment factors (use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication, therapeutic alliance, treatment attrition), and pretreatment coping (engagement, disengagement, and involuntary coping). Fit indices provided support for the cubic growth model using either parent or youth anxiety data. Level 2 analysis identified youth age, symptom severity (anxiety, externalizing), early attrition, and engagement and disengagement coping as significant predictors of symptom trajectories. Predictors accounted for 34%-37% of between-youth variance in midtreatment anxiety scores. Findings suggest that the symptom course of CBT, and the effect of between-youth factors on treatment outcomes, is more complex than previously thought. Educating therapists and clients about findings can aid treatment expectations and dissemination efforts of empirically supported treatments. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: II. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD in Brazil, with special focus on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of BPSD encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, neuroleptics, anti-depressives, benzodiazepines, anti-convulsants plus other drugs and substances and non-pharmacological (including education-based interventions, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, music therapy, therapy using light, massage and art therapy approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of cognitive disorders of AD symptoms are included in a separate article of this edition.

  9. Decision-tree model of treatment-seeking behaviors after detecting symptoms by Korean stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Sook; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2006-06-01

    This study was performed to develop and test a decision-tree model of treatment-seeking behaviors about when Korean patients visit a doctor after experiencing stroke symptoms. The study used methodological triangulation. The model was developed based on qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews with 18 stroke patients. The model was tested using quantitative data collected from interviews and a structured questionnaire involving 150 stroke patients. The predictability of the decision-tree model was quantified as the proportion of participants who followed the pathway predicted by the model. Decision outcomes of the model were categorized into immediate and delayed treatment-seeking behavior. The model was influenced by lowered consciousness, social-group influences, perceived seriousness of symptoms, past history of hypertension or stroke, and barriers to hospital visits. The predictability of the model was found to be 90.7%. The results from this study can help healthcare personnel understand the education needs of stroke patients regarding treatment-seeking behaviors, and hence aid in the development of educational strategies for stroke patients.

  10. Parenting behaviors and the occurrence and co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems among african american children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene J; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H; Conger, Rand D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L

    2003-12-01

    The occurrence and co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems were examined in the context of parenting behaviors in a community-based sample of 897 African American children and their primary caregivers using a multi-informant, longitudinal design. Parenting behaviors and clinical symptoms were assessed in 2 waves, when the children averaged 10.5 and 12.3 years of age. Parenting behaviors differed significantly according to a child's symptomatology; (a) that is, when a child exhibited no depressive or conduct problems, (b) depressive problems only, (c) conduct problems only, or (d) co-occurring depressive and conduct problems. When parenting behaviors were examined according to changes in children's symptom levels, children whose symptoms increased over time reported increases in hostility and harsh-inconsistent parenting and decreases in warmth and nurturant-involved parenting. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  11. Atypical and Typical Winter Depressive Symptoms and Responsiveness to Light Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, or Combination Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Leigh G; Rohan, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    ...), group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or combination therapy (CBT+LT). Atypical and typical symptoms were assessed using subscales of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - SAD Version (SIGH-SAD...

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  13. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  14. Peri-adolescent asthma symptoms cause adult anxiety-related behavior and neurobiological processes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jasmine I; Caruso, Michael J; Michael, Kerry C; Bourne, Rebecca A; Chirichella, Nicole R; Klein, Laura C; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-05-30

    Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7-57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) "Airway inflammation only", allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) "Labored breathing only", methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) "Airway inflammation+Labored breathing", allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ∼20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ∼30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ∼50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Noise sensitivity: Symptoms, health status, illness behavior and co-occurring environmental sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Kamp, Irene van; Swart, Wim; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded “absolutely agree” to the statement “I am sensitive to noise”, comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap. - Highlights: • People with self-reported noise sensitivity experience multiple non-specific symptoms. • They also report comparatively poorer health and increased illness behavior. • Co-occurrence with other

  16. Peer alcohol behavior moderates within-level associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Rachel L; Read, Jennifer P

    2017-08-01

    Self-medication theory (SMT) posits that individuals exposed to trauma and resulting posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSD) are at risk for heavy drinking and associated negative consequences. Close peer alcohol use is also a powerful predictor of alcohol involvement in college, particularly influencing those with greater negative affect. As individuals with PTSD may rely on peers for support, peer drinking behaviors are possibly putting them at further risk for greater alcohol use and resulting consequences. To test self-medication processes, the present study examined the relationship between weekday PTSD symptoms, weekend alcohol behavior, and the influence of both emotionally supportive peer and other friend drinking behavior by investigating: (a) whether weekday PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent weekend alcohol use and consequences; and (b) whether the relationship between weekday PTSD symptoms and weekend alcohol behavior was moderated by various drinking behaviors of one's peers. Trauma-exposed heavy-drinking college students (N = 128) completed a baseline assessment and 30 daily, Web-based assessments of alcohol use and related consequences, PTSD symptoms, and peer alcohol behavior. Results directly testing SMT were not supported. However, friend alcohol behavior moderated the relationship between weekday PTSD and weekend alcohol behavior. Findings highlight the importance of peer drinking as both a buffer and risk factor for problematic drinking and provide useful information for interventions aimed at high-risk drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined Memantine and Donepezil Treatment Improves Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia-Like Behaviors in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yasushi; Matsuo, Kazuya; Hirano, Koga; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Moriguchi, Shigeki; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, are approved in most countries for treating moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). These drugs have different molecular targets; thus, it is expected that the effects of combined treatment would be synergistic. Some reports do show memantine/donepezil synergy in ameliorating cognition in AD model animals, but their combined effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)-like behaviors have not been addressed. Here, we investigate combined memantine/donepezil effects on cognitive impairment and BPSD-like behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice. Interestingly, combined administration synergistically improved both depressive-like behaviors and impaired social interaction in OBX mice, whereas only weak synergistic effects on cognitive performance were seen. To address mechanisms underlying these effects, we used in vivo microdialysis study and observed impaired nicotine-induced serotonin (5-HT) release in OBX mouse hippocampus. Combined memantine/donepezil administration, but not single administration of either, significantly antagonized the decrease in nicotine-induced 5-HT release seen in OBX mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, decreased autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was rescued in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus of OBX mice by combined memantine/donepezil administration. These results suggest that improvement of BPSD-like behaviors by the co-administration of both drugs is in part mediated by enhanced 5-HT release and CaMKII activity in OBX mouse hippocampus. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effects of contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Chad E; Hirsch, Jameson K; Nelson, Lyndsay A; Nsamenang, Sheri A

    2014-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem, or self-worth hinged upon successfully meeting standards or attaining goals, requires continual maintenance and validation. Despite the inherent instability that accompanies contingent self-esteem, relatively little is known about how it relates to markers of mental health. A sample of 371 college students completed measures of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem, suicidal behaviors, and depression. Individuals with fragile low self-esteem, described as highly contingent, reported greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Among those with secure high self-esteem, or high yet noncontingent, depression and suicide risk were markedly lower. Therapeutically promoting positive but noncontingent self-worth may reduce poor mental health outcomes.

  20. Children and adolescents facing a continuous security threat: Aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2017-07-01

    There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza. Participants filled out quantitative questionnaires, which relate to the pathological consequences of continuous exposure to security threats, and to the role of the school and the community as a protective environment against disruptive behavior resulting from such exposure. The findings revealed that PTSS responses were mainly related to the security threat, whereas interpersonal aggression resulted from other types of traumatic events. Significant differences were found between aggression and posttraumatic symptoms, by age and gender. PTSS was found to be lower for older participants and higher for girls, whereas aggression was higher for boys and higher for older participants. Furthermore, the sense of belonging to the place of residence was negatively associated with PTSS as well as with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging, the lower their levels of PTSS and aggressive responses. In contrast, the sense of belonging to the school was negatively associated only with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging to the school, the lower their aggressive responses. The findings are discussed in the light of trauma theories and in light of the results of previous research. The study contributed to knowledge about the differential consequences of exposure to a security threat, and highlighted the importance of

  1. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, Caregiver Burden and Distress in Behavioral-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Carvalho, Viviane Amaral; Guimarães, Henrique Cerqueira; Caramelli, Paulo; Balthazar, Márcio Luiz; Damasceno, Benito; Bottino, Cássio Machado; Brucki, Sônia Maria; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare caregiver burden and distress in behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate which factors contribute to caregivers' burden and distress. Fifty patients and their caregivers were invited to participate. Among the patients, 20 had a diagnosis of bvFTD and 30 had AD. Caregivers and patients were statistically equivalent for age, sex, education and dementia severity according to Clinical Dementia Rating. The protocol included the Short Zarit Burden Inventory, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD), the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, the Executive Interview with 25 Items, Direct Assessment of Functional Status and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI). In the NPI, caregivers of bvFTD patients reported a higher presence and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver distress compared to caregivers of AD patients. There was no significant difference in the perceived burden. In bvFTD, DAD and GAI scores were significantly correlated with burden, whereas in AD, burden was correlated with CSDD and NPI scores. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with distress in both groups. Caregivers of bvFTD patients experienced higher levels of distress than caregivers of AD patients. Patients' functional limitations were associated with burden of caregivers of bvFTD patients, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with caregiver strain in both groups. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention in patients with medically unexplained symptoms: cluster randomized trial

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    López-García-Franco Alberto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained symptoms are an important mental health problem in primary care and generate a high cost in health services. Cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy have proven effective in these patients. However, there are few studies on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions by primary health care. The project aims to determine whether a cognitive-behavioral group intervention in patients with medically unexplained symptoms, is more effective than routine clinical practice to improve the quality of life measured by the SF-12 questionary at 12 month. Methods/design This study involves a community based cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in Madrid (Spain. The number of patients required is 242 (121 in each arm, all between 18 and 65 of age with medically unexplained symptoms that had seeked medical attention in primary care at least 10 times during the previous year. The main outcome variable is the quality of life measured by the SF-12 questionnaire on Mental Healthcare. Secondary outcome variables include number of consultations, number of drug (prescriptions and number of days of sick leave together with other prognosis and descriptive variables. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the percentage of patients that improve at least 4 points on the SF-12 questionnaire between intervention and control groups at 12 months. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion This study aims to provide more insight to address medically unexplained symptoms, highly prevalent in primary care, from a quantitative methodology. It involves intervention group conducted by previously trained nursing staff to diminish the progression to the chronicity

  3. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

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    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  4. Daily Bidirectional Relationships Between Sleep and Mental Health Symptoms in Youth With Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, Tori R; Thompson, Ronald W; Nelson, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the daily, bidirectional relationships between sleep and mental health symptoms in youth presenting to mental health treatment. Youth aged 6 to 11 (36% female, 44% European American) presenting to outpatient behavioral health treatment (N = 25) were recruited to participate in the study. Children and parents completed daily questionnaires regarding the child's sleep, mood, and behavior for a 14-day period, while youth wore an actigraph watch to objectively measure sleep. Examining between- and within-person variance using multilevel models, results indicate that youth had poor sleep duration and quality and that sleep and mental health symptoms were highly related at the daily level. Between-person effects were found to be most important and significant bidirectional relationships exist. Identifying and addressing sleep problems in the context of mental health treatment is important, as poor sleep is associated with increased symptomology and may contribute to worsened mental health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Religious Attendance, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms Among Koreans in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jun; Pearce, Michelle; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2015-08-01

    Migrants, who comprise 80 % of the population in the United Arab Emirates, are at risk of developing mental health disorders. To test associations among religious attendance, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (HPLB), and depressive symptoms, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in Dubai. Measures included frequency of religious attendance, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to explore relationships among religious attendance, HPLB, and depressive symptoms. Religious attendance was significantly associated with self-actualization, stress management, and depressive symptoms. Self-actualization and stress management mediated the relationships between religious attendance and depressive symptoms for both males and females, and interpersonal support mediated the relationship for females, controlling for age and education. The facilitation of positive internal and external resources generated by participating in religious activities may have increased the likelihood that the Korean migrants would engage in psychosocial healthy lifestyle behaviors, and may have decreased depressive symptoms.

  6. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms Impact Clinical Competence in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Elodie Bertrand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is considered a fundamental aspect of personal autonomy and can be affected in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. It has been shown that cognitive deficits in dementia impact negatively on decision-making. Moreover, studies highlighted impaired clinical competence in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this context, the current study explored the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and clinical competence, especially the capacity to consent to treatment, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Seventy-one patients with mild to moderate AD participated, completing assessments for capacity to consent to treatment, general cognition and neuropsychiatric disturbances. For each neuropsychiatric symptom, patients with and without the particular disturbance were compared on the different subscales of the MacArthur Competence Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T; Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning and Expression. The results showed that patients presenting delusions, as well as apathetic patients, had a lower ability to express a clear treatment choice compared to patients without these symptoms. By contrast, patients with dysphoria/depression had higher scores on this variable. Additionally, AD patients with euphoria had more difficulties discussing consequences of treatment alternatives compared to patients without this disturbance. None of the differences were confounded by global cognition. There were no between-group differences in clinical decision-making for patients with hallucinations, agitation/aggression, anxiety, irritability, disinhibition and aberrant motor behavior. These findings highlight the importance of taking BPSD into account when assessing decision-making capacity, especially clinical competence, in AD. Furthermore, reducing BPSD may lead to better clinical competence in patients with AD, as well as to improvements in patients and caregivers

  7. Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intractable Challenging Behaviors Associated With Symptoms of Catatonia.

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    Sajith, Sreedharan Geetha; Liew, Siew Fai; Tor, Phern Chern

    2017-03-01

    There are several reports of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the context of catatonic symptoms. We describe response to ECT in two adults with ASD and intellectual disability with intractable aggression and self-injurious behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms who had not responded to standard interventions. Unilateral ECT at a frequency of 3 times a week was given followed by weekly maintenance ECT. Patients' catatonic symptoms included episodes of agitation and echophenomena. Electroconvulsive therapy resulted in significant improvement in their behavior problems but 1 patient relapsed when the ECT was discontinued or frequency of treatment reduced. The second patient required 2 courses of ECT before improvement which was maintained on weekly ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy could be a potentially beneficial intervention in patients with ASD and severe challenging behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms including agitated or excited forms of catatonia.

  8. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  9. A cross-sectional investigation of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms and health-behavior participation in Australian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Nash, Kim; Sharman, Rachael; Lane, Ben R

    2014-05-06

    Transitioning to university involves a major life change that can have implications for physical and mental health. This study had three objectives: first, assess the mental health and health-behavior participation of Australian university students; second, evaluate clustering of health behaviors; and third, examine how mental health relates to health behaviors. University students (n = 751) enrolled at an Australian regional university completed an online survey containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and a health-behavior questionnaire. Over one-third of students reported mild or higher mental illness symptoms and most reported engaging in multiple unhealthy behaviors. Furthermore, mental health was associated with unhealthy behaviors. For males, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast and poor sleep quality. For females, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast, inadequate vigorous physical activity, and short or long sleep hours. Stress symptoms in females were associated with healthy sleep hours, but poor sleep quality. Future research may consider whether an intervention targeting one or two key health behaviors has utility in improving participation in other health behaviors and mental health. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Anxiety Disorders in Typically Developing Youth: Autism Spectrum Symptoms as a Predictor of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…

  11. Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease

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    Mannu P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Piero Mannu1, Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna11Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Department of Neuro Psycho Physio Pathology, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD and disrupt the effective management of AD patients. The present study explores the use of radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation (REAC in patients who have had a poor response to pharmacological treatment.Patients and methods: Eight patients (five females and three males; mean [±standard deviation] age at study baseline: 69.9 ± 3.0 years diagnosed with AD according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria (mean onset age of AD: 65.4 ± 3.5 years were cognitively and psychometrically assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Activity of Daily Living (ADL, the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, prior to and after each of 2 REAC treatment cycles.Results: Scores on the MMSE and all subscales of the NPI (frequency, severity, and distress, the ADL, and the IADL were significantly improved following the initial REAC treatment. There was further significant improvement in all measurements (with a tendency for improvement in the IADL after the second REAC treatment cycle.Conclusion: The improvement of cognitive and behavioral/psychiatric functioning following REAC treatment suggests that this innovative approach may be an effective, safe, and tolerable alternative to pharmacological treatment of AD patients, especially in the area of BPSD. Elderly patients suffering from other types of dementia may also benefit from REAC treatment.Keywords: anxiety, depression, insomnia, behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD

  12. Allelic Variation of Risk for Anxiety Symptoms Moderates the Relation Between Adolescent Safety Behaviors and Social Anxiety Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations i...

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression Using Mind Over Mood: CBT Skill Use and Differential Symptom Alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lance L; Padesky, Christine A; Hollon, Steven D; Mancuso, Enza; Laposa, Judith M; Brozina, Karen; Segal, Zindel V

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is highly effective. An essential element of this therapy involves acquiring and utilizing CBT skills; however, it is unclear whether the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential symptom alleviation. Outpatients (N = 356) diagnosed with a primary mood disorder received 14 two-hour group sessions of CBT for depression, using the Mind Over Mood protocol. In each session, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory and throughout the week they reported on their use of CBT skills: behavioral activation (BA), cognitive restructuring (CR), and core belief (CB) strategies. Bivariate latent difference score (LDS) longitudinal analyses were used to examine patterns of differential skill use and subsequent symptom change, and multigroup LDS analyses were used to determine whether longitudinal associations differed as a function of initial depression severity. Higher levels of BA use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms for patients with mild to moderate initial depression symptoms relative to those with severe symptoms. Higher levels of CR use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms, whereas higher levels of CB use were followed by a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms, regardless of initial severity. Results indicated that the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential patterns of subsequent symptom change. BA use was associated with differential subsequent change as a function of initial severity (patients with less severe depression symptoms demonstrated greater symptom improvement), whereas CR use was associated with symptom alleviation and CB use with an increase in subsequent symptoms as related to initial severity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Factors associated with caregiver readiness to use nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N; Rose, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Nonpharmacologic strategies to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms depend upon caregiver implementation. Caregivers may vary in readiness to use strategies. We examined characteristics associated with readiness, extent readiness changed during intervention, and predictors of change in readiness. Data came from a randomized trial involving 119 caregivers in a nonpharmacologic intervention for managing behavioral symptoms. Baseline measures included caregiver, patient, and treatment-related factors. At initial (2 weeks from baseline) and final (16 weeks) intervention sessions, interventionists rated caregiver readiness as pre-action (precontemplation = 1; contemplation = 2; preparation = 3) or action (= 4). Ordinal logistic regression identified baseline characteristics associated with initial readiness. Mc Nemar-Bowker test of symmetry described change in readiness; binary logistic regression identified baseline predictors of change in readiness (initial to final sessions). One-way multivariate analysis of variance identified treatment factors (dose/intensity, number of strategies used, perceived benefits, and therapeutic engagement) associated with change in readiness. At initial intervention session, 67.2% (N = 80) of caregivers were in pre-action and 32.8% (N = 39) in action. Initial high readiness was associated with better caregiver mood, less financial difficulty, lower patient cognition, and more behavioral symptoms. By final session, 72% (N = 79) were in action and 28% (N = 31) in pre-action; caregivers with less financial difficulty improved in readiness (B = -0.70, p = 0.017); those in action were more therapeutically engaged (F[2,107] = 3.61, p = 0.030) and perceived greater intervention benefits (F[2, 88] = 6.06, p = 0.003). Whereas patient and caregiver-related factors were associated with initial readiness, financial stability, therapeutic engagement, and perceived benefits enhanced

  15. Prospective study of the associations between television watching and car riding behaviors and development of depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xuemei; Brown, Wendy J.; Lavie, Carl J.; West, Delia S.; Pate, Russel R.; Payne, Jonathan P.W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between sedentary behaviors and risk of developing depressive symptoms. Patients and Methods 1012 women and 3790 men (18–80 yr) not reporting depressive moods completed a health survey during 1982 when they reported their time spent watching television (TV) and riding in a car each week. All participants completed a follow-up health survey when they responded to the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10). Those who scored 8 or more on the CES-D 10 were considered to have depressive symptoms. Results 568 participants reported depressive symptoms during an average follow-up of 9.3 years. After multivariate-adjustment including moderate- and vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA), time in riding in a car, watching TV and combined time spent in the two sedentary behaviors were positively (P trend 10 hrs/wk watching TV, or ≥19 hrs/wk of combined sedentary behavior had 28%, 52%, and 74% greater risk of developing depressive symptoms than those who reported sedentary behaviors was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The direct associations between time spent in car riding and TV viewing, with depressive symptoms, were however only significant among those who did not meet the current PA recommendation. PMID:25659236

  16. Effect of risperidone on behavioral and psychological symptoms and cognitive function in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, M K; Masching, A J; Ertl, M G; Kraxberger, E; Haushofer, M

    2001-11-01

    -dose risperidone, behavioral and psychological symptoms improved overall in 34 patients with dementia, and cognitive function was maintained throughout the treatment period.

  17. Are Borderline Personality Symptoms Associated With Compulsive Sexual Behaviors Among Women in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders? An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-10-01

    Extant literature has documented a significant relationship between borderline symptoms and substance use disorders. As supported in past work, there is a significant theoretical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors because both disorders share common underlying behaviors and traits. There is no known research that has examined the empirical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors in a population with substance use disorders. To fill this important gap in the literature, this relationship was examined in the current study. Medical records from 120 women admitted to a private, residential treatment program for substance use disorders were reviewed for the current study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that borderline symptoms were significantly associated with compulsive sexual behaviors after controlling for alcohol use and problems, drug use and problems, age, and positive impression management. Results from this study provide potentially important research and clinical implications, which could ultimately aid treatment and reduce relapse. However, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy ‎on ‎symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS ‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maddineshat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences.Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the studentsResults: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012. Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012.‎Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was

  20. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  1. Sexual behavior and symptoms among reproductive age Chinese women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sue Seen-Tsing; Kok, Wai-Ming

    2014-07-01

    As sexual medicine evolves, much advancement has been achieved in understanding male sexuality and treating male sexual dysfunction. Less is known about female sexual pattern, the prevalence of sexual problems, and their correlation with confounding factors. To enhance our understanding of female sexuality and the risk factors that contributed to sexual problems in reproductive age women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in family planning and prepregnancy checkup clinics from December 2007 to December 2009, with 2,146 sexually active Chinese women aged 21 to 40 years completed the entire questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual symptoms, coital frequency, and other sexual behavior-related activities were measured. Overall, 59.0% of respondents had at least one sexual problem. In this sample, 31.8% of respondents reported no desire; 31.7% had arousal problems; 40% had anorgasmia, and 33.8% experienced coital pain for at least 3 months within the past 1 year. Chi-square test showed significant correlation among the four types of sexual problems(P sexual symptoms were significantly correlated with unidirectional coitus initiation, low coital frequency, and low foreplay enjoyment. Loglinear model revealed that desire, arousal, and orgasmic problems were correlated with low foreplay enjoyment. Arousal problem was correlated with high acceptance toward pornography and history of medical disease. Coital pain was correlated with secondary education and planning to have more children. Both unidirectional coitus initiation and low coital frequency were major contributors to all four sexual symptoms. Sexual problem is a prevalent health issue among reproductive age women. A number of risk factors are identified, which provide useful direction to the design of counseling and education materials that might help to enhance sexual performance in women. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Marelli, Sara; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Högl, Birgit; Birgit, Högl; Manni, Raffaele; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Fantini, Maria-Livia; Puligheddu, Monica; Jennum, Poul; Sonka, Karel; Santamaria, Joan; Zucconi, Marco; Rancoita, Paola M V; Leu-Semenescu, Smeranda; Frauscher, Birgit; Terzaghi, Michele; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Unger, Marcus; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Desautels, Alex; Wolfson, Christina; Pelletier, Amélie; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic symptoms between our iRBD patients and controls emerged in the gastrointestinal domain. Interestingly, it has been reported that an altered gastrointestinal motility can predate the motor phase of PD. The cardiovascular domain SCOPA-AUT score in our study in iRBD patients was intermediate with respect to the scores reported in PD patients by other authors. Our findings underline the importance of collecting data on autonomic symptoms in iRBD. These data may be used in prospective studies for evaluating the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Design of Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm through System Base Behavior Analysis and Memory Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cagalaban, Giovanni; Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    More recently, botnet-based cyber attacks, including a spam mail or a DDos attack, have sharply increased, which poses a fatal threat to Internet services. At present, antivirus businesses make it top priority to detect malicious code in the shortest time possible (Lv.2), based on the graph showing a relation between spread of malicious code and time, which allows them to detect after malicious code occurs. Despite early detection, however, it is not possible to prevent malicious code from occurring. Thus, we have developed an algorithm that can detect precursor symptoms at Lv.1 to prevent a cyber attack using an evasion method of 'an executing environment aware attack' by analyzing system behaviors and monitoring memory.

  4. APP transgenic mice for modelling behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R.; Fukuchi, K.; Strazielle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzeimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls. However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine. PMID:22373961

  5. Automated Tracking and Quantification of Autistic Behavioral Symptoms Using Microsoft Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Young; Kim, Ryunhyung; Kim, Hyunsun; Kang, Yeonjune; Hahn, Susan; Fu, Zhengrui; Khalid, Mamoon I; Schenck, Enja; Thesen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has risen significantly in the last ten years, and today, roughly 1 in 68 children has been diagnosed. One hallmark set of symptoms in this disorder are stereotypical motor movements. These repetitive movements may include spinning, body-rocking, or hand-flapping, amongst others. Despite the growing number of individuals affected by autism, an effective, accurate method of automatically quantifying such movements remains unavailable. This has negative implications for assessing the outcome of ASD intervention and drug studies. Here we present a novel approach to detecting autistic symptoms using the Microsoft Kinect v.2 to objectively and automatically quantify autistic body movements. The Kinect camera was used to film 12 actors performing three separate stereotypical motor movements each. Visual Gesture Builder (VGB) was implemented to analyze the skeletal structures in these recordings using a machine learning approach. In addition, movement detection was hard-coded in Matlab. Manual grading was used to confirm the validity and reliability of VGB and Matlab analysis. We found that both methods were able to detect autistic body movements with high probability. The machine learning approach yielded highest detection rates, supporting its use in automatically quantifying complex autistic behaviors with multi-dimensional input.

  6. Gender differences in behavioral and psychological symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeye; Lee, Kang Joon; Kim, Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer's disease have a strong correlation with cognitive impairment and impairment in activities of daily living. Although recent studies have reported that gender may play a role in BPSD, this finding was not evident in several other studies. The present study classified patients with Alzheimer's disease into groups with mild and moderate dementia to examine the gender differences in BPSD in each group. We divided a total of 125 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease according to the criteria of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) into groups with mild and moderate dementia. Then we examined whether the groups showed differences in memory functions, activities of daily living, and BPSD depending on gender. Our results showed a significant gender difference in Depression/Dysphoria symptoms (BPSD) among the patients in the mild dementia group (t=-2.344, pgender difference among the patients in the moderate dementia group. For both the mild and moderate dementia groups, there were no significant gender differences in memory functions and activities of daily living. The results of this study indicated that female patients with mild dementia are more vulnerable to depression than male patients. Future studies should more continuously examine a variety of factors that affect BPSD depending on the severity of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms and cortisol in persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Beck, Cornelia; Sinha, Karabi

    2009-06-01

    Between 75-90% of nursing home (NH) residents with dementia develop behavioral symptoms (BSD) which may be associated with a stress response. Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease restlessness in NH residents, however the mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the effect of therapeutic touch on BSD and basal cortisol levels among NH residents with dementia. Using a double blind experimental interrupted time series ABAB design, 65 participants were assigned to one of three groups. The experimental group received therapeutic touch with contact on the neck and shoulders delivered twice daily for 3 days (administered over 2 separate treatment periods); the placebo group received a mimic treatment identical in appearance, and the control group received routine care. Study outcomes were BSD, measured by the modified Agitated Behavior Rating Scale (mABRS), and salivary cortisol levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 64 residents, aged 67-93 years (M = 85.5, SD = 5.50), completed the study. Restlessness was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference in morning cortisol variability among groups across time periods (touch may be effective for management of symptoms like restlessness coupled with stress reduction. At a time when cost containment is a consideration in health care, therapeutic touch is an intervention that is non-invasive, readily learned, and can provide a non-pharmacologic alternative for selected persons with BSD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders (WAIST Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Richardson, Caroline R; Holleman, Rob G; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Kriska, Andrea M

    2013-04-01

    Examine the association between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms among overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Randomized clinical trial; Weight Assessment and Intervention in Schizophrenia Treatment (WAIST) Study: baseline data collected 2005-2008. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Community-dwelling adults diagnosed with SZO/SA, with mild symptom severity [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)losing weight, age 18-70years, BMI>27kg/m(2). Objectively measured sedentary behavior by accelerometry, and psychopathology assessed by PANSS. Participants wore the actigraphs for 7 consecutive days during their waking hours. Sedentary behavior was defined as ≤100 counts per minute during wear-time and excluded sleep and non-wear time. On average, 81% of the participant's monitoring time or 756min/day was classified as sedentary behavior using accelerometry. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and PANSS psychiatric symptoms [total (p≥0.75), positive (p≥0.81), negative (p≥0.59) and general psychopathology (p≥0.65) subscales]. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and age, race, gender and BMI. From a clinical and public health perspective, the amount of time (approximately 13h) and percentage of time (81% excluding non-wear time associated with sleeping) engaged in sedentary behavior among overweight and obese adults in this population is alarming, and points to an urgent need for interventions to decrease sedentary behaviors. The lack of associations between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms may be due to a ceiling effect for sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Disaster-Exposed Adolescents: Stability across Gender and Relation to Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-05-01

    Given the significant modifications to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom criteria from DSM-IV to DSM-5, a better understanding of the dimensionality underlying DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents is needed. However, to date, whether gender moderates the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in youth remains unclear. Meanwhile, little is known about how distinct PTSD dimensions relate to adolescent behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to fill these gaps. A sample of 1184 disaster-exposed Chinese adolescents (53.8 % girls) with age ranging from 13 to 17 years (M = 14.3, SD = 0.8) completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and the Withdrawn, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behavior subscales of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model provided the best fit to the data for both girls and boys. Measurement equivalence of this model held across gender, although girls had higher mean scores than boys on some factors. Differential patterns of associations emerged between PTSD dimensions and behavioral problems, with anhedonia symptoms most strongly relating to social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior symptoms most strongly relating to aggression and delinquency. These findings further support the gender invariance and external criterion validity of the newly refined hybrid model that best represents DSM-5 PTSD symptom structure in youth, and carry implications for accurate assessment, diagnosis, and gender comparison of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology, and potential symptom targets for PTSD intervention among adolescent disaster survivors.

  10. Behavioral problem trajectories and self-esteem changes in relation with adolescent depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cherry Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2018-04-04

    Prospectively childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem are associated with depression. However, these mental health changes over time have never been examined. This study assessed the association of childhood behavioral trajectories and self-esteem changes over time with adolescent depressive symptoms. Parent-reported Rutter behavioral assessments and self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories (SEI) were obtained via record linkage from the Student Health Service, Department of Health (Hong Kong), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depressive symptom scores were obtained via active follow-up of the Hong Kong's Children of 1997" Chinese birth cohort. Partitional clustering was used to generate homogenous trajectories between ~ 7 and ~ 11 years for Rutter scores. Changes in low self-esteem between ~ 10 and ~ 12 years were obtained from the SEI. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate their associations with depressive symptom scores at ~ 13 years. Four trajectories/groups (stable low, declining, rising, and stable high) of Rutter score and self-esteem groups were created. The stable low behavioral trajectory was associated with the fewest depressive symptoms while the stable high trajectory had 1.23 more depressive symptoms [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.61] than the stable low trajectory. Consistently low self-esteem (stable low) was associated with 2.96 more depressive symptoms (95% CI 2.35-3.57) compared to consistently high self-esteem (stable high). Sustained or worsening childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem were precursors of adolescent depressive symptoms, and as such could be an early indicator of the need for intervention.

  11. Prosocial skills may be necessary for better peer functioning in children with symptoms of disruptive behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan F. Andrade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.

  12. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  13. Physical activity behaviors in individuals with multiple sclerosis: roles of overall and specific symptoms, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Erin M; Motl, Robert W

    2008-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a large reduction in physical activity behavior, and emerging evidence indicates that this reduction might be correlated with symptoms and self-efficacy. The present study examined the nature of the associations among MS-related symptoms, exercise self-efficacy, and physical activity behavior in 80 individuals with a definite diagnosis of MS. Participants completed a measure of MS-related symptoms and self-efficacy and then wore an accelerometer for seven days. Both the frequency of overall symptoms and the frequency of motor symptoms had significant moderate inverse relationships with physical activity behavior (r=-0.47, Pself-efficacy was significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity (r=0.39, Pphysical activity as well as indirect effects on physical activity by way of self-efficacy. Such results suggest that the management and monitoring of MS-related symptoms may play an important role in encouraging physical activity adoption and maintenance in individuals with MS.

  14. Psychiatric disorder symptoms, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among African-American out of school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alezandria K; Latkin, Carl; Sonenstein, Freya; Tandon, S Darius

    2011-05-01

    To examine the association between symptoms of psychiatric disorder (i.e. depression, anxiety, and substance use) and sexual risk behavior in a sample of African-American adolescents and young adults in an employment training program. Baseline data were used from a pilot study of an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among youth disconnected from school and the workforce. Participants were recruited from two employment training programs in East and West Baltimore (N=617; age 16-23 years). Data were collected through audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Mental health indicators were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of sexual risk behavior for each mental health condition and combinations of conditions. Lack of condom use at last sex was significantly associated with elevated anxiety symptoms. Number of sexual partners was associated with elevated depression symptoms and substance use. Early sexual debut was associated with substance use in the past 30 days. Also, there were differences in the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior comparing groups with different combinations of mental health problems to those with no symptoms of disorder or substance use. The results demonstrate the need for HIV prevention programs that target out-of-school youth, as they are likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Our findings highlight the need to develop behavioral interventions that address disorder symptoms, substance use, and risky sexual behavior among youth in employment training programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Non-pharmacological treatment reducing not only behavioral symptoms, but also psychotic symptoms of older adults with dementia: a prospective cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rue-Chuan; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Yu; Liu, Li-Kuo; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2014-04-01

    The clinical effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among older Chinese with dementia remains unclear, and the evidence supporting the benefits of a non-pharmacological approach on psychotic symptoms is scarce. A prospective cohort study including 104 older men with dementia living in two veterans homes in Taiwan was carried out in 2011. An organized program of music therapy, orientation training, art-cognitive activities and physical activities was carried out for the intervention group. All participants were evaluated for neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), defined daily dose of psychotropic drug use, Barthel Index, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Tinetti balance score and Tinetti gait score. Overall, 104 residents were enrolled and 92 of them completed the study. The intervention group had a more significant reduction than the reference group in the overall NPI score (-2.36, P = 0.046), and in the subcategories of delusion (-0.9, P = 0.018), hallucination (-0.82, P = 0.004) and agitation (-0.91, P = 0.038). Multivariate analysis showed that the non-pharmacological intervention was associated with a favorable outcome in overall NPI score (OR 4.113, P = 0.013) and in the subcategories of hallucination (OR 14.309, P = 0.049) and agitation (OR 6.604, P = 0.037). Meanwhile, a higher baseline NPI score was also associated with a favorable outcome in overall NPI score, and in the subcategories of delusion, hallucination and agitation. Non-pharmacological interventions have a positive effect on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, not only in outward symptoms like agitation, but also intrinsic psychotic symptoms like hallucination and delusion, and agitation in older Chinese men with dementia. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Training for Patients with Unexplained Physical Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Martijn S; Zonneveld, Lyonne N L; Van't Spijker, Adriaan; Hunink, Myriam G; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group training compared with a wait-list control for patients with unexplained physical symptoms (UPS). A probabilistic decision-analytic Markov model was developed with three health states (poor health, average health, and death) based on a cutoff score of the Physical Component Summary of the short-form 36 health survey. To assess the cost-effectiveness in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), a societal perspective was adopted. The model consisted of cycles of 3 months and a time horizon of 4 years. Data for the model were derived from a randomized controlled trial, in which 162 patients with UPS were randomized either to cognitive-behavioral group training or to the wait-list control. Data were assessed at baseline and after the training of 3 months or after a wait-list period of 3 months. In addition, the training group was followed in an uncontrolled phase and assessed at 3 months and 1 year after the training. After 4 years, the group training was in terms of cost-effectiveness "dominant" compared with the wait-list control; there was a positive effect of 0.06 QALYs and a €828 reduction in costs. The cost-effectiveness improved with a longer time horizon. A threshold of €30,000/QALY was passed after 18 months. The group training was cost saving after 33 months. Cognitive-behavioral group training is a cost-effective treatment compared with the wait-list control for patients with UPS. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Unhealthy substance-use behaviors as symptom-related self-care in persons with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John M; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K; Sloane, Rick; Corless, Inge B; Lindgren, Teri G; Wantland, Dean J; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Nokes, Kathleen M; Kirksey, Kenn M; Eller, Lucille; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L; Portillo, Carmen J; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen; Willard, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Unhealthy substance-use behaviors, including a heavy alcohol intake, illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage their disease-related symptoms. This study, based on data from a larger randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual, examines the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms. The mean age of the sample (n = 775) was 42.8 years and 38.5% of the sample was female. The mean number of years living with HIV was 9.1 years. The specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were the use of marijuana, cigarettes, a large amount of alcohol, and illicit drugs. A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance-use behaviors, including amphetamine and injection drug use, heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. The implications for clinical practice include the assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons regarding the self-management of HIV.

  19. History, clinical findings, sexual behavior and hygiene habits in women with and without recurrent episodes of urinary symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudomirova, K; Mårdh, P A; Kallings, I; Nilsson, S; Hellberg, D

    1998-07-01

    To compare women with and without a history of recurrent symptoms suggestive of a urinary tract infection but a current negative urine culture regarding symptoms and signs of a genital infection, carriership of sexually transmitted agents and vaginal flora changes, sexual behavior and genital hygiene practice. Contraceptive attendees at family planning and youth clinics. Two hundred and seventeen women who reported recurrent symptoms of dysuria, frequent micturition, and urgency and had a negative bacterial urine culture were recruited as cases. Seven hundred and ten culture-negative women lacking such symptoms served as controls. A careful record was made including details about gynecological symptoms, sexual behavior and genital hygiene practice. Gynecological signs were noted at gynecological examination. Genital infections, including sexually transmitted diseases, were diagnosed. The mean age of the two groups studied was 26.2 and 25.8 years, respectively. Symptoms, such as dysmenorrhea, vaginal discharge, genital pruritus, abdominal pain and superficial dyspareunia were more frequent in the study group than among the controls. On examination, only erythema was observed more often. However, the cases more often had a history of genital herpes and vulvovaginal candidosis. They used tampons only for menstrual purposes, and soap for genital hygiene, but more often used low-pH solutions and took hot baths less frequently. The women with recurrent urinary symptoms more often masturbated and more often had experience of anal sex and sex during menstruation than the control group. Sexual behavior and genital hygiene habits may play an etiological role in the lives of women with recurrent episodes of urinary symptoms with a negative bacterial urine culture.

  20. Relations between behavioral inhibition, big five personality factors, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical and clinically anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised. Results indicated that, compared to parents of non-clinical children, parents of clinically anxious children rated their offspring higher on neuroticism and behavioral inhibition, but lower on extraversion, conscientiousness, and intellect/openness. Further, extraversion emerged as the strongest correlate of an inhibited temperament, and this appeared true for the clinically anxious as well as the non-clinical children. Finally, in both the clinical and non-clinical samples, higher levels of behavioral inhibition and neuroticism were unique and significant predictors of anxiety disorders symptoms.

  1. Behavioral symptoms in community-dwelling elderly Nigerians with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Unverzagt, Fred W; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Gureje, Oye; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric status of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment in the developing world despite the fact that current demographic trends suggest an urgent need for such studies. To assess the level of neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling individuals with dementia, cognitive impairment no dementia and normal cognition. Subjects were from the Ibadan site of Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project with stable diagnoses of normal cognition, cognitive impairment, no dementia/mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI), and dementia. Informants of subjects made ratings on the neuropsychiatric inventory and blessed dementia scale; subjects were tested with the mini mental state examination. One hundred and eight subjects were included in the analytic sample, 21 were cognitively normal, 34 were demented, and 53 were CIND/MCI. The diagnostic groups did not differ in age, per cent female, or per cent with any formal education. The most frequent symptoms among subjects with CIND/MCI were depression (45.3%), apathy (37.7%), night time behavior (28.3%), appetite change (24.5%), irritability (22.6%), delusions (22.6%), anxiety (18.9%), and agitation (17.0%). Depression was significantly more frequent among the CIND/MCI and dementia (44.1%) groups compared with the normal cognition group (9.5%). Distress scores were highest for the dementia group, lowest for the normal cognition group, and intermediate for the CIND/MCI group. Significant neuropsychiatric symptomatology and distress are present among cognitively impaired persons in this community-based study of older adults in this sub-Saharan African country. Programs to assist family members of cognitively impaired and demented persons should be created or adapted for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Improvement of Coping Strategies and Addiction Symptoms in Drug-Dependent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    H BrockieMilan; H Kamarzarrin; H Zare

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving coping strategies and symptoms of drug addiction patients. Method: In a quasi-experimental study, the number of 90drug-dependent patients referring to clinics to stop taking drugs existing in the city of Urmia were divided into two experimental (n=45) groups and control (n=45) using random sampling. The experimental group received 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment in C...

  3. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body

  4. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yiou; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng; Xu, Guifa

    2010-06-06

    Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3) were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI) subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia was considerably weaker than when

  5. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3) were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI) subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia was

  6. The effect of acculturation and discrimination on mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among adolescent migrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the role of acculturation, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in predicting the mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among 1.5 and second generation non-Jewish adolescents born to migrant families compared with native-born Jewish Israeli adolescents in Israel. Participants included n = 65 1.5 migrant adolescents, n = 60 second generation migrant adolescents, and n = 146 age, gender, and socioeconomic matched sample of native-born Jewish Israelis. Participants completed measures of acculturation pattern, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem as well as measures of mental health symptoms and risk behaviors. Results show that migrant adolescents across generations reported worse mental health symptoms compared with native-born Jewish Israelis. However, only the 1.5 generation migrants reported higher engagement in risk behaviors compared with second generation migrants and native-born Jewish Israelis. Our findings further showed that acculturation plays an important role in predicting the mental health status of migrant youth, with those characterized with integrated acculturative pattern reporting lower mental health symptoms compared with assimilated acculturation pattern. Importantly, contextual factors, such as higher perception of discrimination in the receiving culture as well as individual factors such as lower self-esteem and female gender were strongly associated with worse mental health symptoms. The findings manifest the complex relationship between contextual factors and individual level variables in the acculturative process of migrants as well as the importance of examining the effect of migration generation on mental health outcomes.

  7. Multi-Level Family Factors and Affective and Behavioral Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.

  8. Youth internalizing symptoms, sleep-related problems, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Marie L; Janicke, David M; Carmody, Julia K; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2016-04-01

    Internalizing symptoms increase the risk for disordered eating; however, the mechanism through which this relationship occurs remains unclear. Sleep-related problems may be a potential link as they are associated with both emotional functioning and disordered eating. The present study aims to evaluate the mediating roles of two sleep-related problems (sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness) in the relationship between youth internalizing symptoms and disordered eating, and to explore if age moderates these relations. Participants were 225 youth (8-17years) attending a primary care appointment. Youth and legal guardians completed questionnaires about youth disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, internalizing symptoms, sleep disturbance, and daytime sleepiness. Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were utilized. The mediation model revealed both youth sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness independently mediated the association between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and explained 18% of the variance in disordered eating. The moderated mediation model including youth age accounted for 21% of the variance in disordered eating; youth age significantly interacted with sleep disturbance, but not with daytime sleepiness, to predict disordered eating. Sleep disturbance only mediated the relationship between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating in youth 12years old and younger, while daytime sleepiness was a significant mediator regardless of age. As sleep-related problems are frequently improved with the adoption of health behaviors conducive to good sleep, these results may suggest a relatively modifiable and cost-effective target to reduce youth risk for disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirne C. S. Paap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS, a prospective longitudinal total population study of children’s developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N=9430. All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases and parent (6253 complete cases report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV, and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if

  10. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors across Adolescence: Associations with Histories of Suicide Attempt and Ideation in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between adolescent problem trajectories and suicide risk outcomes in 361 community participants. Depressive symptoms (self-report) and externalizing behaviors (parent report) were assessed six times from grades 5 to 10. Parallel process linear growth curves indicated that lifetime suicide attempt history assessed to age 25…

  11. Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

  12. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  13. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  14. Effortful Control Moderates Bidirectional Effects between Children's Externalizing Behavior and Their Mothers' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel E.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via…

  15. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression during the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117)…

  16. Differences of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Disease Severity in Four Major Dementias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kazui

    Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs negatively impact the prognosis of dementia patients and increase caregiver distress. The aims of this study were to clarify the differences of trajectories of 12 kinds of BPSDs by disease severity in four major dementias and to develop charts showing the frequency, severity, and associated caregiver distress (ACD of BPSDs using the data of a Japan multicenter study (J-BIRD.We gathered Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI data of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 1091, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 249, vascular dementia (VaD; n = 156, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD; n = 102 collected during a 5-year period up to July 31, 2013 in seven centers for dementia in Japan. The NPI composite scores (frequency × severity of 12 kinds of items were analyzed using a principal component analysis (PCA in each dementia. The factor scores of the PCA were compared in each dementia by disease severity, which was determined with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR.Significant increases with higher CDR scores were observed in 1 two of the three factor scores which were loaded for all items except euphoria in AD, 2 two of the four factor scores for apathy, aberrant motor behavior (AMB, sleep disturbances, agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and euphoria in DLB, and 3 one of the four factor scores for apathy, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances in VaD. However, no increases were observed in any of the five factor scores in FTLD.As dementia progresses, several BPSDs become more severe, including 1 apathy and sleep disturbances in AD, DLB, and VaD, 2 all of the BPSDs except euphoria in AD, 3 AMB, agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and euphoria in DLB, and 4 depression and anxiety in VaD. Trajectories of BPSDs in FTLD were unclear.

  17. Behavioral Phenotype of ASD Preschoolers with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Food Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperi, Margherita; Santocchi, Elisa; Balboni, Giulia; Narzisi, Antonio; Bozza, Margherita; Fulceri, Francesca; Apicella, Fabio; Igliozzi, Roberta; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Calderoni, Sara; Muratori, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of gastrointestinal (GI) and food selectivity (FS) symptoms in 163 preschoolers with ASD, and their possible links with core ASD features and emotional/behavioural problems. 40.5% of children with ASD had at least one severe GI symptom or FS. Preschoolers with and without GI symptoms and with and…

  18. Relations between negative affect and health behaviors by race/ethnicity: Differential effects for symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erin M; Orom, Heather; Giovino, Gary A; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2015-09-01

    Health behaviors, including smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption, are both associated with psychological distress and vary by race/ethnicity. The relation of global psychological distress to behavior also varies by race/ethnicity, but the specific negative affective states responsible for this effect are not known. This study examined how the relation of feelings of depression and anxiety to health behaviors differs by race/ethnicity. Secondary data analysis of the HINTS nationally representative population survey was conducted. Survey participants reported their current symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as smoking status and fruit and vegetable consumption. Survey weighted linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether race/ethnicity moderated the relation of symptoms of depression and anxiety to smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption. For symptoms of depression, but not anxiety, there was a significant interaction between race/ethnicity and psychological distress in predicting both smoking status and fruit and vegetable consumption. Greater depressive symptoms were related to a greater likelihood of smoking and lower fruit and vegetable consumption for White, but not Black respondents. For Hispanic respondents, depressive symptoms were associated with a greater likelihood of currently smoking, but were not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. The association between depressive symptoms and both smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption differs as a function of race/ethnicity. These findings have implications for understanding the extent to which negative affective states influence health behaviors across different racial/ethnic groups, and for developing interventions that effectively target smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption among different racial/ethnic subgroups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Pathways from maternal distress and child problem behavior to adolescent depressive symptoms: a prospective examination from early childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill

    2013-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.

  20. The Impact of Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Symptoms, and Executive Functions on Learning Behaviors of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Carla; Berenguer, Carmen; Roselló, Belén; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Miranda, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. The second objective was to analyze the relationships among learning behaviors, executive functioning, and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in both groups. Participants were 35 children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 with TD (7-11 years old), matched on age and IQ. The teachers filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Learning Behaviors Scale, which evaluates Competence/motivation, Attitude toward learning, Attention/persistence, and Strategy/flexibility. In addition, parents and teachers filled out the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. ANOVAs showed significant differences between children with ADHD and TD children on all the learning behaviors. Moreover, in both the ADHD and TD groups, the behavioral regulation index of the BRIEF predicted the search for strategies, and the metacognition index was a good predictor of motivation. However, attitude toward learning was predicted by metacognition only in the group with ADHD. Therefore, the executive functions had greater power than the typical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in predicting learning behaviors of children with ADHD. The findings are in line with other studies that support the influence of the executive functions on performance, highlighting the importance of including their development as a top priority from early ages in the

  1. State of the Science: Apathy As a Model for Investigating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, Lauren; Kales, Helen C; Kolanowski, Ann

    2018-04-01

    Apathy is one of the most common and pervasive of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs). Apathy has profound consequences for morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. Treatment of apathy has been hindered because of poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous syndrome. Research has demonstrated that apathy is associated with disruption of the frontal-striatal system in individuals with neurodegenerative disease. As with other BPSDs, these neural mechanisms alone do not completely account for the syndrome; individual, caregiver, and environmental factors also contribute to apathy. In this article, we modify a current conceptual model of the factors contributing to BPSDs to examine determinants of apathy. This integrative model provides a more complete and theoretically informed understanding of apathy, allowing for greater insight into potential targets for research, intervention, and care. We end by proposing an agenda for moving the science of BPSDs in general, and apathy in particular, forward. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Relations between problem behaviors, perceived symptom severity and parenting in adolescents and emerging adults with ASD: The mediating role of parental psychological need frustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, L.M. (Lisa M.); S.S.W. de Pauw (Sarah); Soenens, B. (Bart); Mabbe, E. (Elien); Campbell, R. (Rachel); P.J. Prinzie (Peter)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractResearch in parents of youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increasingly documents associations between children's problem behaviors and symptom severity and more dysfunctional and less adaptive parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations have not

  3. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drugs among people with cognitive impairment in nursing homes in 2007 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Isaksson, Ulf; Karlsson, Stig; Sandman, Per-Olof; Lövheim, Hugo

    2016-08-01

    The use of psychotropic drugs to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among people with dementia has been widely questioned because of its limited efficacy and risk of harmful side-effects. The objectives of this study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms and the use of psychotropic drug treatments among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units in 2007 and 2013. Two questionnaire surveys were performed in 2007 and 2013, comprising all those living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. A comparison was made between 1971 people from 2007 and 1511 people from 2013. Data were collected concerning psychotropic and antidementia drug use, functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL), cognition, and behavioral and psychological symptoms, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). Between 2007 and 2013, the use of antipsychotic drugs declined from 25.4 to 18.9 %, and of anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs from 35.5 to 29.4 %. The prevalence of people prescribed antidepressant drugs remained unchanged while antidementia drug prescription increased from 17.9 to 21.5 %. When controlled for demographic changes, 36 out of 39 behavioral and psychological symptoms showed no difference in prevalence between the years. The use of antipsychotic, anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs declined considerably between 2007 and 2013 among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units. Despite this reduction, the prevalences of behavioral and psychological symptoms remained largely unchanged.

  4. The nursing assistants' communication style and the behavioral symptoms of dementia in Korean-American nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Diana Lynn; Mentes, Janet C; Martin, Jennifer L; Moon, Ailee; Phillips, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examined the association between communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD). The communication style of Nursing Assistants' (NAs), whose ethnic background is different from the residents, may contribute to BSD. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between non-Korean NAs' communication style and BSD in Korean-American (KA) nursing home residents with dementia. Twenty eight NAs and 20 KA residents were recruited from an ethno-specific nursing home. Research assistants observed and recorded NAs' communication style and residents' behavior simultaneously during routine care for 3 days. This study shows a trend that NAs' dementia and culturally appropriate communication style influenced the decreased behavioral symptoms. This finding suggests the need for training for NAs in dementia and culturally appropriate communication. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of parental behavioral consistency: Associations with parental stress and child ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2018-04-02

    Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Predicting Risky Sexual Behavior: the Unique and Interactive Roles of Childhood Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah L; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be uniquely associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adolescence and early adulthood, yet their interactive role in predicting RSB remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of CD symptoms and CU traits, as well as their interaction, on several RSB outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. A total of 683 participants (41.7 % female, 47.4 % African American) were followed annually and self-reported age of first sexual intercourse, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, contraction of sexually transmitted infections, and engagement in sexual solicitation from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. CD symptoms predicted age of first sexual intercourse, condom use, and sexual solicitation. CU traits predicted age of first sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Their interaction predicted a composite score of these RSBs such that CD symptoms positively predicted the composite score among those with high levels of CU traits but not among those with low levels of CU traits. The current findings provide information regarding the importance of both CD symptoms and CU traits in understanding adolescent and early adulthood RSB, as well as the benefits of examining multiple RSB outcomes during this developmental period. These findings have implications for the development and implementation of preventive efforts to target these risky behaviors among adolescents and young adults.

  7. Prevalence, self-care behaviors, and self-care activities for peripheral neuropathy symptoms of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Voss, Joachim; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri; Huang, Emily; Holzemer, William L; Cuca, Yvette; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Portillo, Carmen; Willard, Suzanne; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary J; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Human, Sarie; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Maryland, Mary; Nokes, Kathleen M; Eller, Lucille; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Brion, John M; Bunch, Elli H; Shannon, Maureen; Nicholas, Thomas P; Viamonte-Ros, Ana; Bain, Catherine A

    2010-03-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual (n = 775), this study examined the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected individuals at 12 sites in the USA, Puerto Rico, and Africa. Neuropathy was reported by 44% of the sample; however, only 29.4% reported initiating self-care behaviors to address the neuropathy symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy was found to increase the frequency of neuropathy symptoms, with an increased mean intensity of 28%. A principal axis factor analysis with Promax rotation was used to assess the relationships in the frequency of use of the 18 self-care activities for neuropathy, revealing three distinct factors: (i) an interactive self-care factor; (ii) a complementary medicine factor; and (iii) a third factor consisting of the negative health items of smoking, alcohol, and street drugs. The study's results suggest that peripheral neuropathy is a common symptom and the presence of neuropathy is associated with self-care behaviors to ameliorate HIV symptoms. The implications for nursing practice include the assessment and evaluation of nursing interventions related to management strategies for neuropathy.

  8. Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia is not a unitary concept: A critical review with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Laks

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. Objectives: This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. Methods: A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. Results: The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. Conclusions: BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.

  9. An approach to and the rationale for the pharmacological management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Manjari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsiveness in an otherwise "incurable" and progressive disease, but also improves the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers alike. The caregiver burden is greatly decreased by an efficient management of BPSD. This review discusses the implications and boundaries of the term BPSD and unravels each symptom and its identification. Manifestations of psychological symptoms such as delusion, hallucination, misidentification, psychosis, depression, apathy, and anxiety are briefly described. Correct identification of behavior symptoms such as wandering, agitation, catastrophic reaction, disinhibition, and delirium has been outlined. While the subtle differences in each entity make the precise identification difficult, the different therapeutics of each make the exercise necessary. Pharmacological recommendations and side effects of medications have been mentioned thereafter. The review will help in the identification and correct pharmacological management of BPSD.

  10. Relationship between parenting stress and informant discrepancies on symptoms of ADHD/ODD and internalizing behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Chen

    Full Text Available Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4-6 years from the community or via clinical referrals. A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among three factors derived from the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and informant discrepancies on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and internalizing behaviors. Scores reported by parents were higher for each of the symptoms examined than those reported by teachers, and the degree of agreement between informants ranged from low to moderate. The parental distress factor of parenting stress was associated only with parent ratings, whereas other factors of parenting stress-parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parents' stress resulted from their child's temperament-were correlated with both parent and teacher ratings. Only parental distress factor predicted informant discrepancies for all behavioral symptoms assessed. Our findings suggest that parental distress should be considered when parent rating scores show significant discrepancies from that of teacher rating scores.

  11. Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnöve; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child Behavior Checklist. The studied dimensions of EF were cognitive efficiency/speed, working memory/attention and inhibitory control. Strong age effects were found for these cognitive abilities (p values working hard and behaving well), academic performance and less psychiatric symptoms (p values <0.05), specially in 8-9-year-old children. In this youngest age group low inhibitory control was also associated with teacher-reported inattention (p = 0.042). Low inhibitory control was associated with teacher- and parent-reported internalizing symptoms (p < 0.01). These results suggest that maturational factors may underlie low adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms during early school years. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between inhibition and emotional symptoms.

  12. Fibromyalgia Symptom Reduction by Online Behavioral Self-monitoring, Longitudinal Single Subject Analysis and Automated Delivery of Individualized Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, William; Yarnold, Paul; Soltysik, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog) that analyzes personal self-monitoring data and delivers data-based feedback over time. Subjects were self-referred, anonymous, and recruited via publicity on FM advocacy websites. Standardized instruments assessed health status, self-efficacy, and locus of control at baseline and monthly during participation. Subjects were encouraged to complete the SMARTLog several times weekly. Within-subject, univariate, and multivariate analyses were used to derive classification trees for each user associating specific behavior variables with symptom levels over time. Moderate use (3 times weekly x 3 months) increased likelihood of clinically significant improvements in pain, memory, gastrointestinal problems, depression, fatigue, and concentration; heavy use (4.5 times weekly x five months) produced the above plus improvement in stiffness and sleep difficulties. Individualized, web-based behavioral self-monitoring with personally-tailored feedback can enable FM sufferers to significantly reduce symptom levels over time.

  13. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms: support for a hybrid Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviors model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Tsai, Jack; Durham, Tory A; Charak, Ruby; Biehn, Tracey L; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD's tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Help Seeking Behavior of Women with Self-Discovered Breast Cancer Symptoms: A Meta-Ethnographic Synthesis of Patient Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakbazan, Zohreh; Taghipour, Ali; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. Methods The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach (1988), through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. Findings The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women’s decision-making about utilizing health services. Conclusion Help seeking processes are

  15. The Effect of Emotion Regulation Training based on Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Gross Process Model on Symptoms of Emotional Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Salehi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two training methods of emotional regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT and gross emotion regulation process model(GERM in reducing symptoms of emotional problems (depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study, 45 students who referred to Isfahan university center by themselves, randomly selected between the students who have emotional problems, they randomly assigned into three groups (two experimental and a waiting list group. One of the experimental group received DBT and another on GERM. The data obtained using SCL-90-R and psychological interview (in pre- post test and follow-up. Results: 1- Both experimental methods reduce interpersonal sensitivity of students. 2- Just DBT reduced depression symptoms. 3- Both experimental methods reduce anxiety symptoms but in DBT, recurrent anxiety symptoms were observed in follow up stage. Also these methods had different effect on anxiety symptoms. 4- None of the above methods could reduce hostility symptoms. Conclusion: Those findings showed effectiveness of two training methods of emotional regulation on emotion problems. We could use GERM method for intervention in anxiety, DBT method for intervention in depression and both method for intervention in interpersonal sensitivity

  16. PTSD symptoms as risk factors for intimate partner violence revictimization and the mediating role of victims' violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Karlijn F; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Winkel, Frans Willem

    2012-04-01

    Apart from being a consequence of intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can also be a risk factor for IPV revictimization. The current study examined how each of 4 PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, arousal, avoidance, and numbing) related to revictimization in a sample of 156 female help-seeking victims of IPV, recruited from various victim support services in the Netherlands. In addition, we hypothesized that victim-perpetrated IPV would mediate the relation between PTSD symptomatology and IPV revictimization. Our results show that victims' PTSD reexperiencing symptoms predict revictimization of partner violence (d = .45 for physical IPV revictimization; d = .35 for psychological IPV revictimization); the other 3 PTSD symptom clusters were not related to IPV revictimization. Furthermore, victim-perpetrated psychological IPV was found to partially mediate the relation between victims' PTSD reexperiencing symptoms and IPV revictimization (Z = 2.339, SE = 0.044, p = .019 for physical IPV revictimization, and Z = 2.197, SE = 0.038, p = .028 for psychological IPV revictimization). Findings indicate that IPV victims with higher levels of PTSD reexperiencing symptoms may be more likely to perpetrate psychological IPV themselves, which may put them at greater risk for receiving IPV in return. Based on these results, a focus on individual PTSD symptom clusters and victim behaviors seems relevant for practice and may contribute to a decrease in victims' risk for future IPV. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Protective behavioral strategies as a mediator between depressive symptom fluctuations and alcohol consumption: a longitudinal examination among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M

    2015-01-01

    Use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has been shown to be associated with alcohol outcomes among college students in general. Only a few studies, however, have examined how mental health is related to PBS and alcohol use. Furthermore, research has not yet investigated these associations in a longitudinal framework. Consequently, the present study aimed to examine PBS as a mediator of depressive symptom fluctuations and alcohol consumption in a longitudinal weekly diary design. Participants were 260 (70.8% women) undergraduate college student drinkers who completed four weekly self-report assessments of their depressive symptoms, PBS use, and alcohol outcomes experienced in the past week. RESULTS indicated significant indirect effects such that increases in depressive symptoms were associated with higher alcohol consumption (i.e., quantity, frequency, peak drinking) through reduced PBS use. PBS did not mediate the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related problems. These findings suggest that experiencing an increase in depressive symptoms was associated with a failure to use PBS and, in turn, engagement in heavier alcohol consumption. College students with greater depressive symptoms may benefit from harm-reduction alcohol intervention programs that emphasize the use of PBS in drinking contexts.

  18. Relations among behavioral inhibition, shame- and guilt-proneness, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Bouwman, Leanne; Notermans, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition (as an index of anxiety proneness), and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children aged 8-13 years (N = 126), using children's self-report data. Results showed that there were positive and significant correlations between shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms. When controlling for the overlap between shame and guilt, it was found that shame (but not guilt) remained significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety proneness and anxiety symptoms. Further, when controlling for the effect of behavioral inhibition, shame still accounted for a significant proportion of the variance of total anxiety and generalized anxiety scores. For these anxiety problems, support emerged for a model in which shame acted as a partial mediator in the relation between behavioral inhibition and anxiety. These results indicate that the self-conscious emotion of shame is a robust correlate of anxiety pathology in children.

  19. The combined relations of gender, enculturation, and depressive symptoms with health risk behaviors in Mexican-Americans: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotte, Jessica K; Baumann, Michael R; Garza, Raymond T; Hale, Willie J

    2017-10-31

    The present study investigated the relationships of enculturation and depressive symptoms with health risk behavior engagement in Mexican-American college students and examined how these relationships differed by gender. Previous research has noted consistent gender differences in health risk behavior (e.g. alcohol use, substance use, and risky sexual behavior) among Latina/os, and emphasized the role of U.S. acculturation in this difference. Research examining the role of heritage cultural retention (i.e. enculturation), and including the added influence of mental health variables, such as depressive symptoms, is currently lacking. This study sought to address this gap. A large sample (N = 677) of Mexican-American college students from four universities (located in New York, California, Florida, and Texas) completed an online questionnaire assessing health risk behaviors and corresponding variables. We found that males who endorsed more behavioral enculturation and depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in health risk behavior than all others in the sample. Contrary to previous literature, no relationship was found between behavioral enculturation and health risk behavior in females. The current study found behavioral enculturation to be associated with depressive symptoms, and in turn with health risk behaviors among the males in our sample. Additional research will be needed to identify the mechanism underlying the relationship between enculturation and depressive symptoms as well as between depressive symptoms and risky behavior.

  20. Online cognitive-behavioral treatment of bulimic symptoms: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, J.; Lange, A.; Broeksteeg, J.; Renteria Agirre, A.; Schrieken, B.; Dolan, C.V.; Emmelkamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Manualized cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is underutilized in the treatment of bulimic symptoms. Internet-delivered treatment may reduce current barriers. Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new online CBT of bulimic symptoms. Method: Participants with bulimic

  1. Managing severe behavioral symptoms of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis: case report and findings in current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Lima Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric symptoms emerge in the early stages of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and patients often seek treatment in psychiatric departments before visiting any other general medical services. Numerous articles about anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been published in the scientific community worldwide, but few emphasize the role of psychiatry in symptom management.Case description: We describe the case of a patient with anti- -NMDAR encephalitis seen in our service and discuss the management of behavioral symptoms based on current scientific literature. High doses of atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were used to control agitation, and trazodone was administered to treat insomnia.Comments: Consultation-liaison psychiatry may help the healthcare team adjust the management of neuropsychiatric complications that might affect inpatients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  2. Effect of Serotonin 1A Agonists and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Behavioral and Nighttime Respiratory Symptoms in Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Koyo; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Riyo; Togawa, Masami; Ohmae, Takanori; Matsuda, Eriko; Fujiyama, Misato; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Rett syndrome is characterized by psychomotor regression during early childhood, autistic-like behaviors, and aberrant breathing patterns. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of these symptoms. We present an 11-year-old girl with Rett syndrome who exhibited marked respiratory symptoms, including frequent apneic events during sleep. She had been treated for these respiratory symptoms using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation since age six years. Treatment with serotonin 1A receptor agonist was initiated at age eight years, whereas treatment using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor began at age nine years. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy was effective in reducing symptoms of sleep apnea, and administration of serotonergic agents resulted in amelioration of sleep apneic events even in the absence of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. In addition, improvements in hand stereotypy and social skills were observed after initiation of serotonin-based therapy. The respiratory difficulties our patient experienced during non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are characteristic of post-sigh central apnea. Exaggerated activity of expiratory neurons during such apneic events has been observed in mouse models of Rett syndrome. We suggest that prescribed serotonergic agents might serve to inhibit such activity, attenuating the imbalance between inspiratory and expiratory neurons. These agents might also be useful in the treatment of autistic-like behaviors caused by impaired serotonergic transmission in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Association between Obesity and Symptoms of Psychopathology and its Relationship with Sedentary Behavior and Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Dimitrios; Mamplekou, Efterpi; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Komessidou, Vasso; Dimitriadis, George; Papageorgiou, Charalambos

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates an association between obesity and symptoms of psychopathology, the nature of which remains obscure. This study examined the confounding role of behavioral factors on this association. One hundred and forty-two overweight/obese subjects who sought treatment for obesity, of both genders (51 males and 91 females), 18 to 64 years old and 139 normal-weight controls of both genders (41 males and 98 females), 18 to 63 years old, were enrolled in this study. We measured psychopathology features, using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), dietary habits, using the MedDietScore (MDS) questionnaire, and physical activity, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A series of regression models were used to estimate the mediation of dietary patterns and physical activity on the obesity-psychopathology association. The associations between obesity and depression (β=0.32/β=0.15), obsession-compulsion (β=0.03/β=-0.13), anxiety (β=-0.25/β=-0.12), interpersonal sensitivity (β=0.08/β=-0.04) and psychoticism (β=-0.01/ β=0.025) are accounted for by sedentary behavior and Mediterranean diet. Our data suggest that modifiable behavioral factors such as sedentary time and dietary patterns positively affect the association between obesity and symptoms of psychopathology.

  4. Children's behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorder symptom severity: The role of individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Palmer, Cara A; Zvolensky, Michael J; Alfano, Candice A; Dixon, Laura J; Raines, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    Although behavioral inhibition (BI) is clearly identified as a temperamental risk factor for childhood anxiety psychopathology, much less is known about whether the strength of this association may vary as a function of parasympathetic nervous system regulation in children with anxiety disorders. To build upon extant research in this area, the present study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) can explicate the conditions in which BI is linked to increased symptom severity among anxiety-disordered children (N = 44; M = 9.61 years, SD = 1.63; 52% female and African American, respectively). We examined RSA responding both during a basal period and during a stressor ("challenge" RSA): interacting with a "mystery guest" who was wearing a mask. As hypothesized, the interaction between BI and both basal and challenge RSA was significantly related to anxiety disorder symptom severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. The form of the interaction indicated that highest levels of anxiety disorder symptoms were found among children with high levels of BI and low basal and challenge RSA, respectively. These data provide novel empirical evidence of a clinically-relevant interplay between RSA and BI in relation to anxiety disorder symptom severity among clinical youth. Future work is needed to expand on the specific mechanisms that may be responsible e for the interplay between temperamental and psychobiological risks for childhood anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  6. Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), all of whom have had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from the home of their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having a biological mother who has experienced recurrent depression. Study analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls’ trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point across the study period. Results suggest increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for antisocial behavior, for girls at familial risk for depression, but decreasing trajectories for girls in foster care. A similar pattern of results was noted for antisocial behavior trajectories, controlling for depressive symptoms. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the identification of family level promotive factors aimed at reducing negative developmental trajectories among high-risk youth. PMID:25422973

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy in 22q11.2 microdeletion with psychotic symptoms: What do we learn from schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demily, Caroline; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes, with a widely underestimated prevalence between 1 per 2000 and 1 per 6000. Since childhood, patients with 22q11.2DS are described as having difficulties to initiate and maintain peer relationships. This lack of social skills has been linked to attention deficits/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression. A high incidence of psychosis and positive symptoms is observed in patients with 22q11.2DS and remains correlated with poor social functioning, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Because 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia share several major clinical features, 22q11.2DS is sometimes considered as a genetic model for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, almost no study suggests the use of cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) in this indication. We reviewed what should be learned from schizophrenia to develop specific intervention for 22q11.2DS. In our opinion, the first step of CBT approach in 22q11.2DS with psychotic symptoms is to identify precisely which tools can be used among the already available ones. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targets integrated disorders, i.e. reasoning biases and behavior disorders. In 22q11.2DS, CBT-targeted behavior disorders may take the form of social avoidance and withdrawal or, in the contrary, a more unusual disinhibition and aggressiveness. In our experience, other negative symptoms observed in 22q11.2DS, such as motivation deficit or anhedonia, may also be reduced by CBT. Controlled trials have been studying the benefits of CBT in schizophrenia and several meta-analyses proved its effectiveness. Therefore, it is legitimate to propose this tool in 22q11.2DS, considering symptoms similarities. Overall, CBT is the most effective psychosocial intervention on psychotic symptoms and remains a relevant complement to pharmacological treatments such as antipsychotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, placental expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid and serotonin function and infant regulatory behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; O'Reilly, J R; Tuovinen, S; Lahti, M; Kajantie, E; Villa, P; Laivuori, H; Hämäläinen, E; Seckl, J R; Reynolds, R M

    2015-11-01

    Glucocorticoids and serotonin may mediate the link between maternal environment, fetal brain development and 'programming' of offspring behaviors. The placenta regulates fetal exposure to maternal hormonal signals in animal studies, but few data address this in humans. We measured prospectively maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and mRNAs encoding key gene products determining glucocorticoid and serotonin function in term human placenta and explored associations with infant regulatory behaviors. Bi-weekly self-ratings of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale from 12th to 13th gestational week onwards and term placental mRNAs of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2B11), type 1 (HSD1B11), glucocorticoid (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptors (NR3C2) and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) were obtained from 54 healthy mothers aged 32.2 ± 5.3 years with singleton pregnancies and without pregnancy complications. Infant regulatory behaviors (crying, feeding, spitting, elimination, sleeping and predictability) were mother-rated at 15.6 ± 4.2 days. Higher placental mRNA levels of HSD2B11 [0.41 standard deviation (s.d.) unit increase per s.d. unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.69, p = 0.005], HSD1B11 (0.30, 0.03-0.57, p = 0.03), NR3C1 (0.44, 0.19-0.68, p = 0.001) and SLC6A4 (0.26, 0.00-0.53, p = 0.05) were associated with more regulatory behavioral challenges of the infant. Higher placental NR3C1 mRNA partly mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and infant regulatory behaviors (p serotonin exposure is characteristic of infants with more regulatory behavioral challenges. Maternal depression acts, at least partly, via altering glucocorticoid action in the placenta to impact on offspring regulatory behaviors.

  9. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Improvement of Coping Strategies and Addiction Symptoms in Drug-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H BrockieMilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving coping strategies and symptoms of drug addiction patients. Method: In a quasi-experimental study, the number of 90drug-dependent patients referring to clinics to stop taking drugs existing in the city of Urmia were divided into two experimental (n=45 groups and control (n=45 using random sampling. The experimental group received 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment in Carroll style while the control group received only methadone and the physical pills. All the participants completed coping strategies questionnaire at the beginning, during (after three months, and three months after treatment (follow-up. As well, they were assessed for the rate of improvement in symptoms of addiction and process of addiction treatment using by Madzly’s addiction profile questionnaire. Findings: The results proved the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and its survival. Conclusion: Cognitive behavioral therapy is very influential in the boost of coping strategies and the improvement of mental and physical health in drug-dependent patients.

  11. The Relationships between Mental Health Symptoms and Gambling Behavior in the Transition from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Pallesen, Ståle; Hanss, Daniel; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Mentzoni, Rune A.; Torsheim, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of longitudinal investigations of gambling behavior in the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of the associations and patterns of change between mental health symptoms and gambling behavior. A representative sample of Norwegians completed questionnaires containing demographic, mental health, and gambling measures at age 17 (N = 2055), and at ages 18 (N = 1334) and 19 (N = 1277). Using latent class analysis, three classes of gambling behavior were identified: consistent non-gambling (71.1%), consistent non-risk gambling (23.8%), and risky-and-problem gambling (5.1%). Being male, showing higher physical and verbal aggression and having more symptoms of depression were associated with greater odds of belonging to the risky-and-problem gambling class at age 17. Overall, the risky-and-problem gambling class had the highest physical and verbal aggression, anxiety, and depression at 19 years. Our findings elucidate the reciprocal relationship between mental health and gambling behavior in the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood, and the importance of recognizing these factors in designing targeted interventions. PMID:28408894

  12. Association between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Sandman, Per-Olof; Karlsson, Stig; Gustafson, Yngve; Lövheim, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common among cognitively impaired individuals and psychotropic drugs are widely used for their treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings. The study comprised 2,019 cognitively impaired people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use, function in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale. Of the study population, 1,442 individuals (71%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug (antidepressants (49%), anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (36%), antipsychotics (25%)). Furthermore, 363 individuals (18%) received anti-dementia drugs. Associations between various behavioral and psychological symptoms were found for all psychotropic drug classes and anti-dementia drugs. Verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior was associated with all psychotropic drugs. Use of antipsychotics was associated with several behavioral and psychological symptoms, including aggressive behavior. The associations between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use found in this study indicate that these drugs are prescribed to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among cognitively impaired individuals despite limited evidence of their efficacy. Given the significant risk of adverse effects among old people with cognitive impairment, it is important to ensure that any medication used is both appropriate and safe.

  13. Longitudinal course of anxiety sensitivity and PTSD symptoms in cognitive-behavioral therapies for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutner, Cassidy A; Nillni, Yael I; Suvak, Michael; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon; Resick, Patricia A

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has been conceptualized as trait-like vulnerability and maintenance factor for PTSD. Although recent literature has demonstrated its malleability during treatment, few have examined its influence on and effect from PTSD treatment. Using multilevel regression analyses we examined: (a) changes in AS during treatment and (b) whether pre-treatment AS predicted PTSD treatment response, in sample of female victims of interpersonal trauma receiving one of three treatments (cognitive processing therapy, cognitive processing therapy-cognitive, and written accounts). Participants exhibited reductions in total ASI scores from pre- to post-treatment. Growth curve modeling revealed slightly different trajectories of PTSD symptoms as a function of pre-treatment AS, and overall decreases in PTSD symptoms during treatment were not associated with pretreatment AS. Pretreatment AS dimensions impacted PTSD total scores and symptoms clusters differentially. Clinical and theoretical implications for these results are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Prenatal anxiety, maternal stroking in infancy, and symptoms of emotional and behavioral disorders at 3.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Hellier, Jennifer; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Animal findings of long-term effects of maternal behaviors mediated via altered GR gene expression will, if translated into humans, have far reaching implications for our understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology. We have previously shown that mothers' self-reported stroking of their infants modifies associations between prenatal depression and anxiety and child outcomes at 29 weeks and 2.5 years. Here, we examine whether the effect of early maternal stroking is evident at 3.5 years, and in a much larger sample than in previous publications. A general population sample of 1233 first-time mothers completed anxiety measures at 20 weeks gestation, 865 reported on infant stroking at 9 weeks, and 813 on child symptoms at 3.5 years. Maternal stroking moderated the association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and internalizing (p = 0.010) and externalizing (p = 0.004) scores, such that an effect of PSA to increase symptoms was markedly reduced for mothers who reported high levels of stroking. There was no effect of maternal stroking on general anxiety. The findings confirm the previously reported effect of maternal stroking, and in a much larger sample. They indicate that there are long-term effects of early maternal stroking, modifying associations between prenatal anxiety and child emotional and behavioral symptoms.

  15. Protective Behavioral Strategies and the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P.; Martin, Jessica L.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 40% of college students reported engaging in heavy episodic or “binge” drinking in the 2 weeks prior to being surveyed. Research indicates that college students suffering from depression are more likely to report experiencing negative consequences related to their drinking than other students are. The reasons for this relationship have not been well-studied. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine whether use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), defined as cognitive-behavioral strategies an individual can use when drinking alcohol that limit both consumption and alcohol-related problems, mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. Data were obtained from 686 participants from a large, public university who were referred to an alcohol intervention as a result of violating on-campus alcohol policies. Results from structural equation modeling analyses indicated that use of PBS partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related negative consequences. Implications for clinicians treating college students who report experiencing depressive symptoms or consuming alcohol are discussed. PMID:22017560

  16. Using family history and health risk behaviors to determine predictors of depressive symptoms in Central American immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Lyon, Debra E; Meyers, Melanie F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms. There were no significant findings for acculturation as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Predictors that related to depressive symptomatology were a positive family history of depression, marital status (divorced), and having a daughter engaged in health risk behaviors. Clinicians working with mothers from Central America should consider risk of depression, whether there is a family history of depression; and additional stresses, such as the health risk behaviors of adolescents. Unprecedented levels of immigration around the world underscore the importance of meeting the healthcare needs of culturally-diverse groups. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Co-Occurrence and Predictors of Three Commonly Occurring Behavioral Symptoms in Dementia: Agitation, Aggression, and Rejection of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Scott Seung W; Budhathoki, Chakra; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-05-01

    To investigate co-occurrences of agitation, aggression, and rejection of care in community-dwelling families living with dementia. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial testing a nonpharmacological intervention to reduce behavioral symptoms. We examined frequency of occurrence of presenting behaviors at baseline and their combination. Omnibus tests compared those exhibiting combinations of behaviors on contributory factors. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined relationships of contributory factors to combinations of behaviors. Of 272 persons with dementia (PwDs), 41 (15%) had agitation alone (Agi), 3 (1%) had aggression alone, 5 (2%) had rejection of care alone. For behavioral combinations, 65 (24%) had agitation and aggression (Agi+Aggr), 35 (13%) had agitation and rejection (Agi+Rej), 1 (0%) had aggression and rejection, and 106 (39%) had all three behaviors (All). Four behavioral subgroups (Agi, Agi+Aggr, Agi+Rej, and All) were examined. Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that there were significant group differences in PwD cognition, functional dependence, and caregiver frustration. PwDs in Agi+Rej and All were more cognitively impaired than those in Agi and Agi+Aggr. Also, caregivers in All were more frustrated than those in Agi. In logistic regression analyses, compared with Agi, greater cognitive impairment was a significant predictor of Agi+Rej and All, but not Agi+Aggr. In contrast, greater caregiver frustration was a significant predictor of Agi+Aggr and All, but not Agi+Rej. We found that agitation, aggression, and rejection are common but distinct behaviors. Combinations of these behaviors have different relationships with contributory factors, suggesting the need for targeting treatment approaches to clusters. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastrointestinal symptoms and eating behavior among morbidly obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Petereit

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In morbidly obese patients endoscopic findings correlate well with gastrointestinal complain. RYGB significantly improves gastrointestinal complains and eating behavior one year postoperatively.

  19. Cognitive processes as mediators of the relation between mindfulness and change in social anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica R; Price, Matthew; Schmertz, Stefan K; Johnson, Suzanne B; Masuda, Akihiko; Calamaras, Martha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether pretreatment mindfulness exerts an indirect effect on outcomes following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive processes of probability and cost bias (i.e., overestimations of the likelihood that negative social events will occur, and that these events will have negative consequences when they do occur) were explored as potential mediators of the relation between mindfulness and social anxiety symptom change. People with higher levels of mindfulness may be better able to benefit from treatments that reduce biases because mindfulness may aid in regulation of attention. Sixty-seven individuals with a primary diagnosis of social phobia identifying public speaking as their greatest fear received eight sessions of one of two types of exposure-based CBT delivered according to treatment manuals. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, probability bias, cost bias, and social anxiety symptoms. Mediation hypotheses were assessed by a bootstrapped regression using treatment outcome data. Pretreatment mindfulness was not related to change in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. However, mindfulness had an indirect effect on treatment outcome via its association with probability bias, but not cost bias, at midtreatment. These findings were consistent across three metrics of social anxiety symptoms. Mindfulness may play a role in response to CBT among individuals with social phobia through its relation with probability bias--even when the treatment does not target mindfulness.

  20. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this.

  1. Effects of Home-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Depression on Anxiety Symptoms among Rural, Ethnically Diverse Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Pierpaoli, Christina M; Shah, Avani; Yang, Xin; Scogin, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of home-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression on anxiety symptoms in an ethnically diverse, low resource, and medically frail sample of rural, older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized clincial trial with 134 rural-dwelling adults 65 years and older with decreased quality of life and elevated psychological symptomatology. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the anxiety and phobic anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Compared to a minimal support control condition, CBT for depression resulted in significantly greater improvements in symptoms of anxiety and phobic anxiety from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Home-delivered CBT for depression can be an effective treatment for anxiety in a hard-to-reach older populations. Additional research should explore integrated anxiety and depression protocols and other treatment modalities, including bibliotherapy or telehealth models of CBT, to reduce costs associated with its in home delivery. Flexibility in administration and adaptations to the CBT protocol may be necessary for use with vulnerable, rural older adults.

  2. Are Eating Disorders and Related Symptoms Risk Factors for Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors? A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph

    2018-02-14

    This meta-analysis addressed whether eating disorders (EDs) are risk factors (i.e., longitudinal predictors) for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. We identified 2,611 longitudinal studies published through August 1, 2017. Inclusion required studies include at least one longitudinal analysis predicting suicide ideation, attempt, or death using an ED diagnosis and/or symptom. Fourteen studies (42 prediction cases) met criteria. Results indicated that clinically diagnosed EDs and disordered eating symptoms were significant but weak predictors of suicide attempts but not death. Effects remained weak when moderators were considered. By reviewing the methodological limitations of previous research, these results highlight avenues for future research. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  3. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  4. A Behavioral Genetic Model of the Mechanisms Underlying the Link Between Obesity and Symptoms of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Karen A; Davis, Caroline A; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter-Major, Jacqueline; Kennedy, James L

    2016-01-21

    The ADHD-obesity link has been suggested to result from a shared underlying basis of suboptimal dopamine (DA); however, this theory conflicts evidence that an amplified DA signal increases the risk for overeating and weight gain. A model was tested in which ADHD symptoms, predicted by hypodopaminergic functioning in the prefrontal cortex, in combination with an enhanced appetitive drive, predict hedonic eating and, in turn, higher body mass index (BMI). DRD2 and DRD4 markers were genotyped. The model was tested using structural equation modeling in a nonclinical sample (N = 421 adults). The model was a good fit to the data. Controlling for education, all parameter estimates were significant, except for the DRD4-ADHD symptom pathway. The significant indirect effect indicates that overeating mediated the ADHD symptoms-BMI association. Results support the hypothesis that overeating and elevated DA in the ventral striatum-representative of a greater reward response-contribute to the ADHD symptom-obesity relationship. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Poverty and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood: The Mediating Role of Maternal Depression Symptoms and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…

  6. Telemonitoring of daily activity and symptom behavior in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van der Valk, Paul D.L.P.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Tönis, Thijs; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated the activity behavior of patients with COPD in detail compared to asymptomatic controls, and the relationship between subjective and objective activities (awareness), and readiness to change activity behavior. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with COPD (66.0 years;

  7. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia Disorder on Sleep and Comorbid Symptoms in Military Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Peterson, Alan L; Pruiksma, Kristi E; Hale, Willie J; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Wilkerson, Allison; Nicholson, Karin; Litz, Brett T; Dondanville, Katherine A; Roache, John D; Borah, Elisa V; Brundige, Antoinette; Mintz, Jim

    2018-03-29

    To compare the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) disorder and a Control condition on reducing insomnia and comorbid symptoms in a sample of active duty military personnel. Randomized clinical trial of 151 active duty US Army personnel at Fort Hood, Texas. This study replicated Original (n = 66) findings (CBTi outperformed Control) in a Follow-on sample (n = 85) on diary-assessed sleep efficiency (d = 1.04), total sleep time (d = 0.38), sleep latency (d = -0.93), number of awakenings (d = -0.56), wake time after sleep onset (d = -0.91), sleep quality (d = 1.00) and the Insomnia Severity Index (d = -1.36) in active duty soldiers. CBTi also outperformed Control in the combined sample (N = 151) on four of the five subscales of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (d = -0.32 to -0.96) and the mental health subscale on the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (d = 0.37). Exploratory analyses also showed CBTi outperformed Control on nicotine (d = -0.22) and caffeine (d = -0.47) use reduction. Significant within-group differences were found for both groups on depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but there was no group by time interaction for these symptoms or for use of hypnotics or alcohol. CBTi was an effective treatment for insomnia and comorbid symptoms including daytime fatigue, general mental health, nicotine and caffeine use. Clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01549899; "Comparing Internet and In-Person Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Insomnia".

  8. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effectiveness of a training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: protocol of a cognitive behavioral group training and randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N.L. Zonneveld (Lyonne); A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan); J. Passchier (Jan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: BACKGROUND: In primary care, up to 74% of physical symptoms is classified as unexplained. These symptoms can cause high levels of distress and healthcare utilization. Cognitive behavioral therapy has shown to be effective, but does not seem to be attractive to patients. An

  10. School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim's help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: 'seeking help' group; 'feeling nothing' group; 'not seeking help' group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the 'not seeking help' (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the 'seeking help' group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the 'feeling nothing' group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims' help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.

  11. Association Between Symptoms of Central Sensitization and Cognitive Behavioral Factors in People With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Eva; Ickmans, Kelly; Van Dyck, Dries; Nijs, Jo; Gidron, Yori; Roussel, Nathalie; Polli, Andrea; Moens, Maarten; Goudman, Lisa; De Kooning, Margot

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relationship between symptoms of central sensitization (CS) and important cognitive behavioral and psychosocial factors in a sample of patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Participants with chronic nonspecific low back pain for at least 3 months were included in the study. They completed several questionnaires and a functional test. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze associations between symptoms of CS and pain behavior, functioning, pain, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and illness perceptions. Additionally, a between-group analysis was performed to compare patients with and without clinically relevant symptoms of CS. Data from 38 participants were analyzed. Significant associations were found between symptoms of CS and all other outcomes, especially current pain (r = 0.510, P = .001), mean pain during the past 7 days (r = 0.505, P = .001), and pain catastrophizing (r = 0.518, P = .001). Patients with clinically relevant symptoms of CS scored significantly worse on all outcomes compared with persons without relevant symptoms of CS, except on functioning (P = .128). Symptoms of CS were significantly associated with psychosocial and cognitive behavioral factors. Patients exhibiting a clinically relevant degree of symptoms of CS scored significantly worse on most outcomes, compared with the subgroup of the sample with fewer symptoms of CS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Association of atopic dermatitis with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors among adolescents in Korea: the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seulki; Shin, Aesun

    2017-01-03

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease which has been known to negatively influence the mental health of patients. However, only a few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric problems among AD patients, particularly among adolescents. In this study, we aimed to assess the association of AD with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors among adolescents by analyzing data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide web-based survey. Data from 72,435 adolescent middle and high school students in Korea were analyzed. Students self-reported AD diagnosed by a doctor and yes-or-no answers to questions about depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempts were analyzed. Relationships between AD and depressive symptoms or suicidal behaviors were tested by logistic regression models after controlling for potential confounding factors. The proportion of adolescents who had AD was 6.8%. The proportion of adolescents reporting depressive feelings was 31.0%, suicide ideation was 16.3%, suicide planning was 5.8%, and suicide attempts was 4.2%. Compared to adolescents without AD, adolescents with AD were significantly more likely to experience depressive feelings (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 1.19-1.36), suicide ideation (OR: 1.34, 95% Cl: 1.24-1.45), suicide planning (OR: 1.46, 95% Cl: 1.32-1.65), and suicide attempts (OR: 1.51, 95% Cl: 1.33-1.72). In the multivariate model, the relationships between AD and suicide ideation (OR: 1.26, 95% Cl:1.16-1.36), suicide planning (OR: 1.28, 95% Cl:1.14-1.44), and suicide attempt (OR: 1.29, 95% Cl:1.13-1.49) were statistically significant. Adolescents who have AD are associated with a higher prevalence of depression symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Adolescent AD patients may need interventions from clinicians and caregivers that use a holistic approach to prevent psychological comorbidities, although further research is needed to clarify this

  13. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ju Tsai

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes.

  14. The effectiveness of the Brief Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in occurrence symptoms of social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Ghasemi

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavior group therapy based on the Morris model can reduce social anxiety disorder in girl students.* Corresponding author: Tehran, Kharazmi University, Faculty of Human Science, Department of Psychology.Email: Ghasemi.mitra408@gmail.com

  15. PTSD's underlying symptom dimensions and relations with behavioral inhibition and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Ractliffe, Kendra C; Forbes, David

    2013-10-01

    Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) stipulates that individuals have a behavioral activation system (BAS) guiding approach (rewarding) behaviors (Gray, 1971, 1981), and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) guiding conflict resolution between approach and avoidance (punishment) behaviors (Gray & McNaughton, 2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity overall relates to both BIS (e.g., Myers, VanMeenen, & Servatius, 2012; Pickett, Bardeen, & Orcutt, 2011) and BAS (Pickett et al., 2011). Using a more refined approach, we assessed specific relations between PTSD's latent factors (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and observed variables measuring BIS and BAS using 308 adult, trauma-exposed primary care patients. Confirmatory factor analysis and Wald chi-square tests demonstrated a significantly greater association with BIS severity compared to BAS severity for PTSD's dysphoria, avoidance, and re-experiencing factors. Further, PTSD's avoidance factor significantly mediated relations between BIS/BAS severity and PTSD's dysphoria factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of recurrent physical abuse on the co-development of behavior problems and posttraumatic stress symptoms among child welfare-involved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Barnhart, Sheila; Cage, Jamie

    2018-04-27

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine the longitudinal effects of ongoing physical abuse on the co-development of externalizing behavior problems and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among child welfare-involved adolescents. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, we performed unconditional and conditional parallel process latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling framework. The study sample included 491 adolescents who were between 11 and 13 years of age at baseline. Higher levels of initial PTS symptoms were associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior problems, but the rate of change in PTS symptoms were not significantly associated with the rate of change in externalizing behavior problems over time. Although physical abuse was concurrently associated with both externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms at all assessment points, there were no lagged effects. Additionally, we found that physical abuse indirectly affects subsequent development of externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms through ongoing physical abuse. Findings highlight the comorbidity of externalizing behaviors and PTS symptoms among early adolescents in the child welfare system, underlining the importance of screening for and addressing these problems simultaneously. Findings also point to the need for continued assessment of and protection from ongoing physical abuse during adolescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is increased sexual behavior a symptom of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.

  18. Ethnic identity and acculturation in Hispanic early adolescents: mediated relationships to academic grades, prosocial behaviors, and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2007-10-01

    This study examined acculturative stress and self-esteem as mediators of the association of ethnic identity and acculturation with psychosocial outcomes. The study sample consisted of 347 Hispanic adolescents in a "new" immigrant-receiving community in the Midwest. The authors expected acculturation to influence psychosocial adjustment through acculturative stress and ethnic identity to influence psychosocial adjustment through self-esteem. Results indicated that relationships of ethnic identity to academic grades and to externalizing symptoms were mediated by self-esteem and that both U.S. and Hispanic acculturation orientations were directly associated with prosocial behavior. The relationships of U.S. cultural orientation to academic grades and to behavior problems were mediated through acculturative stress and self-esteem. Implications of these findings for the study of Hispanics in more monocultural receiving communities are discussed. 2007 APA

  19. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himaman Winanda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards where ants die on sapling leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected workers that mediate the expression of the death grip phenotype. Results We found that infected ants behave as zombies and display predictable stereotypical behaviors of random rather than directional walking, and of repeated convulsions that make them fall down and thus precludes returning to the canopy. Transitions from erratic wandering to death grips on a leaf vein were abrupt and synchronized around solar noon. We show that the mandibles of ants penetrate deeply into vein tissue and that this is accompanied by extensive atrophy of the mandibular muscles. This lock-jaw means the ant will remain attached to the leaf after death. We further present histological data to show that a high density of single celled stages of the parasite within the head capsule of dying ants are likely to be responsible for this muscular atrophy. Conclusions Extended phenotypes in ants induced by fungal infections are a complex example of behavioral manipulation requiring coordinated changes of host behavior and morphology. Future work should address the

  20. Behavioral mechanisms and morphological symptoms of zombie ants dying from fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David P; Andersen, Sandra B; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Himaman, Winanda; Billen, Johan; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-05-09

    Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards) where ants die on sapling leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected workers that mediate the expression of the death grip phenotype. We found that infected ants behave as zombies and display predictable stereotypical behaviors of random rather than directional walking, and of repeated convulsions that make them fall down and thus precludes returning to the canopy. Transitions from erratic wandering to death grips on a leaf vein were abrupt and synchronized around solar noon. We show that the mandibles of ants penetrate deeply into vein tissue and that this is accompanied by extensive atrophy of the mandibular muscles. This lock-jaw means the ant will remain attached to the leaf after death. We further present histological data to show that a high density of single celled stages of the parasite within the head capsule of dying ants are likely to be responsible for this muscular atrophy. Extended phenotypes in ants induced by fungal infections are a complex example of behavioral manipulation requiring coordinated changes of host behavior and morphology. Future work should address the genetic basis of such extended phenotypes.

  1. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and criminal justice system involvement: The roles of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly E; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of risky behaviors, including criminal behaviors. Yet, limited research has examined the relation of BPD to criminal justice (CJ) involvement, or the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the role of two mechanisms, emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression, in the relation between BPD symptom severity and CJ involvement among 118 patients in residential substance abuse treatment (76% male; 62% African-American). Participants completed measures of BPD symptom severity, CJ contact, diversity of CJ charges, emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, physical aggression, and covariates (substance use severity and antisocial personality disorder symptoms). BPD symptom severity was associated with CJ contact through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors, and with diversity of CJ charges through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression; however, the indirect relations to diversity of CJ charges became non-significant when covariates were included. Results highlight the important role of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors in criminal behaviors among individuals with BPD symptoms, as well as the potential clinical utility of targeting this mechanism to prevent CJ involvement and/or recidivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the Reduction of Pathological Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darharaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT on the reduction of the pathological symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD in adolescents. Methods: To do so, a total of 12 adolescents with PTSD were selected from one of the quake-stricken cities of eastern Azarbaijan, Heris, based on their scores in the Impact of Event Scale- Revised (IES-R and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID and divided into the experimental and control group randomly. The experimental group participated in 10-session CBT, while there was no intervention into the control group. The instruments included IES-R and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale that were completed by the participants in pre-test, post-test, & follow-up. Results: Analyzing data with mixed ANOVA indicated that CBT has significant effects on the reduction of pathological symptoms of PTSD in all aspects. Conclusion: These results not only confirm the previous findings about CBT effectiveness on symptoms of PTSD, but also emphasize the importance of early interventions in crises to prevent the maintenance of the negative consequences of experiencing traumas, especially in young age groups.

  3. Attachment narratives and behavioral and emotional symptoms in an ethnically diverse, at-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futh, Annabel; O'Connor, Thomas G; Matias, Carla; Green, Jonathan; Scott, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    To examine the clinical correlates and predictions from attachment narratives in a sample of early school-age children from a high psychosocial risk, ethnically diverse sample. A total of 113 children were assessed using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, a semistructured assessment of children's attachment representations. Parents and teachers provided data using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Peer nominations of popularity and antisocial behavior were also obtained. Significant associations that were modest to moderate in magnitude were obtained between attachment narrative scales indexing security, coherence, and disorganization with multiple indices of children's behavioral and emotional adjustment, prosocial behavior and competence; these associations held across ethnic groups and were independent of psychosocial risk. The findings build on and extend support for the use of attachment narrative assessments in the clinical context and demonstrate their applicability and validity across a broad range of ethnicity and social contexts.

  4. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  5. Internalized weight bias mediates the relationship between depressive symptoms and disordered eating behavior among women who think they are overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Rachel M; Saules, Karen K; Carr, Meagan M

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the potential mediating role of Internalized Weight Bias (IWB) in the relationship between depressive symptoms (DEP-SX) and disordered eating behavior. In particular, we hypothesized that IWB may be an intervening variable in the well documented association between depression and disordered eating. College women (N=172) who were taking undergraduate psychology courses and who endorsed thinking they were overweight completed the Patient Health Questionnaire depression screener (PHQ-9), the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between these variables. IWB was significantly correlated with eating disorder symptoms and DEP-SX, but not Body Mass Index. Mediation analyses supported a model in which IWB mediated the relationship between DEP-SX and disordered eating behavior. Results indicate that individuals with elevated DEP-SX may be likely to internalize weight bias, which may in turn lead to maladaptive approaches to eating and weight control, regardless of one's actual weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between mobbing at work and MMPI-2 personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian; Alfano, Vincenzo; Fraccaroli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the experience of mobbing at work and personality traits and symptom patterns as assessed by means of the revised version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). Participants were 107 workers who had contacted mental health services because they perceived themselves as victims of mobbing. In line with previous research, the results showed that the MMPI-2 mean profile was characterized by a neurotic component as evidenced by elevations of Scales 1, 2, and 3 and a paranoid component as indicated by elevation of Scale 6. Contrary to previous research, a pattern of positive and significant correlations was found between the frequency of exposure to mobbing behaviors and the MMPI-2 clinical, supplementary, and content scales, including the posttraumatic stress scale. Only about half the participants showed a severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms indicative of a posttraumatic stress disorder. The frequency of exposure to mobbing predicted suicidal ideation and behavior, with depression only partially mediating this relationship.

  7. A Mobile Multimedia Reminiscence Therapy Application to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Persons with Alzheimer’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Imtiaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD that occur in individuals with Alzheimer’s. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer’s currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.

  8. Intramuscular Olanzapine in the Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Hospitalized Older Adults: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

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    Silvia Duong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While behavioral and psychological symptoms are frequent in hospitalized older adults with dementia or delirium, data supporting the off-label use of intramuscular atypical antipsychotics remain scarce. We examined the use of short-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in hospitalized older adults to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms. Methods. A retrospective observational study of inpatients 65 years or older with at least one order for olanzapine IM during admission in urban Ontario Canada was conducted. Patient demographics, prescriptions for olanzapine IM, reason for administration, perceived effectiveness, adverse events, concurrently prescribed psychotropics, comorbidities, and patient discharge destination were recorded. Results. Among 82 patients aged 65–96 years (mean ± SD 79.3 ± 7.7 85 cases were identified. Cognitive impairment or dementia affected 63.5% and 50.6% had comorbidities. Olanzapine IM was ordered 102 times and 34 patients (41% received at least one dose. The intended efficacy was achieved in 79.4% of 78 cases of 124 doses given (62.9%. Fourteen (41% patients who received doses experienced adverse events, with sedation and hypotension being the most common. Conclusions. Olanzapine IM appears effective in hospitalized older adults but is associated with potential adverse events. Structured monitoring and documentation are needed to ensure safe use in this high-risk population.

  9. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhong, Ning; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction.

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhong, Ning; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26730597

  12. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.

  13. Social support and employment status modify the effect of intimate partner violence on depression symptom severity in women: results from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Symptoms of depression and smoking behaviors following treatment with transdermal nicotine patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoll, Robert A; Leone, Frank T; Hitsman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Subscales from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CESD), assessed prior to treatment, were examined as predictors of withdrawal, craving, and affect during the first week of abstinence, as well as smoking abstinence during the first week of abstinence and at the end of treatment. The negative affect and somatic features CESD subscales were related to higher levels of nicotine withdrawal. The relationship between the interpersonal disturbance CESD subscale and nicotine withdrawal approached significance. This study suggests the need to examine novel psychological mechanisms that may account for the relationship between depression symptoms and smoking cessation.

  15. Infant behaviors are predictive of functional somatic symptoms at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ørnbøl, Eva; Olsen, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate infancy predictors of impairing functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at child ages 5-7 years with a focus on problems with feeding, sleep, and tactile reactivity. STUDY DESIGN: This study is part of a longitudinal birth cohort study, Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC2000. Child...... health, development, and functioning were assessed by community health nurses at 4 home visits from birth to age 10 months. FSS at ages 5-7 years were measured by the Soma Assessment Interview in 1327 children. Sociodemographic data and information on maternal psychiatric illness were obtained from...

  16. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bicanic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  17. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: influence of slight-to-moderate depressive symptom severity and worrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoen, Astrid B H; Redlich, Else M; de Weerd, Al W

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a well-known, effective treatment for primary insomnia. However, the majority of sleeping problems occur in the presence of another medical or psychiatric disorder. Depression and general anxiety disorder (with a main feature of excessive generalized worrying) are disorders that frequently co-occur with insomnia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether depressive symptom severity or worrying influences the subjective effectiveness of CBT-I. Patients with a complaint of insomnia received CBT-I. At the beginning of the therapy, patients completed a sleep evaluation list, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II-NL, N = 92), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, N = 119). Based on the BDI and the PSWQ, the sample was divided into different groups: patients with low versus high depression scores, low worriers versus high worriers, and patients without depressive symptoms who were also classified as low worriers and patients with depressive symptoms who were also classified as high worriers. The sleep evaluation list was completed directly after the treatment and 6 months later. Sleep evaluation scores, subjective total sleep time, subjective sleep onset latency, and subjective wake after sleep onset all changed in a positive way after CBT-I and remained that way over the next 6 months for all patients. These positive effects of CBT-I did not differ between the subgroups. Results suggest that CBT-I improves subjective sleep experiences, regardless of depressive symptom severity or worrying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Resting state amygdala-prefrontal connectivity predicts symptom change after cognitive behavioral therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Heide; Keutmann, Michael K; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Shankman, Stewart A; Phan, K Luan

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant amygdala-prefrontal interactions at rest and during emotion processing are implicated in the pathophysiology of generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD), a common disorder characterized by fears of potential scrutiny. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is first-line psychotherapy for gSAD and other anxiety disorders. While CBT is generally effective, there is a great deal of heterogeneity in treatment response. To date, predictors of success in CBT for gSAD include reduced amygdala reactivity and increased activity in prefrontal regulatory regions (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex, "ACC") during emotion processing. However, studies have not examined whether tonic (i.e., at rest) coupling of amygdala and these prefrontal regions also predict response to CBT. Twenty-one patients with gSAD participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before 12 weeks of CBT. Overall, symptom severity was significantly reduced after completing CBT; however, the patients varied considerably in degree of symptom change. Whole-brain voxel-wise findings showed symptom improvement after CBT was predicted by greater right amygdala-pregenual ACC ("pgACC") connectivity and greater left amygdala-pgACC coupling encompassing medial prefrontal cortex. In support of their predictive value, area under receiver operating characteristic curve was significant for the left and right amygdala-pgACC in relation to treatment responders. Improvement after CBT was predicted by enhanced resting-state bilateral amygdala-prefrontal coupling in gSAD. Preliminary results suggest baseline individual differences in a fundamental circuitry that may underlie emotion regulation contributed to variation in symptom change after CBT. Findings offer a new approach towards using a biological measure to foretell who will most likely benefit from CBT. In particular, the departure from neural predictors based on illness-relevant stimuli (e.g., socio-emotional stimuli in gSAD) permits

  19. Body affects mind? Preoperative behavioral and biological predictors for postoperative symptoms in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Kathy, Lee L

    2014-04-01

    The study examined differential effects of preoperative biomarkers (cotisol, C-reactive protein/CRP, and interleukin-6/IL-6) on postoperative symptoms in mental health (depressed mood, anxiety and hostility) 1 month following open-heart surgery, controlling for known predictors. Preoperative and postoperative interviews were conducted on 162 patients. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. prior to surgery. Cardiac indices were obtained from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' national database. Preoperative anxiety contributed to all outcomes about 1 month postoperatively. Patients with high preoperative plasma IL-6 used more avoidant coping and experienced greater depressed mood. Patients with increased plasma CRP and with hope were less depressed. Elevated plasma cortisol predicted hostility. Finally, medical comorbidities predicted anxiety and hostility. The combination of anxiety and stress-sensitive biomarkers may be one way to predict postoperative symptoms following open-heart surgery. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating the mind-body interplay to come up with better interventions.

  20. Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment as compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aim of this study is to characterize behavior in MCI compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older patients.

  1. Severe pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder and co-morbid autistic symptoms: Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Boer, Frits; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical consensus exists on the recommendation to add medication to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with moderate to severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it has never been examined if CBT monotherapy indeed is less effective for this subgroup. In addition, CBT is

  2. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  3. Participants' Experiences of an Early Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Adolescents with Symptoms of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Lene; Solholm, Roar; Idsoe, Thormod

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been documented to be effective in treating depression in adolescence, but there is great variability in the clinical outcome of CBT trials. This may in part be due to variations in the content of, and emphasis on different CBT components. Moreover, little is known about adolescents' subjective experiences of…

  4. Anger and Sadness Perception in Clinically Referred Preschoolers: Emotion Processes and Externalizing Behavior Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah E.; Boekamp, John R.; McConville, David W.; Wheeler, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined emotion perception processes in preschool aged children presenting with clinically significant emotional and behavior problems, with emphasis on sadness perception accuracy (i.e., the ability to correctly identify sadness from expressive and situational cues) and anger perception bias (i.e., the tendency to perceive anger in…

  5. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  6. War-related trauma exposure and multiple risk behaviors among school-going adolescents in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between war-related trauma exposure, depressive symptoms and multiple risk behaviors among adolescents is less clear in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data collected from a sample of school-going adolescents four years postwar. Participants completed interviews assessing various risk behaviors defined by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and a sexual risk behavior survey, and were screened for post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms based on the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A) respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with multiple risk behaviors. The logistic regression model of Baron and Kenny (1986) was used to evaluate the mediating role of depression in the relationship between stressful war events and multiple risk behaviors. Of 551 participants, 139 (25%) reported multiple (three or more) risk behaviors in the past year. In the multivariate analyses, depression symptoms remained uniquely associated with multiple risk behavior after adjusting for potential confounders including socio-demographic characteristics, war-related trauma exposure variables, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In mediation analysis, depression symptoms mediated the associations between stressful war events and multiple risk behaviors. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires used in this study are not well established in war affected African samples thus ethno cultural variation may decrease the validity of our measures. Adolescents with depression may be at a greater risk of increased engagement in multiple risk behaviors. Culturally sensitive and integrated interventions to treat and prevent depression among adolescents in post-conflict settings are urgently needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maltreatment and Affective and Behavioral Problems in Emerging Adults With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Mediation by Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Stearns, Melanie; Szkody, Erica

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i.e., maternal and paternal effects as well as male and female differences) as well as participants reporting high and low ODD symptoms. In the low ODD group, indirect effects of emotional maltreatment occurred in all parent-child dyads except the mother-son dyad, whereas in the high ODD group, indirect effects occurred only in the father-son dyad. Indirect effects of physical maltreatment occurred only in the father-son dyad in the low ODD group, and only in the mother-daughter dyad on behavioral ODD symptoms in the high ODD group. The results suggest that specific parent-child gender dyads respond differently, warranting further investigation of gender effects. Moreover, emerging adults in the low ODD symptoms group demonstrated a positive association between parental maltreatment and ODD symptoms and a negative association between parent-child relationship quality and ODD symptoms, whereas those high in the high ODD symptoms group did not demonstrate these associations. That is, emerging adults reporting high ODD symptoms demonstrated no relationship between their ODD symptoms and harsh parenting, suggesting an ineffective coercive process.

  8. The relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors in a predominantly Hispanic sample of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P; Colin, Jessie M; Provencio Vasquez, Elias; McCain, Gail C

    2008-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and safer sex messages, many men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to participate in high-risk sexual behaviors, which may make them vulnerable to HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors in a predominantly Hispanic sample of MSM. This correlational study sampled 205 MSM (M = 37 years of age, SD = +/-8) representing the diverse ethnic composition of South Florida. This sample consisted of ethnic minorities (79%) with a large number of foreign-born men (69%). Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of self-esteem had a statistically significant relationship to lower levels of safer sexual behaviors. Lower income, lower educational level, and preference for Spanish language were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms; lower income was associated with lower levels of self-esteem; and foreign birth and a preference for Spanish language were associated with lower levels of safer sex behaviors. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of self-esteem were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this sample of MSM. Further research needs to be directed at culturally specific mental health and HIV prevention strategies for these vulnerable MSM.

  9. The socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of attachment disorder: An observational study of teacher sensitivity in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L; Vervoort, Eleonora; Koenen, Anne-Katrien; Bosmans, Guy; Verschueren, Karine

    2016-09-01

    Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) have serious socio-behavioral problems and often rely on socially abnormal, aggressive, and manipulative forms of communication. Little is known, however, about the influence of teachers on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD. This longitudinal study examined the influence of teacher sensitivity on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD across one school year. The sample included 85 Belgian children and 70 teachers from special education schools. In the previous school year, teachers rated Inhibited and Disinhibited RAD symptoms. In the next school year, teacher Sensitivity was observed in interactions with individual children in the first trimester. Teacher-rated Overt aggression, Relational aggression, and Prosocial behavior was assessed in the first, second, and third trimester. We found no effects of Sensitivity on Prosocial behavior. Also, no effects were found for children with Disinhibited RAD symptoms. For children with Inhibited RAD symptoms, increases in Overt and Relational aggression were observed when Sensitivity was low, whereas decreases were observed when Sensitivity was high. The results suggest that teacher sensitivity is associated with the socio-behavioral development of children with Inhibited RAD symptoms but not with the socio-behavioral development of children with Disinhibited RAD symptoms. Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) exhibit socio-behavioral problems that hinder their school adjustment. These socio-behavioral problems appear relatively stable and it is not known what influence special education teachers might have on the development of these problems across a school year. This study suggests that teacher sensitivity is associated with changes in the socio-behavioral development of children with Inhibited RAD symptoms. Whereas high sensitivity was associated with improvements, low sensitivity appeared to exaggerate

  10. A genetically informed test of cholesterol levels and self-control, depressive symptoms, antisocial behavior, and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Rowland, Meghan W; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-08-01

    Low cholesterol levels have been found to be associated with a wide range of behavioral problems, including violent and criminal behavior, and a wide range of psychological problems including impulsivity, depression, and other internalizing problems. The casual mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unknown, but genetic factors may play a role in the etiology of such associations as previous research has found significant genetic influence on cholesterol levels and various deleterious behavioral and psychological outcomes. The current study addressed this existing gap in the literature by performing a genetically sensitive test of the association between cholesterol levels and various outcomes including levels of self-control, depressive symptoms, anger expression, and neuroticism. DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis was used to analyze data from 388 twin pairs nested within the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). The results of the genetically informed models revealed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were negatively and significantly associated with depressive symptoms, had a marginally significant effect on neuroticism, and a nonsignificant effect on both anger expression and self-control. The findings may not extrapolate to the larger population of American adults since the subsample of twins with cholesterol information may not be nationally representative. Genetic influences play a significant role in the association between cholesterol levels and various deleterious outcomes and failing to control for these influences may result in model misspecification and may increase the probability of detecting a significant association when one does not actually exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Interactive, Graphical Tool for Retrospectively Assessing Symptom Frequency and Severity: An Illustration With Eating Disorder Behaviors, Body Weight, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Kyle P; Anderson, Drew A

    2017-10-01

    There are few assessments that gather valid, highly detailed data on short-term (i.e., weekly) symptom frequency/severity retrospectively. In particular, methodologies that provide valid data for research investigating symptom changes are typically prospective, expensive, and burdensome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new interactive and graphical assessment tool for gathering detailed information about eating-related symptom frequency/severity retrospectively over a 3-month period. A mixed eating disorder sample ( N = 113) recruited from the community provided symptom data once weekly for 12 weeks and completed the Interactive, Graphical Assessment Tool (IGAT) assessing eating disorder symptoms on three occasions to determine the test-retest and concurrent validity of the IGAT. The IGAT performed marginally better than other measures for retrospective symptom frequency assessment in the eating disorders and did so at a greater level of detail than other available tools. Future research should evaluate the IGAT with other behaviors of interest.

  12. Old worries and new anxieties: behavioral symptoms and mild cognitive impairment in a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreescu, Carmen; Teverovsky, Esther; Fu, Bo; Hughes, Tiffany F; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Ganguli, Mary

    2014-03-01

    To disentangle the complex associations of depression and anxiety with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the population level. We examined subgroups of anxiety symptoms and depression symptom profiles in relation to MCI, which we defined using both cognitive and functional approaches. We used an epidemiologic, cross-sectional study with an age-stratified, random, population-based sample of 1,982 individuals aged 65 years and over. Three definitions of MCI were used: 1) a purely cognitive classification into amnestic and nonamnestic MCI, 2) a combined cognitive-functional definition by International Working Group (IWG) criteria, and 3) a purely functional definition by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5. Three depression profiles were identified by factor analysis of the modified Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale: core mood, self-esteem/interpersonal, and apathy/neurovegetative profiles. Three anxiety groups, chronic mild worry, chronic severe anxiety, and recent-onset anxiety, were based on screening questions. Recent-onset anxiety was associated with MCI by nonamnestic and IWG criteria, chronic severe anxiety was associated with MCI by all definitions, and chronic mild worry was associated with none. Of the depression profiles, the core mood profile was associated with CDR-defined MCI, the apathy/neurovegetative profile was associated with MCI by amnestic, IWG, and CDR definitions, and the self-esteem/interpersonal profile was associated with none. In this population-based sample, subgroups with different anxiety and depression profiles had different relationships with cognitive and functional definitions of MCI. Anxiety, depression, and MCI are all multidimensional entities, interacting in complex ways that may shed light on underlying neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy for gad on insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Langlois, Frédéric; Ladouceur, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Although clinical practice suggests that sleep complaints are frequent among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), frequency, severity, types of insomnia complaints, and relationship to GAD diagnosis severity in patients diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria are not well documented. Clinical data about the impact on insomnia symptoms of treating GAD worries are also lacking. The present study examined these aspects in 44 GAD patients who participated in a treatment study specifically addressing excessive worries through CBT interventions. All patients were assessed using a structured clinical interview and the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-IV (ADIS-IV). They also completed anxiety and insomnia inventories, including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), a self-report measure which assesses insomnia type, severity and interference with daily life. Among this sample, 47.7% reported difficulties initiating sleep, 63.6% reported difficulties maintaining sleep, and 56.8% complained of waking too early in the morning. The majority of these patients (86.5%) reported never having experienced insomnia without having excessive worries. However, insomnia severity and GAD severity were not correlated. In this sample, patients with severe GAD did not necessarily report more severe insomnia symptoms. Regarding treatment impact on insomnia complaints, ISI post-treatment scores were significantly lower after treatment. Mean post-treatment scores almost reached ISI's "absence of clinical insomnia" category. Results indicate that this CBT package for GAD does have a significant impact on sleep quality even if sleep disturbances were not specifically addressed during treatment.

  14. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Longitudinal relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal mind-mindedness, and infant attachment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E; Beebe, Beatrice; Power, Michelle; Stafford, Anna-Lee; Ewing, Julie; Egleson, Anna; Kaminer, Tammy

    2018-05-01

    The relations among maternal depression risk, maternal mind-mindedness, and infants' attachment behavior were longitudinally examined in a community sample of mother-infant dyads. Maternal self-reported depression risk was measured at the infant ages of 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Maternal mind-mindedness, assessed from mothers' comments about infants' mental states (e.g., infants' thoughts, desires, or emotions), was measured during mother-infant interactions when infants were 4 months. Infants' attachment behavior was assessed at one year. Mothers' depression risk decreased over the infants' first year, with the sharpest decline between 6 weeks and 4 months. Mothers at risk for depression when infants were 6 weeks showed less appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mind-mindedness was not related to maternal depression risk at the infant age of 4 months or 12 months. Infants' degree of disorganized attachment behavior at one year was positively associated with maternal depression risk at 6 weeks and negatively associated with maternal appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mothers who are at risk for depression in their infants' early lives may be hampered in their capacity to respond appropriately to their infants' mental states. Infants with mothers who have difficulty responding appropriately to their mental states, as suggested by low appropriate mind-mindedness, may feel less known and recognized by their mothers, a key theme in the origins of disorganized attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  17. School-associated problem behavior in childhood and adolescence and development of adult schizotypal symptoms: a follow-up of a clinical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, Selene; de Sonneville, Leo; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    How school-associated behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence precede distinctive adult schizotypal symptoms was examined. Gender specific findings were explored. After 11.6 (SD = 3.1) years, 159 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands were reassessed for adult schizotypal symptoms. Severity of behavioral symptoms in childhood and adolescence using Teacher Report Form (TRF; Verhulst et al. 1997) and adult schizotypal symptoms using Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Raine in Schizophrenia Bulletin 17:555-564, 1991) were examined by Spearman's bivariate correlations. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the combined predictive value of significant TRF subscales for schizotypal symptomatology. Moderation was tested by adding the interactions of gender with TRF subscales to the models. Disregarding gender, correlational analyses revealed that TRF Total problems, in specific thought problems, social problems, and attentional problems were associated with disorganized schizotypal symptoms in adult life. TRF thought problems was also associated with future positive schizotypal symptoms. When gender was taken into account, for boys only thought problems was associated with adult positive schizotypal symptoms, whereas for girls externalizing problems, specifically attentional and aggressive problems, were associated with the higher levels of adult disorganized schizotypal symptoms. Moderated regression analyses provided trend significant evidence confirming that in girls externalizing problems were positively associated with general and disorganized schizotypal symptoms. When using teachers as informants, it was found that juvenile behavioral abnormalities were differentially associated with type of adult schizotypal symptoms, with these associations being further modified by gender.

  18. Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Symptom Comorbidities and Profiles in Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Tara M; Li, Chenghong; Vannatta, Kathryn; Marchak, Jordan G; Lai, Jin-Shei; Prasad, Pinki K; Kimberg, Cara; Vuotto, Stefanie; Di, Chongzhi; Srivastava, Deokumar; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R

    2016-10-01

    In the general population, psychological symptoms frequently co-occur; however, profiles of symptom comorbidities have not been examined among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. Parents of 3,893 5-year survivors of childhood cancer who were treated between 1970 and 1999 and who were assessed in adolescence (age 12 to 17 years) completed the Behavior Problems Index. Age- and sex-standardized z scores were calculated for symptom domains by using the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study sibling cohort. Latent profile analysis identified profiles of comorbid symptoms, and multivariable multinomial logistic regression modeling examined associations between cancer treatment exposures and physical late effects and identified symptom profiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for latent class membership were estimated and analyses were stratified by cranial radiation therapy (CRT; CRT or no CRT). Four symptoms profiles were identified: no significant symptoms (CRT, 63%; no CRT, 70%); elevated anxiety and/or depression, social withdrawal, and attention problems (internalizing; CRT, 31%; no CRT, 16%); elevated headstrong behavior and attention problems (externalizing; CRT, no observed; no CRT, 9%); and elevated internalizing and externalizing symptoms (global symptoms; CRT, 6%; no CRT, 5%). Treatment with ≥ 30 Gy CRT conferred greater risk of internalizing (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.8) and global symptoms (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.4). Among the no CRT group, corticosteroid treatment was associated with externalizing symptoms (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.8) and ≥ 4.3 g/m(2) intravenous methotrexate exposure was associated with global symptoms (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9 to 2.4). Treatment late effects, including obesity, cancer-related pain, and sensory impairments, were significantly associated with increased risk of comorbid symptoms. Behavioral, emotional, and social symptoms frequently co-occur in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and are associated with treatment

  19. Eating disorders in adolescents: correlations between symptoms and central control of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Prado, Wagner Luiz do; de Piano, Aline; Tock, Lian; Caranti, Danielle Arisa; Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller do; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between eating disorders (binge eating and bulimia nervosa) and body image dissatisfaction with BMI, anorexigenic and orexigenic factors in adolescents. Thirty-two adolescents, (13 obese [BMI=36.65±5.68] and 19 non-obese [BMI=22.18±3.11]), aged between 14 and 19y, were recruited. Symptoms of eating disorders were measured by self-report questionnaires (BSQ, BITE and BES). Hormones, cytokines and neuropeptides were determined by Elisa kits (Phoenix peptide). A positive correlation was found between: leptin and BES (r=.724), BSQ (r=.705) and BITE (r=.696); BMI and BES (r=.663), BSQ (r=.525) and BITE (r=.732); the same pattern was observed to insulin and TNF-α. A negative correlation was found in α-MSH and AgRP with BES, BSQ and BITE. Blood levels of hormones and neuropeptides could be the link between obesity and eating disorders in adolescents. However, it is not clear which is the cause and which is the consequence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Telemonitoring of Daily Activity and Symptom Behavior in Patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Tabak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated the activity behavior of patients with COPD in detail compared to asymptomatic controls, and the relationship between subjective and objective activities (awareness, and readiness to change activity behavior. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with COPD (66.0 years; FEV1% predicted: 44.9% and 21 healthy controls (57.0 years participated. Objective daily activity was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as amount of activity in counts per minute (cpm. Patients' baseline subjective activity and stage of change were assessed prior to measurements. Results. Mean daily activity in COPD patients was significantly lower compared to the healthy controls ( cpm versus  cpm, . COPD patients showed a temporary decrease in objective activities in the early afternoon. Objective and subjective activities were significantly moderately related and most patients (55.3% were in the maintenance phase of the stages of change. Conclusions. COPD patients show a distinctive activity decrease in the early afternoon. COPD patients are moderately aware of their daily activity but regard themselves as physically active. Therefore, future telemedicine interventions might consider creating awareness of an active lifestyle and provide feedback that aims to increase and balance activity levels.

  1. Behavioral symptoms of eating disorders in Native Americans: results from the ADD Health Survey Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda

    2011-09-01

    To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Repeated social defeat in female pigs does not induce neuroendocrine symptoms of depression, but behavioral adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Staay, F J; de Groot, J; Schuurman, T; Korte, S M

    2008-02-27

    The aim of this study was to develop an animal model of major depression. Since two thirds of depressive patients are women, it is important to develop specific female animal models of depression. We therefore determined the consequences of chronic social defeat in individually housed prepubertal female pigs confronted with a dominant, older pig. Repeated defeat increased the salivary cortisol level, measured immediately after the confrontations, but this effect diminished after repeated confrontations. Neither organ weights nor the number of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors in the ventral hippocampus were affected by repeated defeat. Serotonin turnover in the dorsal hippocampus was also unaffected. Behavioral analysis revealed that across confrontations, the pigs reduced the time spent actively attacking the dominant pigs, whereas the time increased in which the pigs passively underwent aggression and/or actively avoided aggression. Therefore, we conclude that the repeated social defeat paradigm does not induce long-lasting depression-like neuroendocrine effects as a consequence of behavioral adaptations (changes in the fighting strategy) in the young female pigs.

  3. Behavior of the lumbar multifidus during lower extremity movements in people with recurrent low back pain during symptom remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, David A; Dawson, Anna P; Hodges, Paul W

    2011-03-01

    Cross-sectional design. To investigate lumbar multifidus (LM) thickness differences, using ultrasound imaging in people during remission from recurrent low back pain (LBP) and healthy participants, during the following lower extremity movements: (1) active straight leg raise (ASLR), (2) crook-lying active leg raise (CLR), and (3) prone straight leg raise (PSLR). ASLR, CLR, and PSLR are used clinically to challenge the ability of the trunk muscles to control spinal motion in people with LBP, and it is believed that decreased LM activity is related to altered spinal control in this population. However, it is unclear whether LM behavior differs between healthy individuals and people with recurrent LBP during symptom remission in such tasks. The present study used ultrasound imaging to measure LM percentage thickness change parasagitally at the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels in people with recurrent LBP during symptom remission and in healthy participants, during the ASLR, CLR, and PSLR tasks. LM percentage thickness change was greater in the recurrent LBP group than in healthy participants during the PSLR task (P<.01) and greater in both groups during the PSLR than the ASLR and CLR tasks (P<.01). LM percentage thickness change was greatest at L4-5 in both groups (P<.01) and during all tasks (P≤.02). No difference was found in LM percentage thickness change between groups in either the ASLR (P = .70) or CLR (P = .69) task. These data suggest that, during symptom remission, individuals with recurrent LBP, compared to healthy individuals, may have greater activity in at least some parts of the LM. Further investigation is required to determine whether the LM percentage thickness change observed in this study may be explained by differential changes in deep and/or superficial fibers of LM activity. This observation may have implications for clinical practice, but requires further investigation.

  4. Effects of animal-assisted therapy on behavioral and/or psychological symptoms in dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Engström, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Recently, interest in nonpharmaceutical interventions in dementia care has increased. Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to be one promising intervention but more knowledge is needed. The present article reports on a pilot study involving an 84-year-old woman with vascular dementia who was systematically trained with a therapy dog team for 8 weeks. A quasi-experimental longitudinal interventional design with pre-post measures was used. Data were collected on 3 occasions. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Some effects on the woman's ability to walk and move were identified. In addition, some effects in the woman's cognitive state were observed. Physical, psychological, and/or social training with certified therapy dog teams can have effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. Further research is needed.

  5. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  6. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A C C O; Braga, A A; Soares-Filho, G; Pereira, V; Nardi, A E; Silva, A C

    2014-04-01

    This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words "anxiety", "depression", "implantable cardioverter", "cognitive behavioral therapy" and "psychotherapy" was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011), and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  7. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.O. Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words “anxiety”, “depression”, “implantable cardioverter”, “cognitive behavioral therapy” and “psychotherapy” was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011, and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  8. Cynical hostility, socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and symptom load: a cross-sectional analysis in a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2004-01-01

    in a Danish random sample of 3426 men and 3699 women aged 40 or 50 years. Cynical hostility was measured by the 8-item Cynical Distrust Scale. High symptom load was assessed by physiological and mental symptoms experienced within the last 4 weeks. Confounders were age and socioeconomic position, while...... behaviors. After adjustment the effects of hostility on health remained with odds ratios of 2.1 (1.7-2.6) for women and 2.3 (1.8-2.8) for men.CONCLUSION: After adjustment for socioeconomic position, cynical hostility has an effect on self-reported high symptom load, and this effect is not mediated by health......OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cross-sectional association between cynical hostility and high symptom load in a Danish population-based study. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate to what extent health risk behaviors mediated this association. METHODS: Data were based on a postal questionnaire...

  9. The role of emotional inexpressivity and experiential avoidance in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and aggressive behavior among men exposed to interpersonal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Matthew T; Jakupcak, Matthew; Paulson, Autumn; Gratz, Kim L

    2007-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be associated with aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the ways in which individuals respond to their emotions may account for this relationship. In particular, to the extent that aggressive behaviors serve an emotion regulatory function, responding to emotions with avoidance (i.e., experiential avoidance) or the active suppression of emotional expression may heighten emotion dysregulation, increasing the risk for aggressive behavior as individuals attempt to regulate that dysregulated state. This study examined whether these two ways of responding to emotions account for the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and self-reported engagement in aggressive behavior among a diverse sample of 113 men with past exposure to interpersonal violence. Experiential avoidance and emotional inexpressivity each accounted for a significant amount of unique variance in aggressive behavior, above and beyond PTSD symptom severity and trait anger. Clinical and research implications of findings are discussed.

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD Improves Various PTSD Symptoms and Trauma-related Cognitions: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Wagner, Anne C.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies document an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impairments in intimate relationship functioning, and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms and associated impairments are improved by cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012). The present study investigated changes across treatment in clinician-rated PTSD symptom clusters and patient-rated trauma-related cognitions in a randomized controlled trial comparing C...

  11. Cytokine profiles by peripheral blood monocytes are associated with changes in behavioral symptoms following immune insults in a subset of ASD subjects: an inflammatory subtype?

    OpenAIRE

    Jyonouchi, Harumi; Geng, Lee; Davidow, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    Background Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by fluctuating behavioral symptoms following immune insults, persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and a lack of response to the first-line intervention measures. These children have been categorized as the ASD-inflammatory subtype (ASD-IS) for this study. We reported a high prevalence of non-IgE mediated food allergy (NFA) in young ASD children before, but not all ASD/NFA children reveal such clinical featur...

  12. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  14. Effect of ferulic acid and Angelica archangelica extract on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takemi; Hayashida, Hideki; Murata, Masako; Takamatsu, Junichi

    2011-07-01

    The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia place a heavy burden on caregivers. Antipsychotic drugs, though used to reduce the symptoms, frequently decrease patients' activities of daily living and reduce their quality of life. Recently, it was suggested that ferulic acid is an effective treatment for behavioral and psychological symptoms. We have also reported several patients with dementia with Lewy bodies showing good responses to ferulic acid and Angelica archangelica extract (Feru-guard). The present study investigated the efficacy of Feru-guard in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies. We designed a prospective, open-label trial of daily Feru-guard (3.0 g/day) lasting 4 weeks in 20 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration or dementia with Lewy bodies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks after the start of treatment, using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Treatment with Feru-guard led to decreased scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 19 of 20 patients and significantly decreased the score overall. The treatment also led to significantly reduced subscale scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory ("delusions", "hallucinations", "agitation/aggression", "anxiety", "apathy/indifference", "irritability/lability" and "aberrant behavior"). There were no adverse effects or significant changes in physical findings or laboratory data. Feru-guard may be effective and valuable for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children's mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2018-03-01

    symptoms and parenting behaviors may have a significant impact on their children's emotional health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of identity and psychosomatic symptoms as mediating the relationship between discrimination and risk behaviors among first and second generation immigrant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sophie D; Kolobov, Tanya; Raiz, Yair; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi

    2018-04-01

    The study examines psychosomatic symptoms, and host and heritage identities as mediators of the relationship between discrimination and aggressive behavior and substance use. Israeli data from the 2013-14 Health Behaviors of School-aged Children study included a representative sample of 1503 first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents aged 11-17 years (45.2% male) from the Former Soviet Union and Ethiopia in Israel. Structural equation modeling, controlling for age, gender, family affluence and immigrant generation, showed different pathways for the two groups. For FSU-heritage adolescents, the relationship between discrimination and aggressive behavior and substance use was partially mediated by psychosomatic symptoms. Lower host and heritage identities also predicted psychosomatic symptoms. For Ethiopian-heritage adolescents, the relationship between discrimination and outcomes was fully mediated by psychosomatic symptoms and a weaker host identity. Results support an externalizing model, whereby discrimination leads to a weaker host identity and increased psychosomatic symptoms, associated with substance use and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A latent profile analysis of intimate partner victimization and aggression and examination of between-class differences in psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Peasant, Courtney; Jaquier, Véronique; Johnson, Clinesha; Sullivan, Tami P

    2017-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with heightened psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors. However, extant investigations are limited by their focus on IPV victimization, despite evidence to suggest that victimization and aggression frequently co-occur. Further, research on these correlates often has not accounted for the heterogeneity of women who experience victimization. The present study utilized latent profile analysis to identify patterns of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization and aggression in a convenience sample of 212 community women experiencing victimization (Mage = 36.63, 70.8% African American), as well as examined differences in psychopathology symptoms (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and depressive symptoms) and risky behaviors (i.e., drug problems, alcohol problems, deliberate self-harm (DSH), HIV-risk behaviors) across these classes. Four classes of women differentiated by severities of victimization and aggression were identified. Greater psychopathology symptoms were found among classes defined by greater victimization and aggression, regardless of IPV type. Risky behaviors were more prevalent among classes defined by greater sexual victimization and aggression in particular. Findings highlight the importance of developing interventions that target the particular needs of subgroups of women who experience victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Shen-Zhi-Ling Oral Liquid Improves Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Shen-Zhi-Ling oral liquid (SZL on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Among 98 patients with AD and BPSD enrolled (mean age, 57.2 ± 8.9 years old, 91 (M = 55, F = 36; mean age, 57.2 ± 9.7 years old completed the study. Patients took either SZL (n=45 or placebo granules (n=46 in a double-blind manner for 20 weeks while maintaining other anticognitive medications unchanged. Changes in BPSD between week 0, week 10, week 20, and week 25 were assessed using the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (BEHAVE-AD rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represented by diurnal activity (DA, evening activity (EA, and nocturnal activity (NA according to actigraphic recordings. SZL but not placebo oral liquid delayed the development of BPSD significantly according to the changes in some of the clinical scores and the EA and NA parameters of DFA at week 20 compared with week 0. No side effects were observed in laboratory tests. The results indicate that SZL might delay the development of BPSD in AD patients and thus is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.

  19. Correlation between Lower Urinary Tract Scoring System, Behavior Check List, and Bladder Sonography in Children with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooman, Nakysa; Hallaji, Farideh; Mostafavi, Seyed-Hassan; Mohsenifar, Setareh; Otukesh, Hasan; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

    2011-03-01

    The Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Scoring System (PLUTSS) is a standardized questionnaire used for screening and evaluation of the response of children with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to therapy. We presumed that adding the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) and bladder volume wall index (BVWI) to the PLUTSS would increase its validity in the detection of children with LUTS. One hundred twenty-two children aged 5 to 15 years with LUTS were enrolled in the study. Seventy-two healthy, age-matched children without urinary complaints were considered as controls. The PLUTSS and CBCL were filled out for all children. Sonography was performed to measure BVWI. Chi-square test and likelihood ratio were used to compare frequencies, receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the correlation, and Cohen's kappa was used to measure the agreement between variables. p-values 0.05). ROC analysis showed that there was no correlation between PLUTSS, CBCL, and BVWI in either the LUTS subgroup or in the controls (p>0.05). The PLUTSS had the highest sensitivity and specificity, and adding the two other tests decreased its validity for the diagnosis of children with LUTS. The PLUTSS by itself was the best predictor of LUTS. The CBCL and BVWI were not helpful in making a diagnosis; however, the CBCL was useful in the detection of behavior problems in children with non-monosymptomatic enuresis.

  20. Determinants of pregnancy and postpartum depression: prospective influences of depressive symptoms, body image satisfaction, and exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Danielle Symons; DiNallo, Jennifer M; Kirner, Tiffany L

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has prospectively examined women's exercise and psychological health behaviors before, during, and after pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between and the extent to which depressive symptoms (DS), body image satisfaction (BIS), and exercise behavior (EB) prospectively explained trimester-specific and postpartum depression. Participants (N = 230 pregnant women) completed self-reported measures midway through their first, second, and third trimesters and at 6-weeks postpartum from 2005 to 2007. Women were also classified based on current activity guidelines as active and somewhat active to examine the moderating influence of pre-pregnancy EB on the contributions of the study variables for explaining DS. We found that : (a) DS, BIS, and EB were associated across the three pregnancy time points and postpartum, (b) DS and BIS were main determinants of later depression in pregnancy and postpartum, and (c) the moderating influence of pre-pregnancy EB was evident in early pregnancy. These preliminary findings suggest that DS and BIS are important psychological factors for intervention to improve women's pregnancy and postpartum psychological health and that EB in the pre-pregnancy period may offer women protective effects against DS in early pregnancy.

  1. Relations between problem behaviors, perceived symptom severity and parenting in adolescents and emerging adults with ASD: The mediating role of parental psychological need frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Lisa M; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien; Campbell, Rachel; Prinzie, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Research in parents of youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increasingly documents associations between children's problem behaviors and symptom severity and more dysfunctional and less adaptive parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations have not been examined thoroughly. This study examines the mediating role of parental need frustration in the relation between child maladjustment (i.e., problem behavior and autism severity) and parenting behavior (i.e., controlling and autonomy-supportive parenting). The sample included 95 parents of adolescents/emerging adults with ASD (M age =18.8years, SD=2.3). Parents completed questionnaires assessing their parenting strategies and psychological need frustration as well as the internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors and autism severity of their child. Results indicate that the association between externalizing problems and controlling parenting was partially mediated by need frustration. This suggests that externalizing problems go together with lower feelings of parent-child closeness, lower parental competence, and a decreased sense of volitional functioning, feelings that, in turn, relate to more controlling strategies. Symptom severity has a direct negative association with autonomy support, suggesting that parents lower their autonomy support when their child has high levels of autism symptoms, without experiencing these symptoms as a threat to their own psychological needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Behavioral Weight Loss Program and Nonurinary Incontinence Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Overweight and Obese Women with Urinary Incontinence: A Secondary Data Analysis of PRIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Creasman, Jennifer M; Richter, Holly E; Myers, Deborah; Burgio, Kathryn L; Wing, Rena R; West, Delia Smith; Kusek, John W; Subak, Leslee L

    2018-01-01

    We sought to determine whether a behavioral weight reduction intervention would improve nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms at 6 months, including urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency, compared to a structured education program serving as the control group among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PRIDE (Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise) was a randomized clinical trial performed in 338 overweight or obese women with urinary incontinence. Participants were randomized, including 226 to 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention and 112 to the control group. All participants received a self-help behavioral treatment booklet to improve bladder control. On this secondary data analysis we examined changes in nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms from baseline to 6 months and the impact of treatment allocation (intervention vs control), weight loss and physical activity. Nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common at baseline, varying from 48% to 62%. In the 2 groups combined women experienced significant improvement in nocturia, urgency and International Prostate Symptom Score at 6 months (all p urinary tract storage symptom outcomes at 6 months did not differ between the intervention and control groups. Similarly no difference was observed in the amount of weight lost (5% or greater vs less than 5%) or physical activity (1,500 kcal or greater expenditure per week compared to less than 1,500 kcal). Lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. The prevalence decreased significantly after 6 months independent of treatment group assignment, amount of weight lost or physical activity. These improvements may have been due to self-help behavioral educational materials, trial participation or repeat assessment of symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  3. Core symptoms not meeting criteria for delirium are associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in older long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Martin G; McCusker, Jane; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric; Vu, Minh

    2014-07-01

    The immediate clinical significance of Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium is unclear. This study proposed to determine if such symptoms are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, mood and behavior problems and increased Burden of Care (BOC) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium. Two hundred and fifty-eight LTC residents aged 65 years and older in seven LTC facilities had monthly assessments (for up to six months) of CAM - defined core symptoms of delirium (fluctuation, inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness) and five outcome measures: Mini-Mental State Exam, Barthel Index, Cornell Scale for Depression, Nursing Home Behavioral Problems Scale, and Burden of Care. Associations between core symptoms and the five outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium among residents with and without dementia were associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems but not increased BOC. The associations appear to be intermediate between those of full delirium and no core symptoms and were greater for residents with than without dementia. CAM-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium appear to be associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in LTC residents with or without dementia. These findings may have implications for the prevention and management of such impairments and problems in LTC settings.

  4. How much does "how much" matter? Assessing the relationship between children's lifetime exposure to violence and trauma symptoms, behavior problems, and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura J; Jaycox, Lisa H; Setodji, Claude M; Kofner, Aaron; Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Harris, Racine

    2013-04-01

    The study explores whether and how lifetime violence exposure is related to a set of negative symptoms: child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, child trauma symptoms, and parenting stress. Using a large sample of violence-exposed children recruited to participate in intervention research, the study employs different methods of measuring that exposure. These include total frequency of all lifetime exposure, total frequency of lifetime exposure by broad category (i.e., assault, maltreatment, sexual abuse, and witnessing violence), and polyvictimization defined as exposure to multiple violence categories. The results indicate that only polyvictimization, constructed as a dichotomous variable indicating two or more categories of lifetime exposure, emerged as a consistent predictor of negative symptoms. The total lifetime frequency of all violence exposure was not associated with negative symptoms, after controlling for the influence of polyvictimization. Likewise, in the presence of a dichotomous polyvictimization indicator the total lifetime frequency of exposure to a particular violence category was unrelated to symptoms overall, with the exception of trauma symptoms and experiences of sexual abuse. Taken together, these findings suggest that total lifetime exposure is not particularly important to negative symptoms, nor is any particular category of exposure after controlling for polyvictimization, with the single exception of sexual abuse and trauma symptoms. Instead, it is the mix of exposure experiences that predict negative impacts on children in this sample. Further research is needed to continue to explore and test these issues.

  5. Shame and Guilt in Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Association with Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Ström, Peter; Stünkel, Angela; Mörtberg, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I) if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II) if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III) if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67) with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72) and a replication sample (n = 22). Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44). Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD. PMID:23620782

  6. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Ström, Peter; Stünkel, Angela; Mörtberg, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I) if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II) if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III) if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67) with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72) and a replication sample (n = 22). Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44). Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  7. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  8. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of cholinesterase inhibitors on behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noll Campbell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Noll Campbell1, Amir Ayub2, Malaz A Boustani2, Chris Fox3, Martin Farlow4, Ian Maidment3, Robert Howard51Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana; 3University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; 5King’s College, London, United KingdomObjective: To determine the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs in improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Registry, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL from 1966 to 2007. We limited our search to English Language, full text, published articles and human studies.Data extraction: We included randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in managing BPSD displayed by AD patients. Using the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF guidelines, we critically appraised all studies and included only those with an attrition rate of less than 40%, concealed measurement of the outcomes, and intention to treat analysis of the collected data. All data were imputed into pre-defined evidence based tables and were pooled using the Review Manager 4.2.1 software for data synthesis.Results: We found 12 studies that met our inclusion criteria but only nine of them provided sufficient data for the meta-analysis. Among patients with mild to severe AD and in comparison to placebo, ChEIs as a class had a beneficial effects on reducing BPSD with a standard mean difference (SMD of −0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]; −0.18, −0.01 and a weighted mean difference (WMD of −1.38 neuropsychiatry inventory point (95% CI; −2.30, −0.46. In studies with mild AD patients, the WMD was −1.92 (95% CI; −3.18, −0.66; and in studies

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Latino Parent Cultural Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Family Functioning on Youth Emotional Well-Being and Health Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2017-12-01

    U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for alleviating treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, J.C.; Steuten, L.M.G.; Duijts, S.F.A.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; van Beurden, M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Hunter, M.S.; Kieffer, J.M.; van Harten, W.H.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Many breast cancer patients experience (severe) menopausal symptoms after an early onset of menopause caused by cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and physical exercise (PE), compared to a waiting list control

  12. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for alleviating treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, Janne; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Duijts, Saskia F.A.; Oldenburg, Hester S.A.; van Beurden, Marc; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Hunter, Myra S.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; van Harten, Willem H.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many breast cancer patients experience (severe) menopausal symptoms after an early onset of menopause caused by cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and physical exercise (PE), compared to a waiting list control

  13. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise for alleviating treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, Janne C.; Steuten, Lotte M. G.; Duijts, Saskia F. A.; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; van Beurden, Marc; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Hunter, Myra S.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience (severe) menopausal symptoms after an early onset of menopause caused by cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and physical exercise (PE), compared to a waiting list control group

  14. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: what works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehle, Julia; Opmeer, Brent C.; Boer, Frits; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    To prevent adverse long-term effects, children who suffer from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) need treatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an established treatment for children with PTSS. However, alternatives are important for non-responders or if TF-CBT trained

  15. Association between Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms of African American Married Couples: Mediating and Moderating Roles of Couples' Behavioral Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Thulitha; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined (a) associations between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in African American husbands and wives, (b) transactional associations between husbands and wives in this relationship, and (c) mediating and moderating role of couples' behavioral closeness in this association. Data came from a sample of 450 African…

  16. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  17. Reasons to Prescribe Antipsychotics for the Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia: A Survey in Dutch Nursing Homes Among Physicians, Nurses, and Family Caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornege-Blokland, E.; Kleijer, B.C.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; van Marum, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite serious safety concerns, prescription rates of antipsychotics for the treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia remain high, especially in nursing homes. This high prevalence of antipsychotic use cannot be explained by the modest success rate reported in

  18. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Yan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Jian-Xiong; Huang, Jing-Hui; Huang, Guo-Liang; Gao, Xue; Wu, Hong; Pan, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ci-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The nature of the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and suicide has not been clearly elucidated. Some studies have suggested that the relationship between substance use and suicidal ideation may be spurious and could be explained by other variables. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed in Guangzhou. A total of 5853 students completed questionnaires and were included in the study. NMUPD, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and suicidal behaviors were assessed. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors were examined using a structural equation model. In the simple model without mediation, a positive relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors in adolescents was found, which was independent of effects from the use of other substances. Both depressive symptoms and sleep quality were significant mediators of this relationship. Public health and educational professionals should survey depressive symptoms and sleep quality and provide interventions when managing suicidal behaviors among adolescents engaging in NMUPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Exercise in Alleviating Treatment-Induced Menopausal Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijts, S.F.A.; van Beurden, M.; Oldenburg, H.S.; Hunter, M.S.; Kieffer, J.M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsma, MA; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.E.; Plaisier, P.W.; Rijna, H.; Cardozo, A.M.F.L.; Timmers, G.; van der Meij, S.; van der Veen, H.; Bijker, N.; de Widt-Levert, L.M.; Geenen, M.M.; Heuff, G.; van Dulken, E.J.; Boven, E.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality

  20. Efficacy of self-guided internet based cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of depressive symptoms : A meta analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karyotaki, E.; Riper, Heleen; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; Kleiboer, M.A.; Mira, Adriana; Mackinnon, A.; Meyer, B.; Botella, C.; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Andersson, G.; Christensen, H.; Klein, J.; Schröder, Johanna; Breton-Lopez, Juana; Scheider, Justin; Griffiths, J.; Farrer, L.; Huibers, M. J. H.; Phillips, Rachel; Gilbody, S.; Moritz, S.; Berger, T.; Pop, V.J.M.; Spek, V.R.M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) has the potential to increase access and availability of evidence-based therapy and reduce the cost of depression treatment. Objectives: To estimate the effect of self-guided iCBT in treating adults with depressive symptoms

  1. Predicting the outcome of a cognitive-behavioral group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: A one-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N.L. Zonneveld (Lyonne); Y.R. van Rood (Yanda); C.G. Kooiman (Cornelis); R. Timman (Reinier); A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. Background: Although Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS), some therapists in clinical practice seem to believe that CBT outcome will diminish if psychiatric comorbidity is present. The result is that patients with a

  2. Antipsychotic, antidepressant, and cognitive-impairment properties of antipsychotics: rat profile and implications for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Wesołowska, Anna; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Many dementia patients exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD), including psychosis and depression. Although antipsychotics are frequently prescribed off-label, they can have marked side effects. In addition, comparative preclinical studies of their effects are surprisingly scarce, and strategies for discovery of novel pharmacotherapeutics are lacking. We therefore compared eight antipsychotics in rat behavioral tests of psychosis, antidepressant-like activity, and cognitive impairment as a basis for preclinical evaluation of new drug candidates. The methods used in this study include inhibition of MK-801-induced hyperactivity, forced swim test (FST), passive avoidance (PA), spontaneous locomotor activity, and catalepsy. The drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like activity in the MK-801 test but with diverse profiles in the other models. Risperidone impaired PA performance, but with some dose separation versus its actions in the MK-801 test. In contrast, clozapine, olanzapine, lurasidone, and asenapine showed little or no dose separation in these tests. Aripiprazole did not impair PA performance but was poorly active in the MK-801 test. Diverse effects were also observed in the FST: chlorpromazine was inactive and most other drugs reduced immobility over narrow dose ranges, whereas clozapine reduced immobility over a wider dose range, overlapping with antipsychotic activity. Although the propensity of second-generation antipsychotics to produce catalepsy was lower, they all elicited pronounced sedation. Consistent with clinical data, most currently available second-generation antipsychotics induced cognitive and motor side effects with little separation from therapeutic-like doses. This study provides a uniform in vivo comparative basis on which to evaluate future early-stage drug candidates intended for potential pharmacotherapy of BPSD.

  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  4. Unexplained physical symptoms: patients' quality of life improved by cognitive-behavioral group treatment tailored to their perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N.L. Zonneveld (Lyonne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUnexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS) are physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a known medical condition. This definition can be refined with supplements such as a minimum number and/or duration of physical symptoms, and/or a certain level of functioning. Depending on

  5. Quality of life and psychiatric work impairment in compulsive buying: increased symptom severity as a function of acquisition behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alishia D

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness of mother training based on the model of positive parenting on the rate of behavioral disorders symptoms in deaf students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Pakzad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Hearing loss affects human adjustment with environment and may be followed by mental complications such as behavioral problems. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of group behavioral management training of mothers based on the model of positive parenting on the rate of behavioral disorders of primary school deaf students in Isfahan.Methods: The research method was semi-experimental with pre and post-test plan and control group. Using multi-stage sampling method, 30 mothers whose children demonstrated behavioral disorders symptoms were chosen and randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. Data gathering was by parents’ form of child behavior checklist with confirmed validity and reliability. The obtained data was analyzed using covariance analysis method.Results: The results showed that there is significant difference between performance of experimental and control groups on the reduction of behavioral disorders symptoms in the post-test (p<0.001.Conclusion: It could be concluded that mother training based on the positive parenting model is effective on reducing behavioral disorders of their deaf child, and thus can be applied as an effective intervention method.

  7. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  8. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Increasing of Self-Efficacy and Improving of Addiction Symptoms among Drug Dependency Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kamarzarin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on increasing of self efficacy and improving of addiction symptoms among drug dependency patients. Method: For this purpose, 90 substance abusers were selected of private addiction center, Central Prison and drop in center by using of random sampling, and they were divided into two experimental (45 subjects and witness groups (45 subjects randomly. The members of experimental group were under 12 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by Carol method, and control group only have taken Methadone and other physical drugs. All participants at the beginning of research, during the study (after three months and three months after treatment completed self-efficacy questionnaire and Maudsley addiction profile (Map by a psychologist were assessed. The symptoms of addiction recovery and addiction treatment process. Results: Analysis of covariance indicated the treatment effectiveness and its maintenance on increasing of efficacy and reducing of the symptoms of Maudsley addiction profile. Conclusion: Cognitive behavior therapy is effective to increase self-efficacy and improve symptoms in substance abusers.

  9. Fall and Fracture Risk in Nursing Home Residents With Moderate-to-Severe Behavioral Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias Initiating Antidepressants or Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jung; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Lucas, Judith A; Brandt, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Both antidepressants and antipsychotics are used in older adults with behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Despite the prevalent use of these agents, little is known about their comparative risks for falls and fractures. Using 2007-2009 Medicare claims data linked to Minimum Data Set 2.0, we identified new users of antidepressants and antipsychotics among nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias who had moderate-to-severe behavioral symptoms. Separate discrete-time survival models were used to estimate risks of falls, fractures, and a composite of both among antidepressant group versus antipsychotic group. Compared to antipsychotic users, antidepressant users experienced significantly higher risk for fractures (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.66). The overall risk of falls or fractures remained significant in the antidepressant versus antipsychotic group (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.32). Antidepressants are associated with higher fall and fracture risk compared to antipsychotics in the management of older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias who experience moderate-to-severe behavioral symptoms. Clinicians need to assess the ongoing risks/benefits of antidepressants for these symptoms especially in light of the increasingly prevalent use of these agents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Parent and Child Independent Report of Emotional Responses to Asthma-Specific Vignettes: The Relationship Between Emotional States, Self-Management Behaviors, and Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kelly M; Fisher, Susan G; Rhee, Hyekyun

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the emotional intelligence (EI) of parents and their children with asthma. Objectives of this study were to assess: 1) parent's and children's report of emotions in response to an asthma vignette (proxy for EI) and 2) the relationship between emotions, self-management behaviors, and symptoms. We conducted a descriptive, mixed methods study of children 7-12 years old with asthma. Parent-Child dyads (n=104) responded to an asthma vignette to gain insight into emotions, symptoms, and self-management behaviors. Additional questions assessed confidence and worry using a 5-point Likert scale. Thematic analyses and descriptive statistics were used to assess qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Children were predominantly male (58%), 7-9 (58%), and White (46%). The most common negative emotions reported by children were scared and sad. Children who sought help from an adult were less likely to report using medications compared to children who did not seek help (39.5% vs. 62.3%, p=.029). Children with low worry and high confidence had fewer symptoms compared to children reporting high worry and low confidence (symptoms: days 3.24 vs. 6.77, p=.012, nights 2.71 vs. 5.36, p=.004). Children provided appropriate emotional responses to the asthma vignette; emotions were related to self-management behaviors and symptoms. More studies are needed to specifically assess EI in this population. Parents and children with greater EI may be better able to understand their needs, engage in self-management behaviors, and communicate with their nurses, to improve their support network and ability to access services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motivational and Behavioral Activation as an Adjunct to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for Mild to Moderate Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Hong Choi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational Interviewing (MI has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation towards treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of mBA in a non-randomized controlled pilot study that included individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms receiving psychiatric rehabilitation. A total of 73 individuals with schizophrenia were recruited. Forty-seven of the participants who met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned to either an mBA + usual psychiatric rehabilitation group (mBA or a usual psychiatric rehabilitation only group (treatment as usual, TAU. Administering mBA to individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms was feasible in a community mental health setting. Relative to TAU, mBA was associated with large effects in reducing negative symptoms measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS. However, after considering PANSS cognitive deficits and marital status as covariates due to significant differences in their baseline levels, the treatment effects on the BNSS were partially observed. In addition, participants in the mBA group showed improved verbal learning and memory compared with those in the TAU group. In individuals with schizophrenia receiving the usual forms of psychiatric rehabilitation in a community mental health setting, mBA appears to offer a promising adjunctive approach for addressing mild to moderate

  12. Factors that shape mental health treatment-seeking behaviors of HIV-positive African-American women with depressive symptoms: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; Brawner, Bridgette; Gipson-Jones, Trina L

    2008-12-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a leading cause of death for African-American women from 25 to 34 years of age. Depressive symptoms are commonly associated with the diagnosis of AIDS. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is needed for optimal treatment; however, African-American women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and who experience depressive symptoms have low and/or inconsistent use of HAART. Additionally, behaviors associated with untreated depressive symptoms increase the chances for HIV transmission. Clinicians, therefore, need to recognize both the individual and the contextual factors that influence those seeking treatment for depressive symptoms. The purpose of this article is to gain a better understanding of the factors that shape treatment seeking for depressive symptoms among HIV-positive African-American women, an important variable in secondary HIV prevention. Multi-contextual underpinnings shape this phenomenon; therefore, Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework was used to organize this literature review. Knowledge gained from this paper can support the promotion of health and can prevent or manage depressive symptoms among this vulnerable group.

  13. Randomized clinical trial of telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder and distress symptoms after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHamel, Katherine N; Mosher, Catherine E; Winkel, Gary; Labay, Larissa E; Rini, Christine; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Austin, Jane; Greene, Paul B; Lawsin, Catalina R; Rusiewicz, Anna; Grosskreutz, Celia L; Isola, Luis; Moskowitz, Craig H; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B; Rowley, Scott; Scigliano, Eileen; Burkhalter, Jack E; Hurley, Karen E; Bollinger, Andreas R; Redd, William H

    2010-08-10

    A significant number of survivors of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) report enduring adverse effects of treatment, including illness-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and general distress. We report results of a randomized clinical trial that tested the effects of a 10-session, telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention on PTSD, depression, and distress symptoms. Survivors who had undergone HSCT 1 to 3 years earlier (N = 408) were assessed for study eligibility. Those who met study eligibility criteria (n = 89) completed a baseline assessment that included a clinical interview and self-report measures of PTSD symptoms (the primary outcome) and depression and general distress (the secondary outcomes). Next, they were randomly assigned to CBT or an assessment-only condition. Survivors in the CBT group completed 10 individual telephone-based CBT sessions (T-CBT) that included strategies to reduce PTSD symptoms, depression, and general distress. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6, 9, and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Linear mixed-model analyses revealed that, compared with HSCT survivors in the assessment-only condition, survivors who completed T-CBT reported fewer illness-related PTSD symptoms, including less avoidance (P PTSD symptoms and general distress.

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and dietary behaviors are significant correlates of short sleep duration in the general population: the Nagahama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Ryo; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Chin, Kazuo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-11-01

    To examine relationships among gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, dietary behaviors, and sleep duration in the general population. Cross-sectional. Community-based. There were 9,643 participants selected from the general population (54 ± 13 y). None. Sleep duration, sleep habits, and unfavorable dietary behaviors of each participant were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their sleep duration: less than 5 h, 5 to less than 6 h, 6 to less than 7 h, 7 to less than 8 h, and 8 or more h per day. GERD was evaluated using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and participants having an FSSG score of 8 or more or those under treatment of GERD were defined as having GERD. Trend analysis showed that both the FSSG score and the number of unfavorable dietary habits increased with decreasing sleep duration. Further, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both the presence of GERD (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.32) and the number of unfavorable dietary behaviors (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13-1.26) were independent and potent factors to identify participants with short sleep duration even after controlling for other confounding factors. The current study showed that both GERD symptoms and unfavorable dietary behaviors were significant correlates of short sleep duration independently of each other in a large sample from the general population.

  15. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Pang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-10-21

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an α2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W.; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-01-01

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an α2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction. PMID:26375926

  17. Trauma symptoms, internalized stigma, social support, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive gay and bisexual MSM who have sought sex partners online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Kaylee E; Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the highest risk group for HIV infection. One reason is the increased use of the Internet to meet potential sex partners, which is associated with greater sexual risk behavior. To date, few studies have investigated psychosocial predictors of sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men seeking sex partners online. The purpose of the current study was to test a conceptual model of the relationships between trauma symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis, internalized HIV stigma, and social support on sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual MSM who seek sex partners online. A sample of 142 gay and bisexual MSM recruited on- and offline completed a comprehensive online assessment battery assessing the factors noted above. A number of associations emerged; most notably internalized HIV stigma mediated the relationship between trauma-related symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis and sexual risk behavior with HIV-negative and unknown serostatus sex partners. This suggests that gay and bisexual MSM who are in greater distress over their HIV diagnosis and who are more sensitive to HIV stigma engage in more HIV transmission risk behavior. As sexual risk environments expand with the increasing use of the Internet to connect with others for sex, it is important to understand the predictors of sexual risk behavior so that tailored interventions can promote sexual health for gay and bisexual MSM seeking sex online.

  18. Differential change on depressive symptom factors with antidepressant medication and cognitive behavior therapy for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W; Cole, Steven P; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mayberg, Helen S; Craighead, W Edward

    2018-03-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition and individual patients are likely to be differentially responsive to specific treatments. In an exploratory factor analysis of three rating scales, the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) trial identified three factors that were differentially associated with outcome to nortriptyline and escitalopram. However, this factor analysis has neither been replicated or applied to a psychotherapy treatment. We replicated the GENDEP analytic method in the Emory Predictors of Remission to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 306 MDD patients in the PReDICT study, which randomized previously untreated adults to 12 weeks of treatment with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), escitalopram, or duloxetine. Utilizing Item Response Theory methodologies, factor scores were derived from the three scales and the efficacy of the three treatments was compared for the identified factor scores. Four factors were identified: "Despair," "Mood and Interest," "Sleep," and "Appetite." These factors closely aligned with the factors identified in GENDEP. Compared to CBT, escitalopram and duloxetine produced more rapid but ultimately similar improvement on the Despair and Mood and Interest factors; no significant differences between treatments emerged on the other factors. The scales contained differing numbers of items pertaining to specific depressive symptoms. The heterogeneity of MDD can be parsed into a consistent factor structure, with the factors showing differential rapidity, but ultimately similar, improvement across treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aromatherapy for the Treatment of Patients with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Descriptive Analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press-Sandler, Olga; Freud, Tamar; Volkov, Ilya; Peleg, Roni; Press, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a common problem among patients with dementia. This problem is usually treated by drugs, but they have limited efficacy and often cause adverse effects. Aromatherapy is a nonpharmacologic treatment that is simple to use and devoid of significant adverse effects. To review the literature on the effectiveness of aromatherapy treatment in patients with BPSD. A descriptive analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in the English-language literature and cited in PubMed. Eleven articles on RCTs were found, of which 1 had fewer than 10 participants, 2 were mistakenly presented as RCTs, and another did not report treatment for BPSD. In all, 7 articles with 417 participants total (range, 15-114) were reviewed. The mean age in all studies was greater than 69 years (range, 69-85 years), and the percentage of women was 55% (range, 50%-57%). The intervention period ranged from 10 days to 12 weeks. Two studies used Melissa oil and 5 others used lavender oil. The studies described different methods of administration for the oils, including spraying and rubbing over various body organs. The duration of treatment differed among the studies. In 3 studies the investigators concluded that the treatment was not effective and in 3 that it was effective; in 1 study no clear conclusion could be drawn. The difference between positive and negative studies was not explained by differences in the study population, the type of oil, or the duration of treatment. The significant difference apparently stems from the method of administration. When the oil was applied close to the olfactory system the outcome was positive. A study should be designed to assess the effect of the site of application of aromatherapy.

  20. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms and Dietary Behaviors are Significant Correlates of Short Sleep Duration in the General Population: The Nagahama Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Ryo; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Chin, Kazuo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine relationships among gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, dietary behaviors, and sleep duration in the general population. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based. Participants: There were 9,643 participants selected from the general population (54 ± 13 y). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration, sleep habits, and unfavorable dietary behaviors of each participant were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their sleep duration: less than 5 h, 5 to less than 6 h, 6 to less than 7 h, 7 to less than 8 h, and 8 or more h per day. GERD was evaluated using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and participants having an FSSG score of 8 or more or those under treatment of GERD were defined as having GERD. Trend analysis showed that both the FSSG score and the number of unfavorable dietary habits increased with decreasing sleep duration. Further, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both the presence of GERD (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–1.32) and the number of unfavorable dietary behaviors (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13–1.26) were independent and potent factors to identify participants with short sleep duration even after controlling for other confounding factors. Conclusion: The current study showed that both GERD symptoms and unfavorable dietary behaviors were significant correlates of short sleep duration independently of each other in a large sample from the general population. Citation: Murase K, Tabara Y, Takahashi Y, Muro S, Yamada R, Setoh K, Kawaguchi T, Kadotani H, Kosugi S, Sekine A, Nakayama T, Mishima M, Chiba T, Chin K, Matsuda F. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and dietary behaviors are significant correlates of short sleep duration in the general population: the Nagahama Study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1809-1815. PMID:25364076

  1. Adult picky eaters with symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: comparable distress and comorbidity but different eating behaviors compared to those with disordered eating symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Zickgraf, Hana F.; Franklin, Martin E.; Rozin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individ...

  2. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson′s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ru Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: When PD-RBD and PD + RBD patients have equivalent motor symptoms, PD + RBD patients still have more olfactory dysfunction and worse daytime somnolence. RBD is an important risk factor for MCI, including delayed memory. Deficits in executive function, verbal delayed memory, and visuospatial function were consistently associated with more severe RBD symptoms.

  3. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  4. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  5. The Relationship between Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with Autism and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, R. K.; Ravan, S. A.; Wright, H. H.; Wieduwilt, K.; Wolpert, C. M.; Donnelly, S. A.; Pericak-Vance, M. A.; Cuccaro, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents. We hypothesized that repetitive behaviors in probands with autism would be associated with increased obsessive-compulsive behaviors in parents in sporadic families (1 known case of autism per family and no…

  6. The association between parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and the clinical significance of child ADHD symptom change following behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management.

  7. Identifying Motor, Emotional-Behavioral, and Cognitive Deficits that Comprise the Triad of HD Symptoms from Patient, Caregiver, and Provider Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Victorson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to identify important attributes associated with the triad of symptoms (cognition, emotional–behavioral, and motor of Huntington's disease (HD from patient, caregiver, and medical provider perspectives to facilitate development of a new disease‐specific, health‐related quality of life (HRQOL instrument. Methods: We conducted a targeted literature review of HD and HRQOL instruments, expert surveys, and patient and caregiver phone‐based interviews to extract information on the symptoms and issues most relevant to the HD symptom triad (HD triad. The data collected from these sources were used to generate themes and subdomains and to develop an integrated schema that highlights the key dimensions of the triad. Results: The search identified the following areas: emotional functioning/behavioral changes (e.g., positive emotions, sadness/depression; cognitive functioning (e.g., memory/learning, attention/comprehension; physical functioning (e.g., motor functioning, medication; social functioning (e.g., leisure, interpersonal relationships; end‐of‐life concerns/planning; and gene testing. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with HD and 16 HD caregivers, recruited from several Huntington's Disease Society of America support group networks, completed phone interviews. Nineteen US medical providers who specialize in HD completed the online survey. Twenty‐six subdomains of the HD symptom triad (seven cognition, 12 emotional–behavioral, and seven motor emerged relatively consistently across patient, caregiver, and provider samples. These included movements/chorea, memory impairment, depression, and anxiety. Discussion: Based on an integrated, mixed‐methods approach, important HD triad symptom were identified and organized into a guiding schema. These patient‐, caregiver‐, and provider‐triangulated data served as the basis for development of a HD‐specific HRQOL instrument, the HD‐PRO‐TRIAD™.

  8. Gender Differences in the Behavioral Symptoms and Neuropsychological Performance of Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Methylphenidate: A Two-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Chih-Ken; Huang, Yu-Shu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the gender differences in behavioral symptoms, as rated by various informants, and in neuropsychological performance, among patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with methylphenidate during 24 months in a clinical setting. Study participants comprised 128 boys (mean age: 13.2±2.4 years) and 26 girls (mean age: 12.8±1.0 years) with ADHD. All patients were prescribed short-acting oral methylphenidate, taken two or three times daily; each dose ranged between 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg. At the baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months later, behavioral symptoms were evaluated using the parent and teacher forms of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Version IV (SNAP-IV) scale for ADHD and the ADHD Rating Scale (completed by a child psychiatrist). In addition, neuropsychological function was assessed using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) at each interval. Although both the boys and girls exhibited a significant decrease in the ADHD symptoms observed by parents and clinicians, the girls improved more than the boys did. Based on the teacher reports, neither the boys nor the girls exhibited significant decreases in ADHD symptoms. The symptoms rated by teachers were more severe in the boys than in the girls throughout the first 12 months; however, the gender difference lessened after 12 months. Based on the TOVA assessment, a composite score (containing response time, response time variability, and ADHD score obtained using the TOVA) did not indicate differences between genders. However, another composite score (containing omission errors, commission errors, and response sensitivity) suggested significant improvement only in the boys. The results suggested that according to a longitudinal follow-up, behavioral and neuropsychological changes among patients with ADHD might differ between genders. Gathering multidimensional information from patients with ADHD is essential in determining how gender modifies the functional

  9. Illness behavior: prediction by symptoms, the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck Personality Types, neuroticism, life events, coping, health locus of control, social support, and attribution style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejudo Hernández, Santos; Froján Parga, María Xesús; Malo Aznar, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    A study was carried out with 501 persons to analyze the predictive capacity of various psychosocial variables-symptom perception, neuroticism, Personality Types 2 and 4 of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck, beliefs about health, social support, or certain coping styles-on two health-related behaviors: the frequency of visits to the doctor and self-medication. The results were analyzed by two structural equation models that revealed that some of the variables have direct effects on the behaviors, whereas other variables, such as attribution style, coping styles, or the impact of the stressors, have indirect effects via the reported symptoms or neuroticism. In addition, self-medication and the frequency of health service visits are independent of each other, which shows that their determinants are different. It is concluded that to address these factors in the two health indicators, it is also necessary to take in account the psychosocial variables considered herein.

  10. [Behavioral symptoms in preschool children at the time of school entrance from the perspective of parents--data regarding prevalence and risk factors in an epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Johann; Esther, Cornelia; Münch, Horst; Parzer, Peter; Raue, Britta; Steen, Rainer; Klett, Martin; Resch, Franz

    2002-11-01

    Behavioral and emotional problems based on parents information from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were investigated in a large epidemiological sample of 4363 six year old pre-school children from the area of Heidelberg and Rhein-Neckar county. An overview about symptom frequencies of boys and girls is given, taking age specific evaluations into account. Considering symptoms and syndromes, externalizing and attention problems show high prevalence, especially for boys. Family problems are the most important predictors of child global symptomatology, explaining about 10% of variance of the CBCL total score. Other factors like gender, chronical illness, adverse living conditions, family constellation or amount of TV consumption prove as additional independent predictors. An overall model explains about 20% of variance of child symptomatology. Results are discussed from the view of normal child development, developmental psychopathology, changing norms and altered socio-cultural conditions.

  11. Improving Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Acute Care: Evidence and Lessons Learned From Across the Care Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Eleanor S; Karel, Michele J

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of Alzheimer disease and related dementias increases, dementia-related behavioral symptoms present growing threats to care quality and safety of older adults across care settings. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) such as agitation, aggression, and resistance to care occur in nearly all individuals over the course of their illness. In inpatient care settings, if not appropriately treated, BPSD can result in care complications, increased length of stay, dissatisfaction with care, and caregiver stress and injury. Although evidence-based, nonpharmacological approaches to treating BPSD exist, their implementation into acute care has been thwarted by limited nursing staff expertise in behavioral health, and a lack of consistent approaches to integrate behavioral health expertise into medically focused inpatient care settings. This article describes the core components of one evidence-based approach to integrating behavioral health expertise into dementia care. This approach, called STAR-VA, was implemented in Veterans' Health Administration community living centers (nursing homes). It has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the severity and frequency of BPSD, while improving staff knowledge and skills in caring for people with dementia. The potential for adapting this approach in acute care settings is discussed, along with key lessons learned regarding opportunities for nursing leadership to ensure consistent implementation and sustainability.

  12. Effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on memory disturbance and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in thiamine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Yasushi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Imamura, Sachiko; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Kanno, Hitomi; Kawakami, Zenji; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio; Takeda, Shuichi

    2009-10-01

    Effects of yokukansan (TJ-54) on memory disturbance and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) were investigated in thiamine-deficient (TD) rats which were produced by feeding a TD diet for 37 d. Daily oral administration of TJ-54 (0.5, 1.0 g/kg) ameliorated the memory disturbance, anxiety-like behavior, the increase in aggressive behaviors, the decrease in social behaviors, and several neurological symptoms including opisthotonus observed in TD rats, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, histopathological examinations showed that TJ-54 inhibited the degeneration of neuronal and astroglial cells in the brain stem, hippocampus and cortex in TD rats. Microdialysis experiments showed that TJ-54 inhibited extracellular glutamate rise in the ventral posterior medial thalamus in TD rats. These results suggest that TJ-54 possesses the preventive or progress inhibitive effect against the development of memory disturbance and BPSD-like behaviors induced by the degeneration of neuronal and astroglial cells resulting from TD. TJ-54 may inhibit glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity as one of mechanisms.

  13. Child abuse in the context of intimate partner violence against women: the impact of women's depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms on maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.

  14. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Increasing of Self-Efficacy and Improving of Addiction Symptoms among Drug Dependency Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Kamarzarin; Hosin Zaree; Hosin Brouki, M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on increasing of self efficacy and improving of addiction symptoms among drug dependency patients. Method: For this purpose, 90 substance abusers were selected of private addiction center, Central Prison and drop in center by using of random sampling, and they were divided into two experimental (45 subjects) and witness groups (45 subjects) randomly. The members of experimental group were unde...

  15. Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Azusa; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and...

  16. Managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in Chinese elderly with dementia via group-based music intervention: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow Th; Fong, Ted Ct; Sing, C Y; Lee, Pandora Ht; Leung, Alice Bk; Chung, Kitty Sm; Kwok, Janet Kl

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention in managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in Chinese elderly with dementia. This cluster randomized trial recruited 73 elderly participants with moderate dementia from 10 elderly residential homes and assigned them to the intervention ( n = 40) and control ( n = 33) group. The intervention included 16 half-hour sessions of music intervention with multi-sensory components over eight weeks and control group received standard care. Participants' levels of subjective moods and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation, aberrant motor behaviors, dysphoria, and irritability were assessed at baseline, the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and the end of the intervention. Controlling for baseline outcomes, latent growth modeling revealed significant intervention effects for agitation ( B = -1.03, SE = 0.30, p  0.05). The music intervention showed significant reduction in the behavioral and psychological symptoms in Chinese elderly patients with dementia. Elderly homes could adopt this practical non-pharmacological intervention as a strategy to improve the well-being of the elderly.

  17. The Impact of Parental Reaction to Sexual Orientation on Depressive Symptoms and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Hispanic Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Victoria B; De Santis, Joseph P; McCabe, Brian E; Deleon, Diego A; Gattamorta, Karina A; Leblanc, Natalie M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationship of parent reaction to sexual orientation with depressive symptoms and safer sex among Hispanic adult men who have sex with men (MSM). We also examined men's acculturation to the U.S. (Americanism) in relation with these variables. Cross-sectional data collected from July 2011 to December 2012, from 125 MSM with a mean age of 43.02years. Instruments included the Perceived Parent Reaction Scale, the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Safer Sex Behavior Questionnaire and the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale. Data was analyzed using Hierarchical generalized linear models (GZLM). Among men whose parents knew of their sexual orientation, rejection of son's sexual orientation from mother (p=0.032) and from father (p=0.004) was related to higher number of depressive symptoms. Parent reactions were not directly related to safer sex behaviors. Americanism was associated with lower depressive symptoms (p=0.001) but was not related to safer sex behaviors. Current parent attitudes about their sons' sexual orientation had an effect on the sons' emotional wellbeing and acculturation may play a protective role. Mental health and primary care clinicians working with Hispanic MSM should assess for level of family support and provide resources to assist with disclosure and family acceptance of sexual orientation as indicated, particularly among recently immigrated men who may be at higher risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth’s Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “downward spirals” and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment. PMID:26456988

  19. Unexplained physical symptoms: patients' quality of life improved by cognitive-behavioral group treatment tailored to their perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld, Lyonne

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUnexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS) are physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a known medical condition. This definition can be refined with supplements such as a minimum number and/or duration of physical symptoms, and/or a certain level of functioning. Depending on these supplements, the estimated prevalence of UPS ranges from 20 to 74% in primary care [85], and from 30 to 52% in secondary care [83; 112; 123; 161]. UPS is more prevalent in women than in men [14; 68...

  20. [Eating behaviors and emotional symptoms in childhood obesity: a cross-sectional exploratory study using self-report questionnaires in 63 children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Autume, C; Musher-Eizenman, D; Marinier, E; Viarme, F; Frelut, M-L; Isnard, P

    2012-08-01

    The main objective was to assess emotional symptoms (anxiety and depression) and to describe eating behaviours in a population of children and adolescents consulting for obesity. The second objective was to examine the interactions between these parameters. A cross-sectional exploratory study in obese children and adolescents was conducted using self-report questionnaires for depression (Child Depression Inventory), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children), binge eating (Binge Eating Scale adapted for children), emotional, external, and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire adapted for children) in obese children and adolescents, from both sexes, aged 7-15 years old. Fourty-one children and 22 adolescents were assessed, two-third were female, the mean age was 11 years ± 2.3 and the mean BMI z-score was 4.2 ± 0.9. Nearly half had significant anxiety, nearly one-third had depressive symptoms, and 15% had severe binge eating symptoms. Girls reported more anxiety than boys. Emotional and external eating, binge eating, and emotional symptoms were strongly associated. Binge eating was independently associated with emotional eating, depression, and anxiety (r=0.86, Psymptoms were strongly associated in the child and adolescent overweight population in these out-patient pediatric departments. Emotional symptoms and eating behavior assessments are needed in overweight children and adolescents in order to implement multidisciplinary treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms Intensity, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic abdominal pain, bowel habit variations, and lack of structural causes. Symptom intensity has a statistical relation with patients' quality of life (QOL and mental health. The first objective of the present study was to develop and provide a therapeutic plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS that was operated for the very first time in Iran. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of these treatments on IBS symptoms intensity, health-related QOL, and psychological health among patients with IBS.Methods: The participants were 15 women with IBS. The participants were diagnosed on the basis of ROME-III diagnosis criteria. The data collection tools consisted of IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R used to evaluate mental health. Data were collected during the weeks of 0, 4, 12, and 24, during the treatment process. The extracted data was examined statistically via repeated measures MANOVA in SPSS software.Results: CBT has a significant effect on IBS symptoms reduction, QOL improvement, and mental health promotion of the patients. The effect of the therapeutic plan persisted until the follow-up stage.Conclusion: According to the results, applied CBT can be specifically implemented as an effective treatment for IBS. Therefore, the use of this treatment is advised.

  2. Traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and health-risk behavior in relation to injury among University of Nairobi students in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othieno, Caleb J; Okoth, Roselyne; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Malla, Lucas O

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and types of injuries in relation to traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and health-risk behaviors among university students in Kenya. A cross-sectional study collected data on a random sample of university students using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables while injuries experiences recorded using the Centers for Disease control criteria and Breslau's seven-item screener was used to identify post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using Center for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression Scale. Nine hundred and twenty-three students (525 male and 365 female) were included in the study, mean age 23 years (SD 4.0). Serious injury in the previous 12 months was reported by 29.00% of the students. PTSD was present in 15.67% (men 15.39% and women 16.1%). Out of the total, 41.33% of the students had depressive symptoms (35.71% mild-moderate symptoms and 5.62% severe). In the multivariable logistic regression being poor, binge drinking, tobacco use, ever been diagnosed with HIV, physically abused as a child, high PTSD score, and depression (adjusted odds ratio 5.49, 95% confidence interval 4.32-13.21) were significantly (p valuestudent population and are positively linked to depression and other risky behaviors. Measures aimed at improving the mental health, such as early identification and treatment of depression, may be useful in reducing the prevalence of such injuries among the youth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Symptoms and behavioral features induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in an old Java monkey [Macaca cynomolgus fascicularis (Raffles)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, A D; Colpaert, F C

    1986-05-01

    The study concerns symptoms and behavioral characteristics induced by MPTP in a 20-year-old Macaca cynomolgus fascicularis, their evolution over 7 months, and the animal's response to 1-dopa treatment. The symptoms which the animal developed include those that have been described earlier in Macaca mulatta and Saimiri sciureus, i.e., rigidity, action tremor, postural tremor, postural flexion, hypokinesia, and bradykinesia. In addition, however, the animal developed a 3.8 Hz resting tremor which in humans is pathognomonic of Parkinson's disease, as well as cogwheeling, the glabellar tap sign, drooling, impaired ability to relax, and many other symptoms. Also unlike previously described MPTP monkeys, the animal's symptoms neither improved spontaneously, nor did they remain stable shortly after MPTP injection. Instead, symptoms steadily progressed to reach a severe status 2 months after MPTP, and further progression was apparent after another 5 months. Therapeutic responses to 1-dopa required accumulation of or kindling by the 100 mg unit doses that were spaced 4 hr apart, were often organized in time as ON episodes that alternated with OFF episodes, and were associated with dyskinesias and bizarre behavior. Of particular interest is that the animal showed kinesia paradoxa which, in humans, constitutes a feature that is unique to Parkinson's disease among the extrapyramidal disorders. In addition to available evidence, the present findings validate the syndrome induced by MPTP in monkey as an animal analogue of Parkinson's disease. Taxonomic category, age, and the occurrence of shock in response to MPTP are discussed as variables that may possibly co-determine the pathology which MPTP may induce in monkey.

  4. Effect of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy Program on the Symptoms of Burnout Syndrome Among Undergraduate Electronics Work Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, Theresa C; Eseadi, Chiedu; Orji, Chibueze T; Omeje, Joachim C; Anyanwu, Joy I; Ugwoke, Samuel C; Edeh, Nkechinyere C

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effect that rational-emotive behavior therapy had on the symptoms of burnout among undergraduate electronics work students in Southeast Nigeria. This study utilized a pretest-posttest design involving a no-intervention group versus an intervention group. Participants were 124 undergraduate electronics work students who met the inclusion criteria of the study. The intervention consisted of 12 weeks of rational-emotive behavior therapy treatment and 2 weeks of follow-up meetings conducted at 6 months. Self-report questionnaire was used for data collection. Repeated measures analysis of variance and t test were used for data analysis. The results show that rational-emotive behavior therapy had a significant effect on the symptoms of burnout syndrome among the electronics work students in the treatment group compared to their counterparts in the no-intervention group. Finally, the positive gains were significantly maintained by the treatment group at the follow-up. The current study suggests that rational-emotive behavior therapy program can be effective for dealing with burnout syndrome among the population of undergraduates in Nigeria. Further clinical evaluation is needed.

  5. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-reported emotional and behavioral symptoms, parent-adolescent bonding and family functioning in clinically referred adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Aukst Margetić, Branka; Jukić, Vlado; Matko, Vlasta; Grgić, Vesna

    2014-05-01

    The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male war veterans has been linked with family dysfunction and psychopathology in their children [1, 2]. This study aimed to evaluate self-reported emotional and behavioral symptoms, parent-adolescent bonding and family functioning in clinically referred adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD war veterans and determine the degree that parent-child bonding and family functioning contributed to adolescent behavior problems. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, parent-child bonding and family functioning were assessed in a sample of clinically referred Croatian PTSD veterans adolescent offspring (N = 122) and non-PTSD veteran adolescent offspring (N = 122) matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, parental employment status, ethnicity, and residential area. Youth Self-Report, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family Assessment Device were used. Adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans reported having significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems than non-PTSD veteran offspring, and also more difficulties in their family functioning, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and more impaired mother-child and father-child bonding than control subjects. Internalizing symptoms were associated with family dysfunction, while externalizing symptoms were associated with paternal overcontrol/overprotection, and low maternal and paternal care. In conclusion, the increase in internalizing and externalizing symptoms as well as family and parental dysfunction among clinically referred adolescent offspring of PTSD veterans compared to their non-PTSD veteran counterparts indicates a need for early detection and interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships.

  7. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Sleep Behavior, Fish Consumption, and Depressive Symptoms in the General Population of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supartini, Atin; Oishi, Taro; Yagi, Nobuyuki

    2017-07-14

    Sleep, fish consumption, and depression have a close relationship; however, the role of sex differences in sleep, fish consumption, and depression research is not yet well-established. This study aimed to examine whether the impact of bedtime, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, sleep quality, and fish consumption on depressive symptoms differed in women and men. An online survey was conducted in South Korea with a stratified random sample of 600 participants between the ages of 20 and 69, whose gender and age were proportional to estimates of Korea's general population. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied to evaluate sleep timing, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, and sleep quality. Our results indicated that late bedtime and short sleep duration were independently associated with depressive symptoms in women. Sleep-onset latency and poor sleep quality were independently associated with increased prevalence of depressive symptoms in both men and women. Higher fish consumption was significantly associated with decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms in men only. Our findings suggested the importance of a different approach for men and women in terms of promoting healthy sleep habits. In addition, higher fish consumption may be beneficial in the primary prevention of depression in Korean men. Further research is needed to confirm the findings from this cross-sectional study.

  8. [Effects of assertive training on interpersonal relations, social behavior, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with a mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuem Sun; Im, Hee Su; Yang, Bo Kyum; Chung, Hae Kyung; Suh, Yong Jin

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of an assertive training program on interpersonal relations, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with a mental disorder. The study employed a quasi experimental design. The subjects included 44 patients with a mental disorder, 20 in the experimental group, and 24 in the control group. Data was collected using structured questionnaires over a 3 month period. There were greater significant increases in scores of interpersonal relations and content of communication in the experimental group than the control group. Also, there was a greater significant decrease in the score of psychiatric symptoms in the experimental group than the control group. Assertive training has an effect on increasing content of communication and decreasing psychiatric symptoms.

  9. [Epidemiological study on symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavior disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC using the EDAH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Lisiane Schilling; Rosa Neto, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathology characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The purpose of this article is to conduct an epidemiological study on symptoms of ADHA and behavior disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC. The study involved 1,898 students (1,001 males and 897 females) enrolled in five public schools of Florianopolis, from the 1st up to the 4th grades, aged 6 to 12. The instrument used was the EDAH, filled out by teachers and parents, which classifies children with predominance of the following symptoms: hyperactivity, attention deficit, conduct disorder, hyperactivity with attention deficit and ADHD associated with conduct disorder (global). Of the 1,898 students, 95 (5%) showed symptoms of ADHA associated with behavioral disorders. Regarding gender, the prevalence was higher in boys, in a 3:1 ratio. Our data is in accordance with the literature. The distribution of the ADHD subtypes by gender is similar to the mentioned literature.

  10. Sedentary Behavior and Sleep Duration Are Associated with Both Stress Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Keun Ok; Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress symptoms. Moreover, mental illness is linked with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. However, it is not clear whether sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts independent of physical activity. Thus, our study aimed to identify if sedentary time and sleep duration were associated with both stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The participants in present cross-sectional study were 4,674 general Korean adults (1,938 male; 2,736 female), aged ≥ 20 years. Prolonged sedentary time (≥ 420 min/day) was significantly associated with the increased risk of stress symptoms (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62) compared with sedentary time of stress symptoms was significant for individuals who had ≤ 5 h/day of sleep time (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38) compared with sleep duration of ≥ 7 h/day. Moreover, prolonged sedentary time (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42 in ≥ 420 min/day vs. sleep duration (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62 in ≤ 5 h/day vs. ≥ 7 h/day) were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal thoughts after adjusting for confounding factors including physical activity. Thus, prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are independently associated with both the risk of stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. From a public health perspective, reducing sedentary time and improvement of sleep deprivation may serve as an effective strategy for preventing mental illness.

  11. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbances in treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chan, Christian S; Tang, Kristen Nga-Sze

    2016-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence that sleep disturbance is not only a secondary symptom but also a risk factor for PTSD. Sleep-specific psychological treatments provide an alternative to conventional trauma-focused psychological treatments. The current meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of sleep-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in mitigating PTSD, sleep, and depressive symptoms. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analytic comparisons between sleep-specific CBT and waiting-list control groups at posttreatment. Random effects models showed significant reduction in self-report PTSD and depressive symptoms and insomnia severity in the sleep-specific CBT group. The corresponding effect sizes, measured in Hedges' g, were 0.58, 0.44, and 1.15, respectively. The effect sizes for sleep diary-derived sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency were 0.83, 1.02 and 1.15, respectively. The average study attrition rate of sleep-specific CBT was relatively low (12.8%), with no significant difference from the control group (9.4%). In conclusion, sleep-specific CBT appears to be efficacious and feasible in treating PTSD symptoms. Due to the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials available, further research is warranted to confirm its efficacy and acceptability, especially in comparison to trauma-specific psychological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD improves various PTSD symptoms and trauma-related cognitions: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Wagner, Anne C; Fredman, Steffany J; Monson, Candice M

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies document an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impairments in intimate relationship functioning, and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms and associated impairments are improved by cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012). The present study investigated changes across treatment in clinician-rated PTSD symptom clusters and patient-rated trauma-related cognitions in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBCT for PTSD with waitlist in a sample of 40 individuals with PTSD and their partners (N = 40; Monson et al., 2012). Compared with waitlist, patients who received CBCT for PTSD immediately demonstrated greater improvements in all PTSD symptom clusters, trauma-related beliefs, and guilt cognitions (Hedge's gs -.33 to -1.51). Results suggest that CBCT for PTSD improves all PTSD symptom clusters and trauma-related cognitions among individuals with PTSD and further supports the value of utilizing a couple-based approach to the treatment of PTSD. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Can Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia also treat fatigue, pain, and mood symptoms in individuals with traumatic brain injury? - A multiple case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, William; Krellman, Jason W; Dijkers, Marcel P

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often develop sleep disorders post-injury. The most common one is insomnia, which can exacerbate other post-injury symptoms, including fatigue, impaired cognition, depression, anxiety, and pain. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) is a manualized treatment that effectively treats insomnia with secondary effects on cognition, mood, and pain in various populations. This paper reviews the use of CBT-I for three participants with TBI of different severities. Pre- and post-treatment assessments of insomnia, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and pain were conducted. Mood was further assessed at follow-up. Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) scores derived from the research literature were used to establish clinically meaningful symptom improvement on self-report questionnaires. The reduction in insomnia severity scores for all three participants were not large enough to be considered a clinically significant improvement following CBT-I, although trends toward improvement were observed. However, all participants showed clinically significant reductions in anxiety at post-treatment; the effects persisted for 2 participants at follow-up. Reductions in depression symptoms were observed for 2 participants at post-treatment, and treatment effects persisted for 1 participant at follow-up. One participant endorsed clinically significant improvements in fatigue and pain severity. We conclude that CBT-I may provide secondary benefits for symptoms commonly experienced by individuals with TBI, especially mood disturbances.

  14. [Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction, Marital Adjustment, and Levels of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Couples with Vaginismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şafak Öztürk, Cennet; Arkar, Haluk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on sexual functions of women with vaginismus and their husbands, their marital adjustment, and their levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Twenty-six couples diagnosed as vaginismus according to DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria in gynecology outpatient clinics of Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital and Gynecological Diseases Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. The couples were treated with CBT through 50-minute sessions once a week. Pre- and post-treatment, all couples were assessed using a Personal Information Form, Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were significant differences in the total and all subscales' scores of sexual functions, significant increase in the marital adjustment, and a significant decrease in anxiety and depression symptom levels after CBT in women who completed the therapy (n = 20). In the husbands, significant recoveries were observed after the therapy in sexual functions total scores and subscales of satisfaction, avoidance, and impotence. However, there was no change in frequency, communication, sensuality, and in the premature ejaculation domains. Also, the marital adjustment scores increased, and significant decreases were observed in depression and anxiety symptom levels. It was observed that CBT is an appropriate therapy approach for vaginismus, and beneficial effects were observed in both women and their husbands in sexual functions, marital adjustment, and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms decreased.

  15. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C; Wood, Jeffrey J; Kapp, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828; nASD = 364) completed an online survey with an autism trait questionnaire and an FFM personality questionnaire. FFM facets accounted for 70 % of variance in autism trait scores. Neuroticism positively correlated with autism symptom severity, while extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness negatively correlated with autism symptom severity. Four FFM subtypes emerged within adults with ASD, with three subtypes characterized by high neuroticism and none characterized by lower-than-average neuroticism.

  16. Comparing non-specific physical symptoms in environmentally sensitive patients: prevalence, duration, functional status and illness behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Hooiveld, M.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the potential clinical relevance of non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) reported by patients with self-reported environmental sensitivities. This study aimed to assess NSPS in people with general environmental sensitivity (GES) and idiopathic environmental

  17. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  18. Change in Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Adolescence and Adulthood: The Role of Positive Family Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into adulthood. Several characteristics of individuals with ASD predict long-term outcomes, and the family environment may also play a role. The present study uses a prospective, longitudinal design to describe and predict trajectories of autism symptoms and…

  19. Does optimism affect symptom report in chronic disease? What are the consequences for self-care behavior and physical functioning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, D. de; Fournier, M.; Bensing, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine whether optimistic chronically ill patients [50 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 65 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients] overestimate their health status by decreased symptom report, and to what extent such an optimistic interpretation

  20. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  1. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: Internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNDERWOOD, MARION K.; BERON, KURT J.; ROSEN, LISA H.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence. PMID:21532919

  2. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2016-02-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3-6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children's levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition. The results indicated that high levels of parent-reported SM were primarily associated with high levels of social anxiety symptoms. The number of spoken words was negatively related to behavioral inhibition: children with a more inhibited temperament used fewer words during the speech tasks. Future research is necessary to test whether the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition prompts children to speak less in novel social situations, and whether it is mainly social anxiety that turns this taciturnity into the psychopathology of SM.

  3. Delirium superimposed on dementia: phenomenological differences between patients with and without behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in a specialized delirium unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abengaña, Jennifer; Chong, Mei Sian; Tay, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Overlap between neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and delirium complicates diagnosis of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). This study sought to examine differences in delirium presentation and outcomes between DSD patients with and without pre-existing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This was a prospective cohort study of older adults with DSD admitted to a specialized delirium unit (December 2010-August 2012). We collected data on demographics, comorbidities, illness severity, delirium precipitants, and cognitive and functional scores. Delirium severity was assessed using Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) and Cognitive Assessment Method severity score (CAM-sev). Patients were categorized as DSD-BPSD+ and DSD-BPSD- based on elicited behavioral and psychological disturbances. We recruited 174 patients with DSD (84.4 +/-7.4 years) with 37 (21.3%) having BPSD. At presentation, delirium severity and symptom frequency on DRS-R98 were similar, but DSD-BPSD+ more often required only a single precipitant (40.5% vs. 21.9%, p = 0.07), and had significantly longer delirium duration (median days: 7 vs. 5, p delirium resolution, DSD-BPSD+ exhibited significant improvement in sleep-wake disturbances (89.2% vs. 54.1%, p symptoms except motor retardation were improved in DSD-BPSD-. Pharmacological restraint was more prevalent (62.2% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.03), and at higher doses (chlorpromazine equivalents 0.95 +/-1.8 vs. 0.40 +/-1.2, p delirium, with subsequent slower delirium recovery. Aggravation of sleep disturbance, labile affect, and motor agitation should raise suspicion for delirium among these patients.

  4. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  5. Do Hearing Aids Influence Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia and Quality of Life in Hearing Impaired Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Their Caregivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrait, Arnaud; Perrot, Xavier; Nguyen, Marie-France; Gueugnon, Marine; Petitot, Charles; Collet, Lionel; Roux, Adeline; Bonnefoy, Marc

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are commonly associated. The Alzheimer Disease, Presbycusis and Hearing Aids (ADPHA) clinical trial assessed the influence of hearing aids (HAs) on patients affected by ARHL and AD, as judged by behavioral symptoms and functional abilities, as well as patient and caregiver quality of life (QoL). A multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, with a semi-crossover procedure over 12 months, was conducted from 2006 to 2012. For the first 6 months, the active group was treated with active HAs and the placebo group with inactive HAs. For the last 6 months, HAs in the placebo group were activated. Assessment was conducted at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. We performed intergroup and intragroup comparisons. Behavioral symptoms were assessed by neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), functional abilities by instrumental activities of daily living, and QoL by Zarit, Alzheimer's disease related quality of life, and simplified Duke scales. Fifty-one patients were included and randomized: 22 in active group (mean NPI 17.6; mean age 83±6.2) and 26 in placebo group (mean NPI 25.8; mean age 82.3±7.2) were fitted with HAs. At 6-month follow-up, all scores worsened without significant difference between the two groups. In placebo group, activation of HAs had no effect on the change of these scores. These findings do not provide evidence of improvement in behavioral symptoms, functional status, or QoL of hearing impaired AD patients and their caregivers after 6 months of HA use. However, we cannot exclude that HAs may have a positive effect in patients aged less than 75 years.

  6. Contribution of cancer symptoms, dysfunctional sleep related thoughts, and sleep inhibitory behaviors to the insomnia process in breast cancer survivors: a daily process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; Keefe, Francis J; Edinger, Jack D; Affleck, Glenn; Marcom, P Kelly; Shaw, Heather S

    2010-11-01

    using a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral model of insomnia and a daily process approach, this study was conducted to examine the contribution of cancer symptoms and dysfunctional sleep related thoughts and behaviors to the process of insomnia in breast cancer survivors. within-group longitudinal research design. an academic medical center. 41 women with breast cancer who had completed their primary cancer treatment and met Research Diagnostic Criteria for primary insomnia or insomnia comorbid with breast cancer. NA. for 28 days, participants completed morning diaries assessing sleep, nighttime pain and hot flashes, and dysfunctional sleep related thoughts and behaviors during the day and night, and evening diaries assessing daytime pain, fatigue, hot flashes, and mood. All diaries were collected using an automated telephone-based system. Results revealed that poorer sleep was related to nighttime pain and hot flashes in breast cancer patients. Time-lagged effects were also found. The current study identified higher levels of dysfunctional sleep related thoughts and sleep inhibitory behaviors during the day and night as antecedents of insomnia, and higher levels of pain, fatigue, and hot flashes and lower levels of positive mood and dysfunctional sleep related thoughts as consequences of insomnia in this population. the current study found support for a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral model of insomnia, which has several theoretical, practice, and research implications.

  7. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Julian, K.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically

  8. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Taylor, Kristin P; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder's constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety and more extreme interpersonal problems, lead to less generous behavior on the economic task examined. Results were clearest regarding fine-grained indices derived from latent trajectories. Unexpectedly, the combination of generalized anxiety disorder and higher depression also restricted generosity. Two of three indices showed acceptable test-retest stability. Maladaptive giving behavior may be a treatment target to improve interpersonal functioning in psychiatric disorders; therefore, future work should more precisely characterize behavioral economic tasks, including basic psychometric work (i.e., tests of reliability and validity).

  9. The neurocognition of conduct disorder behaviors: specificity to physical aggression and theft after controlling for ADHD symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, E.D.; Tremblay, R.E.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Vitaro, F.; Nagin, D.S.; Assaad, J.M.; Seguin, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that among the different conduct disorder (CD) behaviors, physical aggression, but not theft, links to low neurocognitive abilities. Specifically, physical aggression has consistently been found to be negatively related to neurocognitive abilities, whereas theft has been

  10. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention ...

  11. Job strain, depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior among older adults: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ratliff, Scott; Zivin, Kara

    2011-07-01

    To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse. High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age. Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce.

  12. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for IBS Signs and Symptoms Overview Recognizing Symptoms Diagnosis of IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS ... for IBS Signs and Symptoms Overview Recognizing Symptoms Diagnosis of IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS ...

  13. Receptive Music Therapy Is More Effective than Interactive Music Therapy to Relieve Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Joyce Y C; Ng, Yiu-Ming; Lee, Mia M Y; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Wong, Samuel Y S

    2018-01-25

    Music therapy is demonstrated to be effective to relieve the agitation among people with dementia, but the comparative effectiveness of methods of music engagement for people with dementia is uncertain. To evaluate the effects on cognitive functions and behavioral symptoms between interactive and receptive music therapies for people with dementia. Prospective studies evaluating interactive and receptive music therapies were identified from the OVID databases, included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Supplementary search was conducted in Google Scholar. The primary outcome focused on cognitive function; the secondary outcomes were apathy, anxiety, depressive symptoms, agitation, and other behavioral problems. All outcomes were measured by the standard assessment tools. The heterogeneity of studies was examined, and the effects were pooled by meta-analysis. Quality of studies and risk of bias were assessed. Thirty-eight trials involving 1418 participants with dementia were included. The mean age ranged from 75 to 90 years, and the percentage of male participants ranged from 6% to 83%. No significant difference was found between participants receiving interactive or receptive music therapy and usual care in cognitive function; the mean difference (MD) of Mini-Mental State Examination was 0.18 [95% confidence interval (CI) -1.34 to 1.69], and -0.15 (95% CI -0.55 to 0.25), respectively. Participants with receptive music therapy had significant decrease in agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory: MD = -7.99, 95% CI -5.11 to -0.87) and behavioral problems (Neuropsychiatric Inventory: MD = -3.02 95% CI -5.90 to -0.15) compared to usual care, while no significant difference was found between interactive music therapy and usual care in behavioral problems and psychiatric symptoms. This study demonstrated that receptive music therapy could reduce agitation, behavioral problems, and anxiety in older people with dementia, and appears to be more

  14. Relationships between behavioral symptoms of non-medicated Chinese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and parenting stress: Comparison of different subtypes and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Wen-Qing; Du, Ya-Song; Coghill, David

    2016-06-01

    To identify the characteristics of behavior problems among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their relation with parenting stress. The Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI) were used to assess the symptoms and parenting stress of 132 non-medicated children with ADHD as compared with 88 healthy controls. Every PSQ factor of ADHD children was higher than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest scores in conduct and learning problems, impulsivity/hyperactivity, and overall hyperactivity index; the PSI total stress, child domain, and parent domain scores were all higher in the ADHD group than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest score in the competence subscale of the parent domain, whereas the PSI total stress score of parents of children with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was higher than that of parents of children with only ADHD. The PSI total stress score was positively correlated with all PSQ factor scores. The PSQ factors of conduct problems and learning problems were found to be significant predictors in a regression analysis. The children with ADHD exhibited abnormal parenting stress compared with healthy controls, which was much more pronounced when the children had comorbid ODD. Furthermore, parenting stress was related with the severity of ADHD symptoms, suggesting that children with the combined subtype of ADHD require particular attention in the future. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Chosen Name Use Is Linked to Reduced Depressive Symptoms, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicidal Behavior Among Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Pollitt, Amanda M; Li, Gu; Grossman, Arnold H

    2018-03-30

    This study aimed to examine the relation between chosen name use, as a proxy for youths' gender affirmation in various contexts, and mental health among transgender youth. Data come from a community cohort sample of 129 transgender and gender nonconforming youth from three U.S. cities. We assessed chosen name use across multiple contexts and examined its association with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior. After adjusting for personal characteristics and social support, chosen name use in more contexts was associated with lower depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior. Depression, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior were lowest when chosen names could be used in all four contexts. For transgender youth who choose a name different from the one given at birth, use of their chosen name in multiple contexts affirms their gender identity and reduces mental health risks known to be high in this group. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C): A Rating Scale for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Pre-Dementia Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Brodaty, Henry; Cieslak, Alicja; Cummings, Jeffrey; Fischer, Corinne E; Gauthier, Serge; Geda, Yonas E; Herrmann, Nathan; Kanji, Jamila; Lanctôt, Krista L; Miller, David S; Mortby, Moyra E; Onyike, Chiadi U; Rosenberg, Paul B; Smith, Eric E; Smith, Gwenn S; Sultzer, David L; Lyketsos, Constantine

    2017-01-01

    Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is a construct that describes the emergence at ≥50 years of age of sustained and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), as a precursor to cognitive decline and dementia. MBI describes NPS of any severity, which are not captured by traditional psychiatric nosology, persist for at least 6 months, and occur in advance of or in concert with mild cognitive impairment. While the detection and description of MBI has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria, there is no instrument that accurately reflects MBI as described. To develop an instrument based on ISTAART-AA MBI criteria. Eighteen subject matter experts participated in development using a modified Delphi process. An iterative process ensured items reflected the five MBI domains of 1) decreased motivation; 2) emotional dysregulation; 3) impulse dyscontrol; 4) social inappropriateness; and 5) abnormal perception or thought content. Instrument language was developed a priori to pertain to non-demented functionally independent older adults. We present the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C), a 34-item instrument, which can easily be completed by a patient, close informant, or clinician. The MBI-C provides the first measure specifically developed to assess the MBI construct as explicitly described in the criteria. Its utility lies in MBI case detection, and monitoring the emergence of MBI symptoms and domains over time. Studies are required to determine the prognostic value of MBI for dementia development, and for predicting different dementia subtypes.

  17. Efficacy of Self-guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyotaki, Eirini; Riper, Heleen; Twisk, Jos; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan; Kleiboer, Annet; Mira, Adriana; Mackinnon, Andrew; Meyer, Björn; Botella, Cristina; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Andersson, Gerhard; Christensen, Helen; Klein, Jan P; Schröder, Johanna; Bretón-López, Juana; Scheider, Justine; Griffiths, Kathy; Farrer, Louise; Huibers, Marcus J H; Phillips, Rachel; Gilbody, Simon; Moritz, Steffen; Berger, Thomas; Pop, Victor; Spek, Viola; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-04-01

    Self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) has the potential to increase access and availability of evidence-based therapy and reduce the cost of depression treatment. To estimate the effect of self-guided iCBT in treating adults with depressive symptoms compared with controls and evaluate the moderating effects of treatment outcome and response. A total of 13 384 abstracts were retrieved through a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from database inception to January 1, 2016. Randomized clinical trials in which self-guided iCBT was compared with a control (usual care, waiting list, or attention control) in individuals with symptoms of depression. Primary authors provided individual participant data from 3876 participants from 13 of 16 eligible studies. Missing data were handled using multiple imputations. Mixed-effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine treatment outcomes and moderators. Outcomes included the Beck Depression Inventory, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores. Scales were standardized across the pool of the included studies. Of the 3876 study participants, the mean (SD) age was 42.0 (11.7) years, 2531 (66.0%) of 3832 were female, 1368 (53.1%) of 2574 completed secondary education, and 2262 (71.9%) of 3146 were employed. Self-guided iCBT was significantly more effective than controls on depressive symptoms severity (β = -0.21; Hedges g  = 0.27) and treatment response (β = 0.53; odds ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.52-2.50; number needed to treat, 8). Adherence to treatment was associated with lower depressive symptoms (β = -0.19; P = .001) and greater response to treatment (β = 0.90; P participant and study-level variables moderated treatment outcomes. Self-guided iCBT is effective in treating depressive symptoms. The use of meta-analyses of individual participant data

  18. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for patients with heart failure and depressive symptoms: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Johan; Andersson, Gerhard; Dahlström, Örjan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Köhler, Anita Kärner; Johansson, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The aim was (1) to describe the development of a guided internet-based CBT (ICBT) program adapted to patients with heart failure (HF) and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of the ICBT program in regard to depressive symptoms, the time used by health care providers to give feedback, and participants' perceptions of the ICBT program. A multi-professional team developed the program and seven HF patients with depressive symptoms were recruited to the study. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating-Self-rating scale (MADRS-S) were used to measure depression, and patients were interviewed about their perceptions of the program. Based on research in HF and CBT, a nine-week program was developed. The median depression score decreased from baseline to the end of the study (PHQ-9: 11-8.5; MADRS-S: 25.5-16.5) and none of the depression scores worsened. Feedback from health care providers required approximately 3h per patient. Facilitating perceptions (e.g. freedom of time) and demanding perceptions (e.g. part of the program demanded a lot of work) were described by the patients. The program appears feasible and time-efficient. However, the program needs to be evaluated in a larger randomized study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, D.; Olff, Miranda

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  20. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A.; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  1. Better super safe than slightly sorry? : Reciprocal relationships between checking behavior and cognitive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffolo, M.B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344118401

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) is characterized by intrusive frightening thoughts, images or impulses (obsessions; e.g., “did I stab my partner while doing the dishes?”) to which patients respond with repetitive behavior (compulsions; e.g., checking the knives and scissors in the house or

  2. The study of cognitive – behavior training effectiveness on decreasing depresive symptoms in community therapy center resident addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Discussion: The results show that psychological interventions in cognitive behavioral approach played a very crucial role in reducing depression in the addict's resident at the therapeutic community. Therefore, depression, that is one of the relapse risk factors, could be obviated and more success gained.

  3. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  4. Behavioral and Cardiovascular Responses to Frustration during Simulated Driving Tasks in Young Adults with and without Attention Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method: The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how participants…

  5. The effects of behavioral and psychological symptoms on caregiver burden in frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and Alzheimer's disease: clinical experience in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuling; Jin, Yi; Shi, Zhihong; Huo, Ya Ruth; Guan, Yalin; Liu, Mengyuan; Liu, Shuai; Ji, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Caregivers of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia (DLB), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), experience high levels of psychological and physical stress, likely due to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study is the first to simultaneously evaluate the effects of BPSD on caregiver burden in these three types of dementia. A total of 214 dementia patients, including probable FTD (n = 82), DLB (n = 22), and AD (n = 110), as well as their primary caregivers, were assessed using psychological inventories and cognitive evaluation. The FTD group was further divided into the three established clinical variants: behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 51), non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA, n = 15), and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, n = 16). Cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Clock Drawing Test, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI). FTD patients had higher NPI and ZBI scores than DLB and AD patients, whose scores were similar. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors influencing caregiver burden for each group were: FTD: total NPI scores, agitation, and aberrant motor behavior; bvFTD: total NPI scores; DLB: total NPI scores; and AD: total NPI scores, onset age, apathy, and ADL. Caregivers of bvFTD patients had the highest levels of burden, which were significantly greater than for caregivers of nfvPPA, svPPA, DLB, and AD patients. BPSD was highly correlated with emotional burden in caregivers of FTD, DLB, and AD patients. The highest burden was observed in bvFTD caregivers.

  6. The COMTval158met polymorphism is associated with symptom relief during exposure-based cognitive-behavioral treatment in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Jan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT represents a learning process leading to symptom relief and resulting in long-term changes in behavior. CBT for panic disorder is based on exposure and exposure-based processes can be studied in the laboratory as extinction of experimentally acquired fear responses. We have recently demonstrated that the ability to extinguish learned fear responses is associated with a functional genetic polymorphism (COMTval158met in the COMT gene and this study was aimed at transferring the experimental results on the COMTval158met polymorphism on extinction into a clinical setting. Methods We tested a possible effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism on the efficacy of CBT, in particular exposure-based treatment modules, in a sample of 69 panic disorder patients. Results We present evidence that panic patients with the COMTval158met met/met genotype may profit less from (exposure-based CBT treatment methods as compared to patients carrying at least one val-allele. No association was found with the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 genotypes which is presented as additional material. Conclusions We were thus able to transfer findings on the effect of the COMTval158met polymorphism from an experimental extinction study obtained using healthy subjects to a clinical setting. Furthermore patients carrying a COMT val-allele tend to report more anxiety and more depression symptoms as compared to those with the met/met genotype. Limitations of the study as well as possible clinical implications are discussed. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registry name: Internet-Versus Group-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Panic Disorder (IP2. Registration Identification number: NCT00845260, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00845260

  7. Live Music Therapy as an Active Focus of Attention for Pain and Behavioral Symptoms of Distress During Pediatric Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sumathy; Ramesh, Bhuvaneswari; Dixit, Priyanka B; Venkatesh, Soma; Das, Prarthana; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany

    2016-07-01

    A total of 100 children coming for routine immunization to pediatric outpatient department were included and were divided into experiment (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Experiment group received live music therapy during immunization procedure. Control group received no intervention. The Modified Behavior Pain Scale (MBPS), 10-point pain levels, and 10-point distress levels were documented by parents. Duration of crying was recorded by investigators. Pre- and postimmunization blood pressures and heart rates of parents holding the children were also measured and recorded by investigators. Independent and paired t tests were used for analysis. All 3 domains of the Modified Behavior Pain Scale and duration of crying showed significant improvement (P Music therapy could be helpful to children, parents, and health care providers by reducing discomfort of the child during pediatric immunization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Deployed Women’s Illness Behaviors While Managing Genitourinary Symptoms: An Exploratory Theoretical Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-21

    Theoretical Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies Military occupations are assigned based on non- gender specific abilities. Removing combat exclusion...profoundly impact illness behaviors. The specific beliefs and norms that defi ne a particular cultural group, such as a military organization, were equally ...military women’s integration. Women and medics appraised military leaders’ perspective on understanding military women’ s gender -specific health

  9. Exposure to bullying behaviors at work and subsequent symptoms of anxiety: the moderating role of individual coping style

    Science.gov (United States)

    REKNES, Iselin; EINARSEN, Ståle; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; MOEN, Bente Elisabeth; MAGERØY, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than do others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style. PMID:27151548

  10. A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: Design and methods of project ACT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Gitlin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laura N Gitlin1, Laraine Winter1, Marie P Dennis1, Walter W Hauck21Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health (CARAH, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Formely Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Currently Sycamore Consulting, LLC New Hope, PA, USA; 3Funded by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Nursing Research (Grant # R01 AG22254. Clinical trial registration #NCT00259480.Abstract: Project ACT is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological home-based intervention to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and caregiver distress. The study targets 272 stressed racially diverse family caregivers providing in-home care to persons with moderate stage dementia with one or more behavioral disturbances. All participants are interviewed at baseline, 4-months (main trial endpoint, and 6-months (maintenance. The four-month intervention involves up to 13 visits from an occupational therapist who works with families to problem-solve potential triggers (communication style, environmental clutter contributing to behaviors, and instruct in strategies to reduce caregiver stress and manage targeted behaviors. To rule out infection or other potential medical contributors to behaviors, a nurse obtains blood and urine samples from the dementia patient, and conducts a medication review. Participants in the no-treatment control group are offered the nurse arm and one in-home session following trial completion at 6-months. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of this multi-component, targeted psycho-social treatment approach, and the measures used to evaluate quality of life improvements for persons with dementia and their families.Keywords: family caregiving, environmental modification, home care, occupational

  11. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy with respect to psychological symptoms and recovering autobiographical memory in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarian F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatemehsadat Akbarian,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2,3 Mohammad Haghighi,4 Nadeem Kalak,5 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,5 Serge Brand5,6 1Psychology and Counseling Organization of Iran, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand; 4Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 5Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Objectives: Given the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and its major impact on everyday life, it is important to identify effective treatments. In additional to pharmacological treatments, psychotherapeutic treatments are also highly effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a sample of patients suffering from PTSD, the influence of an additional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT intervention on their symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety, and on autobiographical memory. Methods: A total of 40 patients suffering from PTSD (mean age: 31.64 years; 78.6% female patients and under psychopharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition. The intervention consisted of ten group sessions (one 60–90 minute session per week of CBT. At baseline and 10 weeks later, a series of self-rating and experts’-rating questionnaires were completed. Results: Over time, symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety decreased; however, greater improvement was observed in the experimental than the control condition. Likewise, as a general pattern of results, memory

  12. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja

    2015-04-23

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  13. The effectiveness of a training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: protocol of a cognitive behavioral group training and randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passchier Jan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, up to 74% of physical symptoms is classified as unexplained. These symptoms can cause high levels of distress and healthcare utilization. Cognitive behavioral therapy has shown to be effective, but does not seem to be attractive to patients. An exception herein is a therapy based on the consequences model, which distinguishes itself by its labeling of psychosocial distress in terms of consequences rather than as causes of physical symptoms. In secondary care, 81% of the patients accepts this therapy, but in primary care the outcome is poor. We assume that positive outcome can also be reached in primary care, when the consequences model is modified and used bottom-up in an easily accessible group training, in which patients are relieved of being blamed for their symptoms. Our aim is to investigate the (cost-effectiveness of this training. Methods and design A randomized controlled trial is designed. One hundred patients are randomized to either the group training or the waiting list. Physicians in general practices and outpatients clinics of general hospitals refer patients. Referral leads to inclusion if patients are between 18 and 65 years old, understand Dutch, have no handicaps impeding participation and the principal DSM-IV-TR classification is undifferentiated somatoform disorder or chronic pain disorder. In contrast to other treatment effect studies, the co-morbidity of a personality disorder does not lead to exclusion. By this, we optimize the comparability between the study population and patients in daily practice enlarging the generalization possibilities. Also in contrast to other effect studies, we chose quality of life (SF-36 instead of physical symptoms as the primary outcome measure. The SF-6D is used to estimate Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Costs are measured with the Trimbos/iMTA Questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness. Measurements are scheduled at baseline, after

  14. Therapist-Supported Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Stress, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms Among Postpartum Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Wong, Suei Nee; Tam, Wai San Wilson; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2017-04-28

    A growing number of meta-analyses have supported the application of therapist-supported Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) for psychological disorders across different populations, but relatively few meta-analyses have concentrated on postpartum women. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy of therapist-supported iCBT in improving stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among postpartum women. A total of 10 electronic databases were used to search for published and unpublished trials. Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias was utilized to measure methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software (Review Manager version 5.3 for Windows from the Nordic Cochrane Centre, the Cochrane Collaboration, 2014). Among the 789 studies identified, 8 randomized controlled trials were selected, involving 1523 participants across 6 countries. More than half (65%) of the eligible studies had a low risk of bias with no heterogeneity. Results revealed that therapist-supported iCBT significantly improved stress (d=0.84, n=5), anxiety (d=0.36, n=6), and depressive symptoms (d=0.63, n=8) of the intervention group compared with those of the control group at post-intervention. This review revealed that therapist-supported iCBT significantly improves stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among postpartum women with small to large effects. Future effectiveness studies should establish the essential components, format, and approach of iCBT with optimal levels of human support to maximize a long-term effect. ©Ying Lau, Tha Pyai Htun, Suei Nee Wong, Wai San Wilson Tam, Piyanee Klainin-Yobas. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.04.2017.

  15. Plague Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague symptoms depend on how ...

  16. Parent-Reported Symptoms of Sleep-Disordered Breathing Are Associated With Increased Behavioral Problems at 2 Years of Age: The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamana, Sukhpreet K; Smithson, Lisa; Lau, Amanda; Mariasine, Jennifer; Young, Rochelle; Chikuma, Joyce; Lefebvre, Diana L; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Pei, Jacqueline; Mandhane, Piush J

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association between the age of onset and duration of parent-reported symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and behavioral problems at age 2. Parent-reported SDB symptoms were assessed quarterly between 3 months and 2 years among 583 Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Edmonton-site participants. Parent-reported SDB symptoms were clustered into phenotypes using group-based trajectory analysis based on age of onset and duration of symptoms. Home-based polysomnography (PSG) was completed at 1 year. The Child Behavior Checklist preschool-version (Mean T-score 50, standard deviation 10 points) assessed total, externalizing (attention), and internalizing (anxiety, depression) behaviors at 2 years. Four phenotypes were identified: no SDB (64.7%), early-onset SDB (15.7%, peak symptoms at 9 months), late-onset (14.2%, peak symptoms at 18 months), and persistent SDB symptoms (5.3%, peak symptoms from 3 through 24 months). Persistent SDB (9.5 points, 95% CI 1.7, 17.2; p = .02) predicted the greatest magnitude of effect of total behavior problems, compared with children without SDB. Children with early-onset SDB (3.5 points, 95% CI 1.6, 5.4; p ≤ .001) and late-onset SDB (6.1 points 95% CI 4.0, 8.3; p ≤ .001) had increased total behavioral problems than children without SDB to 2 years. Additional analyses showed that the SDB phenotypes' trajectories were important for internalizing but not for externalizing behavior problems. There were no significant associations between home-PSG and parent-reported behavior problems. Findings suggest that the age of onset and duration of parent-reported SDB symptoms prior to age 2 have adverse consequences for overall behavior problems. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Extraction of RDC/TMD subscales from the symptom check list-90: does context alter respondent behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrbach, Richard; Sherman, Jeffrey; Beneduce, Carla; Zittel-Palamara, Kimberly; Pak, Youngju

    2008-01-01

    To test whether extraction of the 2 subscales in the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) affected the subscale score reliability and whether scores from the RDC/TMD subscales are comparable to the same scales when the whole Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90R) is administered. The full SCL90-R and a modified version containing only the depression and somatization scales were administered in counterbalanced order to 103 subjects. As another test of context, a subset of participants completed the modified and full versions as part of a larger battery of instruments relevant to facial pain. Statistical analyses included internal reliability for item analysis and intraclass correlation (ICC) and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for total scale score reliability. Internal reliability was approximately 0.95 for depression and 0.87 for somatization, independent of test form. Total scale scores were reliable across test versions, with both ICC and CCC approximately 0.95 for depression and 0.91 for somatization. Permutation tests using the CCC indicated a mild influence on the somatization score but not the depression score due to order effects, but these effects were not significant when considering the 95% CIs based on resampling methods. Whether items from other subscales are present or not does not affect the internal reliability or parallel forms reliability of the total scores from either depression or somatization. Context of administration, via order of forms completion, does not alter total score or reliability of depressive items but may alter total scores for somatization.

  18. How Illegal Drug Use, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Depressive Symptoms Affect Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: A Secondary Analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Rachel; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major risk factors among adolescents who have either contemplated or attempted suicide. Along with successful suicides, suicide attempts and contemplation are coexisting factors that are prominent in the adolescent population and therefore warrant major concern. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed to explore the factors that may influence adolescents' thoughts or actions about suicidal behavior. The YRBS represents high-school students throughout 50 states. Nine questions from the YRBS were used to elicit information about the relationships among the risk factors: (1) Suicidal thoughts and attempts; (2) illegal drug use; (3) alcohol use; (4) tobacco use; and (5) depressive symptoms. Statistically significant relationships among the risk factors were found for adolescents. Adolescents considered suicide (15.8%); attempted suicide at least once (7.8%); were injured while attempting suicide (n = 2.7%). Our findings support the idea that illegal substance use can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions. Depression had a positive relationship with suicidal ideations, supporting similar studies suggesting that depression leads to suicidal action.

  19. The Association between 5HT2A T102C and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin receptor gene (5-HT2A has been reported to be a susceptible factor in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, previous results were conflicting. We aim to investigate the association of 5-HT2A T102C with BPSD in AD using a meta-analysis. Studies were collected using PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library databases, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Embase. Pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess associations. Nine studies with 1899 AD patients with/without BPSD were included in this meta-analysis. The 102C and CC genotypes were associated with psychosis in AD (102C: p0.05. Thus, the 5HT2A T102C might be a susceptible factor for hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and psychosis in AD. The potential mechanism of this polymorphism in BPSD in AD requires further exploration.

  20. Factors predicting perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia based on admission data in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    To examine factors predicting the onset of perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), based on patient background, operative background and laboratory data obtained on admission, in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture. The participants were 152 patients (aged >70 years) who underwent surgery between 1 November 2012 and 31 March 2014. The participants were classified into group B (with onset of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD, n = 52), or group N, (without onset, n = 100), and risk factors were retrospectively examined. Onset was judged based on the presence or absence of common items; that is, "hallucination and delusion," "disturbing speech," "excitatory behavior" and "altered sleep-wake cycle." The participants were observed for 1 week after admission. The incidence of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD was 34.2% in total. In univariate analysis, the incidence was significantly higher (P delirium and acute exacerbation of BPSD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 821-828. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Efficacy of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression symptoms following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, J; Lee, N K; Wong, D; McKay, A; Haines, K; Alway, Y; Downing, M; Furtado, C; O'Donnell, M L

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety and depression are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), often co-occurring. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 9-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program in reducing anxiety and depression and whether a three-session motivational interviewing (MI) preparatory intervention increased treatment response. A randomized parallel three-group design was employed. Following diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, 75 participants with mild-severe TBI (mean age 42.2 years, mean post-traumatic amnesia 22 days) were randomly assigned to an Adapted CBT group: (1) MI + CBT (n = 26), or (2) non-directive counseling (NDC) + CBT (n = 26); or a (3) waitlist control (WC, n = 23) group. Groups did not differ in baseline demographics, injury severity, anxiety or depression. MI and CBT interventions were guided by manuals adapted for individuals with TBI. Three CBT booster sessions were provided at week 21 to intervention groups. Using intention-to-treat analyses, random-effects regressions controlling for baseline scores revealed that Adapted CBT groups (MI + CBT and NDC + CBT) showed significantly greater reduction in anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.07 to -0.06] and depression on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (95% CI -5.61 to -0.12) (primary outcomes), and greater gains in psychosocial functioning on Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale (95% CI 0.04-3.69) (secondary outcome) over 30 weeks post-baseline relative to WC. The group receiving MI + CBT did not show greater gains than the group receiving NDC + CBT. Findings suggest that modified CBT with booster sessions over extended periods may alleviate anxiety and depression following TBI.

  2. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-03-10

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a

  3. A Systematic Review of Land-Based Self-Exclusion Programs: Demographics, Gambling Behavior, Gambling Problems, Mental Symptoms, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Roxana; Kräplin, Anja; Pittig, Andre; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2018-05-02

    Systematic and quantitative reviews on the effects of land-based self-exclusion are scarce. Therefore, the current review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of (1) the demographic characteristics of land-based self-excluders and changes after exclusion, including (2) gambling behavior, (3) gambling problems, (4) mental symptoms, and (5) mental health. A systematic database and literature search was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Nineteen naturalistic studies met the eligibility criteria. The quality of all included records was rated via adaption of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results from higher-quality records were more heavily weighted. Self-excluders were predominantly men in their early or middle forties. Changes after exclusion revealed wide ranges in the rates of abstinence (13-81%), rates of gambling reduction (29-92%), and rates of exclusion breaches (8-59%). The records consistently demonstrated significant changes in pathological gambling from before exclusion (61-95%) to after exclusion (13-26%). Up to 73% of self-excluders exhibited symptoms of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders at program enrollment. Several aspects of mental health improved after exclusion, e.g., quality of life. Problem and pathological gambling are most prevalent in young men, but self-exclusion was most prominent in middle-aged men. The magnitude of effects widely differed between studies despite overall benefits of self-exclusion, and many individuals continued gambling after exclusion. This shortcoming could be minimized using improved access controls and the extension of exclusion to other gambling segments. High rates of pathological gambling and other mental disorders in self-excluders highlight the need for improved early detection and treatment accessibility.