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Sample records for behavioral strategies utilized

  1. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  3. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  4. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  5. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Utility strategies in times of more competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The international economy currently goes through a lasting recession. Saturated markets and a weak demand aggravate the situaton. The German industry, in addition, must face the structural and economic changes in Eastern Europe. The pending tasks and problems, and the resulting financial burdens cannot be fully estimated yet. The electric utilities are very much involved, and must adopt new motivation, organization and cooperation strategies to survive on the expanded markets. These strategies are briefly discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Communication Outreach Strategies Utilized By Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on communication outreach strategies utilized by agricultural extension agents in the Imo State Agriculural Development Programme, Nigeria. Data was obtained form 60 randomly selected agricultural extension agents from the study area. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage and mean ...

  8. Recent market behavior of utility stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the recent market behavior of utility stocks as compared to the Standard and Poor's 500 and the long-term government bond yield. Utility stock's performance continues to be affected by unfavorable regulation,and it appears that it will continue to be a factor for some time to come. A continually shrinking excess capacity continues to be a concern

  9. Antipredator behavior promotes diversification of feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledón-Rettig, Cris C; Pfennig, David W

    2012-07-01

    Animals often facultatively engage in less risky behavior when predators are present. Few studies, however, have investigated whether, or how, such predator-mediated behavior promotes diversification. Here, we ask whether tadpoles of the spadefoot toad Scaphiopus couchii have a diminished ability to utilize a potentially valuable resource--anostracan fairy shrimp--because of behavioral responses to predation risk imposed by carnivorous tadpoles of the genus Spea. Observations of a congener of Sc. couchii that occurs in allopatry with Spea, coupled with an ancestral character state reconstruction, revealed that Sc. couchii's ancestors likely consumed shrimp. By experimentally manipulating the presence of Spea carnivore-morph tadpoles in microcosms, we found that Sc. couchii reduce feeding and avoid areas where both Spea carnivores and shrimp occur. We hypothesize that the recurrent expression of such behaviors in sympatric populations of Sc. couchii led to the evolutionary fixation of a detritivorous feeding strategy, which is associated with a reduced risk of predation from Spea carnivores. Generally, predator-mediated behavior might play a key role in promoting diversification of feeding strategies.

  10. [Multilateral Strategies Utilizing Exosomes for Cancer Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida-Aoki, Nao; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-05-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles which transfer their components such as RNA, DNA, and proteins from one cell to another cell. The components are released to the cytoplasm of the recipient cells, having an effect on the cells. Cancerderived exosomes promote cancer progression, invasion, gain of drug resistance, and metastasis. Recently, according to their characteristics, it is expected to apply exosomes to cancer therapies, such as utilizing exosomes as drug delivery systems(DDS) for anticancer drugs and as cancer vaccines to enhance immunity to cancer cells. More, as the cancer-derived exosomes have cancer-promoting effects on multiple stages, inhibiting the function of the cancer-derived exosomes would be helpful to cancer therapies by suppressing cancer progression. DDS and cancer vaccines utilizing exosomes are now undergoing clinical studies, although DDS is suffering from loading efficiency. Treatments by inhibiting the functions of cancer-derived exosomes have still only few reports at experimental levels. Recently, we showed in a mouse model that disruption of cancer-derived exosomes by antibodies could suppress lung metastasis of the human breast cancer cells. Exosomes will provide us the multiple strategies to fight with cancer, which can be applied to cancers from many organs. It is important to confirm safety and overcome technical problems to bring exosomes in practical use.

  11. Strategies Utilized by Professional Nurses in the Primary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies Utilized by Professional Nurses in the Primary Health Care Facilities Regarding Adherence of Patients to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  12. 7 Strategies for Improving Drug Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Michael; Chamberlain, Ronald; Dortch, Marcus

    2017-06-01

    When new pharmaceutical products enter the market, the lack of real-world experience with these drugs creates quandaries for payers and providers alike. Often, all there is to go on is the minimum required for FDA approval-non-inferiority to a comparator product in terms of efficacy and safety. Here are a few promising strategies to end this ambiguity.

  13. Analysis of nuclear fuel utilization strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de; Rubini, L.A.; Silva, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Having in mind a rational utilization of the national uranium reserves, in the alternatives considered here in both the recycling of irradiated fuel and the introduction of fast breeder reactors (FBR's) in the electric energy generation system are analyzed. Present thermal reactors (PWR's) would be, thus, gradually replaced, and the plutonium produced by them used as fuel for the next generation of FBR's. (Author) [pt

  14. Workplace deviance: strategies for modifying employee behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulich, Marcia; Tourigny, Louise

    2004-01-01

    More than ever, today's health care employees must perform their jobs as efficiently and effectively as possible. Job performance must integrate both technical and necessary soft skills. Workplace deviant behaviors are counterproductive to good job performance. Various deviant behaviors are examined. Areas and strategies of managerial intervention are reviewed which will enable the prevention or modification of undesired employee behaviors.

  15. Behavioral economics strategies for promoting adherence to sleep interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea are among the most efficacious sleep interventions. Unfortunately, adherence levels are disappointingly low for these interventions. Behavioral economics offers a promising framework for promoting adherence, often through relatively brief and straightforward strategies. The assumptions, goals, and key strategies of behavioral economics will be introduced. These strategies include providing social norms information, changing defaults, using the compromise effect, utilizing commitment devices, and establishing lottery-based systems. Then, this review will highlight specific behavioral economic approaches to promote patient adherence for three major sleep interventions: 1) behavioral treatment for pediatric insomnia, 2) cognitive-behavioral treatment for adult insomnia, and 3) continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. Next, behavioral economic strategies will be discussed as ways to improve health care provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding appropriate prescribing of hypnotics and ordering sleep-promoting practices for hospitalized inpatients. Finally, possible concerns that readers may have about behavioral economics strategies, including their efficacy, feasibility, and sustainability, will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategic Risk Management Behavior: What Can Utility Functions Tell Us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The validity of the utility concept, particularly in an expected utility framework, has been questioned because of its inability to predict revealed behavior. In this paper we focus on the global shape of the utility function instead of the local shape of the utility function. We examine

  17. Poxviruses Utilize Multiple Strategies to Inhibit Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Daniel Brian; De Martini, William; Cottrell, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Cells have multiple means to induce apoptosis in response to viral infection. Poxviruses must prevent activation of cellular apoptosis to ensure successful replication. These viruses devote a substantial portion of their genome to immune evasion. Many of these immune evasion products expressed during infection antagonize cellular apoptotic pathways. Poxvirus products target multiple points in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, thereby mitigating apoptosis during infection. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates that poxviruses also hijack cellular means of eliminating apoptotic bodies as a means to spread cell to cell through a process called apoptotic mimicry. Poxviruses are the causative agent of many human and veterinary diseases. Further, there is substantial interest in developing these viruses as vectors for a variety of uses including vaccine delivery and as oncolytic viruses to treat certain human cancers. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which poxviruses regulate the cellular apoptotic pathways remains a top research priority. In this review, we consider anti-apoptotic strategies of poxviruses focusing on three relevant poxvirus genera: Orthopoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, and Leporipoxvirus. All three genera express multiple products to inhibit both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways with many of these products required for virulence. PMID:28786952

  18. The utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    disease. Objective: To examine the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent condom use intention of HIV .... (24-25), making subjective norms as better predictors of intention ..... Organizational Behavior and Human Decision.

  19. Operation strategy analysis of a geothermal step utilization heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guozhong; Li, Feng; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng; Li, Qianru; Zhu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been successfully applied in many district heating systems. In order to promote better use of geothermal energy, it is important to analyze the operation strategy of geothermal heating system. This study proposes a comprehensive and systematic operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system (GSUHS). Calculation models of radiator heating system (RHS), radiant floor heating system (RFHS), heat pump (HP), gas boiler (GB), plate heat exchanger (PHE) and pump are first established. Then the operation strategy of the GSUHS is analyzed with the aim to substantially reduce the conventional energy consumption of the whole system. Finally, the energy efficiency and geothermal tail water temperature are analyzed. With the operation strategy in this study, the geothermal energy provides the main heating amount for the system. The heating seasonal performance factor is 15.93. Compared with coal-fired heating, 75.1% of the standard coal equivalent can be saved. The results provide scientific guidance for the application of an operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system. -- Highlights: ► We establish calculation models for the geothermal step utilization heating system. ► We adopt minimal conventional energy consumption to determine the operation strategy. ► The geothermal energy dominates the heating quantity of the whole system. ► The utilization efficiency of the geothermal energy is high. ► The results provide guidance to conduct operation strategy for scientific operation.

  20. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  1. Intervention Strategies Based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ju Chang, RN, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This review indicates the potential strength of the IMB model as a theoretical framework to develop behavioral interventions. The specific integration strategies delineated for each construct of the model can be utilized to design model-based interventions.

  2. Novel strategies for sedentary behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Lee, I-Min; Young, Deborah Rohm; Prohaska, Thomas R; Owen, Neville; Buchner, David M

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on the "Novel Strategies for Sedentary Behavior Research" session of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities workshop. The purpose of this session of the workshop were to propose strategies for accomplishing a research agenda in dealing with sedentary behavior and to consider research priorities for people at high risk for excess sedentary behavior. The four major recommendations from this workshop were as follows: 1) To add repeated objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior to existing cohort studies and standardize approaches to measurement and analysis. Epidemiologic studies will be the most efficient design for addressing some research questions. 2) To increase research efficiency, consider the advantages of a network of connected research studies and health systems. Advantages include access to existing data in electronic health records. 3) To carefully select a variety of high-risk study populations and preplan collaboration among studies in intervention research. This strategy can efficiently address the breadth of issues in sedentary behavior research. 4) To include comparative effectiveness designs and pure environmental interventions in intervention research. This strategy facilitates and enhances translation of interventions into practice.

  3. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  4. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  5. Beyond expected utility: rethinking behavioral decision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, D; Clemen, R T

    1994-07-01

    Much research in psychology has evaluated the quality of people's decisions by comparisons with subjective expected utility (SEU) theory. This article suggests that typical arguments made for the status of utility theory as normative do not justify its use by psychologists as a standard by which to evaluate decision quality. It is argued that to evaluate decision quality, researchers need to identify those decision processes that tend to lead to desirable outcomes. It is contended that a good decision-making process must be concerned with how (and whether) decision makers evaluate potential consequences of decisions, the extent to which they accurately identify all relevant consequences, and the way in which they make final choices. Research that bears on these issues is reviewed.

  6. The Shape of Utility Functions and Organizational Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.E. Pennings; A. Smidts (Ale)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBased on measurements with 332 owner-managers, the global shape of the utility function (i.e., S-shaped versus concave or convex over the total range of outcomes) appears to discriminate organizational behavior. Whereas the degree of risk aversion, based on the local shape of the utility

  7. Learning a decision maker's utility function from (possibly) inconsistent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    developed for learning the probabilities from a database.However, methods for learning the utilities have only received limitedattention in the computer science community. A promising approach for learning a decision maker's utility function is to takeoutset in the decision maker's observed behavioral...... patterns, and then find autility function which (together with a domain model) can explainthis behavior. That is, it is assumed that decision maker's preferences arereflected in the behavior. Standard learning algorithmsalso assume that the decision maker is behavioralconsistent, i.e., given a model ofthe...... decision problem, there exists a utility function which canaccount for all the observed behavior. Unfortunately, this assumption israrely valid in real-world decision problems, and in these situationsexisting learning methods may only identify a trivial utilityfunction. In this paper we relax...

  8. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nields, Allison N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  9. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap.

  10. Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T; Cash, Anne H; O'Brennan, Lindsey; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-04-01

    Although there has been considerable attention to the issue of classroom management and processes in educational reform models, there has been relatively limited research on these factors in high schools. The current study utilized observational data from 1262 classrooms in 52 high schools to examine teacher classroom management strategies and ratings of student compliance, engagement, and social disruption. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to examine specific patterns of classroom-wide student behavior in relation to teachers' use of classroom management strategies and classroom composition. The LPA revealed three distinct classroom behavioral profiles where students consistently met behavioral expectations (71%), inconsistently met expectations (23%), and were noncompliant (6%). Analyses indicated a functional association between patterns of student behavior and teachers' classroom management. In classrooms where students consistently met expectations, teachers provided more opportunities to respond and less disapproval and reactive behavioral management. Classrooms with noncompliant students had teachers who used the most disapproval and reactive behavior management. In addition, classrooms characterized as consistent had fewer males and more White students than classrooms characterized by inconsistent and noncompliant behaviors. These findings highlight the link between student patterns of behavior and teacher classroom management and have important implications for screening and professional development. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed

  12. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  13. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  14. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative ...

  15. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  16. Strategies to reduce blood product utilization in obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neb, Holger; Zacharowski, Kai; Meybohm, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) aims to improve patient outcome and safety by reducing the number of unnecessary RBC transfusions and vitalizing patient-specific anemia reserves. Although PBM is increasingly recognized as best clinical practice in elective surgery, implementation of PBM is restrained in the setting of obstetrics. This review summarizes recent findings to reduce blood product utilization in obstetric practice. PBM-related evidence-based benefits should be urgently adopted in the field of obstetric medicine. Intravenous iron can be considered a safe, effective strategy to replenish iron stores and to correct both pregnancy-related and hemorrhage-related iron deficiency anemia. In addition to surgical techniques and the use of uterotonics, recent findings support early administration of tranexamic acid, fibrinogen and a coagulation factor concentrate-based, viscoelastically guided practice in case of peripartum hemorrhage to manage coagulopathy. In patients with cesarean section, autologous red cell blood salvage may reduce blood product utilization, although its use in this setting is controversial. Implementation of PBM in obstetric practice offers large potential to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements of allogeneic blood products, even though large clinical trials are lacking in this specific field. Intravenous iron supplementation may be suggested to increase peripartum hemoglobin levels. Additionally, tranexamic acid and point-of-care-guided supplementation of coagulation factors are potent methods to reduce unnecessary blood loss and blood transfusions in obstetrics.

  17. A strategy for investment in space resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    Considerations governing a strategy for investment in the utilization of space resources are discussed. It is suggested on the basis of an examination of current trends in terms of historical processes which operate on new frontiers that the limited markets and unfamiliar technologies associated with space commercialization today may change dramatically in 20 years when lunar resources are accessible. It is argued that the uncertainty of such projections discourages investment at a useful scale unless a strategy for technology development can be implemented which provides tangible and marketable benefits in the intermediate term. At present, technologies can be identified which will be required (and therefore valuable) at the time of lunar settlement, and whose development can be planned to yield marketable intermediate products on earth. It is concluded that the formation of precompetitive collaborative research consortia in the industrial sector could reduce technical and economic risk in the early stages and could promote a favorable political environment for the future growth of space activities.

  18. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive utility corridor (CUC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The strategy established the process for which the Campus Development Office will evaluate land management issues. It is a process that uses geographical information system geospatial technology to layer critical INL mission information in a way that thorough evaluations can be conducted and strategies developed. The objective of the CUC Project was to develop a process that could be implemented to identify potential utility corridor options for consideration. The process had to take into account all the missions occurring on the INL and other land-related issues. The process for developing a CUC strategy consists of the following four basic elements using geographical information system capabilities: 1. Development of an INL base layer map; this base layer map geospatially references all stationary geographical features on INL and sitewide information. 2. Development of current and future mission land-use need maps; this involved working with each directorate to identify current mission land use needs and future land use needs that project 30 years into the future. 3. Development of restricted and potential constraint maps; this included geospatially mapping areas such as wells, contaminated areas, firing ranges, cultural areas, ecological areas, hunting areas, easement, and grazing areas. 4. Development of state highway and power line rights of way map; this included geospatially mapping rights-of-way along existing state highways and power lines running through the INL that support INL operations. It was determined after completing and evaluating the geospatial information that the area with the least impact to INL missions was around the perimeter of the INL Site. Option 1, in this document, identifies this perimeter; however, it does not mean the entire perimeter is viable. Many places along the perimeter corridor cannot

  19. 〈Articles〉The Utility of Reading Strategies and Its Connection to Reading Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lance, Burrows

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract] Self-efficacy is the expectation that one can successfully complete a particular task within a specific domain. Although it has been used to predict human behavior in several different contexts, e.g., educational psychology and medicine, it has not been widely utilized in second language research. There has been some promising research that has shown preliminarily that reading strategy intervention may help promote higher levels of reading self-efficacy. But the studies that have b...

  20. Transformation strategies for multi-utility companies; Transformationsstrategien fuer Multi Utility-Unternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apking, W.; Bosse, F.; Kroepelin, C.; Schaudinn, D.; Uhlmann, K. [PriceWaterhouseCoopers Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Energy supply companies (resellers) and electric utilities as traders in the liberalized markets increasingly focus their activities on their core businesses and offer their capabilites also in other branches of industry, thus achieving synergistic effects. The evolution of e-commerce in the energy supply sector in Germany is described in this article, and recommendations are given to companies as to suitable change management strategies for successful marketing and procurement via the world wide web, using IP technologies as a basis for transactions. (CB) [German] Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) besinnen sich auf ihre Kernkompetenzen, bieten diese auch in anderen Branchen an und erzielen damit Synergieeffekte. Ein weiterer Aspekt ist die zunehmende Vernetzung der europaeischen Stromnetze. Die Konvergenz der Maerkte wird ferner durch den Einsatz von IP(Internet-Protokoll)-Technologien vorangetrieben, da das Internet eine Informations- und Transaktionsplattform fuer saemtliche Marktteilnehmer schafft. Welche diesbezueglichen Transformationsstrategien von den EVU bereits heute zu ergreifen sind, wird anschaulich aus einem hierzu entwickelten Modell abgeleitet. (orig./CB)

  1. Utilization of Compliance-Gaining Strategies: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglan, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the use of compliance-gaining strategies among a group of environmentalists. Results indicated that prosocial strategies were used more often than anti-social strategies across all situations. (SRT)

  2. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  3. Strategy of nitrogen acquisition and utilization by carnivorous Dionaea muscipula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jörg; Gao, Peng; Honsel, Anne; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Burzlaff, Tim; Alfarraj, Saleh; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    Plant carnivory represents an exceptional means to acquire N. Snap traps of Dionaea muscipula serve two functions, and provide both N and photosynthate. Using (13)C/(15)N-labelled insect powder, we performed feeding experiments with Dionaea plants that differed in physiological state and N status (spring vs. autumn plants). We measured the effects of (15)N uptake on light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), dark respiration (R(D)) and growth. Depending on N status, insect capture briefly altered the dynamics of R(D)/A(max), reflecting high energy demand during insect digestion and nutrient uptake, followed by enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Organic N acquired from insect prey was immediately redistributed, in order to support swift renewal of traps and thereby enhance probability of prey capture. Respiratory costs associated with permanent maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery were thereby minimized. Dionaea's strategy of N utilization is commensurate with the random capture of large prey, occasionally transferring a high load of organic nutrients to the plant. Our results suggest that physiological adaptations to unpredictable resource availability are essential for Dionaea's success with regards to a carnivorous life style.

  4. Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

  5. Utilizing Weak Indicators to Detect Anomalous Behaviors in Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egid, Adin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We consider the use of a novel weak in- dicator alongside more commonly used weak indicators to help detect anomalous behavior in a large computer network. The data of the network which we are studying in this research paper concerns remote log-in information (Virtual Private Network, or VPN sessions) from the internal network of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The novel indicator we are utilizing is some- thing which, while novel in its application to data science/cyber security research, is a concept borrowed from the business world. The Her ndahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is a computationally trivial index which provides a useful heuristic for regulatory agencies to ascertain the relative competitiveness of a particular industry. Using this index as a lagging indicator in the monthly format we have studied could help to detect anomalous behavior by a particular or small set of users on the network.

  6. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and...

  7. Utilizing Weak Indicators to Detect Anomalous Behaviors in Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egid, Adin Ezra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    We consider the use of a novel weak in- dicator alongside more commonly used weak indicators to help detect anomalous behavior in a large computer network. The data of the network which we are studying in this research paper concerns remote log-in information (Virtual Private Network, or VPN sessions) from the internal network of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The novel indicator we are utilizing is some- thing which, while novel in its application to data science/cyber security research, is a concept borrowed from the business world. The Her ndahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is a computationally trivial index which provides a useful heuristic for regulatory agencies to ascertain the relative competitiveness of a particular industry. Using this index as a lagging indicator in the monthly format we have studied could help to detect anomalous behavior by a particular or small set of users on the network. Additionally, we study indicators related to the speed of movement of a user based on the physical location of their current and previous logins. This data can be ascertained from the IP addresses of the users, and is likely very similar to the fraud detection schemes regularly utilized by credit card networks to detect anomalous activity. In future work we would look to nd a way to combine these indicators for use as an internal fraud detection system.

  8. Rural Veterans' dental utilization, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Findley, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Rural residents are overrepresented in the military; however, access to Veteran services is limited in rural areas. There is a need to identify rural Veteran healthcare utilization. This study addresses that need and has two purposes: a) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and Veteran utilization of dental services; and b) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and the oral health outcome of missing teeth. Data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were used in this study. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Rural Veterans were less likely to have a dental visit during the previous year as compared with metropolitan Veterans in unadjusted analysis (Odds ratio = 0.71, 95% Confidence Interval, 0.64, 0.77) and in adjusted analysis [0.87 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.78, 0.96)]. In cases in which all teeth were missing, rural Veterans had an unadjusted odds ratio of 1.79 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.55, 2.08] and an adjusted odds ratio of 1.37 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.17, 1.62] as compared with metropolitan Veterans. The Veterans Health Administration develops policies for establishing centers for care for Veterans. The policy development should take into consideration that rural Veterans have not been as likely as urban Veterans to utilize dental services and have poorer oral health outcomes. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Steeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1–12 years. Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50% significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (−0.44 to −3.1 h/day and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  10. Market behavior and performance of different strategy evaluation schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjoo Baek; Sang Hoon Lee; Hawoong Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Strategy evaluation schemes are a crucial factor in any agent-based market model, as they determine the agents' strategy preferences and consequently their behavioral pattern. This study investigates how the strategy evaluation schemes adopted by agents affect their performance in conjunction with the market circumstances. We observe the performance of three strategy evaluation schemes, the history-dependent wealth game, the trend-opposing minority game, and the trend-following majority game,...

  11. Cooperation with environmentalists as part of a utility's communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufkova, Marie

    1995-01-01

    Environmental organizations are the most zealous opponents to nuclear power and utilities. However, different organizations, although all having the word 'environment' or 'environmental' in their names, actually behave in different ways. As a rule, those organizations which loudly clamour demagogic phrases about the environment do nearly nothing for it, whereas those which are really active in helping Nature and the environment do not protest against nuclear power plants. This is a fact on which the Czech utility CEZ has built up its strategy of communication with the environmentally oriented part of the public. CEZ has been making efforts to enter into friendly contacts with reasonably thinking environmentalists who are open to a positive dialogue and cooperation. We try to make the difference between the true environmentalists and demagogic loud-mouths such as Greenpeace obvious to the public. The communication programme is meant to convey the following message to the public: CEZ utility is making efforts to generate electricity in an environmentally friendly manner. CEZ people also want to breathe healthy air and live in healthy environment. Nuclear power plants are environmentally clean facilities. Temelin will be the safest nuclear power plant in Europe. CEZ supports alternative energy sources and energy savings. In preparing some of our information brochures we directly cooperate with environmentalists, so that they are the authors of the texts (of brochures dealing with alternative energy sources for instance). We support activities of environmental organizations. For example, together with the Czech Nature Conservancy Institute we are going to publish a map of protected landscape regions, whose reverse side will bear information about the CEZ's environmental programme. We have been issuing information materials describing the advantages and disadvantages of alternative energy sources, the greenhouse effect, nuclear power, etc.. We provide the material to

  12. Molecular diagnostics clinical utility strategy: a six-part framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Felix W; Quinn, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    The clinical utility of a molecular test rises proportional to a favorable regulatory risk/benefit assessment, and clinical utility is the driver of payer coverage decisions. Although a great deal has been written about clinical utility, debates still center on its 'definition.' We argue that the definition (an impact on clinical outcomes) is self-evident, and improved communications should focus on sequential steps in building and proving an adequate level of confidence for the diagnostic test's clinical value proposition. We propose a six-part framework to facilitate communications between test developers and health technology evaluators, relevant to both regulatory and payer decisions.

  13. Waste utilization strategies and markets in Europe, the export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeisaenen, P.

    2001-01-01

    Over 4000 million tons of solid wastes are generated annually in OECD countries, of which the share of EU countries is about 2000 million tons. The share of municipal wastes is about 200 million tons. Germany, France, Great Britain and Spain are the largest producers of wastes in EU. In Eastern Europe Russia, Turkey, Poland and Ukraine are the largest waste producers. Statistics show that at the end of the past decade 60% of wastes produced in EU countries were still dumped in dumping sites. The share of waste incineration was about 20% and that of composting about 6%. The corresponding value of mechanical waste processing was 6% and that of other waste processing methods 8%. The number of dumping sites in the 1995 statistics was 26 169 and the number of waste incineration plants 1258, most of which are small plants. Waste management strategies vary country by country. A common feature for all of these is that several waste processing methods are needed and the relative shares of them depend on the basic solution of waste management. The cities, which incinerated wastes 100 years ago, do the same today and the cities, the waste management of which based on dumping, dump the wastes even to day. In the future the number of dumping sites decreases in all countries, and the share of recycling, incineration and mechanical/biological processing increases. The large variety of waste processing methods in Finland has caused many problems, broad waste management cooperation is difficult, nation-wide information delivery can not be used effectively, terminology is non-uniform, etc. This is reflected to sort separation of wastes for energy purposes. Sorted waste for manufacture of REF can in principle be obtained from two routes: (1) the separated sorting of energy waste, or (2) dry waste, remaining after recovery of materials fraction. Both of the models are in use in Finland in different locations having special features typical for the location. Both of these methods have

  14. California Women and the Strategies Utilized on the Path to the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify leadership strategies utilized and the barriers encountered by females in pursuit of the role of superintendent. This study also intended to identify the strategies women used to overcome these barriers. Methodology: This study utilized descriptive research. Descriptive research involves gathering…

  15. Product bundling, the key to a successful multi-utility strategy; Buendelung: Der Schluessel zu einer erfolgreichen Multi Utility-Strategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laker, M.; Nigge, K.M.; Wuebker, G. [Simon, Kucher und Partner Strategy and Marketing Consultants GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    The article explains essential aspects of successful multi-utility management strategies for local utilities. Product bundling and the creation of incentives for enhancing the consumers' propensity to conclude multi-utility contracts, as e.g. pricing policy and the range of services that can be offered in a package are discussed. (orig./CB) [German] Das Thema Multi Utility, d.h. die Integration von Strom, Erdgas, Wasser, Entsorgung und Dienstleistungen wird ausfuehrlich diskutiert. Es muessen vielmehr Anreize dafuer geschaffen werden, dass die Kunden die Komplettangebote auch wahrnehmen. Dies ist eine Frage der Produkt- und Preisgestaltung. Buendelung ist das ideale Instrument zur Schaffung solcher Anreize. (orig./CB)

  16. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  17. Identification of animal behavioral strategies by inverse reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Yamaguchi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals are able to reach a desired state in an environment by controlling various behavioral patterns. Identification of the behavioral strategy used for this control is important for understanding animals' decision-making and is fundamental to dissect information processing done by the nervous system. However, methods for quantifying such behavioral strategies have not been fully established. In this study, we developed an inverse reinforcement-learning (IRL framework to identify an animal's behavioral strategy from behavioral time-series data. We applied this framework to C. elegans thermotactic behavior; after cultivation at a constant temperature with or without food, fed worms prefer, while starved worms avoid the cultivation temperature on a thermal gradient. Our IRL approach revealed that the fed worms used both the absolute temperature and its temporal derivative and that their behavior involved two strategies: directed migration (DM and isothermal migration (IM. With DM, worms efficiently reached specific temperatures, which explains their thermotactic behavior when fed. With IM, worms moved along a constant temperature, which reflects isothermal tracking, well-observed in previous studies. In contrast to fed animals, starved worms escaped the cultivation temperature using only the absolute, but not the temporal derivative of temperature. We also investigated the neural basis underlying these strategies, by applying our method to thermosensory neuron-deficient worms. Thus, our IRL-based approach is useful in identifying animal strategies from behavioral time-series data and could be applied to a wide range of behavioral studies, including decision-making, in other organisms.

  18. General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Michael G; Saxena, Shailendra K; Rafiq, Naureen

    2018-05-15

    Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors. Written contracting provides parents the opportunity to communicate with their children about important behaviors and strengthens the commitment of each party to improve behavior. Parents should be cautioned about the use of punishment (e.g., scolding, taking away privileges or possessions) because it suppresses behavior only temporarily. Physicians should discourage physical or corporal punishment because it is related to negative parent-child relationships, increased aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, lower cognitive ability, lower self-esteem, mental health problems, and increased risk of physical abuse.

  19. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  20. Exploring Parental Involvement Strategies Utilized by Middle School Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chris; Searby, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents present a unique collection of characteristics and challenges which middle school interdisciplinary teams were designed to address. This article describes a research study which explored parental involvement strategies employed by interdisciplinary teaching teams from three very different middle schools: an affluent suburban school, a…

  1. New emissions targeting strategy for site utility of process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manesh, Mohamamd Hasan Khoshgoftar; Amidpour, Majid; Hamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Abadi, Sajad Khamis; Ghalami, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    A new procedure for environmental targeting of co-generation system is presented. The proposed method is based on the concepts of pinch technology for total site targeting of fuel, power, steam, environmental impacts and total annualized cost with considering emissions taxes. This approach provides a consistent, general procedure for determining mass flow rates and efficiencies of the applied turbines. This algorithm utilizes the relationship of entropy with enthalpy and isentropic efficiency. Also, the life cycle assessment (LCA) as a well-known tool for analyzing environmental impacts on a wide perspective with reference to a product system and the related environmental and economic impacts have been applied. In this regard, a damage-oriented impact analysis method based on Eco-indicator 99 and footprints analysis was considered. In addition, the present work demonstrates the effect of including both sensible and latent heating of steam in the extended Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (ESUGCC). It is shown that including sensible heating allows for better thermal matching between the processes. Furthermore, the other representation YSUGCC as the other form of Site Utility Grand Composite has been proposed. Two case studies were used to illustrate the usefulness of the new environmental targeting method

  2. Behavioral health service utilization and preferences of older adults receiving home-based aging services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Amber M; Iser, Lindsay; Petkus, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    To examine use of behavioral health services, treatment preferences, and facilitators and barriers to service use in older adults receiving home-based services within the aging network. Cross-sectional survey. Interviews were conducted in participants' homes. One hundred forty-two clients receiving home-based aging services. Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; Brief Symptom Inventory-18; Discrimination-Devaluation Scale; utilization of behavioral health services; and preferences, facilitators, and barriers for behavioral health services. Use of psychotropic medication was high (54.2%), primarily received in primary care settings (58.8%), with a few visits a year (54.0%). Participants were more likely to be taking psychotropic medication if they were younger and white. Approximately one-third of participants on antidepressant or antianxiety medication still met criteria for an Axis I disorder. Twenty-one participants (14.8%) reported receiving counseling within the past year, with a few visits or less a year for most (57.1%). Almost all were willing to see at least one professional (97.2%) and try prescribed medications or counseling (90.1%). The most common barriers to service use were practical: affordability (71.8%), difficulty traveling (62.7%), and lack of transportation (45.8%). Aging network clients receiving home-based services have ready access to psychotropic medications but receive very few specialty behavioral health services and medication monitoring visits. They are willing to use a variety of behavioral health services and perceive mainly practical barriers to using services. The aging network has significant potential to enhance access to service utilization; strategies for integrating behavioral health services in the aging network are discussed.

  3. Experiences of burnout and coping strategies utilized by occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Paterson, Margo L; Lysaght, Rosemary M; von Zweck, Claudia M

    2012-04-01

    Work-related stress and burnout have been found to lead to job dissatisfaction, low-organizational commitment, absenteeism, and high turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine the burnout experiences of occupational therapists practicing in Ontario and to describe the practice implications and coping strategies employed. Data for this mixed methods study were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Areas of Worklife Survey, focus groups, and interviews in the hermeneutics tradition. High levels of emotional exhaustion were reported by 34.8% of participants, high levels of cynicism by 43.5%, and low professional efficacy by 24.6%. Practice issues included excessive demands on time, conflict, and lack of autonomy and respect. Coping strategies included spending time with family and maintaining professional/personal balance, control of work responsibilities, maintaining a sense of humor, and self-awareness/self-monitoring. This study contributes to understanding the practice challenges for occupational therapists, factors that contribute to therapist burnout, and strategies employed to maintain competent practice.

  4. Globalizing core business strategies for U.S. utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenbach, W.H. Jr. [Weidenbach & Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Good afternoon. I am honored to be here today and consider it a privilege to be a part of such a forum. I`d like to talk about changes that have taken place in the U.S. electric utility industry--changes that have helped promote the evolution of the independent power industry. My talk today will involve a brief history of the U.S. electric generating industry, addressing legislation and issues that affect the emerging independent power industry. Just a few years ago, electric utilities in the U.S. were experiencing very fast growth building many new, large, state-of-the-art generating plants. Issues such as the oil embargo, regulation and public opinion made it necessary for many of these companies to move predominately to coal-fired plants while completing their nuclear programs. In additions to developing the proven, reliable and efficient operating skills for these plants, this was also a period of building strong financial posture for these companies adding to their credentials. The lower growth rate that prevails today for U.S. utilities is allowing new strength to be developed in areas such as Demand Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning. These skills have also prepared U.S. companies to expand their market opportunities. Recent regulatory changes now allow these companies to expand their core business strengths to market in the non-regulated arena both domestically and internationally. Privatization of existing facilities have offered almost instant equity an operational opportunities for these companies both at home and throughout the world. Now that major growth is in other areas-particularly in Asia, U.S. companies are quite interested in bringing their skills and capabilities to bear in these fast growing areas of opportunity. This proven experience, exceptional financial strength and entrepreneurial spirit make these companies great partnership opportunities for existing and future generating facilities.

  5. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  6. Defense strategies for asymmetric networked systems under composite utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Hang Seng Management College, Hon Kong; Hausken, Kjell [University of Stavanger, Norway; He, Fei [Texas A& M University, Kingsville, TX, USA; Yau, David K. Y. [Singapore University of Technology and Design; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY)

    2017-11-01

    We consider an infrastructure of networked systems with discrete components that can be reinforced at certain costs to guard against attacks. The communications network plays a critical, asymmetric role of providing the vital connectivity between the systems. We characterize the correlations within this infrastructure at two levels using (a) aggregate failure correlation function that specifies the infrastructure failure probability giventhe failure of an individual system or network, and (b) first order differential conditions on system survival probabilities that characterize component-level correlations. We formulate an infrastructure survival game between an attacker and a provider, who attacks and reinforces individual components, respectively. They use the composite utility functions composed of a survival probability term and a cost term, and the previously studiedsum-form and product-form utility functions are their special cases. At Nash Equilibrium, we derive expressions for individual system survival probabilities and the expected total number of operational components. We apply and discuss these estimates for a simplified model of distributed cloud computing infrastructure

  7. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  8. Behavioral Correlates of Coping Strategies in Close Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Bélanger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific coping strategies and problem-solving/communication behaviors in close relationships. The sample consisted of 72 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Marital Coping Questionnaire and who also participated in a filmed 30-minute discussion where they had to solve a relational problem. Observed behaviors were coded using a macroscopic coding system for dyadic interactions. For both men and women, results show significant relationships between coping strategies, marital interaction, and marital adjustment. For women, coping strategies and behavioral dimensions independently accounted for observed fluctuations in marital satisfaction scores. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Reading comprehension metacognitive strategies as a means for controlling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Aladina Caballero López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Textual comprehension implies the use of various metacognitive strategies by the students when they have to face a text to be competent readers. That is why the objective of this article is to illustrate the application of metacognitive strategies in order to achieve an efficient textual comprehension, taking into account the self – regulation the student exerts over his own learning process. It is applied as the main method historical-logical studies based on a professional-researching systematic practice; at the same time observation is largely used. The main result is the introduction of metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension, which subsequently favor the self-control of personal behavior. The article is the result of a research project sponsored by the department of Special Education. Key words: reading comprehension, metacognitive strategies, behavior self-control.

  10. A strategy for investment in space resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    During the first quarter of the next Century, space transportation systems will be capable of routine flights of humans and cargo to the Moon. The general acceptance of permanent human presence in space, as exemplified by at least two manned stations in LEO at that time, will lead to one or more staffed outposts on the Moon. Whether such outposts evolve into sustained, growing settlements will depend, in part, on whether the economic context attracts substantial private investment. A planetary surface provides a material and gravitational environment distinct from that of an orbiting space station and thus provides a setting familiar to non-aerospace sectors of terrestrial industry. Examination of current trends in terms of historical processes which operate on new frontiers suggests that the limited markets and unfamiliar technologies associated with space commercialization today may change dramatically in 20 years when lunar resources are accessible. However, the uncertainty and vagueness of such projections discourages investment at a useful scale unless a strategy for technology development can be implemented which provides tangible and marketable benefits in the intermediate term. At the present time technologies can be identified (a) that will be required (and therefore valuable) at the time of lunar settlement and (b) whose development can be planned to yield marketable intermediate products on Earth. Formation of pre-competitive, collaborative research consortia in the industrial sector could reduce technical and economic risk in the early stages and could promote a favorable political environment for the future growth of space activities.

  11. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets; Nuove strategie d'impresa sui mercati finali dell'energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, A. [RIE S.r.L., Bologna (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches. [Italian] In mercati in rapida evoluzione, cresce nelle compagnie energetiche l'attenzione al cliente e al servizio; la concorrenza va affrontata con strategie di trasformazione e rafforzamento della posizione di privilegio che la conoscenza del mercato offre. Questo elemento rappresenta poi il ponte tra catene del valore diverse, verso un nuovo approccio multi-servizi.

  12. Strategy for Sustainable Utilization of IRT-Sofia Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, M.; Apostolov, T.; Ilieva, K.; Belousov, S.; Nonova, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Research Reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia is in process of reconstruction into a low-power reactor of 200 kW under the decision of the Council of Ministers of Republic of Bulgaria from 2001. The reactor will be utilized for development and preservation of nuclear science, skills, and knowledge; implementation of applied methods and research; education of students and training of graduated physicists and engineers in the field of nuclear science and nuclear energy; development of radiation therapy facility. Nuclear energy has a strategic place within the structure of the country’s energy system. In that aspect, the research reactor as a material base, and its scientific and technical personnel, represent a solid basis for the development of nuclear energy in our country. The acquired scientific experience and qualification in reactor operation are a precondition for the equal in rights participation of the country in the international cooperation and the approaching to the European structures, and assurance of the national interests. Therefore, the operation and use of the research reactor brings significant economic benefits for the country. For education of students in nuclear energy, reactor physics experiments for measurements of static and kinetic reactor parameters will be carried out on the research reactor. The research reactor as a national base will support training and applied research, keep up the good practice and the preparation of specialists who are able to monitor radioactivity sources, to develop new methods for detection of low quantities of radioactive isotopes which are hard to find, for deactivation and personal protection. The reactor will be used for production of isotopes needed for medical therapy and diagnostics; it will be the neutron source in element activation analysis having a number of applications in industrial production, medicine, chemistry, criminology, etc. The reactor operation will increase the public understanding, confidence

  13. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  14. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  15. Strategies Utilized by Superintendents and Mathematics District Personnel That Impact Minority Student Outcomes in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPree, Jared Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the constructs from effective instruction from the literature on teacher education to understand the impact of school district strategies on algebra outcomes for minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies utilized by superintendents and district personnel and the impact of these identified…

  16. Growth strategies of electric utilities in context of deregulation and liberalization of electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Đogić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the growth strategies adopted by the electric utilities sector in the context of changes resulting from the deregulation and liberalization of the electricity market. Strategies pursued by the electric utilities sector were rarely the subject of research in the field of strategic management despite the fact that electricity is an indispensable element of everyday life and the economy as a whole. Therefore, a case study of the largest incumbent electric utilities in the Republic of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia has been conducted, and differences in the degree of market liberalization and core features of these companies have been noted. Research findings have shown that the degree of deregulation can affect the growth strategies of electric utilities. In those countries where the degree of deregulation is lower, electric utilities focus on the domestic market. On the other hand, a higher level of deregulation enables electric utilities to achieve their growth through diversification or innovation. Given the fact that the analyzed electric utilities are operating within relatively small economies, they cannot compete with electric utilities in developed countries, and, apart from international electricity trading, are mostly focused on their domestic markets.

  17. Utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior for predicting physician behavior: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, S G

    1996-09-01

    The utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for prospectively predicting physicians' delivery of preventive services was compared. Primary care physicians (N = 765) completed 2 mail surveys at periods 6 months apart. The addition of perceived behavioral control to the TRA model significantly increased the variance accounted for in behavioral intention and subsequent behavior (p behavioral control had direct effects on behavior and interacted with social norms and behavioral intentions. Applications of models such as the TRA or TPB have focused primarily on predicting the behavioral intentions and behaviors of patients. Results suggest that these models have relevance for studying the behavior of health care providers as well.

  18. Market behavior and performance of different strategy evaluation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yongjoo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-08-01

    Strategy evaluation schemes are a crucial factor in any agent-based market model, as they determine the agents' strategy preferences and consequently their behavioral pattern. This study investigates how the strategy evaluation schemes adopted by agents affect their performance in conjunction with the market circumstances. We observe the performance of three strategy evaluation schemes, the history-dependent wealth game, the trend-opposing minority game, and the trend-following majority game, in a stock market where the price is exogenously determined. The price is either directly adopted from the real stock market indices or generated with a Markov chain of order ≤2 . Each scheme's success is quantified by average wealth accumulated by the traders equipped with the scheme. The wealth game, as it learns from the history, shows relatively good performance unless the market is highly unpredictable. The majority game is successful in a trendy market dominated by long periods of sustained price increase or decrease. On the other hand, the minority game is suitable for a market with persistent zigzag price patterns. We also discuss the consequence of implementing finite memory in the scoring processes of strategies. Our findings suggest under which market circumstances each evaluation scheme is appropriate for modeling the behavior of real market traders.

  19. Comparing strategies to assess multiple behavior change in behavioral intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bettina F; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Sapp, Amy L; Li, Yi; Harley, Amy E; Emmons, Karen M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-03-01

    Alternatives to individual behavior change methods have been proposed, however, little has been done to investigate how these methods compare. To explore four methods that quantify change in multiple risk behaviors targeting four common behaviors. We utilized data from two cluster-randomized, multiple behavior change trials conducted in two settings: small businesses and health centers. Methods used were: (1) summative; (2) z-score; (3) optimal linear combination; and (4) impact score. In the Small Business study, methods 2 and 3 revealed similar outcomes. However, physical activity did not contribute to method 3. In the Health Centers study, similar results were found with each of the methods. Multivitamin intake contributed significantly more to each of the summary measures than other behaviors. Selection of methods to assess multiple behavior change in intervention trials must consider study design, and the targeted population when determining the appropriate method/s to use.

  20. The Role of Strategy Utility Knowledge in Children's Strategy Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Ten- to thirteen-year-old children selected either the objectively more effective keyword method or the naturalistic context method for learning vocabulary meanings. Concludes that, even in the absence of explicit performance feedback, children can be induced to reflect on their use of strategies and their outcomes on subsequent cognitive actions.…

  1. Utilizing Motivational Interviewing to Address Resistant Behaviors in Clinical Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahesh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is presented as an approach to address resistant behaviors in clinical supervision. A case example is used to illustrate the process in which the relational and technical elements of motivational interviewing can be applied to supervisee resistance. Implications for supervisors and researchers are discussed.

  2. Celebrity Endorsement & Consumer Behavior : Gender Differences as a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Junhem, Sanna; Adolfsson, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Background - Celebrity endorsement is not a new phenomenon and it can be seen in advertisements around the world. Since the content of an advertisement easily can be screened out, it is important to target the right consumer. There has to be a fit between the consumer, the endorser and the product. Since gender plays a crucial part when understanding consumer behavior, knowledge about gender differences needs to be taken into account when creating a marketing strategy.      Purpose - Consumer...

  3. Effect of Pediatric Behavioral Health Screening and Colocated Services on Ambulatory and Inpatient Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen A; Penfold, Robert B; Arsenault, Lisa N; Zhang, Fang; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2015-11-01

    The study sought to determine the impact of a pediatric behavioral health screening and colocation model on utilization of behavioral health care. In 2003, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Massachusetts public health system, introduced behavioral health screening and colocation of social workers sequentially within its pediatric practices. An interrupted time-series study was conducted to determine the impact on behavioral health care utilization in the 30 months after model implementation compared with the 18 months prior. Specifically, the change in trends of ambulatory, emergency, and inpatient behavioral health utilization was examined. Utilization data for 11,223 children ages ≥4 years 9 months to <18 years 3 months seen from 2003 to 2008 contributed to the study. In the 30 months after implementation of pediatric behavioral health screening and colocation, there was a 20.4% cumulative increase in specialty behavioral health visit rates (trend of .013% per month, p=.049) and a 67.7% cumulative increase in behavioral health primary care visit rates (trend of .019% per month, p<.001) compared with the expected rates predicted by the 18-month preintervention trend. In addition, behavioral health emergency department visit rates increased 245% compared with the expected rate (trend .01% per month, p=.002). After the implementation of a behavioral health screening and colocation model, more children received behavioral health treatment. Contrary to expectations, behavioral health emergency department visits also increased. Further study is needed to determine whether this is an effect of how care was organized for children newly engaged in behavioral health care or a reflection of secular trends in behavioral health utilization or both.

  4. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  5. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  6. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Utility of Interactional Strategies in the Study of Formal Operations Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    This paper argues in favor of using interactional strategies in the study of formal operations reasoning. Interactional designs allow a convergent approach to specifying processes underlying the interaction of variables. In contrast, current methodologies contain two inherent disadvantages: they have limited utility in specifying the processes…

  8. Targeting Academic Programs to Student Diversity Utilizing Learning Styles and Learning-Study Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Sue K.

    1995-01-01

    A diagnostic, prescriptive model was utilized (n=394) in identification of learning styles and learning-study strategies of diverse student groups and in the analysis of prescriptive methods to address their specific needs. High-risk groups demonstrated auditory, tactile concrete, and group learning style preferences and were weaker on cognitive,…

  9. Social Utility versus Social Desirability of Students' Attributional Self-Presentation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Research on impression management has shown that students can manage their social images by providing attributional self-presentation strategies (ASPSs). Based on the distinction between social desirability judgments and social utility judgments, two studies were conducted to examine the students' understanding of the impact of ASPSs both on…

  10. Utilizing Marzano's Summarizing and Note Taking Strategies on Seventh Grade Students' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmarie-Gardner, Charmaine

    2013-01-01

    A quasi-experimental research study was conducted that investigated the academic impact of utilizing Marzano's summarizing and note taking strategies on mathematic achievement. A sample of seventh graders from a middle school located on Long Island's North Shore was tested to determine whether significant differences existed in mathematic test…

  11. How Do Junior High School Students Utilize Interactional Strategies in Speaking Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatul Avia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactional strategies are very important especially for English as a foreign language learners which can help the learners negotiate of the meaning during the interaction in speaking activity. The aim of this research is to analyze the interactional strategies (ISs utilized by three students at different levels (Low, Average, High in speaking activity at the eighth grade students of SMP Islam As-Sakinah Sidoarjo. This research uses qualitative descriptive as a research design, which all of the data are obtained through observation and interview for three students at different level such as low level learner (LLL, average level learner (ALL and high level learner (HLL. In brief, the results of this research show that LLL uses all aspects of interactional strategies in her speaking activity, average level learner (ALL uses some aspects of interactional strategies and high level learner (HLL almost never use the aspects of interactional strategies in his speaking activities.

  12. Utilization of High-Temperature Slags From Metallurgy Based on Crystallization Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai

    2018-05-01

    Here, following the principle of modifying crystallization behaviors, including avoidance and optimization, we review recent research on the utilization of hot slags. Because of the high-temperature property (1450-1650°C), the utilization of hot slags are much different from that of other wastes. We approach this issue from two main directions, namely, material recycling and heat utilization. From the respect of material recycling, the utilization of slags mainly follows total utilization and partial utilization, whereas the heat recovery from slags follows two main paths, namely, physical granulation and chemical reaction. The effective disposal of hot slags greatly depends on clarifying the crystallization behaviors, and thus, we discuss some optical techniques and their applicable scientific insights. For the purpose of crystallization avoidance, characterizing the glass-forming ability of slags is of great significance, whereas for crystallization modification, the selection of chemical additives and control of crystallization conditions comprise the central routes.

  13. BUILDING HIGH PERFORMANCE STRATEGY OF MILITARY EXPENDITURES: THE UTILITY FUNCTION IN THE MIDDLE OF DEFENCE BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARITANA SEDYSHEVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes tasks and methods which can be used in process of discovering the most expedient variants of the perspective and effective strategy development process of the defence spending in the Republic of Estonia.The author offers a part of strategy model named “Financial Perspective” as one of the improvement tools for the system of planning military expenditures and effective utilization of budgetary funds. The Balanced Scorecard application by using the “utility function” will allow the Estonian Defence Forces to overcome important barriers to strategy implementation by interrelation of military planning and budgeting processes. The Balanced Scorecard might be used as a very strong practical application. It will improve the calculations of long-term perspective plans and the development of the military budgetary policy by taking into account the features of national defence expenses.

  14. Competitive business and marketing strategies for utilities: how to thrive in a deregulated energy marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Materials submitted by the speakers at this seminar on marketing strategies for electric utilities are contained in this binder. A dozen papers were presented, discussing topics ranging from advice to retail customers on how to find their way through the existing mire of legislation, codes and licenses, through tips and suggestions to utilities on capturing customers who fail to choose a provider, understanding performance-based regulation, developing innovative pricing strategies, using customer profiling and market segmentation techniques to identify and target different customer groups, bundling services to add value, creating branding strategies to achieve product differentiation and the impact of metering technology development on retail business. In most instances no complete text, only viewgraphs are available. Two half-day workshops, one on investing in a new product or service, the other on market uncertainties, and risks and rewards facing energy distributors, were also held under the auspices of the conference.

  15. A strategy for improving the profitability of utility power plants in a deregulated industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    When deregulation of the utility industry becomes a reality in the near future, power plant managers and engineers will face a completely changed business climate. Surviving in a competitive business world will require a dramatic alteration in the way most utility power plants are maintained and upgraded, and in their budget planning. Strategies will have to be developed and implemented that follow the guidelines of good business practices in competitive industries. Some utilities have already started to reduce overhead maintenance costs. Key aspects of their programs can serve as examples to other utilities who want to develop a strategy to improve their operating cost effectiveness. Cost-cutting measures have included development of procedures and data bases that allowed utilities to become independent of original equipment manufacturer (OEM) support and to keep their costs for maintenance, repairs, and replacement of power plant components to a minimum. Also, scheduled power plant outages based on the concepts of reliability-centered maintenance (Smith, 1993), remaining life assessment, and advanced integrity monitors instead of a fixed calendar (Swanekamp, 1996), have allowed utilities to extend the time between some outages by several years. These and other innovative approaches will become critical to power plants operating in the new, deregulated business climate. Examples of actual cost savings are presented here

  16. The Informational Content of the Shape of Utility Functions: Financial Strategic Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Pennings and Smidts (2003) showed a relationship between organizational behavior and the global shape of the utility function. Their results suggest that the shape of the utility function may be related to `higher-order¿ decisions. This research examines the relationship between financial

  17. Asthma management simulation for children: translating theory, methods, and strategies to effect behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bartholomew, L Kay; Gold, Robert S; Pierrel, Elaine; Parcel, Guy S; Sockrider, Marianna M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Fernandez, Maria E; Berlin, Nina J; Abramson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Translating behavioral theories, models, and strategies to guide the development and structure of computer-based health applications is well recognized, although a continued challenge for program developers. A stepped approach to translate behavioral theory in the design of simulations to teach chronic disease management to children is described. This includes the translation steps to: 1) define target behaviors and their determinants, 2) identify theoretical methods to optimize behavioral change, and 3) choose educational strategies to effectively apply these methods and combine these into a cohesive computer-based simulation for health education. Asthma is used to exemplify a chronic health management problem and a computer-based asthma management simulation (Watch, Discover, Think and Act) that has been evaluated and shown to effect asthma self-management in children is used to exemplify the application of theory to practice. Impact and outcome evaluation studies have indicated the effectiveness of these steps in providing increased rigor and accountability, suggesting their utility for educators and developers seeking to apply simulations to enhance self-management behaviors in patients.

  18. Predicting Health Care Utilization After Behavioral Health Referral Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Roysden, Nathaniel; Wright, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient’s first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection ...

  19. Predicting Health Care Utilization After Behavioral Health Referral Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysden, Nathaniel; Wright, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient's first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection factor analysis.

  20. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  1. The consequences of different strategies for measuring tax evasion behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of tax strategy on tax evasion in province of Zanjan, Iran. The study selects two randomly selected populations of 100 people from Tax organization and the people who file income tax with revenue agency. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale to study the effects of five variables namely; promote tax culture, lack of belief in tax payment consequences, filing false tax statement, tax exemption and general culture community as independent variables on tax evasion behavior. Using regression technique, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between tax evasion and independent variables.

  2. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked.

  3. The Problem Solver and The Artisan Designer: Strategies for Utilizing Design Idea Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inie, Nanna; Endo, Allison; Dow, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive qualitative study investigating how professional designers utilize personal idea archives. While we know that designers archive creative ideas in different formats and on different platforms, we know little about if and how designers utilize...... these idea archives in their daily practice. Through a series of interviews (n=20) and walkthroughs of design idea archives, we identified two archetypal strategies. The Problem Solver is concerned with the task at hand, keeps relevant ideas around, and discards them when the ideas have served their purpose...

  4. A methodology for the sustainable design and implementation strategy of CO2 utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Nguyen, Tuan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    design and analysis is discussed as only limited amounts of process data is available for determining the optimal processing path and in the third stage the issue of implementation strategy is considered. As examples, two CO2 utilization methods for methanol production, combined reforming and direct...... synthesis are considered. Methanol plants employing such methods are developed using synthesis-design and simulation tools and their evaluation indicators are calculated under various implementation strategies. It is demonstrated that integrating or replacing an existing conventional methanol plant...

  5. Personalized Infrastructure: Leveraging Behavioral Strategies for Future Mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvall, Andrew L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-23

    toward an ever more complex mobility landscape, and with a quickly growing population, we look for answers to these questions as the core of developing strategies for the future of transportation. Using available data from emergent modes, and experiments conducted as part of an Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) Traveler Response Architecture using Novel Signaling for Network Efficiency in Transportation (TRANSNET) project, we look at how the sharing economy and transportation mobility services have begun to radically alter transportation behavior, while operating in parallel with traditional transportation infrastructure. Emerging modes and practices are affecting car dependence and enabling multimodality. We weigh influences on travel behaviors, identify decision breakpoints where inelastic behavior becomes elastic, incentives, and societal leverage points.

  6. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  7. Implications of the Ontario government's white paper and competition strategies for Ontario's municipal electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The strategies that Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU) should follow to deal with competition were discussed. North Bay Hydro is the 34th largest MEU out of 300 in Ontario but it serves only 23,000 out of 4 million electrical customers in Ontario. Therefore, the main strategy for municipal utilities to ensure their future would be to become part of an alliance and association like the MEA and the SAC - the Strategic Alliance for Competition and Customer Choice. Strong criticism was voiced regarding the contents of the recent Ontario Government White Paper for being vague with regard to electrical distribution and the role of MEUs in Ontario. It was suggested that it is vitally important that MEUs ally themselves with other stakeholders, to resist an Ontario Hydro monopoly, to make sure that prices stay low, to avoid excessive debt and bureaucratic inefficiency, be innovative, and consumer oriented and be prepared to anticipate events and conditions. 3 figs

  8. A Multicast Protocol Utilizing On-demand Routing Strategy for MPRN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a multicast protocol utilizing ondemand routing strategy for mobile packet radio network. It does not maintain permanent route tables with full topological views. Instead, multicast senders apply on-demand procedures to dynamically discover routes and build forwarding group in this protocol. The data packets are propagated by each forwarding group member via scoped flooding, so the protocol can reduce network bandwidth overhead and avoid the propagation of potentially large routing updates throughout the network.

  9. The impact of cost recovery on electric utilities' Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    By 1995, over 200 electric power plant units in twenty one states must comply with Phase I of the acid rain requirements in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). By the year 2000, an additional 2200 units must comply with the Title IV. Compliance costs are expected to necessitate significant electricity rate increases. In order to recover their compliance costs, utilities must file rate increase requests with state public utility commissions (PUC's), and undergo a rate proceeding involving public heatings. Because of the magnitude of cost and the complexity of compliance options, including interaction with Titles I and III of the CAAA, extensive PUC reviews of compliance strategies are likely. These reviews could become as adversarial as the nuclear prudence reviews of the 1980's. A lack of understanding of air pollution and the CAA by much of the general public and the flexibility of compliance options creates an environment conducive to adverse public reaction to the cost of complying with the Clean Air Act. Public attitudes toward pollution control technologies will be greatly affected by these hearings, and the early plant hearings will shape the utility rate making process under the Clean Air Act. Inadequate cost recovery due to constrained compliance strategies or adverse hearings could significantly inhibit industry willingness to invest in certain control technologies or advanced combustion technologies. There are already signs that Clean Air Act compliance will be the prudence issue of the 1990's for utilities, even where state statutes mandate particular compliance approaches. Specific actions should be undertaken now by the utility industry to improve the probability of sound cost recovery decisions, preserve compliance options, including multimedia strategies, and avoid the social- and cost-acceptance problems of nuclear power

  10. Social capital, health, health behavior, and utilization of healthcare services among older adults: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmering, Sheryl A; Astroth, Kim Schafer; Woith, Wendy M; Dyck, Mary J; Kim, MyoungJin

    2018-06-26

    Meeting the health needs of Americans must change as the population continues to live longer. A strategy that considers social well-being is necessary. One way to improve social well-being is through increased social capital, which includes networks among individuals and norms of reciprocity and trust between them. Supporting attainment of bonding social capital from close-knit groups, such as family, and bridging or linking social capital from those who are dissimilar are vital. Research shows there is a relationship among social capital and self-reported mental and physical health, health behaviors, healthcare utilization, and mortality. Because older adults are often dependent on others for their healthcare needs, it is posited that social capital plays a key role. Nurses can be instrumental in investigating levels of social capital for individuals and determining what type of social support is needed and who in the individual's network will provide that support. When support is absent, the nurse serves as the link between patients and available resources. The purpose of this article is to introduce a conceptual framework that can assist nurses and other healthcare providers to consider social capital in older adults in the context of relationships and the social environments to which they belong. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, E. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  12. The Examination of the Relation between Teacher Candidates' Problem Solving Appraisal and Utilization of Motivated Strategies for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Ozden; Ocak, Gurbuz

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relation between teacher candidates' problem solving appraisal and utilization of motivated strategies for learning. The study has been carried out with 416 teacher candidates. A correlation has been used between problem solving appraisal and utilization of motivated strategies for learning. Besides, regression analysis has…

  13. An NMR strategy for fragment-based ligand screening utilizing a paramagnetic lanthanide probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saio, Tomohide; Ogura, Kenji; Shimizu, Kazumi; Yokochi, Masashi; Burke, Terrence R.; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance-based ligand screening strategy utilizing a paramagnetic lanthanide probe is presented. By fixing a paramagnetic lanthanide ion to a target protein, a pseudo-contact shift (PCS) and a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) can be observed for both the target protein and its bound ligand. Based on PRE and PCS information, the bound ligand is then screened from the compound library and the structure of the ligand–protein complex is determined. PRE is an isotropic paramagnetic effect observed within 30 Å from the lanthanide ion, and is utilized for the ligand screening in the present study. PCS is an anisotropic paramagnetic effect providing long-range (∼40 Å) distance and angular information on the observed nuclei relative to the paramagnetic lanthanide ion, and utilized for the structure determination of the ligand–protein complex. Since a two-point anchored lanthanide-binding peptide tag is utilized for fixing the lanthanide ion to the target protein, this screening method can be generally applied to non-metal-binding proteins. The usefulness of this strategy was demonstrated in the case of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and its low- and high-affinity ligands.

  14. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What is heartburn worth? A cost-utility analysis of management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudebert, G R; Centor, R M; Klapow, J C; Marks, R; Johnson, L; Wilcox, C M

    2000-03-01

    To determine the best treatment strategy for the management of patients presenting with symptoms consistent with uncomplicated heartburn. We performed a cost-utility analysis of 4 alternatives: empirical proton pump inhibitor, empirical histamine2-receptor antagonist, and diagnostic strategies consisting of either esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or an upper gastrointestinal series before treatment. The time horizon of the model was 1 year. The base case analysis assumed a cohort of otherwise healthy 45-year-old individuals in a primary care practice. Empirical treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was projected to provide the greatest quality-adjusted survival for the cohort. Empirical treatment with a histamine2 receptor antagonist was projected to be the least costly of the alternatives. The marginal cost-effectiveness of using a proton pump inhibitor over a histamine2-receptor antagonist was approximately $10,400 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained in the base case analysis and was less than $50,000 per QALY as long as the utility for heartburn was less than 0.95. Both diagnostic strategies were dominated by proton pump inhibitor alternative. Empirical treatment seems to be the optimal initial management strategy for patients with heartburn, but the choice between a proton pump inhibitor or histamine2-receptor antagonist depends on the impact of heartburn on quality of life.

  16. The key role of extinction learning in anxiety disorders: behavioral strategies to enhance exposure-based treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittig, Andre; van den Berg, Linda; Vervliet, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Extinction learning is a major mechanism for fear reduction by means of exposure. Current research targets innovative strategies to enhance fear extinction and thereby optimize exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders. This selective review updates novel behavioral strategies that may provide cutting-edge clinical implications. Recent studies provide further support for two types of enhancement strategies. Procedural enhancement strategies implemented during extinction training translate to how exposure exercises may be conducted to optimize fear extinction. These strategies mostly focus on a maximized violation of dysfunctional threat expectancies and on reducing context and stimulus specificity of extinction learning. Flanking enhancement strategies target periods before and after extinction training and inform optimal preparation and post-processing of exposure exercises. These flanking strategies focus on the enhancement of learning in general, memory (re-)consolidation, and memory retrieval. Behavioral strategies to enhance fear extinction may provide powerful clinical applications to further maximize the efficacy of exposure-based interventions. However, future replications, mechanistic examinations, and translational studies are warranted to verify long-term effects and naturalistic utility. Future directions also comprise the interplay of optimized fear extinction with (avoidance) behavior and motivational antecedents of exposure.

  17. An effective utilization management strategy by dual approach of influencing physician ordering and gate keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnenaei, Manal O; Campbell, Samuel G; Thoni, Andrea J; Lou, Amy; Crocker, Bryan D; Nassar, Bassam A

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of appropriate laboratory test utilization. We investigate the effect of a multifaceted educational approach that includes physician feedback on individual test ordering, in conjunction with targeted restriction, on the utilization of selected laboratory tests. Scientific evidence was compiled on the usefulness and limitations of tests suspected of being over utilized in our laboratories. A variety of approaches were used to deliver education on each of the targeted tests, with greater focus on primary care physicians (PCPs). Feedback on requesting behavior of these tests was also communicated to the latter group which included an educational component. Laboratory based restriction of testing was also exercised, including the unbundling of our electrolyte panel. PCP requesting patterns for the selected tests were found to be markedly skewed. The interventions implemented over the study period resulted in a substantial 51% reduction in overall ordering of five of the targeted tests equating to an annual marginal cost saving of $60,124. Unbundling of the electrolyte panel resulted in marginal cost savings that equated annually to $42,500 on chloride and $48,000 on total CO2. A multifaceted educational approach combined with feedback on utilization and laboratory driven gate-keeping significantly reduced the number of laboratory tests suspected of being redundant or unjustifiably requested. Laboratory professionals are well positioned to manage demand on laboratory tests by utilizing evidence base in developing specific test ordering directives and gate-keeping rules. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Models of Customer Behavior as a Basis of Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Ivanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of six main models of customer behavior in contemporary society and the specific tasks of marketing departments of companies at today's stage of development. The given models take into consideration: motives for choosing a product, the degree of product awareness and independence of choice, the degree of customer satisfaction with the product, lines and possibilities of making an impact on customer choice through marketing and promotion stimulation. The author believes that these models may serve as a basis in the formation of effective marketing strategies, as they describe the customers in all the stages of their actions in the process of buying products, accumulating and analyzing the experience of using them.

  19. Opioid management strategy decreases admissions in high-utilizing adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Amy; Pelot, Kristin; Koch, Kathryn; Miller, Lawrence; Hubler, Collin; Ndifor, Anisah; Coan, Canice; Leonard, Cynthia; Field, Joshua J

    A subset of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) heavily utilizes the emergency department (ED) and hospital. The objective of our study was to determine the efficacy of a multidisciplinary strategy to address unmet needs in highly utilizing adults with SCD. In a prospective study, adults with SCD with ≥10 admissions per year were assessed by a multidisciplinary team for gaps in medical, social, and psychological care. Thereafter, the team decided upon the subject's predominant domain that drove admissions and instituted an interventional plan. All plans included an opioid management strategy. Preintervention and postintervention admission rate, as well as opioid use, was compared. Twelve subjects were enrolled. Median rate of ED and hospital admissions preintervention was 25 per year. The predominant domains identified were social needs (n = 6), psychological disorder (n = 1), and substance use disorder (n = 5). Multifaceted interventional plans were developed to address a wide range of gaps in care, but an opioid management strategy was the only intervention successfully completed. Even so, when the preintervention versus postintervention admission rate was compared, regardless of the domain, there was a 40 percent decline in hospital admissions (p = 0.03). Consistent with the successful implementation of an opioid management plan, the decrease in admissions was accompanied by a 37 percent decrease in intravenous opioid use (p = 0.02) and 10 percent decrease in oral opioid use (p = 0.04). An opioid management strategy, as part of a larger effort to improve care for high-utilizing adults with SCD, decreased rate of admissions and opioid use.

  20. Using Neural Data to Test A Theory of Investor Behavior: An Application to Realization Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Cary; Barberis, Nicholas; Camerer, Colin; Bossaerts, Peter; Rangel, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    We use measures of neural activity provided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the "realization utility" theory of investor behavior, which posits that people derive utility directly from the act of realizing gains and losses. Subjects traded stocks in an experimental market while we measured their brain activity. We find that all subjects exhibit a strong disposition effect in their trading, even though it is suboptimal. Consistent with the realization utility explanation for this behavior, we find that activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area known to encode the value of options during choices, correlates with the capital gains of potential trades; that the neural measures of realization utility correlate across subjects with their individual tendency to exhibit a disposition effect; and that activity in the ventral striatum, an area known to encode information about changes in the present value of experienced utility, exhibits a positive response when subjects realize capital gains. These results provide support for the realization utility model and, more generally, demonstrate how neural data can be helpful in testing models of investor behavior.

  1. Utilizing Gaze Behavior for Inferring Task Transitions Using Abstract Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an improved method for utilizing observed gaze behavior and show that it is useful in inferring hand movement intent during goal directed tasks. The task dynamics and the relationship between hand and gaze behavior are learned using an Abstract Hidden Markov Model (AHMM. We show that the predicted hand movement transitions occur consistently earlier in AHMM models with gaze than those models that do not include gaze observations.

  2. Teaching Students with Behavioral Disorders to Use a Negotiation Procedure: Impact on Classroom Behavior and Conflict Resolution Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the instruction of a six-step problem solving negotiation procedure on the conflict resolution strategies and classroom behavior of six elementary students with challenging behaviors was examined. Moderately positive effects were found for the following negotiation strategies used by students: independent problem solving, problem…

  3. Utilizing Social Stories to Increase Prosocial Behavior and Reduce Problem Behavior in Young Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Wright

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a Social Story intervention on the behavior rates of 4 young children with autism using a multiple-baseline across participants design. The results of this paper indicate that the Social Story was modestly effective in increasing prosocial behavior rates in 3 of the 4 participants, though none of the participants reached the prosocial behavior rates of age and gender-matched peers. The problem behaviors of the participants modestly decreased with the intervention. Maintenance of skills over a 1-month period was demonstrated for all of the participants. The variable and inconsistent results of the research add to the current literature base in support of the use of Social Stories for some children with autism.

  4. Derivative Trade Optimizing Model Utilizing GP Based on Behavioral Finance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Koki; Kawamoto, Masaru

    This paper proposed a new technique which makes the strategy trees for the derivative (option) trading investment decision based on the behavioral finance theory and optimizes it using evolutionary computation, in order to achieve high profitability. The strategy tree uses a technical analysis based on a statistical, experienced technique for the investment decision. The trading model is represented by various technical indexes, and the strategy tree is optimized by the genetic programming(GP) which is one of the evolutionary computations. Moreover, this paper proposed a method using the prospect theory based on the behavioral finance theory to set psychological bias for profit and deficit and attempted to select the appropriate strike price of option for the higher investment efficiency. As a result, this technique produced a good result and found the effectiveness of this trading model by the optimized dealings strategy.

  5. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  6. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  7. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies; Geschaeftsfeld Energieeffizienz. Strategien von Energieversorgern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed.

  8. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamene, Masresha Molla; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Beyera, Getahun Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are among the most important public health problems in the world. People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from March 20 - April 10, 2014 in Gondar town. The quantitative data were collected through interviewing 488 female sex workers while in-depth interview was administered to collect qualitative data from 10 female sex workers. The collected data were entered into EPI-INFO version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between condom utilization and independent variables. This study revealed that less than half (47.7%) of the respondents utilized condom with any type of client. Secondary education or above, perceiving themselves at risk of HIV/AIDS infection, having awareness that sexually transmitted infections could increase HIV infection, being tested for HIV/AIDS in the last 12 months, and having lower number of clients in a month were positively associated with condom utilization. This finding depicted that condom utilization was low among female sex workers. Thus, developing and implementing target oriented behavioral change and communication strategies are needed to prevent the risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers.

  9. Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Hong Yang

    Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key challenge of exploiting wind energy in practical UAV operations lies in the availability of reliable and timely wind field information in the operational region. This thesis presents a practical onboard strategy that attempts to over-come this challenge, to enable UAVs in utilizing wind energy effectively during flights, and therefore to enhance performance. We propose and explore a strategy that combines wind measurement and optimal trajectory planning onboard UAVs. During a cycle of a loiter flight, a UAV can take measurements of wind velocity components over the flight region, use these measurements to estimate the local wind field through a model-based approach, and then compute a flight trajectory for the next flight cycle with the objective of optimizing fuel. As the UAV follows the planned trajectory, it continues to measure the wind components and repeats the process of updating the wind model with new estimations and planning optimal trajectories for the next flight cycle. Besides presenting an onboard trajectory planning strategy of wind energy exploration, estimation, and utilization, this research also develops a semi-analytical linearized solution to the formulated nonlinear optimal control problem. Simulations and numerical results indicate that the fuel savings of trajectories generated using the proposed scheme depend on wind speed, wind estimation errors, rates of change in wind speed, and the wind model structures. For a given wind field, the magnitude of potential fuel savings is also contingent upon UAVs' performance capabilities.

  10. The role of utilities in enabling technology innovation: The BC hydro alternative & emerging energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Alex; Leclair, Donna; Morrison, Allison

    2010-09-15

    In order for renewable energy to play a dominant role in the global electricity supply mix, emerging renewable energy technologies - such as wave, tidal, enhanced geothermal, and 3rd generation photovoltaic technologies - must prove their technical merits and achieve cost parity with conventional sources of supply. BC Hydro, a government-owned electric utility, launched an Alternative and Emerging Energy Strategy that describes its role as an enabler of technology innovation. This paper describes BC Hydro's goal, objectives and actions to accelerate the commercialization that will yield a diversity of supply options and a growing, local clean-tech cluster.

  11. Outline of a multiattribute utility approach to development of a waste management strategy at Sillamaee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmo, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The article briefly discusses a framework for analysis of the waste disposition and management problem at Sillamaee. It is a response to the need to develop a strategic waste management plan for the Sillamaee site. A hypothetical objectives hierarchy is presented, along with two possible methods for aggregating scores for designated alternatives. Waste management and disposal problems, particularly nuclear waste disposal problems, have been addressed by many decision analysts. The latter citations are examples of Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Analysis, a decision analysis technique that is most appropriate for evaluation of waste management strategies at Sillamaee

  12. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.; Cole, A.

    1996-01-01

    The status and prospects of photovoltaic (PV) power systems are reviewed. The market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems by utilities is described, and the mission, objectives and thoughts of the collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries under the framework of the International Energy Agency are highly with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. Future sales of PV systems are expected to grow in the short and medium term mainly in the sector of isolated systems. (R.P.)

  13. Creating a Strategy for Progress: A Contextual Behavioral Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.; Muto, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Behavior analysis is a field dedicated to the development and application of behavioral principles to the understanding and modification of the psychological actions of organisms. As such, behavior analysis was committed from the beginning to a comprehensive account of behavior, stretching from animal learning to complex human behavior. Despite…

  14. A Brief Comparative Study on R and D Collaboration Strategy in US and French nuclear utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung Tae; Park, Jong Eun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    So far KHNP's R and D strategy has been evaluated as 2.5th generation R and D management and R and D investments are focused to the key technologies such as Korea's own nuclear reactor design(like APR1400) development, engineering gap lists elimination(plants trouble shooting), construction/operation process enhancement, etc. But when we compare our R and D strategy with US and France utilities, we can find a lot of differences and the need of improvement to accelerate overseas export of nuclear power plants(technologies) and to be a world top class nuclear operator. One of prominent difference is R and D collaboration strategy. The definition of R and D collaboration has evolved over the years, but for this paper I use it to mean the process where multiple parts of an organization or stake holder work together toward a set of common goals. And by co-funding or cost sharing, collaborative R and D can reduces financial and technical risk and encourages knowledge exchange, supply chain development and in return, collaborative R and D can produce more advanced, complex, effective, efficient R and D products in relatively short time with relatively less budget. UK's technology strategy board estimated that Each we invest in collaborative R and D typically returns around in GVA(Gross Value Added)

  15. Impact of Conflict Management Strategies on the Generation Mechanism of Miners' Unsafe Behavior Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Zu; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Yao-Long; Wang, Tian-Ri

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the generation mechanism of miners' unsafe behavior tendency and conflict management strategies, including cooperative conflict management strategy, competitive conflict management strategy and avoidant conflict management strategy. Miners from 3 collieries in Shanxi province completed a…

  16. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part I: strategies for utilizing oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Timothy P; Chen, Chun-Yu; Denton, Nicholas L; Haworth, Kellie B; Hutzen, Brian; Leddon, Jennifer L; Streby, Keri A; Wang, Pin-Yi; Markert, James M; Waters, Alicia M; Gillespie, George Yancey; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Friedman, Gregory K

    2015-01-01

    Progress for improving outcomes in pediatric patients with solid tumors remains slow. In addition, currently available therapies are fraught with numerous side effects, often causing significant life-long morbidity for long-term survivors. The use of viruses to kill tumor cells based on their increased vulnerability to infection is gaining traction, with several viruses moving through early and advanced phase clinical testing. The prospect of increased efficacy and decreased toxicity with these agents is thus attractive for pediatric cancer. In part I of this two-part review, we focus on strategies for utilizing oncolytic engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV) to target pediatric malignancies. We discuss mechanisms of action, routes of delivery, and the role of preexisting immunity on antitumor efficacy. Challenges to maximizing oncolytic HSV in children are examined, and we highlight how these may be overcome through various arming strategies. We review the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating safety of a variety of oncolytic HSVs. In Part II, we focus on the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic HSV in pediatric tumor types, pediatric clinical advances made to date, and future prospects for utilizing HSV in pediatric patients with solid tumors. PMID:26436135

  17. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part I: strategies for utilizing oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Cripe

    Full Text Available Progress for improving outcomes in pediatric patients with solid tumors remains slow. In addition, currently available therapies are fraught with numerous side effects, often causing significant life-long morbidity for long-term survivors. The use of viruses to kill tumor cells based on their increased vulnerability to infection is gaining traction, with several viruses moving through early and advanced phase clinical testing. The prospect of increased efficacy and decreased toxicity with these agents is thus attractive for pediatric cancer. In part I of this two-part review, we focus on strategies for utilizing oncolytic engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV to target pediatric malignancies. We discuss mechanisms of action, routes of delivery, and the role of preexisting immunity on antitumor efficacy. Challenges to maximizing oncolytic HSV in children are examined, and we highlight how these may be overcome through various arming strategies. We review the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating safety of a variety of oncolytic HSVs. In Part II, we focus on the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic HSV in pediatric tumor types, pediatric clinical advances made to date, and future prospects for utilizing HSV in pediatric patients with solid tumors.

  18. Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass with Emphasis of Wheat Straw Utilization. Analysis of Strategies for Process Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Green and Blue Technologies Strategies in HORIZON 2020" has increased the attention of scientific society on global utilization of renewable energy sources. Agricultural residues can be a valuable source of energy because of drastically growing human needs for food. The goal of this review is to show the current state of art on utilization of wheat straw as a substrate for ethanol production. The specifics of wheat straw composition and the chemical and thermodynamic properties of its components pre-determined the application of unit operations and engineering strategies for hydrolysis of the substrate and further its fermentation. Modeling of this two processes is crucially important for optimal overall process development and scale up. The authors gave much attention on main hydrolisis products as a glucose and xylose (C6 and C5 sugars, respectivelly and on the specifics of their metabolization by ethanol producing microorganisms. The microbial physiology reacting on C6 and C5 sugars and mathematical aproaches describing these phenomena are discussing, as well.

  19. Product development, strategy, product innovation performance, and the mediating role of knowledge utilization : evidence from subsidiares in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Hoenig, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the interplay of product development strategy, knowledge utilization, and product innovation performance in the context of Chinese subsidiaries of multinational companies. When firms strive to develop highly innovative products (breakthrough focus), the amount of resources

  20. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of new and renewable energy, incorporating variable adjustable power elements on the demand side is of particular interest. The utilization of batteries as flexible loads is a hot research topic. Lithium-ion batteries are key components in electric vehicles (EVs in terms of capital cost, mass and size. They are retired after around 5 years of service, but still retain up to 80% of their nominal capacity. Disposal of waste batteries will become a significant issue for the automotive industry in the years to come. This work proposes the use of the second life of these batteries as flexible loads to participate in the economic power dispatch. The characteristics of second life batteries (SLBs are varied and diverse, requiring a new optimization strategy for power dispatch at the system level. In this work, SLBs are characterized and their operating curves are obtained analytically for developing an economic power dispatch model involving wind farms and second life batteries. In addition, a dispatch strategy is developed to reduce the dispatch complex brought by the disperse spatial and time distribution of EVs and decrease the system operating cost by introducing incentive and penalty costs in regulating the EV performance. In theory, SLBs are utilized to reduce the peak-valley difference of power loads and to stabilize the power system. Test results based on a ten-unit power system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed dispatch model and the economic benefit of utilizing SLBs as flexible loads in power systems. This work may provide a viable solution to the disposal of waste batteries from EVs and to the stable operation of fluctuating power systems incorporating stochastic renewable energy.

  1. Is control through utilization a cost effective Prosopis juliflora management strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Hoag, Dana; Evangelista, Paul H; Luizza, Matthew; Laituri, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    through utilization may be a viable P. juliflora management strategy under the right environmental setting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Impact of Predicting Health Care Utilization Via Web Search Behavior: A Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vibhu; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhu, Josh; Fang, Shiyuan; Cheng, Tim; Hong, Chloe; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-09-21

    By recent estimates, the steady rise in health care costs has deprived more than 45 million Americans of health care services and has encouraged health care providers to better understand the key drivers of health care utilization from a population health management perspective. Prior studies suggest the feasibility of mining population-level patterns of health care resource utilization from observational analysis of Internet search logs; however, the utility of the endeavor to the various stakeholders in a health ecosystem remains unclear. The aim was to carry out a closed-loop evaluation of the utility of health care use predictions using the conversion rates of advertisements that were displayed to the predicted future utilizers as a surrogate. The statistical models to predict the probability of user's future visit to a medical facility were built using effective predictors of health care resource utilization, extracted from a deidentified dataset of geotagged mobile Internet search logs representing searches made by users of the Baidu search engine between March 2015 and May 2015. We inferred presence within the geofence of a medical facility from location and duration information from users' search logs and putatively assigned medical facility visit labels to qualifying search logs. We constructed a matrix of general, semantic, and location-based features from search logs of users that had 42 or more search days preceding a medical facility visit as well as from search logs of users that had no medical visits and trained statistical learners for predicting future medical visits. We then carried out a closed-loop evaluation of the utility of health care use predictions using the show conversion rates of advertisements displayed to the predicted future utilizers. In the context of behaviorally targeted advertising, wherein health care providers are interested in minimizing their cost per conversion, the association between show conversion rate and predicted

  3. A Review of Single-Case Studies Utilizing Self-Monitoring Interventions to Reduce Problem Classroom Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Kim; Waller, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Trying to manage the problem behaviors of one or two students in the classroom can take teachers away from valuable instructional time with all students. However, these problem behaviors can be reduced and student engagement increased by teachers implementing effective behavior management strategies. 2008). Because behavior management is only one…

  4. Traditional finance : behavioral finance distinction in the context of expected utility and prospect theories

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Bilgehan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional finance has developed based on two fundamental assumptions, including the expected utility theory and rational choice or decision. However, this hypothesis has been criticized heavily by put forward that are not realistic enough. The basis of behavioral finance theory is based on the “prospect theory”. According to this theory individuals cannot act fully rational, they install more sense to loses than at the same amount of profit and they exhibit risk and loss aversion behaviour....

  5. Improving Inappropriate Social Behavior of Autistic Students Using the LISTEN Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Daniel, Cathy; Faulkner, Paula; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    A case study was conducted on the development of the LISTEN intervention strategy for use with autistic students to improve inappropriate social behaviors. The study was conducted in a special education classroom in an autism school in Kuwait. Examination of LISTEN Intervention Strategy applications included: duration of targeted behavior; methods…

  6. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  7. Teacher Perceptions and Behavioral Strategies for Students with Emotional Disturbance across Educational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chan; Weiss, Stacy L.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined problem characteristics of students with emotional disturbance in 3 educational environments, the behavior management and intervention strategies their teachers used, and what relation exists between problem characteristics and intervention strategies. Teachers completed a behavior problems rating scale and they…

  8. Integrated EAP/Managed Behavioral Health Plan Utilization by Persons with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M.; Greenfield, Shelly F.; McCann, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    New federal parity and health reform legislation, promising increased behavioral health care access and a focus on prevention, has heightened interest in employee assistance programs (EAPs). This study investigated service utilization by persons with a primary substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis in a managed behavioral healthcare organization's integrated EAP/managed behavioral health care product (N=1,158). In 2004, 25.0% of clients used the EAP first for new treatment episodes. After initial EAP utilization, 44.4% received no additional formal services through the plan and 40.4% received regular outpatient services. Overall, outpatient care, intensive outpatient/day treatment, and inpatient/residential detoxification were most common. About half of clients had co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service utilization was extensive. Findings suggest that for service users with primary SUD diagnoses in an integrated EAP/MBHC product, the EAP benefit plays a key role at the front end of treatment and is often only one component of treatment episodes. PMID:21185684

  9. Damage to the microbial cell membrane during pyrolytic sugar utilization and strategies for increasing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Rover, Marjorie R; Petersen, Elspeth M; Chi, Zhanyou; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Wen, Zhiyou; Jarboe, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an appealing feedstock for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, and thermochemical processing is a promising method for depolymerizing it into sugars. However, trace compounds in this pyrolytic sugar syrup are inhibitory to microbial biocatalysts. This study demonstrates that hydrophobic inhibitors damage the cell membrane of ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11+lgk. Adaptive evolution was employed to identify design strategies for improving pyrolytic sugar tolerance and utilization. Characterization of the resulting evolved strain indicates that increased resistance to the membrane-damaging effects of the pyrolytic sugars can be attributed to a glutamine to leucine mutation at position 29 of carbon storage regulator CsrA. This single amino acid change is sufficient for decreasing EPS protein production and increasing membrane integrity when exposed to pyrolytic sugars.

  10. Research on a Micro-Grid Frequency Modulation Strategy Based on Optimal Utilization of Air Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Wan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proportion of air conditioners increasing gradually, they can provide a certain amount of frequency-controlled reserves for a micro-grid. Optimizing utilization of air conditioners and considering load response characteristics and customer comfort, the frequency adjustment model is a quadratic function model between the trigger temperature of the air conditioner compressor, and frequency variation is provided, which can be used to regulate the trigger temperature of the air conditioner when the micro-grid frequency rises and falls. This frequency adjustment model combines a primary frequency modulation method and a secondary frequency modulation method of the energy storage system, in order to optimize the frequency of a micro-grid. The simulation results show that the frequency modulation strategy for air conditioners can effectively improve the frequency modulation ability of air conditioners and frequency modulation effects of a micro-grid in coordination with an energy storage system.

  11. Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Hasan, Md Mainul; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a poorly bioavailable macronutrient that is essential for crop growth and yield. Overuse of phosphorus fertilizers results in low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), has serious environmental consequences and accelerates the depletion of phosphorus mineral reserves. It has become extremely challenging to improve PUE while preserving global food supplies and maintaining environmental sustainability. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed the primary mechanisms of phosphorus uptake and utilization and their relationships to phosphorus transporters, regulators, root architecture, metabolic adaptations, quantitative trait loci, hormonal signaling and microRNA. The ability to improve PUE requires a transition from this knowledge of molecular mechanisms and plant architecture to practical strategies. These could include: i) the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbioses for efficient phosphorus mining and uptake; ii) intercropping with suitable crop species to achieve phosphorus activation and mobilization in the soil; and iii) tissue-specific overexpression of homologous genes with advantageous agronomic properties for higher PUE along with breeding for phosphorus-efficient varieties and introgression of key quantitative trait loci. More effort is required to further dissect the mechanisms controlling phosphorus uptake and utilization within plants and provide new insight into the means to efficiently improve PUE.

  12. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  13. The use and utility of specific nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin

    2015-02-01

    This study compares different nonpharmacological interventions for persons with behavioral symptoms and dementia on frequency of use and perceived efficacy in terms of change in behavior and interest. Participants were 89 nursing home residents from six Maryland nursing homes with a mean age of 85.9 years (SD: 8.6 years). Research assistants presented interventions tailored to the participants' needs and preferences in a pre-intervention trial phase and in an intervention phase. The impact of each intervention on behavioral symptoms and on the person's interest was rated immediately after the intervention by a research assistant. The most utilized interventions in both trial and treatment phases were the social intervention of one-on-one interaction, simulated social interventions such as a lifelike doll and respite video, the theme intervention of magazine, and the sensory stimulation intervention of music. In contrast, the least utilized interventions in both phases were sewing, fabric book, and flower arrangement. Interventions with the highest impact on behavioral symptoms included one-on-one social interaction, hand massage, music, video, care, and folding towels. Other high impact interventions included walking, going outside, flower arranging, food or drink, sewing, group activity, book presentation, ball toss, coloring or painting, walking, and family video. The results provide initial directions for choosing specific interventions for persons with dementia and also demonstrate a methodology for increasing knowledge through ongoing monitoring of practice. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An assessment of schoolyard features and behavior patterns in children's utilization and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Brink, Lois; Kingston, Beverly; Kutchman, Eve; Lampe, Sarah; Nigg, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    Careful research that elucidates how behavior relates to design in the context of elementary school grounds can serve to guide cost-efficient design with the goal of encouraging physical activity (PA). This work explores patterns in children's PA behavior within playground spaces with the specific goal of guiding healthy playground design. Data on children's utilization and PA behavior in 6 playgrounds divided into 106 observation zones were collected in 2005 and 2006 at Denver elementary school playgrounds using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth. Analyses of variance and t tests determined whether there were differences in utilization and behavior patterns across observations zones and between genders. This study provides evidence that children prefer to use certain types of playground zones and that they are more likely to practice moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in some zones. The authors observed statistically significant differences between genders. Boys were more likely to engage in MVPA in zones without equipment, girls were more likely to use zones with equipment. This work suggests that the inclusion or omission of specific playground features may have an impact on the way that children use the spaces.

  15. A driver-adaptive stability control strategy for sport utility vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shenjin; He, Yuping

    2017-08-01

    Conventional vehicle stability control (VSC) systems are designed for average drivers. For a driver with a good driving skill, the VSC systems may be redundant; for a driver with a poor driving skill, the VSC intervention may be inadequate. To increase safety of sport utility vehicles (SUVs), this paper proposes a novel driver-adaptive VSC (DAVSC) strategy based on scaling the target yaw rate commanded by the driver. The DAVSC system is adaptive to drivers' driving skills. More control effort would be exerted for drivers with poor driving skills, and vice versa. A sliding mode control (SMC)-based differential braking (DB) controller is designed using a three degrees of freedom (DOF) yaw-plane model. An eight DOF nonlinear yaw-roll model is used to simulate the SUV dynamics. Two driver models, namely longitudinal and lateral, are used to 'drive' the virtual SUV. By integrating the virtual SUV, the DB controller, and the driver models, the performance of the DAVSC system is investigated. The simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the DAVSC strategy.

  16. Bacterial Diversity and Nitrogen Utilization Strategies in the Upper Layer of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Huang; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Li, Dong-Xu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Kong, Ling-Fen; Lin, Lin; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a primary limiting nutrient for bacterial growth and productivity in the ocean. To better understand bacterial community and their N utilization strategy in different N regimes of the ocean, we examined bacterial diversity, diazotrophic diversity, and N utilization gene expressions in the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO) using a combination of high-throughput sequencing and real-time qPCR methods. 521 and 204 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in the 16s rRNA and nifH libraries from nine surface samples. Of the 16s rRNA gene OTUs, 11.9% were observed in all samples while 3.5 and 15.9% were detected only in N-sufficient and N-deficient samples. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the bacterial community. Prochlorococcus and Pseudoalteromonas were the most abundant at the genus level in N-deficient regimes, while SAR86, Synechococcus and SAR92 were predominant in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region. The distribution of the nifH gene presented great divergence among sampling stations: Cyanobacterium_UCYN-A dominated the N-deficient stations, while clusters related to the Alpha-, Beta- , and Gamma-Proteobacteria were abundant in other stations. Temperature was the main factor that determined bacterial community structure and diversity while concentration of NO X -N was significantly correlated with structure and distribution of N 2 -fixing microorganisms. Expression of the ammonium transporter was much higher than that of urea transporter subunit A ( urtA ) and ferredoxin-nitrate reductase , while urtA had an increased expression in N-deficient surface water. The predicted ammonium transporter and ammonium assimilation enzymes were most abundant in surface samples while urease and nitrogenase were more abundant in the N-deficient regions. These findings underscore the fact that marine bacteria have evolved diverse N utilization strategies to adapt to different N habitats, and that urea metabolism is of

  17. Bacterial Diversity and Nitrogen Utilization Strategies in the Upper Layer of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is a primary limiting nutrient for bacterial growth and productivity in the ocean. To better understand bacterial community and their N utilization strategy in different N regimes of the ocean, we examined bacterial diversity, diazotrophic diversity, and N utilization gene expressions in the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO using a combination of high-throughput sequencing and real-time qPCR methods. 521 and 204 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified in the 16s rRNA and nifH libraries from nine surface samples. Of the 16s rRNA gene OTUs, 11.9% were observed in all samples while 3.5 and 15.9% were detected only in N-sufficient and N-deficient samples. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the bacterial community. Prochlorococcus and Pseudoalteromonas were the most abundant at the genus level in N-deficient regimes, while SAR86, Synechococcus and SAR92 were predominant in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region. The distribution of the nifH gene presented great divergence among sampling stations: Cyanobacterium_UCYN-A dominated the N-deficient stations, while clusters related to the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Proteobacteria were abundant in other stations. Temperature was the main factor that determined bacterial community structure and diversity while concentration of NOX-N was significantly correlated with structure and distribution of N2-fixing microorganisms. Expression of the ammonium transporter was much higher than that of urea transporter subunit A (urtA and ferredoxin-nitrate reductase, while urtA had an increased expression in N-deficient surface water. The predicted ammonium transporter and ammonium assimilation enzymes were most abundant in surface samples while urease and nitrogenase were more abundant in the N-deficient regions. These findings underscore the fact that marine bacteria have evolved diverse N utilization strategies to adapt to different N habitats, and that urea

  18. Human paleodiet and animal utilization strategies during the Bronze Age in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Ren

    Full Text Available Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca. 2500 Cal BP in northwest Yunnan Province. The δ13C results for human samples from Shilinggang demonstrate that people's diets were mainly dominated by C3-based foodstuffs, probably due to both direct consumption of C3 food and as a result of C3 foddering of consumed animals. Auxiliary C4 food signals can also be detected. High δ15N values indicate that meat was an important component of the diet. Analysis of faunal samples indicates that people primarily fed pigs and dogs with human food waste, while sheep/goats and cattle were foddered with other food sources. We compare stable isotope and archaeobotanical data from Shilinggang with data from other Bronze Age sites in Yunnan to explore potential regional variation in subsistence strategies. Our work suggests that people adopted different animal utilization and subsistence strategies in different parts of Yunnan during the Bronze Age period, probably as local adaptations to the highly diversified and isolated environments in the region.

  19. Strategies to Increase Behavior-Specific Teacher Praise in an Inclusive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Haydon, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Managing students' disruptive behavior in the classroom can be a time-consuming task and greatly reduces the amount of time teachers spend on instruction. Although there are several research-validated classroom management strategies, teachers are more likely to adopt strategies that are less time-consuming than strategies that take more time or…

  20. Intervention Strategies Based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sun Ju; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Song, Misoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically reviewed research on behavioral interventions based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to investigate specific intervention strategies that focus on information, motivation, and behavioral skills and to evaluate their effectiveness for people with chronic diseases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of both the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and Im and Chang. A lit...

  1. Alternative Teaching Strategies; Helping Behaviorally Troubled Children Achieve. A Guide for Teachers and Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Marshall S.; Spivack, George

    This book provides (1) specific information about overt classroom behaviors that affect or reflect academic success or failure, and (2) information and suggestions about alternative teaching strategies that may be used to increase behavioral effectiveness and subsequent academic achievement. The focus of the book is on specific behaviors, behavior…

  2. Underachievers' Cognitive and Behavioral Strategies--Self-Handicapping at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two studies with a total of 153 junior and senior high-school students and vocational students in Finland investigated whether underachievers applied a self-handicapping or learned-helplessness strategy in achievement contexts. Underachievers seemed to apply a self-handicapping strategy rather than a learned-helplessness approach. (SLD)

  3. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  4. ASSESSING TAXPAYER BEHAVIOR IN UTILIZING E-FILLING TAX SYSTEM WITH THE PERSPECTIVE OF TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL AND THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani H.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the factors which influence taxpayer behavior in utilizing e-filling tax system. This study combines Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The data was collected through a survey method. It took 100 respondents of the personal taxpayers of the Pratama Gresik Utara tax office's employee in utilizing the e-filing to submit their tax return. In order to assess the data, the researchers used Partial Least Square statistical method. The finding shows that the intention construct has a positive influence over the e-filling utilization behavior. Behavioral control has a positive influence over the behavior through the e-filing utilization intention. Easy of use, purpose, attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control have a positive influence over the e-filing utilization intention. Credibility has a negative influence over the e-filing utilization intention. This study involved the Application Service Provider, Directorate General of Taxes, and KPP Pratama which have to more pay attention the behavior, intention, easy of use, purpose, attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control of the taxpayer.

  5. Objectives and Strategies in the Layperson's Categorization of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Curt; Mischel, Walter

    The effects of observational purpose are thought to impact on such diverse processes as categorization, behavior perception, trait ascription, and memory. The role of observational purpose in the categorization of behavior was explored to determine whether differences between trait and goal concepts affect certain information-processing…

  6. Understanding and Preventing Runaway Behavior: Indicators and Strategies for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Lisa A.; Raimondi, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Runaway behavior is a national epidemic that affects many school-aged youths. Although there are no definitive numbers, it has been estimated that between 1.3 and 2.8 million youths run away each year, and youths with disabilities are more at risk for engaging in runaway behavior than their nondisabled peers. Considering the high number of youths…

  7. Integrated employee assistance program/managed behavioral health plan utilization by persons with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth S Levy; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; Greenfield, Shelly F; McCann, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    New federal parity and health reform legislation, promising increased behavioral health care access and a focus on prevention, has heightened interest in employee assistance programs (EAPs). This study investigated service utilization by persons with a primary substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis in a managed behavioral health care (MBHC) organization's integrated EAP/MBHC product (N = 1,158). In 2004, 25.0% of clients used the EAP first for new treatment episodes. After initial EAP utilization, 44.4% received no additional formal services through the plan, and 40.4% received regular outpatient services. Overall, outpatient care, intensive outpatient/day treatment, and inpatient/residential detoxification were most common. About half of the clients had co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service utilization was extensive. Findings suggest that for service users with primary SUD diagnoses in an integrated EAP/MBHC product, the EAP benefit plays a key role at the front end of treatment and is often only one component of treatment episodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mao

    Full Text Available Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP, workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment.

  9. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    -water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock

  10. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglee, D; Knowles, M J

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  11. Modulated diesel fuel injection strategy for efficient-clean utilization of low-grade biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaole; Qian, Yong; Zhou, Qiyan; Lu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influences of direct injection strategy on biogas RCCI mode are researched. • Excessive early pilot injection timing leads to the retard of combustion. • Overall indicated thermal efficiency of low-grade biogas can be higher than 40%. • Pilot injection timing has strong influence on particle size distribution. • Composition of biogas has a great influence on the gas emissions. - Abstract: Recently, as a kind of renewable fuel, low-grade biogas has been researched to apply in internal combustion engine. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the influence of injection strategies on the efficient utilization of low-grade biogas in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) mode with port fuel injection of biogas and in-cylinder direct injection of diesel based on a modified electronic controlled high-pressure directly injected compression ignition engine. Considered the high proportion of inert gas in biogas, a four-components simulated gas (H_2:CO:CH_4:N_2 = 5:40:5:50 vol%) has been selected as test fuels to simulate biogas. The effects of several injection control parameters such as pilot injection timing, main injection timing, common rail pressure and pilot injection ratio on the combustion and emissions are analyzed in detail. The research demonstrates that the main injection timing can effectively control the combustion phase and excessive early pilot injection timing leads to retard of combustion. CO emissions are relatively high due to homogenous charge of biogas. NOx and smoke emissions can be effectively controlled. In RCCI mode, the indicated thermal efficiency of biogas/diesel can reach 40%.

  12. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglee, D.; Knowles, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  13. Behavioral investment strategy matters: a statistical arbitrage approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, David; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we employ a statistical arbitrage approach to demonstrate that momentum investment strategy tend to work better in periods longer than six months, a result different from findings in past literature. Compared with standard parametric tests, the statistical arbitrage method produces more clearly that momentum strategies work only in longer formation and holding periods. Also they yield positive significant returns in an up market, but negative yet insignificant returns in a down...

  14. Utilization of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK'S) in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions of Eastern Kenya: A Coping Strategy to Shocks of Market Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndubi, J

    2002-01-01

    Most of the farmers in the arid and semi arid are poorly endowed with resources. Market liberalisation and withdrawal of government support (subsidies) in accessing some of the modern technologies has led to decreased use of most of the modern recommended technologies due to their high prices. A a coping strategy most of the resources poor farmers have turned to utilization of the indigenous technology to sustain their agricultural production. The main objective of this paper is to document the indigenous technologies utilized by farmers, explore the possibility of refining/calibrating and up-scaling them and the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing them as identified by the farmers. The method for data collection was by use of interviews the farmers who were stratified in terms of gender and age sets (young, middle aged and old) and data analysed by use of qualitative methods. The results indicate that, most farmers do utilize indigenous technology in crops, livestock pests, diseases, soil and water conservation as cropping strategies to increase input prices due to market liberalization and withdrawal of government subsidies. It was also observed that, there is need for scientists to calibrate the most important practices for improved adoption and up-scaling of the main indigenous technologies within and outside the study areas

  15. Rational energy use and the gas utility. An economic analysis of energy efficiency strategies on the space heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, C.

    1994-01-01

    Apart from the political authorities, also the supply utilities may contribute to a more widespread rational energy use. This investigtion focuses on the gas utilities, which have a wide range of options for higher energy efficiency, especially on the space heating market. These options are analyzed in the framework of the process of company straategy planning. Particular interest is taken in the product-political strategy of forward integration. (orig.) [de

  16. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Marco; Capri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as me...

  17. Self-management as a strategy to improve the classroom behavior of adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, E S; DuPaul, G J; Bradley-Klug, K L

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the application of a self-management strategy for improving the classroom behavior of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on the work of Rhode, Morgan, and Young (1983), the intervention focuses on teaching students to systematically rate their own behavior according to the rating of their teacher. Although, historically, self-management strategies based on cognitive control have not been found to be effective for students with ADHD, strategies based on contingency management have not been widely reported in the literature. A description of the intervention and two case study illustrations are provided. Potential limitations and implications for research in using this strategy are discussed.

  18. Assessing the Potential of Utilization and Storage Strategies for Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Katy; Styring, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture is considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS), enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR), and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO 2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a “cradle to grave approach” where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO 2 that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the “cradle to gate” approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO 2 emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  19. Modeling strategy to identify patients with primary immunodeficiency utilizing risk management and outcome measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Vicki; Quinn, Jessica; Ginsberg, Grant; Gladue, Ron; Orange, Jordan; Modell, Fred

    2017-06-01

    This study seeks to generate analytic insights into risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. The Jeffrey Modell Centers Network database, Jeffrey Modell Foundation's 10 Warning Signs, the 4 Stages of Testing Algorithm, physician-reported clinical outcomes, programs of physician education and public awareness, the SPIRIT® Analyzer, and newborn screening, taken together, generates P values of less than 0.05%. This indicates that the data results do not occur by chance, and that there is a better than 95% probability that the data are valid. The objectives are to improve patients' quality of life, while generating significant reduction of costs. The advances of the world's experts aligned with these JMF programs can generate analytic insights as to risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. This strategy reduces the uncertainties related to primary immunodeficiency risks, as we can screen, test, identify, and treat undiagnosed patients. We can also address regional differences and prevalence, age, gender, treatment modalities, and sites of care, as well as economic benefits. These tools support high net benefits, substantial financial savings, and significant reduction of costs. All stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and government healthcare agencies, must address the earliest possible precise diagnosis, appropriate intervention and treatment, as well as stringent control of healthcare costs through risk assessment and outcome measurement. An affected patient is entitled to nothing less, and stakeholders are responsible to utilize tools currently available. Implementation offers a significant challenge to the entire primary immunodeficiency community.

  20. Lane Changing and Lane Utilization Behavior for Three Lane Normal Section in Iraq Traffic Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, different programs or methods have been produced to solve the traffic problem everywhere in the world. Iraq is one of the countries which suffer from high problems in traffic operation, design and planning. Therefore, to use the sophisticated traffic programs or models such as simulation models there is an urgent need to investigate specified field parameters which correspond to calibrated parameters used in the model under study. This study has focused on studying driver behavior which represents the core stone in a traffic simulation. This behavior represents lane changing (LC and lane utilization (LU in normal sections. Three normal sections with three lanes have been selected in different sites in Iraq: two sites in Al-Najaf city and one site in Al-Muthna city. The results of data analysis show that the driver behavior in both LC and LU is similar to the behavior in the UK. The current observed data could be used for the calibration process for any traffic simulation model in order to mimic the reality of Iraqi drivers.

  1. A Methodological Alternative to Media Comparison Studies: Linking Information Utilization Strategies and Instructional Approach in Hypermedia Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Catrambone, Richard; Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Vollmann, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Literature reviews on hypermedia learning have yet failed to show consistent positive effects of learner-controlled nonlinear information access. We argue that a possible reason for this lack of evidence in favor of hypermedia learning results from the fact that not sufficient attention is paid to the strategies of information utilization learners deploy. The few studies that do analyze these strategies fail to link them to an instructional approach, which hampers a deeper interpretation of s...

  2. Differences and Agreement in Perception of Child Picky Eating Among Center- and Home-Based Childcare Providers and Parents and Its Impact on Utilized Mealtime Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Luchini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Picky eating is a problematic eating behavior caregivers may encounter with children under their care. A picky eater (PE is typically characterized as consuming a narrow range of food, as well as rejecting several food items. Much of the literature regarding PEs involves parents, although use of nonparental childcare arrangements in the United States has increased in the past several decades. Although data on parental mealtime strategies exist, little is known about how parent and childcare provider pickiness perceptions differ between types of childcare, such as center-based childcare (CBCC and home-based childcare (HBCC, or how these perceptions influence the mealtime strategies utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1 compare perceptions of child pickiness between parents and childcare providers, (2 compare percent agreement in pickiness perception between the dyads of CBCC parents and providers and HBCC parents and providers, and (3 identify mealtime strategy utilization based on pickiness perception. A total of 52 child, parent, and childcare provider triads participated in the study and completed the Mealtime Assessment Survey and the Parent/Teacher Mealtime Strategy Survey regarding the same child. Results showed that parents are 1.4 times more likely than childcare providers to perceive a child as being picky, HBCC parents and providers are 1.4 times more likely to perceive a child as being picky than CBCC parents and providers, CBCC parents and providers disagree more in their perception of child pickiness than HBCC parents and providers (41% vs 26%, and finally, perception of child pickiness has a greater influence on mealtime strategies utilized by parents. These results can be used to focus intervention efforts aimed at improving child eating habits across the home and childcare location.

  3. Prevalence of Behavior Changing Strategies in Fitness Video Games: Theory-Based Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Elizabeth Jane; Hatkevich, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. Objective The purpose of this study was to investig...

  4. Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard

    ... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...

  5. Pedagogical Strategies for Incorporating Behavioral Finance Concepts in Investment Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael; Mullins, Terry; Thornton, Barry

    2007-01-01

    The traditional approach to teaching a course in investments is predicated upon the efficient market hypothesis, modern portfolio theory, and the assumption that decision-makers are rational, wealth optimizing entities. Recent developments in the arena of behavioral finance (BF) have raised questions about this approach. Although the idea of…

  6. Natural gas in the 21st century. Part 3. Multi-utility as survival strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikke, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The products energy becomes commercially attractive if value is added, e.g. by transferring it into a multi-utility. The marketing manager of a Dutch public utility (Essent) is interviewed about the opportunities and threats for energy companies which embrace the multi-utility concept

  7. Human place and response learning: navigation strategy selection, pupil size and gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Condappa, Olivier; Wiener, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the cognitive processes and ocular behavior associated with on-going navigation strategy choice using a route learning paradigm that distinguishes between three different wayfinding strategies: an allocentric place strategy, and the egocentric associative cue and beacon response strategies. Participants approached intersections of a known route from a variety of directions, and were asked to indicate the direction in which the original route continued. Their responses in a subset of these test trials allowed the assessment of strategy choice over the course of six experimental blocks. The behavioral data revealed an initial maladaptive bias for a beacon response strategy, with shifts in favor of the optimal configuration place strategy occurring over the course of the experiment. Response time analysis suggests that the configuration strategy relied on spatial transformations applied to a viewpoint-dependent spatial representation, rather than direct access to an allocentric representation. Furthermore, pupillary measures reflected the employment of place and response strategies throughout the experiment, with increasing use of the more cognitively demanding configuration strategy associated with increases in pupil dilation. During test trials in which known intersections were approached from different directions, visual attention was directed to the landmark encoded during learning as well as the intended movement direction. Interestingly, the encoded landmark did not differ between the three navigation strategies, which is discussed in the context of initial strategy choice and the parallel acquisition of place and response knowledge.

  8. Evaluation of the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project Using the Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Julia B.; Meadan, Hedda; Angell, Maureen E.; Daczewitz, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a multiattribute utility (MAU) evaluation to assess the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) project which was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In the PiCS project parents of young children with developmental disabilities are trained and coached in their homes on naturalistic and visual teaching…

  9. Predicting Health Care Utilization After the First Behavioral Health Visit Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Roysden, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient’s first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection ...

  10. Sports Related Riots: Understanding Group Behavior To Improve Police Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    particular book is more evidence-based, using statistics and academic studies than other references. 4. Policing Strategies The University of Arizona...Research in Crime and Delinquency 7, no. 2 (1970): 123, DOI: 10.1177/002242787000700202. 59 Ibid., 129. 60 Peter Holley, “New Video Shows Texas...games provide more energy to a crowd than unimportant games and contests with a large score differential. When examining the statistics associated

  11. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Shaozeng Dong

    2017-01-01

    The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustai...

  12. The Success Of Stock Selection Strategies In Emerging Markets: Is It Risk Or Behavioral Bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Hart; G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe examine competing explanations, based on risk and behavioral models, for the profitability of stock selection strategies in emerging markets. We document that both emerging market risk and global risk factors cannot account for the significant excess returns of selection strategies

  13. The Interaction of Motivation, Self-Regulatory Strategies, and Autonomous Learning Behavior in Different Learner Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior.…

  14. Family Support Is Associated with Behavioral Strategies for Healthy Eating among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral…

  15. Ethnic and racial differences in mental health service utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Bridget A; Cheek, Shayna M; Liu, Richard T

    2016-09-15

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in mental health treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants included 4176 depressed adolescents with suicidal ideation and behavior in the previous year. Weighted logistic regressions were estimated to examine whether adolescent racial/ethnic minorities had lower rates of past-year treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior in inpatient or outpatient settings, while adjusting for age, depressive symptom severity, family income, and health insurance status. Among adolescents with any suicidal ideation and behavior, and suicide attempts specifically, non-Hispanic blacks and Native Americans were less likely than whites to receive outpatient treatment, and multiracial adolescents were less likely to be admitted to inpatient facilities. Apart from Hispanics, racial/ethnic minorities were generally less likely to receive mental health care for suicidal ideation, particularly within psychiatric outpatient settings. A pattern emerged with racial/ethnic differences in treatment receipt being greatest for adolescents with the least severe suicidal ideation and behavior. The cross-sectional data limits our ability to form causal inferences. Strikingly low rates of treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior were observed across all racial/ethnic groups. Certain racial/ethnic minorities may be less likely to seek treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior when symptoms are less severe, with this gap in treatment use narrowing as symptom severity increases. Native Americans were among the racial/ethnic groups with lowest treatment utilization, but also among the highest for rates of suicide attempts, highlighting the pressing need for strategies to increase mental health service use in this particularly vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Ethnic and racial differences in mental health service utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Bridget A.; Cheek, Shayna M.; Liu, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined racial/ethnic differences in mental health treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Method Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants included 4,176 depressed adolescents with suicidal ideation and behavior in the previous year. Weighted logistic regressions were estimated to examine whether adolescent racial/ethnic minorities had lower rates of past-year treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior in inpatient or outpatient settings, while adjusting for age, depressive symptom severity, family income, and health insurance status. Results Among adolescents with any suicidal ideation and behavior, and suicide attempts specifically, non-Hispanic blacks and Native Americans were less likely than whites to receive outpatient treatment, and multiracial adolescents were less likely to be admitted to inpatient facilities. Apart from Hispanics, racial/ethnic minorities were generally less likely to receive mental health care for suicidal ideation, particularly within psychiatric outpatient settings. A pattern emerged with racial/ethnic differences in treatment receipt being greatest for adolescents with the least severe suicidal ideation and behavior. Limitations The cross-sectional data limits our ability to form causal inferences. Conclusion Strikingly low rates of treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior were observed across all racial/ethnic groups. Certain racial/ethnic minorities may be less likely to seek treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior when symptoms are less severe, with this gap in treatment use narrowing as symptom severity increases. Native Americans were among the racial/ethnic groups with lowest treatment utilization, but also among the highest for rates of suicide attempts, highlighting the pressing need for strategies to increase mental health service use in this particularly vulnerable

  17. [The study on behaviour of protective equipment utilization of workers exposed to benzene and factors based on Planned Behavior Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J Y; Liu, C D; Zhang, W M; Fu, Y K; Ma, H Y

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate and predict the behavioral intention and mode of the protective equipment utilization selection of the workers who used Benzene, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was applied to establish the behavioral model to enhance the theoretical foundation for long-term intervention. Methods: Questionnaires were used to survey the 707 workers, and all the behaviors of using protective equipment were investigated. Evaluate the relationships between each variable and obtain the influence affects by structural equation model. Results: The investigation showed that 38.47% of the total workers (272 cases) used whole body protection, 13.58% used partially, and 16.69% didn't use any body protection. There were significant difference between the varying degrees in the four dimensions (behavioral attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm, and behavioral intention) (Pbehavior control was the most important influencing factor, subjective norm, positive attitude, negative attitude were the other three respects in sequence. The path co-efficient were 0.600、0.215、0.141 and 0.046 respectively. Conclusion: The study show that the theory of planned behavior can effectively explain the behavioral intention and behavior of protective equipment utilization. Therefore, combining the subjective initiative of individuals with the supervision of enterprises, In order to effectively enhance the protective equipment utilization of benzene workers.

  18. A Study of Preservice Educators' Dispositions to Change Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    Student behavior problems contribute to poor academic achievement and poor teacher retention. This study investigated preservice teachers' dispositions to implement positive and proactive strategies for managing behavior in the general education elementary urban classroom. The author interviewed 19 preservice teachers in a large urban school…

  19. Teachers' Reported Knowledge and Implementation of Research-Based Classroom and Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.; Chow, Jason C.; Gordon, Jason R.; Mahany, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' reported knowledge about and implementation of research-based classroom and behavior management strategies were examined. A total of 160 elementary teachers from two districts in different regions of the same state completed the researcher-developed "Survey of Classroom and Behavior Management." On average, teachers reported to…

  20. Evaluation of Increasing Antecedent Specificity in Goal Statements on Adherence to Positive Behavior-Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Corey M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the…

  1. Optimizing social participation in community-dwelling older adults through the use of behavioral coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Desrosiers, Johanne; Demers, Louise; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) determine the categories of behavioral coping strategies most strongly correlated with optimal seniors' social participation in different activity and role domains and (2) identify the demographic, health and environmental factors associated with the use of these coping strategies optimizing social participation. The sample consisted of 350 randomly recruited community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years). Coping strategies and social participation were measured, respectively, using the Inventory of Coping Strategies Used by the Elderly and Assessment of Life Habits questionnaires. Information about demographic, health and environmental factors was also collected during the interview. Regression analyses showed a strong relationship between the use of cooking- and transportation-related coping strategies and optimal participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively. Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors' residence were correlated with greater use of transportation-related strategies. Our study helped to identify useful behavioral coping strategies that should be incorporated in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors' social participation. However, the appropriateness of these strategies depends on whether they are used in relevant contexts and tailored to specific needs. Our results support the relevance of including behavioral coping strategies related to cooking and transportation in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors' social participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively. Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors' residence were correlated with greater use of transportation

  2. Is Trait Rumination Associated with the Ability to Generate Effective Problem Solving Strategies? Utilizing Two Versions of the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Nishimura, Haruki; Mastuda, Yuko; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Masaki

    This study examined the relationship between trait rumination and the effectiveness of problem solving strategies as assessed by the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (MEPS) in a nonclinical population. The present study extended previous studies in terms of using two instructions in the MEPS: the second-person, actual strategy instructions, which has been utilized in previous studies on rumination, and the third-person, ideal-strategy instructions, which is considered more suitable for assessing the effectiveness of problem solving strategies. We also replicated the association between rumination and each dimension of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version (SPSI-R:S). Japanese undergraduate students ( N  = 223) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), MEPS, and SPSI-R:S. One half of the sample completed the MEPS with the second-person, actual strategy instructions. The other participants completed the MEPS with the third-person, ideal-strategy instructions. The results showed that neither total RRS score, nor its subscale scores were significantly correlated with MEPS scores under either of the two instructions. These findings taken together with previous findings indicate that in nonclinical populations, trait rumination is not related to the effectiveness of problem solving strategies, but that state rumination while responding to the MEPS deteriorates the quality of strategies. The correlations between RRS and SPSI-R:S scores indicated that trait rumination in general, and its brooding subcomponent in particular are parts of cognitive and behavioral responses that attempt to avoid negative environmental and negative private events. Results also showed that reflection is a part of active problem solving.

  3. Improving utilization of and retention in PMTCT services: can behavioral economics help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicholas Kenji; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2013-10-10

    The most recent strategic call to action of the World Health Organization sets the elimination of pediatric HIV as a goal. While recent efforts have focused on building infrastructure and ensuring access to high-quality treatment, we must now turn our focus to the behavior change needed to eliminate vertical transmission. We make the case for the application of concepts from the field of behavioral economics to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs to more effectively address demand-side issues of uptake and retention. We introduce five concepts from the field of behavioral economics and discuss their application to PMTCT programs: 1) Mentor mothers who come from similar circumstances as PMTCT patients can serve as social references who provide temporally salient modeling of utilization of services and adherence to treatment. 2) Economic incentives, like cell phone minutes or food vouchers, that reward adherence to PMTCT protocols leverage present bias, the observation that people are generally biased toward immediate versus future awards. 3) Default bias, our preference for the default option, is already being used in many countries in the form of opt-out testing, and could be expanded to all PMTCT programs. 4) We are hardwired to avoid loss more than to pursue an equivalent gain. PMTCT programs can take advantage of loss aversion through the use of commitment contracts that incentivize mothers to return to the clinic in order to avoid both reputational and financial loss. Eliminating vertical transmission of HIV is an ambitious goal. To close the remaining gap, innovations are needed to address demand for PMTCT services. Behavioral economics offers a set of tools that can be engineered into PMTCT programs to increase uptake and improve retention with minimal investment.

  4. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustainable product strategy. The level of sustainability is determined by the trade-off between profitability and costs occurred and if more consumers value sustainable products, the firm will increase its sustainable level and get a higher profit. This is because of a combination effect of an increasing marginal profit and demand expansion. Moreover, the model has been further extended to address a situation where the firm could manage consumer segmentation. Depending on parameter settings, the firm may target different consumer segments and there is always a threshold of cost for managing consumer segments. When converting regular consumers to be environmentally conscious is not costly, the firm will convert all consumers to be environmentally conscious with great efforts; otherwise, the firm will convert part of consumers to be environmentally conscious.

  5. The Behavior of Information Seeking and Utilizing on Livelihood among Rural Poor People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawit Muhammad Yusup

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to specifically assess the behavior of the rural poor people in seeking and utilizing information about livelihoods. This study focuses on the aspects of: the type of information sought and used by the rural poor people; and the way they seek and use information about livelihood for their survivability. The method used is Schutz’s qualitative tradition of phenomenology. Data collection used techniques of in-depth interviews and participatory observation of 22 rural poor people. The research location is in southern rural part of West Java. The research result shows that, the type of livelihood information sought and used by the rural poor people, referred to the kinds of unstable jobs with the limited scope of resources and channel/media. Their way to find and use livelihood information has active and passive pattern, but still refer to the resources of unstable jobs, limited scope of the search, pattern of interpersonal relationships, and informal.

  6. Behavioral side effects of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment: the role of parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Lamb, Karen E; McCarthy, Maria C

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral and emotional difficulties are a recognised side effect of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Modifiable factors, such as parenting strategies, may be an appropriate target for interventions to assist families with managing their child's behavior, potentially leading to improved psychosocial and clinical outcomes. This study examined whether parenting strategies are associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in a pediatric oncology context, with the aim of establishing whether parenting is a potential modifiable target for psychosocial intervention. Participants included 73 parents of children aged 2-6 years who were either (i) in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL at the Royal Children's Hospital Children's Cancer Centre, Melbourne (N = 43), or (ii) had no major medical history (healthy control group) (N = 30). Participants completed psychometrically validated questionnaires that assessed parenting strategies and child emotional and behavioral problems. Results revealed that the ALL group parents reported higher lax parenting and more spoiling and bribing of their child than the healthy control group. Results from regression models indicated that, after controlling for the significant contribution of illness status and child age on child emotional and behavioral difficulties, parental laxness and parental overprotection were significantly associated with child emotional and behavioral difficulties. Supporting parents to minimise sub-optimal parenting strategies, particularly lax parenting, may offer a fruitful avenue for future research directed toward modifiable factors associated with managing child emotional and behavioral problems in a pediatric oncology context. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Features of brand perception by people with different strategies of consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova N. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the research of perception of the domestic and foreign clothing brands by Russian consumers with various strategies of consumer behavior. The study involved 169 people of various ages (m = 24.5 years. Methods of research: a the method of semantic differential for the analysis of the image of the brand, developed by F.N. Vinokurov; b an adapted methodology for researching consumer behavior strategies. Based on the obtained results, it is concluded that there are specific features of perception of domestic and foreign brands by Russian consumers with different consumer behavior strategies: 1 the image of the Russian brand is more complicated, includes 5 factors, while the image of the foreign brand includes 3 factors; 2 8 basic and three generalized strategies of consumer behavior of Russians are singled out, and the content of strategies differs from the content of strategies of foreign consumers; 3 the peculiarities of brand perception in people with different consumer behavior strategies are highlighted, and it is found that the perception of foreign brands is more closely connected with the strategies of consumer behavior than the perception of domestic brands; 4 brand image (primarily such parameters as “reliability” and “positivity” of the brand is more significant for rational and impulsive consumers and to a lesser extent for brand-dependent ones. The obtained results can be used in the construction of brand communication, as well as a basis for further research of the mechanisms of perception of brands as objects of social cognition.

  8. Sex-linked strategies of human reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, K; Urribarri, D; Chacon, G C; Diaz, G; Torres, A; Herzog, G

    1993-01-01

    We present data on fertility characteristics in the Venezuelan population for each sex separately, allowing a detailed comparative analysis of the variance in fertility between males and females. We show that the fertility distribution for both sexes is discontinuous, that the average female has a larger number of offspring per individual than the average male, and that highly fertile males outnumber highly fertile females so that the total number of offspring produced by males and females is balanced. Results indicate that a few males are responsible for a relative higher fertility of the average female and that interactions between polyandric females with monogamic and polygynic males are common. Among the Yanomami, a relatively unacculturated hunter-gatherer-horticulturist tribe, similar differences in fertility distribution of both sexes are apparent. The data suggest that human populations contain statistically distinct subpopulations, with different reproductive strategies, suggesting the existence of complex interactions among human populations which are not evident from the study of individuals or groups.

  9. The Diagnostic Utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory for Sexual Abuse: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Verlinden, Eva; Langendam, Miranda W; De Smet, Vivienne; Teeuw, Arianne H; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2018-06-11

    Children with alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) need to be assessed systematically. The use of validated instruments during the assessment, like the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), could add diagnostic value. We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the CSBI to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children. We conducted a systematic review. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and PsychInfo for studies comparing CSBI scores in sexually abused children and non-abused children (2-12 years old). Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. We included 7 (out of 1048) articles. The CSBI total scores were significantly higher in CSA-victims compared with non-abused children (in case-control settings). However, in children with suspected CSA, the results were ambiguous. One study reported significant differences. Another study reported weak diagnostic ability for the CSBI-3 in children with suspected CSA (a sensitivity and specificity of 0.50, with a positive predictive value of 0.28, and a negative predictive value of 0.72). Research on the diagnostic utility of the CSBI for suspected CSA is limited and shows disappointing results. Until more research is done, the CSBI should not be used on its own to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children.

  10. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc

  11. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-07-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.

  12. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  13. The relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior among fourth-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xue; Fang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The job search process is a stressful experience. This study investigated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on job search behavior in combination with anxiety and job search self-efficacy among Chinese university fourth-year students (N = 816, mean age = 21.98, 31.5% male, 34.9% majored in science, 18.0% from "211 Project" universities). Results showed that cognitive reappraisal was positively related to job search behavior, while expressive suppression was negatively related to job search behavior. Additionally, anxiety was negatively related to job search behavior, while job search self-efficacy was positively associated with job search behavior. Moreover, both anxiety and job search self-efficacy mediated the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior. In general, emotion regulation strategies played an important role in job search behavior. Implications include the notion that emotion regulation interventions may be helpful to increase job search behavior among university students. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dividendová strategie – součást behaviorální ekonomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Fojtů

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Purpose of this paper is criticaly analyse the role of dividend by using knowledge from the field of behavioral economics. Concepts such as moral hazard and asymmetric information are associated with behavioral finance and decision-making processes of companies. Behavioral economics sees the individual as irrational man who does not try to maximize his/her benefit, but mainly to minimize the risk in decision making. Against the background of the analyzed issue is made specific comparisons of dividend investment strategies with neutral/market strategies. Methods: Primary and secondary research was used in this article. Secondary research was based on a search of scientific articles and literature on the theory of dividend, shares and behavioral economics. Data from two previously conducted studies were used. Primary research was conducted on two stock indexes (dividend strategy vs. neutral/market strategy using selected statistical methods, and then the connection was sought between dividend policy and the return that these strategies bring. Scientific aim: The aim of this paper was to make a critical analysis of investment dividend strategy compared with a neutral/market strategies using statistical methods. Findings: It can be concluded that long-term investing in dividend stocks gives the investor a slightly higher valuation, at about the same risk than investing in stocks covering the whole market. Conclusions: Based on the results of studies conducted by Credist Suisse, Professor Siegel and based on our research can be identified dividend strategy. This strategy provides one of the best conditions return and risk, both in the development of the medium-term and long-term trend. This strategy follows the newly formed STOXX indexes, DJ, MSCI, S & P or WisdomTree.

  15. Flight management research utilizing an oculometer. [pilot scanning behavior during simulated approach and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Kurbjun, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight management work being conducted using NASA Langley's oculometer system. Tests have been conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator to investigate pilot scan behavior during approach and landing for simulated IFR, VFR, motion versus no motion, standard versus advanced displays, and as a function of various runway patterns and symbology. Results of each of these studies are discussed. For example, results indicate that for the IFR approaches a difference in pilot scan strategy was noted for the manual versus coupled (autopilot) conditions. Also, during the final part of the approach when the pilot looks out-of-the-window he fixates on his aim or impact point on the runway and holds this point until flare initiation.

  16. The effect of utility time-varying pricing and load control strategies on residential summer peak electricity use. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Bowker, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Peak demand for electricity in North America is expected to grow, challenging electrical utilities to supply this demand in a cost-effective, reliable manner. Therefore, there is growing interest in strategies to reduce peak demand by eliminating electricity use, or shifting it to non-peak times. This strategy is commonly called 'demand response'. In households, common strategies are time-varying pricing, which charge more for energy use on peak, or direct load control, which allows utilities to curtail certain loads during high demand periods. We reviewed recent North American studies of these strategies. The data suggest that the most effective strategy is a critical peak price (CPP) program with enabling technology to automatically curtail loads on event days. There is little evidence that this causes substantial hardship for occupants, particularly if they have input into which loads are controlled and how, and have an override option. In such cases, a peak load reduction of at least 30% is a reasonable expectation. It might be possible to attain such load reductions without enabling technology by focusing on household types more likely to respond, and providing them with excellent support. A simple time-of-use (TOU) program can only expect to realise on-peak reductions of 5%. (author)

  17. The Elementary School Teachers’ Successful Guidance Strategies for Intervening Children’s Bullying Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Fen Tu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the guidance strategies adopted by elementary homeroom teachers for their interventions on children’s bullying behaviors. Adopted a multiple case study approach, 11 homeroom teachers participated voluntarily through school counselors’ recommendation where semi-structured interviews were conducted. Their average age was 40.14 years old (SD=7.60 and they averaged 15.45 years (SD=6.80 of teaching experience. All participants had previous experience in successfully helping children who had bullying behaviors toward classmates. The results indicated three categories of successful guidance strategies: individual guidance, class management, and systems’ collaboration. Regarding individual guidance, the teachers were able (1 to understand in depth about the factors involved in bullying; (2 to set clear interpersonal boundaries with the bullies; (3 to recognize and reinforce the children’s personal strengths; (4 to face the children’s provoking behaviors with calm manners; (5 to adopt win-win strategies in disciplining. Regarding class management, the teachers were able (1 to set clear safety rules and execute them consistently, (2 to encourage altruistic and empathetic behaviors and to facilitate positive behaviors in class. Regarding the systems’ collaboration, the teachers cooperated mainly with the parents and resources at schools. Teachers’ guidance strategies and models in helping bullies, as well as the impacts of Chinese culture on the teachers’ guidance strategies are discussed.

  18. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Interpersonal Behavior among Substance Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zahed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.

  19. Competition on the weg: Product strategies of German utilities; Wettbewerb per Internet. Produktstrategien deutscher Stromversorger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke-Ewald, Andreas [Ernst und Young AG, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Deregulation and regulation of the energy markets pose enormous challenges to German utilities. Further, consumer consultants and internet portals make it easier for consumers to find the best buy, which in turn enhances competition. An attractive online representation makes it possible for utilities to acquire new customers and satisfy regular ones. A current study analysed the web pages of German utilities with the intention to get a picture of the innovative capacity of the product range on offer to private customers. It was found that there is still vast room for improvement. (orig.)

  20. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  1. Age-Related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age. PMID:27803685

  2. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  3. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler, Sonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074

  4. Switching Loss Reduction in the Three-Phase Quasi-Z-Source Inverters Utilizing Modified Space Vector Modulation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Several single-stage topologies have been introduced since kicking off the three-phase Z-source inverter (ZSI), and among these topologies, the quasi-ZSI (qZSI) is the most common one due to its simple structure and continuous input current. Furthermore, different modulation strategies, utilizing...... multiple reference signals, have been developed as well. However, prior art modulation methods have some demerits, such as the complexity of generating the gate signals, the increased number of switch commutations with continuous commutation at high current level during the entire fundamental cycle...... the generation of the gate signals by utilizing only three reference signals, and achieving a single switch commutation at a time. These modulation strategies are analyzed and compared to the conventional ones, where a reduced-scale 1 kVA three-phase qZSI is designed and simulated using these different...

  5. Prevalence of Behavior Changing Strategies in Fitness Video Games: Theory-Based Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkevich, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Methods Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. Results The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a

  6. Prevalence of behavior changing strategies in fitness video games: theory-based content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth Jane; Hatkevich, Claire

    2013-05-07

    Fitness video games are popular, but little is known about their content. Because many contain interactive tools that mimic behavioral strategies from weight loss intervention programs, it is possible that differences in content could affect player physical activity and/or weight outcomes. There is a need for a better understanding of what behavioral strategies are currently available in fitness games and how they are implemented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of evidence-based behavioral strategies across fitness video games available for home use. Games available for consoles that used camera-based controllers were also contrasted with games available for a console that used handheld motion controllers. Fitness games (N=18) available for three home consoles were systematically identified and play-tested by 2 trained coders for at least 3 hours each. In cases of multiple games from one series, only the most recently released game was included. The Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox360 were the two camera-based consoles, and the Nintendo Wii was the handheld motion controller console. A coding list based on a taxonomy of behavioral strategies was used to begin coding. Codes were refined in an iterative process based on data found during play-testing. The most prevalent behavioral strategies were modeling (17/18), specific performance feedback (17/18), reinforcement (16/18), caloric expenditure feedback (15/18), and guided practice (15/18). All games included some kind of feedback on performance accuracy, exercise frequency, and/or fitness progress. Action planning (scheduling future workouts) was the least prevalent of the included strategies (4/18). Twelve games included some kind of social integration, with nine of them providing options for real-time multiplayer sessions. Only two games did not feature any kind of reward. Games for the camera-based consoles (mean 12.89, SD 2.71) included a greater number of strategies than those

  7. "Doing what I do best": The association between skill utilization and employee health with healthy behavior as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Heaney, Catherine A

    2017-02-01

    Skill utilization, defined as having the opportunity to do one's best at work, has been examined as a contributor to productivity, organizational efficiency, job satisfaction, and mental health. Drawing from self-determination theory, we postulate that high levels of skill utilization are positively associated with physical health and that some of the effect is mediated by health behavior. Using the 2014 Gallup Daily Tracking Survey data (n = 87,316), a nationally representative sample of working adults in the United States, we examine the associations between perceived skill utilization and five health outcomes (self-rated health, hypertension, high cholesterol, cancer, asthma) with healthy behavior (regular exercising, fruits and vegetable consumption) as a mediator of the associations. The regression results showed that a one-point increase in skill utilization (on a three-point scale) was associated with 20% lower odds of reporting poor or fair health, 3% and 8% lower odds of reporting hypertension and high cholesterol, but had no significant association with cancer or asthma. Health behavior mediated 10% of the association between skill utilization and self-rated health, 46% for hypertension, and 18% for high cholesterol. The findings suggest that providing employees the opportunities to use their skills well at work improves health in general, and the effect is partly through enhancing the likelihood of engaging in healthy behaviors. Implications for organizational practice as well as future research directions are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Cross-gender Comparison of Metacognitive Strategies Utilized by Omani Students in Reading Comprehension Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Alami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that English is the language of the latest technological and scientific developments, comprehending English texts has priority for students to gain the knowledge and skills they will need in the future. However, most Omani students are not efficient L2 readers and do not have sufficient competence in reading authentic English texts. There is a variety of factors that might affect Omani students’ ability to read and comprehend English texts effectively. To find out what factors are involved in Omani students’ reading comprehension, in the first place, it is necessary to know what strategies they employ in reading. To this end, the current study attempts  to explore Omani students reported use of reading strategies using ‘Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory’ (MARSI developed by Mokhtari and Reichard (2002. The self-reported survey completed by 200 students (90 female and110 male who enrolled for Advanced Foundation program (level 4 at Salalah College of Technology (SCT. The results show that SCT students’ awareness of metacognitive strategies is at medium level (3.46. Furthermore, the comparison between two gender groups (Males Vs. Females shows that male students use metacognitive reading strategies moderately (3.28 while female students use them more frequently (3.64. The outcomes of the study contribute to the improvement of SCT students reading ability and can be used by teachers to teach students different strategies to build meaning of the reading material which is among the goals of any educational system.

  9. Organizational behavior of regulatory agencies: a case study of the Bureau of Consumer Services in the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Regulatory agencies operate in a complex field of organizations and interest groups. The variety of behaviors that occur in the regulatory field are not satisfactorily explained by current interpretative frameworks. Regulatory agencies are at once criticized and praised. They flourish as organizational entities, yet they exhibit behavior that is often inexplicable. Notions like clientele capture, the politics of regulation, exchange theory, and institutionalized organizations do not singly explain the vagaries of regulatory behavior. A merger of these viewpoints, however, provides a foundation for a comprehensive interpretative framework. A bureau of consumer services within a state public utility commission is viewed as an institutionalized organization. From this perspective, a variety of ritual behaviors, based upon symbolic and tangible interorganizational exchanges are observed and characterized. The outcome of these exchanges is the establishment of the Bureau of Consumer Services as a legitimate regulatory agent with significant impact upon the formulation of regulatory policy in the formal proceedings of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission.

  10. Early Empowerment Strategies Boost Self-Efficacy to Improve Cardiovascular Health Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn H; Walizer, Elaine M; Fuller, Clarie E; Engler, Renata J; Villines, Todd C; Vernalis, Marina N

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to carry out behavior to achieve a desired goal, is considered to be a prerequisite for behavior change. Self-efficacy correlates with cardiovascular health although optimal timing to incorporate self-efficacy strategies is not well established. We sought to study the effect of an empowerment approach implemented in the introductory phase of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular health outcomes. Design: Prospe...

  11. PERSEPSI NASABAH TENTANG LAYANAN PERBANKAN: PENGARUH SERVICE FAILURE DAN STRATEGI SERVICE RECOVERY TERHADAP BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Liestyana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to verify the ability of service quality and service recoverystrategy to predict behavioral intentions in the banking industry. A survey questionnaire wasdeveloped, then it was distributed to 150 customers of banks in Yogyakarta. Data was analyzedusing multiple regression analysis. The results provided support for hypothesis of the negativeeffect of service failure and positive effect of recovery strategy on behavioral intentions.

  12. The burden of selected cancers in the US: health behaviors and health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadeluca L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laura Iadeluca,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Pratibha Chander,2 Markay Hopps,1 Geoffrey T Makinson1 1Pfizer Inc., 2Atrium Staffing, New York, NY, USA Objective: To characterize the disease burden among survivors of those cancers having the highest incidence in the US.Methods: Adult (≥18 years survivors of the 11 most frequently diagnosed cancers were identified from publically available data sources, including the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 1973–2012, National Health Interview Survey 2013, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2011. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were utilized to assess differences between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls in behavioral characteristics, symptoms and functions, preventative screenings, and health care costs.Results: Hematologic malignancies, melanoma, and breast, prostate, lung, colon/rectal, bladder, kidney/renal, uterine, thyroid, and pancreatic cancers had the highest incidence rates. Breast cancer had the highest incidence among women (156.4 per 100,000 and prostate cancer among men (167.2 per 100,000. The presence of pain (P=0.0003, fatigue (P=0.0005, and sadness (P=0.0012 was consistently higher in cancer survivors 40–64 years old vs. non-cancer controls. Cancer survivors ≥65 years old had higher rates of any functional limitations (P=0.0039 and reported a lack of exercise (P<0.0001 compared with the non-cancer controls. However, obesity rates were similar between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Among cancer survivors, an estimated 13.5 million spent $169.4 billion a year on treatment, with the highest direct expenditures for breast cancer ($39 billion, prostate cancer ($37 billion, and hematologic malignancies ($25 billion. Prescription medications and office-based visits contributed equally as the cost drivers of direct medical spending for breast cancer, while inpatient hospitalization was the driver for prostate (52.8% and lung (38.6% cancers

  13. Nuclear R+D+I in Spanish utilities. Programs and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmacia, L.; Casero, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Spanish Utilities have traditionally devoted important resources to Research. Development and Innovation in the nuclear field in order to improve the technology and the tools needed for its proper management, as well as to increase the knowledge on the phenomena associated to a safe and reliable operation of the Spanish NPPs. The purpose of this article is to show the continuous effort of the Spanish Utilities to get that the research results better meet the NPPs needs, to improve the coordination with other national and international agents with the aim of ensuring an optimum use of the resources and capabilities, and, most of all, to permanently incorporate the lessons learned. (Author)

  14. Utility of the theory of planned behavior to predict nursing staff blood pressure monitoring behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F; Ingram, Jennifer C

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB, Ajzen 2002) - attitudes, sense of control, subjective norms and intentions - as predictors of accuracy in blood pressure monitoring. Despite numerous initiatives aimed at teaching blood pressure measurement techniques, many healthcare providers measure blood pressures incorrectly. Descriptive, cohort design. Medical assistants and licensed practical nurses were asked to complete a questionnaire on TPB variables. These nursing staff's patients had their blood pressures measured and completed a survey about techniques used to measure their blood pressure. We correlated nursing staff's responses on the TBP questionnaire with their intention to measure an accurate blood pressure and with the difference between their actual blood pressure measurement and a second measurement taken by a researcher immediately after the clinic visit. Patients' perceptions of MAs' and LPNs' blood pressure measurement techniques were examined descriptively. Perceived control and social norm predicted intention to measure an accurate blood pressure, with a negative relationship between knowledge and intention. Consistent with the TPB, intention was the only significant predictor of blood pressure measurement accuracy. Theory of planned behavior constructs predicted the healthcare providers' intention to measure blood pressure accurately and intention predicted the actual accuracy of systolic blood pressure measurement. However, participants' knowledge about blood pressure measurement had an unexpected negative relationship with their intentions. These findings have important implications for nursing education departments and organisations which traditionally invest significant time and effort in annual competency training focused on knowledge enhancement by staff. This study suggests that a better strategy might involve efforts to enhance providers' intention to change, particularly by changing social norms or increasing

  15. The Effects of Prenatal Care Utilization on Maternal Health and Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji

    2017-08-01

    While many economic studies have explored the role of prenatal care in infant health production, the literature is sporadic on the effects of prenatal care on the mother. This research contributes to this understudied but important area using a unique large dataset of sibling newborns delivered by 0.17 million mothers. We apply within-mother estimators to find robust evidence that poor prenatal care utilization due to late onset of care, low frequency of care visits, or combinations of the two significantly increases the risks of maternal insufficient gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, premature rupture of membranes, precipitous labor, no breastfeeding, postnatal underweight, and postpartum smoking. The magnitude of the estimates relative to the respective sample means of the outcome variables ranges from 3% to 33%. The results highlight the importance of receiving timely and sufficient prenatal care in improving maternal health and health behaviors during pregnancy as well as after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Consumers' and providers' perceptions of utilizing a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) programs for childhood anxiety are being developed, although research about factors that contribute to implementation of CCBT in community mental health centers (CMHC) is limited. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore consumers' and providers' perceptions of utilizing a CCBT for childhood anxiety in CMHC in an effort to identify factors that may impact implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Focus groups and interviews occurred with 7 parents, 6 children, 3 therapists, 3 project coordinators and 3 administrators who had participated in CCBT for childhood anxiety. Surveys of treatment satisfaction and treatment barriers were administered to consumers. RESULTS suggest that both consumers and providers were highly receptive to participation in and implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Implementation themes included positive receptiveness, factors related to therapists, treatment components, applicability of treatment, treatment content, initial implementation challenges, resources, dedicated staff, support, outreach, opportunities with the CMHC, payment, and treatment availability. As studies continue to demonstrate the effectiveness of CCBT for childhood anxiety, research needs to continue to examine factors that contribute to the successful implementation of such treatments in CMHC.

  17. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  18. Consequences of different strategies of free amino acid supplementation to dietary proteins for physiological utillization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of using free amino acids (AAs) as dietary constituent is sometimes lower than that of AAs derived from intact protein. The aim of the project was to evaluate dietary management conditions, which can determine the efficiency of utilization of crystalline AAs in animal diets or in

  19. A planning and analysis framework for evaluating distributed generation and utility strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ault, Graham W.

    2000-01-01

    The numbers of smaller scale distributed power generation units connected to the distribution networks of electricity utilities in the UK and elsewhere have grown significantly in recent years. Numerous economic and political drivers have stimulated this growth and continue to provide the environment for future growth in distributed generation. The simple fact that distributed generation is independent from the distribution utility complicates planning and operational tasks for the distribution network. The uncertainty relating to the number, location and type of distributed generating units to connect to the distribution network in the future makes distribution planning a particularly difficult activity. This thesis concerns the problem of distribution network and business planning in the era of distributed generation. A distributed generation strategic analysis framework is proposed to provide the required analytical capability and planning and decision making framework to enable distribution utilities to deal effectively with the challenges and opportunities presented to them by distributed generation. The distributed generation strategic analysis framework is based on the best features of modern planning and decision making methodologies and facilitates scenario based analysis across many utility strategic options and uncertainties. Case studies are presented and assessed to clearly illustrate the potential benefits of such an approach to distributed generation planning in the UK electricity supply industry. (author)

  20. Optimal strategies and complexity: a theoretical analysis of the anti-predatory behavior of the hare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, S; Rizzotto, M

    1999-09-01

    Predator-prey relationships involving rabbits and hares are widely studied at a long-term population level, while the short-term ethological interactions between one predator and one prey are less well documented. We use a physiologically-based model of hare behavior, developed in the framework of artificial intelligence studies, to analyse its sophisticated anti-predatory behavior. The hares use to stand to the fox in order to inform it that its potential prey is alerted. The behavior of the hare is characterized by specific standing and flushing distances. We show that both hare survival probability and body condition depend on habitat cover, as well as on the ability of the predator to approach-undetected-a prey. We study two anti-predatory strategies, one based on the maximization of the survival probability and the other on the maximization of the body conditions of the hare. Despite the fact that the two strategies are not independent, they are characterized by quite different behavioral patterns. Field estimates of flushing and standing distances are consistent with survival maximization. There exists an optimal anti-predatory strategy, characterized by a flushing distance of 20 m and a standing distance of 30 m, which is optimal in a large set of environmental conditions with a sharp fitness advantage with respect to suboptimal strategies. These results improve our understanding of the anti-predatory behavior of the hare and lend credibility to the optimality approach in the behavioral analysis, showing that even for complex organisms, characterized by a large network of internal constraints and feedback, it is possible to identify simple optimal strategies with a large potential for selection.

  1. Applying Instructional Design Strategies and Behavior Theory to Household Disaster Preparedness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracy N; Sobelson, Robyn K; Wigington, Corinne J; Davis, Alyson L; Harp, Victoria H; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Cioffi, Joan P

    Interventions and media campaigns promoting household disaster preparedness have produced mixed results in affecting behaviors. In large part, this is due to the limited application of instructional design strategies and behavior theory, such as the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This study describes the development and evaluation of Ready CDC, an intervention designed to increase household disaster preparedness among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workforce. (1) Describe the instructional design strategies employed in the development of Ready CDC and (2) evaluate the intervention's impact on behavior change and factors influencing stage progression for household disaster preparedness behavior. Ready CDC was adapted from the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Ready campaign. Offered to CDC staff September 2013-November 2015, it consisted of a preassessment of preparedness attitudes and behaviors, an in-person training, behavioral reinforcement communications, and a 3-month follow-up postassessment. Ready CDC employed well-accepted design strategies, including presenting stimulus material and enhancing transfer of desired behavior. Excluding those in the TTM "maintenance" stage at baseline, this study determined 44% of 208 participants progressed at least 1 stage for developing a written disaster plan. Moreover, assessment of progression by stage found among participants in the "precontemplation" (n = 16), "contemplation" (n = 15), and "preparation" (n = 125) stages at baseline for assembling an emergency kit, 25%, 27%, and 43% moved beyond the "preparation" stage, respectively. Factors influencing stage movement included knowledge, attitudes, and community resiliency but varied depending on baseline stage of change. Employing instructional strategies and behavioral theories in preparedness interventions optimizes the potential for individuals to adopt preparedness behaviors. Study findings suggest that stage movement toward

  2. Creative Persuasion: A Study on Adversarial Behaviors and Strategies in Phishing Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajivan, Prashanth; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2018-01-01

    Success of phishing attacks depend on effective exploitation of human weaknesses. This research explores a largely ignored, but crucial aspect of phishing: the adversarial behavior. We aim at understanding human behaviors and strategies that adversaries use, and how these may determine the end-user response to phishing emails. We accomplish this through a novel experiment paradigm involving two phases. In the adversarial phase, 105 participants played the role of a phishing adversary who were incentivized to produce multiple phishing emails that would evade detection and persuade end-users to respond. In the end-user phase, 340 participants performed an email management task, where they examined and classified phishing emails generated by participants in phase-one along with benign emails. Participants in the adversary role, self-reported the strategies they employed in each email they created, and responded to a test of individual creativity. Data from both phases of the study was combined and analyzed, to measure the effect of adversarial behaviors on end-user response to phishing emails. We found that participants who persistently used specific attack strategies (e.g., sending notifications, use of authoritative tone, or expressing shared interest) in all their attempts were overall more successful, compared to others who explored different strategies in each attempt. We also found that strategies largely determined whether an end-user was more likely to respond to an email immediately, or delete it. Individual creativity was not a reliable predictor of adversarial performance, but it was a predictor of an adversary's ability to evade detection. In summary, the phishing example provided initially, the strategies used, and the participants' persistence with some of the strategies led to higher performance in persuading end-users to respond to phishing emails. These insights may be used to inform tools and training procedures to detect phishing strategies in

  3. A PROTEIN UTILIZATION STRATEGY FOR SOUTH AFRICA less/s6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy to cater for the protein needs of South Africa. The projected ... Conwmption of milk in lites per capita. (Five-year ..... Raw materials required to produce l0 000 000 tons of the various ..... Gossipol is fat soluble and can be transmitted into ...

  4. Assessing Baccalaureate Advertising Education Outcome Utilizing Marketing Education Curriculum Development Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganahl, Dennis J.; Ganahl, Richard J., III

    The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the mission and scope of professional/baccalaureate advertising education with Marketing Education curriculum and instruction strategies to enhance advertising students' outcome. Sixty-five colleges and universities with advertising education departments, sequences, or areas of emphasis…

  5. Utilizing Multimedia Database Access: Teaching Strategies Using the iPad in the Dance Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostashewski, Nathaniel; Reid, Doug; Ostashewski, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    This article presents action research that identified iPad tablet technology-supported teaching strategies in a dance classroom context. Dance classrooms use instructor-accessed music as a regular element of lessons, but video is both challenging and time-consuming to produce or display. The results of this study highlight how the Apple iPad…

  6. Utility of Army Design Methodology in U.S. Coast Guard Counter Narcotic Interdiction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations...or functionality of the strategy itself. It is important to note, the interrogative process of FAS generally takes place after risk has been evaluated...confiscated 52 these fully submersible vessels in mid construction, however credible data suggests fully submersible vessels are in operation and

  7. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    22 Analysis of the Mare.....................22 Development of the Marketing Mix .. .......... 29 A Marketing Mix --Recommendations...problem. Marketing strategy, marketing mix and ultimately the marketing orientation will allow hospitals to persevere and possibly thrive in a somewhat...market are currently being met at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes. The fourth objective is to demonstrate an appropriate marketing mix for

  8. Utilizing the Brand Ecosystem Framework in Designing Branding Strategies for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Musa; Trapp, Paul; Girard, Tulay; Boyt, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In today's complex and highly competitive marketplace, universities and colleges, realizing a need to develop sustainable strategies, have turned to branding as a solution. However, because of their unique service characteristics, universities' branding attempts may not always result in success. The aim of this paper is to present a brand…

  9. Mastering Leadership Concepts through Utilizing Critical Thinking Strategies within Educational Administration Courses at Kuwait University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh; Al-Enezi, Mutlaq M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims at exploring the students' perceptions of mastering leadership concepts and critical thinking strategies implemented by faculty members in the college of education at Kuwait University, and the impact of the later on former. The data was collected using a questionnaire on a sample consisting of 411 students representing…

  10. Novel Symbol Learning-Induced Stroop Effect: Evidence for a Strategy-Based, Utility Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The automaticity level and attention priority/strategy are two major theories that have attempted to explain the mechanism underlying the Stroop effect. Training is an effective way to manipulate the experience with the two dimensions (ink color and color word) in the Stroop task. In order to distinguish the above two factors (the automaticity or…

  11. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  12. Decision Making and Behavioral Strategy: The role of regulatory focus in corporate innovation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Tunçdoğan (Aybars)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation makes use of the behavioral strategy perspective in order to examine a number of constructs pertaining to innovation in corporate settings. In particular, the dissertation consists of four studies; one conceptual and three empirical. The conceptual

  13. Voices of University Students with ADHD about Test-Taking: Behaviors, Needs, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofiesh, Nicole; Moniz, Erin; Bisagno, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the test-taking behavior, needs, and strategies of postsecondary students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), focus group comments from 17 university students with ADHD were analyzed. These comments formed the basis for a series of research studies that are in progress regarding test-taking and individuals…

  14. Harm Reduction for Cannabis: Factor Analysis of a Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Kathleen S.; Wright, Bruce R.; Maarhuis, Patricia L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of a measure of cannabis-specific Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS), which assesses ways in which students may reduce cannabis-related risk. Participants: Respondents to the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (N = 580) during Spring 2015. Methods:…

  15. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  16. Rational behavior in decision making. A comparison between humans, computers and fast and frugal strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Rational behavior in decision making. A comparison between humans, computers, and fast and frugal strategies Chris Snijders and Frits Tazelaar (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands) Real life decisions often have to be made in "noisy" circumstances: not all crucial information is

  17. Technology-Related Strategies Used by Educational Leaders to Increase Prosocial Behavior in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Jason Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify technology-related strategies used by educational leaders to increase prosocial behavior in K-12 schools. Information and communication technology (ICT) is developing at a rapid rate and is becoming more ubiquitous among students. Discovering and understanding common technology-related strategies…

  18. A Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Intervention for a Child with Asperger Syndrome: Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…

  19. The Influence of Motivational Regulation Strategies on Online Students' Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon; Yun, Heoncheol

    2018-01-01

    Providing effective motivational support is a critical determinant of a successful online distance learning experience for students in higher education. In this study, we examined how students' academic level and use of 8 motivational regulation strategies influence 3 types of student engagement: behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and…

  20. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  1. Early Child Care Teachers' Socialization Goals and Preferred Behavioral Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Ariane; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Döge, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early child care teachers' culturally shaped socialization goals and preferred behavioral strategies. The participants were 183 female teachers and trainees, 93 from Osnabrück, Germany, representing an urban Western context, which can be characterized by a primary cultural orientation toward psychological autonomy and a…

  2. The relationships between social goals, skills, and strategies and their effect on aggressive behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev

    2009-12-01

    It is widely accepted that conflict-related goals, skills, and strategies are linked. Yet it is rarely explored how these factors relate to each other and how they jointly promote or inhibit aggressive behaviors. The aim of this study is to provide answers to these questions. Data were derived from a structured questionnaire administered to 660 male and female adolescents of an average age of 14.99 years from two urban schools in northern Israel. Findings show that goals, skills, and strategies that promote or inhibit violence are positively interrelated. Furthermore, negative association was found between violence promoting and inhibiting goals, skills, and strategies. Gender differences were also analyzed. It has been found that boys display aggressive behavior more frequently then girls. Findings also show that the rate of violence promoting goals, skills, and strategies is higher among boys than among girls, whereas that of violence inhibiting ones are higher among girls than among boys. Yet when controlling the effects of goals, skills, and strategies, girls demonstrate aggressive behavior more frequently than boys. These research findings are discussed and conceptualized within the theoretical framework of social adjustment.

  3. Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies among Young Adult Veteran Marijuana Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Villarosa-Hurlocker, Margo C; Prince, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    Young adult veterans are at risk for problematic marijuana use and associated consequences, which is partially due to their high rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and problematic substance use. Veterans tend to endorse more severe and chronic mental health symptoms compared to their civilian counterparts and they identify marijuana use as a method to cope with their symptoms. Given the prevalence of marijuana use among veterans in the community and in clinical settings, it is important to explore the factors that may help minimize harm associated with use for those that choose to use the drug. The present study sought to examine the impact of protective behavioral strategies on the relationship between mental health symptoms and marijuana use and consequences in a sample of 180 young adult veteran marijuana users. Participants were recruited via social media advertisements and completed measures of marijuana use and consequences, protective behavioral strategies, and PTSD and depression symptoms. Findings indicated that more frequent use of protective behavioral strategies was associated with less marijuana use and consequences. Participants who screened positive for PTSD or depression reported more marijuana consequences than did those not positive on these screeners. Regression analyses revealed protective strategies moderated the relationship between PTSD and marijuana consequences such that young veterans who endorsed more PTSD symptoms and infrequent use of protective strategies reported the most marijuana consequences. No moderating effects were found for the relationship between depression and marijuana consequences. Findings have clinical implications for working with young veterans.

  4. Fuel utilization experience in Bohunice NPP and regulatory requirements for implementation of progressive fuel management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patenyi, V [Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Bratislava (Slovakia); Darilek, P; Majercik, J [Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1994-12-31

    The experience gained in fuel utilization and the basic requirements for fuel licensing in the Slovak NPPs is described. The original project of WWER-440 reactors supposes 3-year fuel cycle with cycle length of about 320 full power days (FPD). Since 1984 it was reduced to 290 FPD. Based on the experience of other countries, a 4-year fuel cycle utilization started in 1987. It is illustrated with data from the Bohunice NPP units. Among 504 fuel assemblies left for the fourth burnup cycle no leakage was observed. The mean burnup achieved in the different units varied from 33.1 to 38.5 Mwd/kg U. The new fuel assemblies used are different from the recent ones in construction, thermohydraulics, water-uranium ratio, enrichment and material design. To meet the safety criteria, regulatory requirements for exploitation of new fuel in WWER-440 were formulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic. 1 tab., 5 refs.

  5. Cost benefit analysis of outsourcing initiatives/strategy at water utilities corporation (Botswana) / G Mogomotsi

    OpenAIRE

    Mogomotsi, G

    2016-01-01

    After the Water Utilities Corporation adopted outsourcing as a policy initiative and operational directive various non-core functions were outsourced. This raises obvious questions as to why the Corporation suddenly decided to do this. Does the Corporation indeed benefit in terms of value addition from outsourced functions? Some of the pertinent questions include: To what extent did policy guidelines and operational measures govern the said outsourcing initiatives? What are the...

  6. Communication strategies and accommodations utilized by health care providers with hearing loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Alanna R; Matt, Susan B; Wojnara, Danuta

    2014-03-01

    Poor communication between health care providers and patients may negatively impact patient outcomes, and enhancing communication is one way to improve outcomes. Effective communication is particularly important for health care providers who have hearing loss. The authors found that a systematic survey of the communication strategies and experiences of health care providers with hearing loss had not yet been conducted. In this pilot study, 32 health care professionals with hearing loss were recruited via the Association of Medical Professionals With Hearing Losses and were asked to complete a 28-question survey. Health care providers with hearing loss already employ strategies that all health care providers are encouraged to use in order to enhance patient–provider communication, and survey participants have found the strategies to be effective. The communication techniques and assistive technologies used by individuals with hearing loss seem to be effective: All participants reported feeling able to communicate effectively with patients at least most of the time. More research is needed to determine if use of these communication techniques has similar results for health care providers without hearing loss.

  7. Conflict between place and response navigation strategies: effects on vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brandy; Papale, Andrew; Redish, A David; Markus, Etan J

    2013-02-15

    Navigation can be accomplished through multiple decision-making strategies, using different information-processing computations. A well-studied dichotomy in these decision-making strategies compares hippocampal-dependent "place" and dorsal-lateral striatal-dependent "response" strategies. A place strategy depends on the ability to flexibly respond to environmental cues, while a response strategy depends on the ability to quickly recognize and react to situations with well-learned action-outcome relationships. When rats reach decision points, they sometimes pause and orient toward the potential routes of travel, a process termed vicarious trial and error (VTE). VTE co-occurs with neurophysiological information processing, including sweeps of representation ahead of the animal in the hippocampus and transient representations of reward in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. To examine the relationship between VTE and the place/response strategy dichotomy, we analyzed data in which rats were cued to switch between place and response strategies on a plus maze. The configuration of the maze allowed for place and response strategies to work competitively or cooperatively. Animals showed increased VTE on trials entailing competition between navigational systems, linking VTE with deliberative decision-making. Even in a well-learned task, VTE was preferentially exhibited when a spatial selection was required, further linking VTE behavior with decision-making associated with hippocampal processing.

  8. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness. PMID:23840367

  9. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Okuyama

    Full Text Available Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors, microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness.

  10. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  11. A strategy for recovering continuous behavioral telemetry data from Pacific walruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Anthony S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2016-01-01

    Tracking animal behavior and movement with telemetry sensors can offer substantial insights required for conservation. Yet, the value of data collected by animal-borne telemetry systems is limited by bandwidth constraints. To understand the response of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) to rapid changes in sea ice availability, we required continuous geospatial chronologies of foraging behavior. Satellite telemetry offered the only practical means to systematically collect such data; however, data transmission constraints of satellite data-collection systems limited the data volume that could be acquired. Although algorithms exist for reducing sensor data volumes for efficient transmission, none could meet our requirements. Consequently, we developed an algorithm for classifying hourly foraging behavior status aboard a tag with limited processing power. We found a 98% correspondence of our algorithm's classification with a test classification based on time–depth data recovered and characterized through multivariate analysis in a separate study. We then applied our algorithm within a telemetry system that relied on remotely deployed satellite tags. Data collected by these tags from Pacific walruses across their range during 2007–2015 demonstrated the consistency of foraging behavior collected by this strategy with data collected by data logging tags; and demonstrated the ability to collect geospatial behavioral chronologies with minimal missing data where recovery of data logging tags is precluded. Our strategy for developing a telemetry system may be applicable to any study requiring intelligent algorithms to continuously monitor behavior, and then compress those data into meaningful information that can be efficiently transmitted.

  12. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  13. A Patient-Centered Emergency Department Management Strategy for Sickle-Cell Disease Super-Utilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grant G; Hahn, Hallie R; Powel, Alex A; Leverence, Robert R; Morris, Linda A; Thompson, Lara G; Zumberg, Marc S; Borde, Deepa J; Tyndall, Joseph A; Shuster, Jonathan J; Yealy, Donald M; Allen, Brandon R

    2017-04-01

    A subpopulation of sickle-cell disease patients, termed super-utilizers, presents frequently to emergency departments (EDs) for vaso-occlusive events and may consume disproportionate resources without broader health benefit. To address the healthcare needs of this vulnerable patient population, we piloted a multidisciplinary intervention seeking to create and use individualized patient care plans that alter utilization through coordinated care. Our goals were to assess feasibility primarily, and to assess resource use secondarily. We evaluated the effects of a single-site interventional study targeted at a population of adult sickle-cell disease super-utilizers using a pre- and post-implementation design. The pre-intervention period was 06/01/13 to 12/31/13 (seven months) and the post-intervention period was 01/01/14 to 02/28/15 (14 months). Our approach included patient-specific best practice advisories (BPA); an ED management protocol; and formation of a "medical home" for these patients. For 10 subjects targeted initially we developed and implemented coordinated care plans; after deployment, we observed a tendency toward reduction in ED and inpatient utilization across all measured indices. Between the annualized pre- and post-implementation periods we found the following: ED visits decreased by 16.5 visits/pt-yr (95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.32-34.2]); ED length of state (LOS) decreased by 115.3 hours/pt-yr (95% CI [-82.9-313.5]); in-patient admissions decreased by 4.20 admissions/pt-yr (95% CI [-1.73-10.1]); in-patient LOS decreased by 35.8 hours/pt-yr (95% CI [-74.9-146.7]); and visits where the patient left before treatment were reduced by an annualized total of 13.7 visits. We observed no patient mortality in our 10 subjects, and no patient required admission to the intensive care unit 72 hours following discharge. This effort suggests that a targeted approach is both feasible and potentially effective, laying a foundation for broader study.

  14. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid-base neutralization reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huabing; Wan Jiangling; Wang Yirui; Mou Dongsheng; Liu Hongbin; Xu Huibi; Yang Xiangliang

    2008-01-01

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries

  15. Adiabatic quantum games and phase-transition-like behavior between optimal strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponte, M. A.; Santos, Alan C.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we propose a game of a single qubit whose strategies can be implemented adiabatically. In addition, we show how to implement the strategies of a quantum game through controlled adiabatic evolutions, where we analyze the payment of a quantum player for various situations of interest: (1) when the players receive distinct payments, (2) when the initial state is an arbitrary superposition, and (3) when the device that implements the strategy is inefficient. Through a graphical analysis, it is possible to notice that the curves that represent the gains of the players present a behavior similar to the curves that give rise to a phase transition in thermodynamics. These transitions are associated with optimal strategy changes and occur in the absence of entanglement and interaction between the players.

  16. CACNA1C gene regulates behavioral strategies in operant rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Georgia; Mallien, Anne Stephanie; Berger, Stefan; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral experiments are usually designed to tap into a specific cognitive function, but animals may solve a given task through a variety of different and individual behavioral strategies, some of them not foreseen by the experimenter. Animal learning may therefore be seen more as the process of selecting among, and adapting, potential behavioral policies, rather than mere strengthening of associative links. Calcium influx through high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is central to synaptic plasticity, and altered expression of Cav1.2 channels and the CACNA1C gene have been associated with severe learning deficits and psychiatric disorders. Given this, we were interested in how specifically a selective functional ablation of the Cacna1c gene would modulate the learning process. Using a detailed, individual-level analysis of learning on an operant cue discrimination task in terms of behavioral strategies, combined with Bayesian selection among computational models estimated from the empirical data, we show that a Cacna1c knockout does not impair learning in general but has a much more specific effect: the majority of Cacna1c knockout mice still managed to increase reward feedback across trials but did so by adapting an outcome-based strategy, while the majority of matched controls adopted the experimentally intended cue-association rule. Our results thus point to a quite specific role of a single gene in learning and highlight that much more mechanistic insight could be gained by examining response patterns in terms of a larger repertoire of potential behavioral strategies. The results may also have clinical implications for treating psychiatric disorders.

  17. Impact of Predicting Health Care Utilization Via Web Search Behavior: A Data-Driven Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vibhu; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhu, Josh; Fang, Shiyuan; Cheng, Tim; Hong, Chloe; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Background By recent estimates, the steady rise in health care costs has deprived more than 45 million Americans of health care services and has encouraged health care providers to better understand the key drivers of health care utilization from a population health management perspective. Prior studies suggest the feasibility of mining population-level patterns of health care resource utilization from observational analysis of Internet search logs; however, the utility of the endeavor to the...

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of In-Home Tele-Behavioral Health Care Utilizing Behavioral Activation for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    therapy for depressed low-income homebound older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 263–271. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.037 Cohen, S...frequently co-occurs with other conditions, such as PTSD and physical injuries among military personnel and Veterans and can slow recovery and return...the relative clinical efficacy of HBTBH. Key Words Behavioral Activation (BA) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Depression Military Post

  19. Embedded Prompting May Function as Embedded Punishment: Detection of Unexpected Behavioral Processes within a Typical Preschool Teaching Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Nicole A.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes an unexpected behavioral process that influenced behavior during the teaching of concepts to a 4-year-old girl. The efficacy of and preference for three strategies that varied in teacher directedness were assessed in a multielement design and concurrent-chains arrangement, respectively. The strategy that involved the most…

  20. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  1. Strategies for memory-based decision making: Modeling behavioral and neural signatures within a cognitive architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Hanna B; Pachur, Thorsten; Schooler, Lael J; Mehlhorn, Katja; Battal, Ceren; Volz, Kirsten G; Borst, Jelmer P

    2016-12-01

    How do people use memories to make inferences about real-world objects? We tested three strategies based on predicted patterns of response times and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses: one strategy that relies solely on recognition memory, a second that retrieves additional knowledge, and a third, lexicographic (i.e., sequential) strategy, that considers knowledge conditionally on the evidence obtained from recognition memory. We implemented the strategies as computational models within the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture, which allowed us to derive behavioral and neural predictions that we then compared to the results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which participants inferred which of two cities is larger. Overall, versions of the lexicographic strategy, according to which knowledge about many but not all alternatives is searched, provided the best account of the joint patterns of response times and BOLD responses. These results provide insights into the interplay between recognition and additional knowledge in memory, hinting at an adaptive use of these two sources of information in decision making. The results highlight the usefulness of implementing models of decision making within a cognitive architecture to derive predictions on the behavioral and neural level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A content analysis of preconception health education materials: characteristics, strategies, and clinical-behavioral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Denise M; Westbrook, Kyresa

    2013-01-01

    Many health organizations and practitioners in the United States promote preconception health (PCH) to consumers. However, summaries and evaluations of PCH promotional activities are limited. We conducted a content analysis of PCH health education materials collected from local-, state-, national-, and federal-level partners by using an existing database of partners, outreach to maternal and child health organizations, and a snowball sampling technique. Not applicable. Not applicable. Thirty-two materials were included for analysis, based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. A codebook guided coding of materials' characteristics (type, authorship, language, cost), use of marketing and behavioral strategies to reach the target population (target audience, message framing, call to action), and inclusion of PCH subject matter (clinical-behavioral components). The self-assessment of PCH behaviors was the most common material (28%) to appear in the sample. Most materials broadly targeted women, and there was a near-equal distribution in targeting by pregnancy planning status segments (planners and nonplanners). "Practicing PCH benefits the baby's health" was the most common message frame used. Materials contained a wide range of clinical-behavioral components. Strategic targeting of subgroups of consumers is an important but overlooked strategy. More research is needed around PCH components, in terms of packaging and increasing motivation, which could guide use and placement of clinical-behavioral components within promotional materials.

  3. Population health-based approaches to utilizing digital technology: a strategy for equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth N; Ostrowski, MaryLynn; Sabina, Alyse B

    2016-11-01

    Health care disparities and high chronic disease rates burden many communities and disproportionally impact racial/ethnic populations in the United States. These disparities vary geographically, increase health care expenses, and result in shortened lifespans. Digital technologies may be one tool for addressing health disparities and improving population health by increasing individuals' access to health information-especially as most low-income U.S. residents gain access to smartphones. The Aetna Foundation partners with organizations to use digital technologies, including mobile applications, data collection, and related platforms, for learning and sharing. Projects range from the broad-childhood education, lifestyle modification, health IT training, and nutrition education, to the specific-local healthy foods, stroke rehabilitation, and collection of city-level data. We describe our approaches to grantmaking and discuss lessons learned and their implications. When combined with sound policy strategies, emerging, scalable, digital technologies will likely become powerful allies for improving health and reducing health disparities.

  4. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.; Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews the status and prospects of photovoltaic power systems and the R and D trends (silicon performances, thin films, balance of systems components), and describes the market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems: at the short and medium term level, isolated systems for rural electricity supply in IEA member countries and decentralized energy supply (remote users and village power) in developing countries; at the medium and long term level, decentralized building integration in urban and rural areas, power stations for peak power and local grid support. The objectives of the IEA collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries are summarized, with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. 4 figs

  5. The Utilization of Media in Marketing Strategy in the Syafira Pekanbaru Hospital on 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leon candra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of media in the marketing strategy is an element of marketing tactics in an attempt to capture the market. Indicators of success are increased traffic promotions. Based on a survey conducted through interviews known that since the beginning of the Hospital stood own promotional programs, such as promotion through print media (brochures, leaflets, banners, electronic media (TV and online media (official site. The purpose of this study is to obtain in-depth information about the use of media in the marketing strategy at the Hospital Syafira 2016. This study was descriptive qualitative. The study was conducted at Hospital Syafira Pekanbaru. Subject of the study consisted of 3 main informant, 3 people informant support. With the method of collecting data through observation, interviews dam has the document. To maintain the validity of the data is done by means of triangulation. The results of the study, targeted communication of the Hospital is the whole society is in need of health services as well as the expected response from the target of the media campaign is limited only to find out the services that exist at the hospital. In setting the amount of the budget into the specific factors that need to be considered, namely in terms of the frequency of advertising and market share. Determining the message is done by involving the community or visitors. Selection of the budget available media that is using print media such as brochures, leaflets, banners, billboards, online media and social media such as facebook, twitter, instagram, specific media type is most effective is to use the brochure. Suggestions to the hospital, to determine the target of communication. Paying attention to the message, not just to provide information services, but the message may cause awareness or attention, interest, create desire, and encourage action. Managing back rssyafira.com website which until now have been inaccessible again

  6. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Designing management strategies for carbon dioxide storage and utilization under uncertainty using inexact modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Jie; Xu, Ye; Sun, Wei; Chen, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Effective application of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) systems could help to alleviate the influence of climate change by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The research objective of this study is to develop an equilibrium chance-constrained programming model with bi-random variables (ECCP model) for supporting the CCUS management system under random circumstances. The major advantage of the ECCP model is that it tackles random variables as bi-random variables with a normal distribution, where the mean values follow a normal distribution. This could avoid irrational assumptions and oversimplifications in the process of parameter design and enrich the theory of stochastic optimization. The ECCP model is solved by an equilibrium change-constrained programming algorithm, which provides convenience for decision makers to rank the solution set using the natural order of real numbers. The ECCP model is applied to a CCUS management problem, and the solutions could be useful in helping managers to design and generate rational CO2-allocation patterns under complexities and uncertainties.

  8. Utilization of emergency medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddeback, Gary; Patterson, P Daniel; Moore, Charity Galena; Brice, Jane H

    2010-04-01

    Emergency medical services transport and emergency department misuse among persons with behavioral health conditions is a concern. Administrative data were used to examine medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions. Data on 70,126 medical transports to emergency departments in three southeastern counties were analyzed. Compared with general medical transports, fewer behavioral health transports resulted in a hospital admission. Among behavioral health transports, persons with schizophrenia were 2.62 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted, and persons with mood disorders were 4.36 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted. Also, among behavioral health transports, rural transports were less likely than more urban transports to result in a hospital admission. More training of emergency medical services personnel and more behavioral health crisis resources, especially targeting rural areas and substance use disorders, are needed.

  9. Real-Time Multifault Rush Repairing Strategy Based on Utility Theory and Multiagent System in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of multifault rush repair in distribution networks (DNs is a multiobjective dynamic combinatorial problem with topology constraints. The problem consists of archiving an optimal faults’ allocation strategy to squads and an admissible multifault rush repairing strategy with coordinating switch operations. In this article, the utility theory is introduced to solve the first problem and a new discrete bacterial colony chemotaxis (DBCC algorithm is proposed for the second problem to determine the optimal sequence for each squad to repair faults and the corresponding switch operations. The above solution is called the two-stage approach. Additionally, a double mathematical optimization model based on the fault level is proposed in the second stage to minimize the outage loss and total repairing time. The real-time adjustment multiagent system (RA-MAS is proposed to provide facility to achieve online multifault rush repairing strategy in DNs when there are emergencies after natural disasters. The two-stage approach is illustrated with an example from a real urban distribution network and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the two-stage approach.

  10. Integrating Educational, Environmental, and Behavioral Economic Strategies May Improve the Effectiveness of Obesity Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Gittelsohn; Katherine Lee

    2013-01-01

    Interventions that change the food environment, provide nutrition education, and employ behavioral economics strategies can potentially contribute to healthier diets and reduce the risk of chronic disease, but no attempt has been made to integrate these into the same conceptual framework. We present case studies of three multilevel, integrated interventions implemented by Johns Hopkins University between 2004–2011. We develop a conceptual model based on these case studies. Interventions and p...

  11. Foraging strategies of the Galapagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus Cristatus): adapting behavioral rules to ontogenetic size change

    OpenAIRE

    Wikelski, Martin; Trillmich, Fritz

    1994-01-01

    Ontogenetic development in reptiles entails major changes in size-related foraging options. We studied the changes in foraging behavior of marine iguanas. In this species, size increases about twenty- to hundredfold from hatching to full adult size. The foraging strategy of marine iguanas was studied at Miedo on Santa Fe Island in the Galapagos archipelago During low tide, large marine iguanas (>250 mm snout vent length (SVL)) foraged more in the lower intertidal than small ones (

  12. Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M Kit; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K; Halpern, Scott D; Buttenheim, Alison M; Setubal, Claudia; Huang, Yanlan; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Lee, Yi-Ching

    2018-04-13

    The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey. Survey instruments measured willingness to give up cellphone use and perceptions of technological and behavioral economic strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving. We used Chi-square tests to test the hypothesis that willingness to give up certain types of cellphone use while driving and the perceptions of strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving would differ by self-reported frequency of texting while driving in the past 30 days (low [1-5 days] vs. high [6 or more days]. Most teens were willing or somewhat willing to give up reading texts (90%), sending texts (95%), and social media (99%) while driving. However they were not willing to give up navigation (59%) and music applications (43%). Those who engaged in high-frequency texting while driving were more likely to say they were not willing to give up navigation applications (73% vs. 44%, P distraction (86%). The predominant reason for not wanting to use this technology was not wanting parents to monitor their behavior (60%). Promising strategies for increasing acceptance of cellphone blocking technology among teen drivers include automated screen locking and permitting hands-free navigation and music combined with behavioral economic incentives to sustain engagement.

  13. The Indian Sundarban Mangrove Forests: History, Utilization, Conservation Strategies and Local Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Ghosh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Covering approximately 10,000 km2 the Sundarbans in the Northern Bay of Bengal is the largest contiguous mangrove forest on earth. Mangroves forests are highly productive and diverse ecosystems, providing a wide range of direct ecosystem services for resident populations. In addition, mangroves function as a buffer against frequently occurring cyclones; helping to protect local settlements including the two most populous cities of the world, Kolkata and Dhaka, against their worst effects. While large tracts of the Indian Sundarbans were cleared, drained and reclaimed for cultivation during the British colonial era, the remaining parts have been under various protection regimes since the 1970s, primarily to protect the remaining population of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. tigris. In view of the importance of such forests, now severely threatened worldwide, we trace the areal change that the Indian Sundarbans have undergone over the last two-and-a-half centuries. We apply a multi-temporal and multi-scale approach based on historical maps and remote sensing data to detect changes in mangrove cover. While the mangroves’ areal extent has not changed much in the recent past, forest health and structure have. These changes result from direct human interference, upstream development, extreme weather events and the slow onset of climate change effects. Moreover, we consider the role of different management strategies affecting mangrove conservation and their intersection with local livelihoods.

  14. Utilizing constructivism learning theory in collaborative testing as a creative strategy to promote essential nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Barbara T; Satre, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    In nursing education, students participate in individual learner testing. This process follows the instructionist learning theory of a system model. However, in the practice of nursing, success depends upon collaboration with numerous people in different capacities, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and the ability to communicate with others. Research has shown that collaborative testing, a constructivism learning activity and a form of collaborative learning, enhances students' abilities to master these areas. Collaborative testing is a clear, creative strategy which constructivists would say supports the socio-linguistic base of their learning theory. The test becomes an active implementation of peer-mediated learning where individual knowledge is enhanced through problem solving or defense of an individual position with the collaborative method. There is criticism for the testing method's potential of grade inflation and for students to receive grade benefits with little effort. After a review of various collaborative testing methods, this nursing faculty implemented a collaborative testing format that addresses both the positive and negative aspects of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing team leadership to facilitate guideline utilization: planning and evaluating a 3-month intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Wendy; Davies, Barbara; Tourangeau, Ann; Lefebre, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Research describes leadership as important to guideline use. Yet interventions to develop current and future leaders for this purpose are not well understood. To describe the planning and evaluation of a leadership intervention to facilitate nurses' use of guideline recommendations for diabetic foot ulcers in home health care. Planning the intervention involved a synthesis of theory and research (qualitative interviews and chart audits). One workshop and three follow-up teleconferences were delivered at two sites to nurse managers and clinical leaders (n=15) responsible for 180 staff nurses. Evaluation involved workshop surveys and interviews. Highest rated intervention components (four-point scale) were: identification of target indicators (mean 3.7), and development of a team leadership action plan (mean 3.5). Pre-workshop barriers assessment rated lowest (mean 2.9). Three months later participants indicated their leadership performance had changed as a result of the intervention, being more engaged with staff and clear about implementation goals. Creating a team leadership action plan to operationalize leadership behaviours can help in delivery of evidence-informed care. Access to clinical data and understanding team leadership knowledge and skills prior to formal training will assist nursing management in tailoring intervention strategies to identify needs and gaps. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Strategie zachowan konsumpcyjnych seniorow na rynku dobr i uslug konsumpcyjnych. (Strategy of consumer behavior of the elderly on the market of consumer foods and services.)

    OpenAIRE

    Felicjan Bylok

    2013-01-01

    In the paper entitled: “Strategy of consumer behavior of the elderly on the market of consumer foods and services” the subject matter for analysis was deemed to be the consumer behavior of the elderly. The author is searching for the answer to the following questions: What are the specifics of the behavior of the elderly on the market of foods and services? What are the factors determining the consumer behavior of the elderly? What types of purchasing behavior are most frequently encountered ...

  17. Coping strategies of caregivers towards aggressive behaviors of persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathumkovilakath, Neethu Bhaskaran; Kizhakkeppattu, Sindhu; Thekekunnath, Saleem; Kazhungil, Firoz

    2018-04-24

    Aggression is one of the chief determinants of caregiver burden in severe mental illnesses. Clinical and treatment implications of aggression in mental illness are predominantly studied in perspectives of mental health care professionals. Coping style of caregivers towards aggression of persons with mental illness is understudied. So we studied coping strategies used by caregivers of patients with severe mental illness towards aggressive behaviors of patients and relationship between aggressive behavior and coping strategies. We assessed two hundreds and seventy caregivers of patients with severe mental illness attending outpatient psychiatry department using Modified Overt Aggression Scale and the Ways of Coping Scale - revised. 95.6% of the caregivers perceived verbal aggression followed by aggression against property (67%), auto aggression (33.7%) and physical aggression (25.6%). The study revealed that adaptive coping strategies - planful problem solving and seeking social support were used by 40% each of caregivers to deal with aggressive behavior. Only 4.4% of caregivers resorted to escape avoidance which is maladaptive coping strategy. Though adaptive strategies were used by caregivers these were not used in appropriate situations. Physical aggression and aggression against property were not significantly associated with planful problem solving (r = 0.105; p = 0.08 and r = 0.110; p = 0.07 respectively). But verbal aggression, aggression against property and physical aggression were associated with escape avoidance (r = 0.152; p = 0.01 and r = 0.168; p = 0.01 and r = 0.23; p = mental illness is maladaptive with respect to aggression. Coping skills training would play a major role to address this issue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unravelling evolutionary strategies of yeast for improving galactose utilization through integrated systems level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Vemuri, Goutham N; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-07-19

    Identification of the underlying molecular mechanisms for a derived phenotype by adaptive evolution is difficult. Here, we performed a systems-level inquiry into the metabolic changes occurring in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a result of its adaptive evolution to increase its specific growth rate on galactose and related these changes to the acquired phenotypic properties. Three evolved mutants (62A, 62B, and 62C) with higher specific growth rates and faster specific galactose uptake were isolated. The evolved mutants were compared with a reference strain and two engineered strains, SO16 and PGM2, which also showed higher galactose uptake rate in previous studies. The profile of intermediates in galactose metabolism was similar in evolved and engineered mutants, whereas reserve carbohydrates metabolism was specifically elevated in the evolved mutants and one evolved strain showed changes in ergosterol biosynthesis. Mutations were identified in proteins involved in the global carbon sensing Ras/PKA pathway, which is known to regulate the reserve carbohydrates metabolism. We evaluated one of the identified mutations, RAS2(Tyr112), and this mutation resulted in an increased specific growth rate on galactose. These results show that adaptive evolution results in the utilization of unpredicted routes to accommodate increased galactose flux in contrast to rationally engineered strains. Our study demonstrates that adaptive evolution represents a valuable alternative to rational design in bioengineering of improved strains and, that through systems biology, it is possible to identify mutations in evolved strain that can serve as unforeseen metabolic engineering targets for improving microbial strains for production of biofuels and chemicals.

  19. Analyzing electric utility NO{sub x} emission allowance trading strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selker, F.

    2005-04-01

    This article presented a computer model designed to help power producers negotiate the nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) emission allowance (EA) market. Created in 1999, the EA market poses a serious constraint to utilities and has the potential to substantially increase total power productions costs and to force plant shutdowns if emissions exceed limits. The market was created in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, with the goal of effectively reducing the cost of summer ozone levels. Over 450 sources in the Northeast regions receive an allocation of NO{sub x} allowances to cover their NO{sub x} emissions during the May to September period. Various uncertainties created by the market were examined, including late summer heat waves and nuclear outages, both of which could boost emissions during times when offsets are difficult to initiate. Weather, planning and plant outages were also discussed. Supply shortages were considered along with issues concerning the model's ability to assess options and uncertainties. The feasibility of the emissions allowance acting as a viable buffer was also evaluated. It was noted that the net cost of buying and selling allowances during the NO{sub x} season varied with inventory levels. A hypothetical analysis of a NO{sub x} inventory was presented. It was suggested that purchasing options to buy allowances offered another hedge against NO{sub x} EA shortages and noncompliance. It was concluded that the model allowed users to explore the cost and risk tradeoffs of various combinations. 5 figs.

  20. Effect of vaccination strategies on the dynamic behavior of epidemic spreading and vaccine coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Chao-Ran; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of infectious, yet vaccine-preventable, diseases is a typical complex social phenomenon, where the increasing level of vaccine update in the population helps to inhibit the epidemic spreading, which in turn, however, discourages more people to participate in vaccination campaigns, due to the “externality effect” raised by vaccination. We herein study the impact of vaccination strategies, pure, continuous (rather than adopt vaccination definitely, the individuals choose to taking vaccine with some probabilities), or continuous with randomly mutation, on the vaccination dynamics with a spatial susceptible-vaccinated-infected-recovered (SVIR) epidemiological model. By means of extensive Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that there is a crossover behavior of the final vaccine coverage between the pure-strategy case and the continuous-strategy case, and remarkably, both the final vaccination level and epidemic size in the continuous-strategy case are less than them in the pure-strategy case when vaccination is cheap. We explain this phenomenon by analyzing the organization process of the individuals in the continuous-strategy case in the equilibrium. Our results are robust to the SVIR dynamics defined on other spatial networks, like the Erdős–Rényi and Barabási–Albert networks

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of In-Home Tele-Behavioral Health Care Utilizing Behavioral Activation for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Std. Z39.18 2 Table of Contents ...not entirely disregarded in BA for PTSD; rumination and worry, as well as feelings of anxiety and panic, are common obstacles to the completion of...scheduled activities, and are therefore addressed on an ongoing, as needed basis. In this protocol, rumination and worry are treated as behavior and

  2. Economic considerations of plutonium utilization in the nuclear power strategy of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Tusa, E.; Routti, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the current and prospected share of nuclear power in the national energy supply strategy an optimal programme is developed for exploitation of plutonium in both light water and fast reactor systems. Assuming cost trends until and beyond the year 2000 for uranium, plutonium, uranium enrichment, fuel fabricaton and assessing the availability of plutonium from the domestic power plants and from abroad the nuclear construction programme is optimized economically in view of the estimated development in the investment costs of various plant types. Given the expected nuclear share of the energy procurement this sector is covered by the alternative production schemes, i.e. light water reactors with and without plutonium recycle and fast reactors. The plant sizes are allowed to be either 500 MWe or 1000 MWe. The installation dates are fixed manually with a minor flexibility of time but with all the three degrees of freedom in the plant types. Defining the objective function in terms of minimized revenue requirement in plant amortization and operation the generated scenarios are screened off and they finally converge to the optimal policy of nuclear power construction up to the year 2000. Special attention is placed on the constraints which eliminate excessive proliferation of reactor types. This is mainly implemented by the criterion of increasing the domestic share in the investments. The established technology is associated with a larger share of the Finnish manufacturing and the introduction of new fuel or reactor type is taken to correspond to a reduced domestic investment share. The results yield the time schedule and installed capacity of the three different production means. Due to the uncertainties prevailing in the forecasts sensitivity studies are performed as functions of the major economic parameters and their temporal development

  3. Economic considerations of plutonium utilization in the nuclear power strategy of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Tusa, E.; Routti, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the current and predicted share of nuclear power in the national energy supply strategy, an optimal programme is developed for the exploitation of plutonium in both light-water and fast reactor systems. Assuming cost trends beyond the year 2000 for uranium, plutonium, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and assessing the availability of plutonium from domestic power plants and from abroad, the nuclear construction programme is optimized economically in view of the estimated development in the investment costs of various plant types. Given the expected nuclear share of the energy procurement this sector is covered by the alternative production schemes, i.e. light-water reactors with and without plutonium recycle, and fast reactors. Defining the objective function in terms of minimized revenue requirement in plant amortization and operation the generated scenarios are screened off and they finally converge to the optimal policy of nuclear power construction up to the year 2000. The established technology is associated with a larger share of the domestic manufacturing and the introduction of a new fuel or reactor type is taken to correspond to a reduced domestic investment share. In the investment costs the domestic fraction is regarded competitive up to a certain marginal excess. Plutonium recycle is seen to be competitive from 1985 or as soon as the required amount of fuel has been reprocessed. The domestic accumulation of plutonium will be able to support the introduction of the LMFBR in 1997. Owing to the uncertainties prevailing in the forecasts, sensitivity studies are performed as functions of the major economic parameters and their temporal development. (author)

  4. Investigations on fabricating strategies and utilization of rare earth based multicomponent oxide powders in radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Seema; Pitale, S.S.; Banthia, S.; Ghosh, M.; Tyagi, M.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Materials containing rare earths demonstrate a broad field of applications as high energy radiation detectors, mainly due to their fascinating optical properties. Currently, Ce 3+ -doped rare earth silicates and garnets dominate the scintillator market because they show a high light yield, fast decay time, and high chemical stability. Moreover, the emission wavelength of silicates (410-440 nm) matches the wavelength sensitivity of conventional PMTs while, Si-photo-detector readouts are possible with garnets (emission near 550 nm). The composition, structure and phase of rare earth silicates are rather complex. For example, there are many phases like oxyorthosilicate R 2 SiO 5 , disilicate R 2 Si 2 O 7 , hexagonal R x (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 oxyapatite etc (where R= Rare earth element). The controlled synthesis of single phase rare earth silicates and garnets nanomaterials is not easy and can only be reached with precisely controlled experimental conditions. In this work, we provide a broad overview of our recent scientific developments linked to a few aspects of synthesizing cerium activated rare earth based silicates and garnet materials, namely Gd 2 SiO 5 :Ce 3+ , Gd 4.67 (SiO 4 ) 3 O, Gd 2 Si 2 O 7 :Ce 3+ and Gd 3 Al x Ga 1-x O 12 :Ce 3+ (where 0≤x≤5) exploiting the advantages of solution combustion, chemical co-precipitation and hydrothermal techniques. A brief summary of results based on synthesis strategy adopted, composition, size shape and corresponding luminescence features of Gd based compounds are tabulated. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) features of compounds listed. Efforts towards finding new properties and new materials will be continued and several applications, in particular energy-conversion and scintillator detectors, will benefit from these rare earth materials

  5. Suspected placenta accreta and cesarean hysterectomy: observational cohort utilizing an intraoperative decision strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F; Kabiri, Doron; Ginosar, Yehuda; Ezra, Yossef; Shachar, BatZion; Lyell, Deirdre J

    2016-03-01

    Planned cesarean hysterectomy (CH) is recommended to minimize morbidity for suspected placenta accreta (PA), yet this ends fertility. We examined CH frequency and post-operative morbidities for suspected PA cases when an intra-operative decision strategy to perform CH was used. Suspected PA cases were pre-operatively identified in one tertiary care center. Women were assessed intra-operatively, prior to uterine incision, for immediate CH or for attempted placental separation. We compared outcomes among women with versus without PA (surgical and/or pathologic diagnosis), and examined outcomes following immediate CH versus attempted placental separation. Our cohort, from 2002 to 2012, comprised 99 women with suspected PA; 54 (54.5%) had PA diagnosed by surgery/pathology, and 45 (45.5%) did not. Among women diagnoses surgically or pathologically with PA, CH was performed for 46/54 (85%); 8 women with suspected PA had successful placental separation. 27 of the 46 CH were performed immediately following uterine wall examination and 19 were performed following attempted placental separation. We received histological confirmation of the clinical placenta accreta diagnosis for 24/46 (52.2%) cases, and in 22/46 (47.8%) cases the histology did not confirm the clinical diagnosis. Surgery duration, packed cell transfusion requirement and postoperative outcomes were similar among women with PA regardless of immediate CH versus attempted placental separation, except for a higher cystotomy rates following attempted placental separation. Emergency deliveries were performed at significantly earlier gestational ages. Among women with suspected PA, an intra-operative CH decision allows some women to avoid CH. Consideration of attempted placental separation did not increase blood transfusion or post-operative complications, but was associated with a higher rate of cystotomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  7. Science laboratory behavior strategies of students relative to performance in and attitude to laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    The relationship between science laboratory behavior strategies of students and performance in and attitude to laboratory work was investigated in an observational study of 160 laboratory sessions involving 600 class five (eleventh grade) biology students. Zero-order correlations between the behavior strategies and outcome measures reveal a set of low to strong relationships. Transmitting information, listening and nonlesson related behaviors exhibited low correlations with practical skills and the attitude measure. The correlations between manipulating apparatus and observation with practical skills measures were found to be strong. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the behaviors of students in the laboratories observed accounted for a large percentage of the variance in the scores on manipulative skills and a low percentage on interpretation of data, responsibility, initiative, and work habits. One significant canonical correlation emerged. The loadings on this canonical variate indicate that the practical skills measures, i.e., planning and design, manipulative skills and conduct of experiments, observation and recording of data, and attitude to laboratory work made primary contributions to the canonical relationship. Suggestions as to how students can be encouraged to go beyond cookbook-like laboratories and develop a more favorable attitude to laboratory work are made.

  8. Self-Regulatory Strategies as Correlates of Physical Activity Behavior in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Katie L; Balto, Julia M; Motl, Robert W

    2018-05-01

    To examine self-regulation strategies as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional, or survey, study. University-based research laboratory. Convenience sample of persons with MS (N=68). Not applicable. Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), 12-item Physical Activity Self-Regulation Scale (PASR-12), and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Correlation analyses indicated that GLTEQ scores were positively and significantly associated with overall self-regulation (r=.43), self-monitoring (r=.45), goal-setting (r=.27), reinforcement (r=.30), time management (r=.41), and relapse prevention (r=.53) PASR-12 scores. Regression analyses indicated that relapse prevention (B=5.01; SE B=1.74; β=.51) and self-monitoring (B=3.65; SE B=1.71; β=.33) were unique predictors of physical activity behavior, and relapse prevention demonstrated a significant association with physical activity behavior that was accounted for by EXSE. Our results indicate that self-regulatory strategies, particularly relapse prevention, may be important correlates of physical activity behavior that can inform the design of future behavioral interventions in MS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Optimization of behavioral, biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST)

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Linda M

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a framework for development, optimization, and evaluation of behavioral,  biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions.  Behavioral, biobehavioral, and biomedical interventions are programs with the objective of improving and maintaining human health and well-being, broadly defined, in individuals, families, schools, organizations, or communities.  These interventions may be aimed at, for example, preventing or treating disease, promoting physical and mental health, preventing violence, or improving academic achievement.   This volume introduces the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST), pioneered at The Methodology Center at the Pennsylvania State University, as an alternative to the classical approach of relying solely on the randomized controlled trial (RCT).  MOST borrows heavily from perspectives taken and approaches used in engineering, and also integrates concepts from statistics and behavioral science, including the RCT.  As described in detail in this book, MOST consists of ...

  10. ACCUMULATION MODEL OF EXPOSURE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR AT REALIZATION OF COPING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Victorovich Gryzunov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern industrial society people live under the internal risks which induce various critical situations. For keeping reliability of his activity and personal safety a person is forced to take quick determinations. This article presents research of coping strategies by examinee students. It allows to project this behavior on real industrial process and educe elements of working society, which make persons either solve problems or search for social support or avoid problem. And researching of students behavior leads to analysis of employee relations in produced process, which lead to analysis of work and people in total. If we don’t follow the rules of employee relations and person behavior it leads to breakdown with deadly injured.

  11. Social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college drinkers: do protective behavioral strategies mediate the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    The link between social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students has been well documented. Protective behavioral strategies are cognitive-behavioral strategies that college students use in an effort to reduce harm while they are drinking. In the current study we examined the mediating role of the 2 categories of protective behavioral strategies (i.e., controlled consumption and serious harm reduction) in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 572 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, alcohol use, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Only serious harm reduction strategies emerged as a mediator of the association that social anxiety symptoms had with alcohol-related negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  12. Recent advances in microbial production of mannitol: utilization of low-cost substrates, strain development and regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Gu, Lei; Cheng, Chao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Xin, Fengxue; Liu, Junli; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min

    2018-02-26

    Mannitol has been widely used in fine chemicals, pharmaceutical industries, as well as functional foods due to its excellent characteristics, such as antioxidant protecting, regulation of osmotic pressure and non-metabolizable feature. Mannitol can be naturally produced by microorganisms. Compared with chemical manufacturing, microbial production of mannitol provides high yield and convenience in products separation; however the fermentative process has not been widely adopted yet. A major obstacle to microbial production of mannitol under industrial-scale lies in the low economical efficiency, owing to the high cost of fermentation medium, leakage of fructose, low mannitol productivity. In this review, recent advances in improving the economical efficiency of microbial production of mannitol were reviewed, including utilization of low-cost substrates, strain development for high mannitol yield and process regulation strategies for high productivity.

  13. Analysis of strategies for improving uranium utilization in pressurized water reactors. Annual technical progress report for FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefcik, J.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic procedures have been devised and applied to evaluate core design and fuel management strategies for improving uranium utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors operated on a once-through fuel cycle. A principal objective has been the evaluation of suggested improvements on a self-consistent basis, allowing for concurrent changes in dependent variables such as core leakage and batch power histories, which might otherwise obscure the sometimes subtle effects of interest. Two levels of evaluation have been devised: a simple but accurate analytic model based on the observed linear variations in assembly reactivity as a function of burnup; and a numerical approach, embodied in a computer program, which relaxes this assumption and combines it with empirical prescriptions for assembly (or batch) power as a function of reactivity, and core leakage as a function of peripheral assembly power. State-of-the-art physics methods, such as PDQ-7, were used to verify and supplement these techniques

  14. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  15. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barbieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs as measure of benefit and conducted in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands or the UK were included. Results: A total of 94 studies were identified. As a result of our search methodology, the vast majority of studies were conducted in the Netherlands or UK (33 and 30 studies, respectively. The most frequent vaccination types were against Human papillomavirus (HPV with 23 studies, followed by vaccination against pneumococcal infections (19 studies. The analysed vaccinations were generally cost-effective but with high variability. Considering an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 40,000€/QALY, we noticed that the following vaccinations studies are below this threshold, i.e. all varicella and influenza (with one outlier studies, 90% of the studies for HPV and 75% of the studies for pneumococcal vaccinations. Rotavirus vaccination was considered as not cost-effective, with only 30% of studies below the threshold of 40,000€/QALY. There was no clear trend for vaccinations being more cost-effective in some countries. Conclusions: The published literature has shown that vaccination strategies are generally cost-effective in European countries. High heterogeneity in the results among studies and countries was found.

  16. Extension of the behavioral model of healthcare utilization with ethnically diverse, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Lisa A; Marshall, Linda L; Eve, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial vulnerabilities were added to a model of healthcare utilization. This extension was tested among low-income women with ethnicity addressed as a moderator. Structured interviews were conducted at 2 points in time, approximately 1 year apart. The constructs of psychosocial vulnerability, demographic predisposing, barriers, and illness were measured by multiple indicators to allow use of Structural Equation Modeling to analyze results. The models were tested separately for each ethnic group. Community office. African-American (N = 266), Euro-American (N = 200), and Mexican-American (N = 210) women were recruited from the Dallas Metropolitan area to participate in Project Health Outcomes of Women, a multi-year, multi-wave study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with this sample. Participants had been in heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year, were between 20 and 49 years of age, and had incomes less than 200% of the national poverty level. Healthcare utilization, defined as physician visits and general healthcare visits. Illness mediated the effect of psychosocial vulnerability on healthcare utilization for African Americans and Euro-Americans. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex. Psychosocial vulnerability on illness was partially mediated by barriers, which also directly affected utilization. Psychosocial vulnerabilities were significant utilization predictors for healthcare use for all low-income women in this study. The final models for the 2 minority groups, African Americans and Mexican Americans, were quite different. Hence, women of color should not be considered a homogeneous group in comparison to Euro-Americans.

  17. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional coping strategies of women with endometriosis: a critical narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Cristina; Brugnera, Agostino; Frigerio, Luigi; Malandrino, Chiara; Rabboni, Massimo; Bondi, Emi; Compare, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    Endometriosis is a disabling and long-term medical condition affecting quality of life and mental health. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition could in part explain the link between the disease and impaired psychological and life functioning. This critical narrative review aimed at examining the state of the art of the relationships between endometriosis and these factors. According to PRISMA principles, we performed a systematic search for quantitative and qualitative studies on multiple electronic databases as regards coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition in women with endometriosis. Studies were subjected to interpretative and critical narrative synthesis. A total of 9 papers were included in the review. Three main categories were identified in thematic analysis and resumed in the manuscript. Findings suggested that (a) pain is considered the major stressor; (b) they usually use both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; (c) women with endometriosis and related chronic pain seem to repress emotions more likely than healthy ones; (d) suppressing own emotions, pain catastrophizing, and having a passive coping style are related to higher self-reported pain; and (e) emotional and avoidance coping styles are associated to poor mental status, while positive coping strategies focusing on the problem or on emotions, detached and rational styles are associated to better mental health. Few studies with mixed results and some methodological flaws have focused on coping strategies in women with endometriosis. No studies focusing on metacognition or emotional intelligence were found. Methodological biases, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice were discussed.

  18. The role of utility value in achievement behavior: the importance of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Olga G; Durik, Amanda M; Miyamoto, Yuri; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2011-03-01

    Two studies tested how participants' responses to utility value interventions and subsequent interest in a math technique vary by culture (Westerners vs. East Asians) and levels of initial math interest. Participants in Study 1 were provided with information about the utility value of the technique or not. The manipulation was particularly effective for East Asian learners with initially lower math interest, who showed more interest in the technique relative to low-interest Westerners. Study 2 compared the effects of two types of utility value (proximal or distal) and examined the effects on interest, effort, performance, and process variables. Whereas East Asian participants reaped the most motivational benefits from a distal value manipulation, Westerners benefited the most from a proximal value manipulation. These findings have implications for how to promote motivation for learners with different cultural backgrounds and interests.

  19. Correlation of parenting style and pediatric behavior guidance strategies in the dental setting: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of parenting style on the choice of proper behavior guidance strategies in pedodontics. Seventy-two children aged between 4 and 6 years (mean 5.12 years) with carious primary mandibular molars were selected. The Primary Caregivers' Practices Report (PCPR) was used to quantify authoritarian, permissive and authoritative aspects of the caregivers' parenting style. After inferior alveolar nerve block, carious lesions were removed and the teeth were restored using amalgam. The children's behavior during operation was assessed according to the sound, eye, and motor (SEM) scale. Communicative guidance, advance behavior guidance, parental separation, and deferred treatment were used for behavior management. The dominant authoritative score was observed in 50% of parents, permissive in 37.5%, and authoritarian in 12.5%. The mean SEM score in children belonging to authoritative parents was significantly lower than in children of permissive and of authoritarian parents (pparenting style. Advanced behavior guidance (protective stabilization) was applied in 16.7% of cases in the authoritative category and in 100% in the permissive and authoritarian categories. The use of restrictive devices (7.4%) and sedation (3.7%) was limited to the permissive category. Parental separation (40.7%) and deferred treatment (3.7%) were performed only in the permissive category. This study provides preliminary evidence that a child's reaction to restorative dental procedures is influenced by the nature of the caregiver's parenting style.

  20. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  1. Using diel movement behavior to infer foraging strategies related to ecological and social factors in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Leo; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    behavior. Beyond situations of contest competition, rank status appears to influence the extent to which individuals can modify their movement strategies across periods with differing forage availability. Large-scale spatiotemporal resource complexity not only impacts fine scale movement and optimal foraging strategies directly, but likely impacts rates of inter- and intra-specific interactions and competition resulting in socially based movement responses to ecological dynamics.

  2. Defining the effect and mediators of two knowledge translation strategies designed to alter knowledge, intent and clinical utilization of rehabilitation outcome measures: a study protocol [NCT00298727

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Mary

    2006-07-01

    interventions and to identify elements that contribute to changing clinical behavior. Chart audits will determine the utilization of outcome measures (counts. Incorporation of outcome measures into clinical reasoning will be assessed using an innovative technique: chart-stimulated recall. Discussion A strategy for optimal transfer of health outcome measures into practice will be developed and shared with multiple disciplines involved in primary and specialty management of musculoskeletal and childhood disability.

  3. Efficient local behavioral-change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yilei; Gregory, Steve; Mills, Harriet L.

    2013-10-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic, for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her local network to decide which contacts should be avoided. If the behavior change occurs only when an individual becomes ill or aware of the disease, these strategies can substantially reduce epidemic size with a relatively small cost, measured by the number of contacts avoided.

  4. Behavioral risk-reduction strategies to prevent HIV infection among homosexual men: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, J B; Teunis, N; van Griensven, G J; Sandfort, T G

    1994-12-01

    To be able to design effective health education interventions for homosexual men, it is necessary to understand determinants of safe and unsafe sex from the perspective of those involved. In this qualitative study, therefore, an open approach was taken to allow for this perspective. Interviews were conducted with 50 randomly selected HIV-antibody negative participants in the Amsterdam Cohort Study. Detailed questions were asked about sexual interactions and behaviors with steady and nonsteady partners. Whether or not homosexual men consciously protected themselves from HIV infection and which strategy they adopted was found to depend on three major factors: 1) motivation and intention, 2) significance of anal sex, and 3) risk perception within specific relationships. From a theoretical perspective results indicate that, next to the centrality of individual motivation as postulated in both the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, symbolic meaning inherent in sexual acts, as well as type of relationship are important determinants of protective sexual behaviors that have to be taken into account to understand adequately why homosexual men engage in safe or unsafe sex. Some strategies employed by homosexual men carry uncertainties that continue to put them at increased risk for HIV infection. Health education interventions can be designed to address these issues.

  5. Implications of emotion regulation strategies for empathic concern, social attitudes, and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Dovidio, John F

    2015-04-01

    Empathic concern-a sense of caring and compassion in response to the needs of others-is a type of emotional response to the plights and misfortunes of others that predicts positive social attitudes and altruistic interpersonal behaviors. One psychological process that has been posited to facilitate empathic concern is the ability to regulate one's own emotions. However, existing research links some emotion-regulation approaches (e.g., suppression) to social outcomes that would appear at odds with empathic concern, such as decreased interpersonal closeness. In the present research, we tested whether relying on suppression to regulate one's emotions would lead to decreases in empathic concern-and related downstream variables, such as negative social attitudes and unwillingness to engage in altruistic behavior-when learning about another person's misfortune. In Study 1, dispositional and instructionally induced suppression was negatively associated with empathic concern, which led to increased stigmatizing attitudes. By contrast, instructing participants to use another emotion-regulation strategy examined for comparison-reappraisal-did not decrease empathic concern, and dispositional reliance on reappraisal was actually positively associated with empathic concern. In Study 2, the findings of Study 1 regarding the effects of habitual use of reappraisal and suppression were replicated, and reliance on suppression was also found to be associated with reluctance to engage in helping behaviors. These findings are situated within the existing literature and employed to shed new light on the interpersonal consequences of intrapersonal emotion-regulation strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Interaction between behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies to decrease cocaine choice in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-02-01

    Behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic approaches constitute two prominent strategies for treating cocaine dependence. This study investigated interactions between behavioral and pharmacological strategies in a preclinical model of cocaine vs food choice. Six rhesus monkeys, implanted with a chronic indwelling double-lumen venous catheter, initially responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection, FR 10 schedule) during continuous 7-day treatment periods with saline or the agonist medication phenmetrazine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h). Subsequently, the FR response requirement for cocaine or food was varied (food, FR 100; cocaine, FR 1-100; cocaine, FR 10; food, FR 10-300), and effects of phenmetrazine on cocaine vs food choice were redetermined. Decreases in the cocaine FR or increases in the food FR resulted in leftward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve, whereas increases in the cocaine FR or decreases in the food FR resulted in rightward shifts in the cocaine choice dose-effect curve. The efficacy of phenmetrazine to decrease cocaine choice varied systematically as a function of the prevailing response requirements, such that phenmetrazine efficacy was greatest when cocaine choice was maintained by relatively low unit cocaine doses. These results suggest that efficacy of pharmacotherapies to modulate cocaine use can be influenced by behavioral contingencies of cocaine availability. Agonist medications may be most effective under contingencies that engender choice of relatively low cocaine doses.

  7. Diagnoses, Intervention Strategies, and Rates of Functional Improvement in Integrated Behavioral Health Care Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J.; Gregus, Samantha J.; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compared with more traditional mental health care, integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) offers greater access to services and earlier identification and intervention of behavioral and mental health difficulties. The current study examined demographic, diagnostic, and intervention factors that predict positive changes for IBHC patients. Method Participants were 1,150 consecutive patients (mean age = 30.10 years, 66.6% female, 60.1% Hispanic, 47.9% uninsured) seen for IBHC services at 2 primary care clinics over a 34-month period. Patients presented with depressive (23.2%), anxiety (18.6%), adjustment (11.3%), and childhood externalizing (7.6%) disorders, with 25.7% of patients receiving no diagnosis. Results The most commonly delivered interventions included behavioral activation (26.1%), behavioral medicine-specific consultation (14.6%), relaxation training (10.3%), and parent-management training (8.5%). There was high concordance between diagnoses and evidence-based intervention selection. We used latent growth curve modeling to explore predictors of baseline global assessment of functioning (GAF) and improvements in GAF across sessions, utilizing data from a subset of 117 patients who attended at least 3 behavioral health visits. Hispanic ethnicity and being insured predicted higher baseline GAF, while patients with an anxiety disorder had lower baseline GAF than patients with other diagnoses. Controlling for primary diagnosis, patients receiving behavioral activation or exposure therapy improved at faster rates than patients receiving other interventions. Demographic variables did not relate to rates of improvement. Conclusion Results suggest even brief IBHC interventions can be focused, targeting specific patient concerns with evidence-based treatment components. PMID:25774786

  8. Effects of Interactive Voice Response Self-Monitoring on Natural Resolution of Drinking Problems: Utilization and Behavioral Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Roth, David L.; Huang, Jin; Scott Crawford, M.; Simpson, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Most problem drinkers do not seek help, and many recover on their own. A randomized controlled trial evaluated whether supportive interactive voice response (IVR) self-monitoring facilitated such “natural” resolutions. Based on behavioral economics, effects on drinking outcomes were hypothesized to vary with drinkers’ baseline “time horizons,” reflecting preferences among commodities of different value available over different delays and with their IVR utilization. Method: Recently resolved untreated problem drinkers were randomized to a 24-week IVR self-monitoring program (n = 87) or an assessment-only control condition (n = 98). Baseline interviews assessed outcome predictors including behavioral economic measures of reward preferences (delay discounting, pre-resolution monetary allocation to alcohol vs. savings). Six-month outcomes were categorized as resolved abstinent, resolved nonabstinent, unresolved, or missing. Complier average causal effect (CACE) models examined IVR self-monitoring effects. Results: IVR self-monitoring compliers (≥70% scheduled calls completed) were older and had greater pre-resolution drinking control and lower discounting than noncompliers (moderation than abstinent resolutions compared with predicted compliers in the control group with shorter time horizons and with all noncompliers. Intention-to-treat analytical models revealed no IVR-related effects. More balanced spending on savings versus alcohol predicted moderation in both approaches. Conclusions: IVR interventions should consider factors affecting IVR utilization and drinking outcomes, including person-specific behavioral economic variables. CACE models provide tools to evaluate interventions involving extended participation. PMID:22630807

  9. Brief implicit association test: Validity and utility in prediction of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Maša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed the Brief Implicit Association Test (a recently developed short version of IAT to measure implicit political attitudes toward four political parties running for Serbian parliament. To test its criterion validity, we measured voting intention and actual voting behavior. In addition, we introduced political involvement as a potential moderator of the BIAT’s predictive and incremental validity. The BIAT demonstrated good internal and predictive validity, but lacked incremental validity over self-report measures. Predictive power of the BIAT was moderated by political involvement - the BIAT scores were stronger predictors of voting intention and behavior among voters highly involved in politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  10. Multi-utility enterprises: an outlook on the prospects in the liberalising markets. Terms and definitions, competition, management strategies, trends; Multi-Utility: Wohin entwickelt sich der Markt? Begriffe, Standort, Strategie, Tendenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattis, M. [multi-utility consulting, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    In the light of a spreading confusion of concepts in the context of emerging new business structures and new supply and disposal services in the utility sector, the article explains the current concepts and terms like utility, multi-utility, single-utility, and cross selling, and the respective corporate management and trading characteristics. (orig./CB) [German] In der Ver- und Entsorgung herrscht heillose Begriffsverwirrung. Viele verstehen unter Begriffen wie Utility, Multi-Utility, Single-Utility und cross selling etwas anderes. Versuch einer Begriffsbestimmung und daran anschliessende strategische Ueberlegungen. (orig./CB)

  11. MODEL ОF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TRANSFORMATION AS A BASIS FOR MARKETING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Savelyev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns with the basic consumer segments. The consumer needs are analyzed in the article and the model of change in consumer behavior is created. The article proposes the recommendations on effective strategic actions in order to competitive capacity increase. It is determined that in low purchasing power conditions, focus on meeting the needs of loyal customer segments will allow companies to increase the competitiveness of the market supply. Adaptation of marketing strategy in low purchasing power conditions is a creative process in which success is based on the orientation of the changed consumption motives.

  12. Developing new behavior strategies of robot soccer team SjF TUKE Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Hajduk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are too many types of robotic soccer approaches at present. SjF TUKE Robotics, who won robot soccer world tournament for year 2010 in category MiroSot, is a team with multiagent system approach. They have one main agent (master and five agent players, represented by robots. There is a point of view, in the article, for code programmer how to create new behavior strategies by creating a new code for master. There is a methodology how to prepare and create it following some rules.

  13. The Utility of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has emerged as a powerful new tool to identify genomic abnormalities associated with a wide range of developmental disabilities including congenital malformations, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities. CMA includes array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism…

  14. Towards a better understanding of consumer behavior : Marginal Utility as a parameter in Neuromarketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Constantinides, Efthymios; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding consumers’ decision-making process is a recurrent goal in Marketing. However, the traditional tools used in marketing, such as surveys, personal interviews and participant observations are often inadequate to analyze and understand human behavior. Since consumer decisions are often

  15. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Burgio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles.

  16. Seasonality directs contrasting food collection behavior and nutrient regulation strategies in ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Cook

    Full Text Available Long-lived animals, including social insects, often display seasonal shifts in foraging behavior. Foraging is ultimately a nutrient consumption exercise, but the effect of seasonality per se on changes in foraging behavior, particularly as it relates to nutrient regulation, is poorly understood. Here, we show that field-collected fire ant colonies, returned to the laboratory and maintained under identical photoperiod, temperature, and humidity regimes, and presented with experimental foods that had different protein (p to carbohydrate (c ratios, practice summer- and fall-specific foraging behaviors with respect to protein-carbohydrate regulation. Summer colonies increased the amount of food collected as the p:c ratio of their food became increasingly imbalanced, but fall colonies collected similar amounts of food regardless of the p:c ratio of their food. Choice experiments revealed that feeding was non-random, and that both fall and summer ants preferred carbohydrate-biased food. However, ants rarely ate all the food they collected, and their cached or discarded food always contained little carbohydrate relative to protein. From a nutrient regulation strategy, ants consumed most of the carbohydrate they collected, but regulated protein consumption to a similar level, regardless of season. We suggest that varied seasonal food collection behaviors and nutrient regulation strategies may be an adaptation that allows long-lived animals to meet current and future nutrient demands when nutrient-rich foods are abundant (e.g. spring and summer, and to conserve energy and be metabolically more efficient when nutritionally balanced foods are less abundant.

  17. Seasonality directs contrasting food collection behavior and nutrient regulation strategies in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2011-01-01

    Long-lived animals, including social insects, often display seasonal shifts in foraging behavior. Foraging is ultimately a nutrient consumption exercise, but the effect of seasonality per se on changes in foraging behavior, particularly as it relates to nutrient regulation, is poorly understood. Here, we show that field-collected fire ant colonies, returned to the laboratory and maintained under identical photoperiod, temperature, and humidity regimes, and presented with experimental foods that had different protein (p) to carbohydrate (c) ratios, practice summer- and fall-specific foraging behaviors with respect to protein-carbohydrate regulation. Summer colonies increased the amount of food collected as the p:c ratio of their food became increasingly imbalanced, but fall colonies collected similar amounts of food regardless of the p:c ratio of their food. Choice experiments revealed that feeding was non-random, and that both fall and summer ants preferred carbohydrate-biased food. However, ants rarely ate all the food they collected, and their cached or discarded food always contained little carbohydrate relative to protein. From a nutrient regulation strategy, ants consumed most of the carbohydrate they collected, but regulated protein consumption to a similar level, regardless of season. We suggest that varied seasonal food collection behaviors and nutrient regulation strategies may be an adaptation that allows long-lived animals to meet current and future nutrient demands when nutrient-rich foods are abundant (e.g. spring and summer), and to conserve energy and be metabolically more efficient when nutritionally balanced foods are less abundant.

  18. CORRELATION BETWEEN BAMBOO UTILIZATION AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOME CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WITH COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR IN MAINTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineu Indrianeu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 Jayapura Village was hit by an earthquake with a strength of 7.3 on the Richter Scale. Many homes were damaged by the quake. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the utilization of bamboo as a home building material with environmental preservation behavior of Jayapura Village residents. The study population was 1,367 heads of households with a sample of 137 families. The method used in this research is using sequential mixed methods. The result of the research shows that there is a correlation between the two things which is indicated by the correlation value of 0,501 (medium correlation.

  19. A longitudinal population-based study exploring treatment utilization and suicidal ideation and behavior in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Hayley; Robinson, Jennifer; Bolton, James M

    2012-12-10

    This study aimed to longitudinally examine the relationship between treatment utilization and suicidal behavior among people with major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (Wave 1: N=43,093; Wave 2: N=34,653). Suicidal and non-suicidal individuals at Wave 1 were compared based on subsequent treatment utilization. Suicidal behavior at Wave 2 was compared between people with major depressive disorder who had sought treatment at Wave 1 versus those that had not. Individuals with past year major depressive disorder at Wave 1 who attempted suicide were more likely to be hospitalized at follow up compared to non-suicidal people with major depressive disorder [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=4.46; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.54-7.85]; however, they were not more likely to seek other forms of treatment. Among those with past year major depressive disorder who sought treatment at baseline, visiting an emergency room (AOR=3.08; 95% CI: 1.61-5.89) and being hospitalized (AOR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.13-5.14), was associated with an increased likelihood of attempting suicide within 3 years even after adjusting for mental disorder comorbidity, depression severity, and previous suicidal behavior. Unable to draw conclusions about completed suicide or adequacy of treatment. Suicidal behavior does not lead individuals with major depressive disorder to seek treatment with professionals or use antidepressant medications; instead, they are more likely to use emergency services. These findings suggest that treatment efforts for people with major depressive disorder who are suicidal need improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Utilization of the Behavioral Sciences in Long Range Forecasting and Policy Planning Volume I. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    to escalate the conflict behavior It sends to China In the current, period with the addiv on of unclassified negative acts. The Importance of...Defense and AvI at Ion Ministry of Interior Municipal Affa Irs Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs Ministry of Health Ministry of Educat ion...I I -7- Table 3: Percentage breakdown of Iraqi budgetary expenditures 1968-1972 Defense AgrIculture Educat ion Health Other Agriculture

  1. Deciding to be Violent: The Perceived Utility of Abusive Behavior in Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-11

    Psychology . 61, 40-50. Bandura., A (1977). Socialleaming theoD’. Englewood Cliffs., NJ: Prentice-Hall. Barlow , D. H., Hays., S. C., &; Nelson, R.O. (1984...negative intent to wife behavior: The attributions ofmaritally violent versus nonviolent men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 102, 206-211. Holtzworth...may arise from such copyright violation. -1 /;l-_. RaJid’ail Clifford Nedegaard Department ofMedical and Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services

  2. Strategies to improve the efficiency and utility of multidisciplinary team meetings in urology cancer care: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Sevdalis, Nick; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A

    2014-09-08

    The prevalence of multidisciplinary teams (MDT) for the delivery of cancer care is increasing globally. Evidence exists of benefits to patients and healthcare professionals. However, MDT working is time and resource intensive. This study aims to explore members' views on existing practices of urology MDT working, and to identify potential interventions for improving the efficiency and productivity of the MDT meeting. Members of urology MDTs across the UK were purposively recruited to participate in an online survey. Survey items included questions about the utility and efficiency of MDT meetings, and strategies for improving the efficiency of MDT meetings: treating cases by protocol, prioritising cases, and splitting the MDT into subspeciality meetings. 173 MDT members participated (Oncologists n = 77, Cancer Nurses n = 54, Urologists n = 30, other specialities n = 12). 68% of respondents reported that attending the MDT meeting improves efficiency in care through improved clinical decisions, planning investigations, helping when discussing plans with patients, speciality referrals, documentation/patient records. Participants agreed that some cases including low risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and localised, low-grade prostate cancer could be managed by pre-agreed pathways, without full MDT review. There was a consensus that cases at the MDT meeting could be prioritised by complexity, tumour type, or the availability of MDT members. Splitting the MDT meeting was unpopular: potential disadvantages included loss of efficiency, loss of team approach, unavailability of members and increased administrative work. Key urology MDT members find the MDT meeting useful. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness may be possible by prioritising cases or managing some low-risk cases according to previously agreed protocols. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of such strategies on MDT meetings, cancer care pathways and patient outcomes in clinical

  3. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  4. Summary of Utility Studies: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldamn, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects to assess the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort provides an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior. In addition, DOE is attempting to apply a consistent study design and analysis framework for the SGIG Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS). The aim is to collect information across the studies on variables and impacts that have been defined in a consistent manner. This will enable Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), as DOE’s principal investigator for these Consumer Behavior Studies, to leverage the data from the individual studies and conduct comparative analysis of the impacts of AMI, time-based rate programs and enabling technologies that facilitate customer control, automation and information/feedback on customer energy usage.

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Students' Behaviors and Classroom Management Strategies in the USA and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate comparative students' problem behaviors and classroom behavior management strategies for students in urban public schools between teachers in the United States and Korea. This study incorporated data collected from two different teacher self-reported survey questionnaires, the Student…

  7. Effects of a Self-Monitoring Strategy on Independent Work Behavior of Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jennifer; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Kenzer, Amy; Mathur, Sarup R.; Zucker, Stanley H.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a self-monitoring strategy on independent work behavior. The three subjects were in first grade, seven years old, identified with mild intellectual disability (MID), and had an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) with targeted functional academic and behavior goals. The purpose of this study was to…

  8. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  9. Neural substrates of male parochial altruism are modulated by testosterone and behavioral strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Büchel, Christian; Diekhof, Esther K

    2017-08-01

    Parochial altruism refers to ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility and has recently been linked to testosterone. Here, we investigated the neurobiological mechanism of parochial altruism in male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game (UG) against ingroup and outgroup members (i.e., fans of the favorite or of a rivalling team) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results suggest that individual differences in altruistic tendency influence the tendency for parochialism. While altruistic subjects rejected unfair offers independent of team membership, the more self-oriented 'pro-selfs' displayed a stronger ingroup bias and rejected outgroup offers more often. However, during a second session that introduced a team competition the altruists adapted to this parochial pattern. Behavioral strategy was further characterized by dissociable and context-dependent correlations between endogenous testosterone and neural responses in the anterior insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In sum, the present findings indicate that parochial altruism is shaped by individual differences in testosterone and behavioral strategy. In that way the results are in line with evolutionary theories of both individual and group selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intervention strategy to stimulate energy-saving behavior of local residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Q.; Nieuwenhijsen, I.; Vries, B. de; Blokhuis, E.; Schaefer, W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions

  11. Patient satisfaction with cardiac rehabilitation: association with utilization, functional capacity, and heart-health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saba; Chessex, Caroline; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Grace, Sherry L

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) societies recommend assessment of patient satisfaction given its association with health care utilization and outcomes. Recently, the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC, Glasgow) was recommended as an appropriate tool for the CR setting. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe patient satisfaction with CR, 2) test the psychometric properties of the PACIC in the CR setting, and 3) assess the association of patient satisfaction with CR utilization and outcomes. Methods Secondary analysis was conducted on an observational, prospective CR program evaluation cohort. A convenience sample of patients from 1 of 3 CR programs was approached at their first CR visit, and consenting participants completed a survey. Clinical data were extracted from charts pre- and post-program. Participants were e-mailed surveys again 6 months (including the PACIC) and 1 and 2 years later. Results Of 411 consenting patients, 247 (60.2%) completed CR. The mean PACIC score was 2.8±1.1/5. Internal reliability was α=0.95. The total PACIC score varied significantly by site (F=3.12, P=0.046), indicating discriminant validity. Patient satisfaction was significantly related to greater CR adherence (r=0.22, Ppatient satisfaction with CR. PMID:28479853

  12. Determinants of Sedentary Behavior, Motivation, Barriers and Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time in Older Women: A Qualitative Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Fitzpatrick, Nicole; Andrews, Michelle; DiCroce, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior defined as time spent non-exercising seated or reclining posture has been identified has a health risk and associated with frailty and disablement for older adults. Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society. To date no study has investigated the determinants of sedentary behavior in older adults. This study reports a qualitative investigation of the determinants of sedentary behavior, strategies and motivator to reduce sitting time by structured interviews in ...

  13. Utilization of a cardiometabolic health nurse – a novel strategy to manage comorbid physical and mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Happell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comorbid chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and type 2 diabetes are common among people with serious mental illness. Management of comorbid illness in the mental health setting is sometimes ad hoc and poorly delivered. Use of a cardiometabolic health nurse (CHN is proposed as one strategy to improve the delivery of physical health care to this vulnerable population. Objective: To report the CHN’s utilization of primary care and allied health referrals from a trial carried out in a regional community mental health service. Design: Feasibility study. Mental health consumers were referred by their case manager or mental health nurse to the CHN. The CHN coordinated the physical health care of community-based mental health consumers by identifying the need for, and providing referrals to, additional services, including primary care, allied health, and community-based services. Results: Sixty-two percent of participants referred to the CHN received referrals for primary care, allied health, and community-based services. Almost all referrals received follow-up by the CHN. Referrals were most commonly directed to a general practitioner and for nurse-delivered services. Conclusion: The CHN role shows promise in coordinating the physical health of community-based mental health consumers. More studies on role integration and development of specific outcome measurement tools are needed.

  14. Assessing the Potential of Utilization and Storage Strategies for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Emissions Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Katy; Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilization, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-03

    The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture is considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS), enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR), and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO{sub 2} sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a “cradle to grave approach” where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO{sub 2} that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the “cradle to gate” approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO{sub 2} emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  15. Bioflocculation production from lower-molecular fatty acids as a novel strategy for utilization of sludge digestion liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Ike, M; Jang, J H; Kim, S M; Hirao, T

    2001-01-01

    We propose the bioproduction of a bioflocculant from lower-molecular fatty acids as an innovative strategy for utilizing waste sludge digestion liquor. Fundamental studies on the production, characterization and application of a novel bioflocculant were performed. Citrobactersp. TKF04 was screened out of 1,564 natural isolates as a bacterial strain capable of a bioflocculant from acetic and propionic acids. TKF04 produced the bioflocculant during the logarithmic growth in the batch cultivation, and it could be recovered from the culture supernatant by ethanol precipitation. The fed-batch cultivation with feeding of acetic acid: ammonium 10;1 (mole) to maintain pH 8.5 led to the hyper-production of the bioflocculant. The bioflocculant was found to be effective for flocculating a kaolin suspension, when added at a final concentration of 1-10 mg/l, over a wide range of pHs (2-8) and temperatures (3-95 degrees C), while the addition of cations was not required. It could flocculate a variety of inorganic and organic suspended particles including kaolin, diatomite, bentonite, activated carbon, soil and activated sludge. These indicated that the bioflocculant possesses flocculating activity comparable or superior to that of synthetic flocculants. The bioflocculation was identified as a chitosan-like biopolymer.

  16. Understanding the relationship of maternal health behavior change and intervention strategies in a Nicaraguan NGO network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Hage, Jerald; Vargas, William

    2005-09-01

    Few studies of community interventions examine independent effects of investments in: (1) capital (i.e., physical, human and social capital), and (2) management systems (e.g., monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E)) on maternal and child health behavior change. This paper does this in the context of an inter-organizational network. In Nicaragua, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs formed the NicaSalud Federation. Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), 14 member organizations took baselines measures of maternal safe motherhood and child health behavior indicators during November 1999 and August 2000, respectively, and final evaluation measures in December 2001. In April 2002, retrospective interviews were conducted with supervisors and managers in the 14 organizations to explore changes made to community health strategies, factors associated with the changes, and impacts they attributed to participating in NicaSalud. Physical capital (density of health huts), human capital (density and variety of paramedical personnel) and social capital (density of health committees) were associated with pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) 3+ times, and/or retaining ANC cards. The variety of paramedic personnel was also associated with women making post-partum visits to clinics. Physical capital (density of health huts) and social capital (density of health committees and mothers' clubs) were associated with child diarrhea case management indicators. One safe motherhood indicator (delivery of babies by a clinician) was not associated with intervention strategies. At the management level, NicaSalud's training of members to use LQAS for M&E was associated with the number of strategic and tactical changes they subsequently made to interventions (organizational learning). Organizational learning was related to changes in maternal and child health behaviors of the women (including changes in the proportion using post-partum care). As the

  17. A Flow Chart of Behavior Management Strategies for Families of Children with Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Jeffrey S

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral parent training is an evidence-based treatment for problem behavior described as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. However, adherence to treatment fidelity and parent performance of the management skills remains an obstacle to optimum outcome. One variable that may limit the effectiveness of the parent training is that demanding behavior management procedures can be deceptively complicated and difficult to perform. Based on outcome research for families of children with co-occurring ADHD and conduct problem behavior, an example of a visual behavior management flow chart is presented. The flow chart may be used to help teach specific behavior management skills to parents. The flow chart depicts a chain of behavior management strategies taught with explanation, modeling, and role-play with parents. The chained steps in the flow chart are elements common to well-known evidence-based behavior management strategies, and perhaps, this depiction well serve as a setting event for other behavior analysts to create flow charts for their own parent training, Details of the flow chart steps, as well as examples of specific applications and program modifications conclude.

  18. Crime, violence, and behavioral health: collaborative community strategies for risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinals, Debra A

    2015-06-01

    Criminal conduct is not always violent, and violence does not always lead to criminal charges. Moreover, crime and violence have multifaceted etiologies. Most violence in society is not attributable to mental illness. Where there is a small relationship between violence and mental illness, the risk of violence increases for individuals with substance use histories. Underlying trauma can also play a role. Antisocial attitudes, behaviors, and peer groups further increase the risk that individuals, including those with mental illness, will find themselves at risk of criminal recidivism. Criminal histories among public mental health populations, and mental health and substance use disorders among criminal populations are each higher than general population comparisons. Care within behavioral health settings should therefore target decreased criminal recidivism and decreased violence as part of recovery for those individuals at risk, using trauma-informed approaches and peer supports. Interventions that show promise bring criminal justice and behavioral health systems together, and include police-based diversion, specialty courts, court-based alternatives to incarceration, and coordinated re-entry programs. This article reviews these options along with specific risk management strategies, such as using risk, needs, and responsivity factors as a means of improving overall outcomes for persons with mental illness, while minimizing their risk of further criminalization and victimization.

  19. Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhua; Chen, Huaizhong

    2017-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(10) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-34254-001). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected.] We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. PRAGMATICS DRIVEN LAND COVER SERVICE COMPOSITION UTILIZING BEHAVIOR-INTENTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web service composition is one of the key issues to develop a global land cover (GLC information service portal. Aiming at the defect that traditional syntax and semantic service compositionare difficult to take pragmatic information into account, the paper firstly analyses three tiers of web service language and their succession relations, discusses the conceptual model of pragmatic web service, and proposes the idea of pragmatics-oriented adaptive composition method based on the analysis of some examples. On this basis it puts forward the pragmatic web service model based on Behavior-Intention through presetting and expression of service usability, users' intention, and other pragmatic information, develops the on-demand assembly method based on the agent theory and matching and reconstruction method on heterogeneous message, solves the key technological issue of algorithm applicability and heterogeneous message transformation in the process of covering web service composition on the ground, applies these methods into service combination, puts forward the pragmatic driven service composition method based on behavior-intention model, and effectively settles the issue of coordination and interaction of composite service invocation.

  1. Optimization of Power Utilization in Multimobile Robot Foraging Behavior Inspired by Honeybees System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faisul Arif; Ramli, Abd Rahman; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Hashim, Shaiful Jahari

    2014-01-01

    Deploying large numbers of mobile robots which can interact with each other produces swarm intelligent behavior. However, mobile robots are normally running with finite energy resource, supplied from finite battery. The limitation of energy resource required human intervention for recharging the batteries. The sharing information among the mobile robots would be one of the potentials to overcome the limitation on previously recharging system. A new approach is proposed based on integrated intelligent system inspired by foraging of honeybees applied to multimobile robot scenario. This integrated approach caters for both working and foraging stages for known/unknown power station locations. Swarm mobile robot inspired by honeybee is simulated to explore and identify the power station for battery recharging. The mobile robots will share the location information of the power station with each other. The result showed that mobile robots consume less energy and less time when they are cooperating with each other for foraging process. The optimizing of foraging behavior would result in the mobile robots spending more time to do real work. PMID:24949491

  2. Rationality and self-interest as economic-exchange strategy in borderline personality disorder: Game theory, social preferences, and interpersonal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Haang; Schwieren, Christiane; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2016-12-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe and persistent impairments in interpersonal functioning. Given the complexity of social interactions, studying the interactive behavior of BPD patients is challenging. One way to implement both tight experimental control and realistic, externally valid settings is to use game-theoretical experiments. This review discusses findings from economic exchange studies in BPD against the background of game-theoretical literature. BPD patients do not seem to derive utility from mutual cooperation with others and appear not to "forgive" a partner's unfairness. By pursuing a strategy of negative reciprocity, BPD patients seem to act mostly "rationally" and in their own self-interest. Their "grim trigger strategy" resembles the theoretical ideal of the rational and self-interested agent homo economicus. Finally, we summarize how research findings from economics and clinical psychiatry may be mutually enriching and propose new research ideas in this fascinating field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the Role of Neuroticism and Insecure Attachment in Health Anxiety, Safety-Seeking Behavior Engagement, and Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Anagnostopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore an extended interpersonal model of health anxiety, according to which health-anxious individuals are trapped in a vicious circle of health-related reassurance-seeking, alienation from others, and worry about health, while somatic absorption with body sensations, insecure attachment, neuroticism, safety-seeking behaviors, and medical services utilization were also included in the model. Data were collected from 196 Greek university students using standardized instruments. Results indicated that anxious attachment was directly related to absorption (β = .163, p < .05 and alienation (β = .204, p < .05, while avoidant attachment was directly related to absorption (β = −.344, p < .001, reassurance-seeking (β = −.130, p < .05, and alienation (β = .148, p < .05. Neuroticism was positively and significantly associated with all dimensions of health anxiety. Absorption, alienation, and anxious attachment were related to medical services utilization, which, in turn, was related to safety-seeking behaviors (β = .200, p < .01. Neuroticism and anxious attachment were also indirectly and positively associated with worry. Moreover, absorption was positively related to worry and reassurance-seeking, worry was positively related to reassurance-seeking, and alienation was positively related to worry. Study results highlight the key role that interpersonal (e.g., alienation from others and perceptual factors (e.g., the tendency to focus on bodily sensations can play in health anxiety maintenance, and the importance of anxious and avoidant attachment in safety-seeking behavior engagement. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.

  4. What constitutes successful nurse leadership?: A qualitative approach utilizing Kanter's theory of organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upenieks, Valda V

    2002-12-01

    What constitutes successful leadership in today's healthcare environment and what are the principal components of an organization that supports the role of the nurse leader? To answer these questions, 16 nurse leaders from four acute care hospitals were interviewed for their perception of leadership traits that are effective in the inpatient hospital setting and types of organizational infrastructures that create conditions for job effectiveness. Kanter's theory of organizational behavior provided the conceptual framework for this study. Leadership effectiveness is linked to having access to opportunity, resources, information, and formal and informal power in the work setting. Nurse leaders with access to these structures are empowered and successful, which leads to enhanced worth and overall organizational achievement. Also, strong central beliefs and business astuteness are considered vital attributes in today's economically oriented environment.

  5. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times: clinical utility of this predictor of prostate cancer behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Lee, W. Robert; Slivjak, Anne; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The distribution of pretreatment and posttreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling times (PSADT) varies widely. This report examines the pretreatment PSADT as an independent predictor of biochemical freedom from disease (bNED) and describes the clinical utility of PSADT. Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine patients with T1-3 NX, M-0 prostate cancer treated between February 1989 and November 1993 have pretreatment PSADTs calculated from three or more PSA levels. Biochemical disease-free (bNED) survival (failure is PSA ≥ 1.5 ngm/ml and rising) is evaluated by multivariate analysis of common prognostic indicators and PSADT. Results: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a significant predictor of survival along with radiation dose. Patients with a pretreatment PSADT of < 12 months show 50% failure by 18 months, while those with a PSADT that is not increasing show only 3% failure at 3 years. Conclusions: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a predictor of bNED outcome in prostate cancer. Patients with PSADT < 12 months have aggressive disease and should be considered for multimodal therapy. Slow PSADT (≥ 5 years) is observed in 57% of patients, and this end point may be considered in the decision to observe rather than to treat. After treatment failure, the PSADT may be used to determine which patients do not need immediate androgen deprivation

  6. Evolutionary engineering strategies to enhance tolerance of xylose utilizing recombinant yeast to inhibitors derived from spruce biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppram Rakesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the crucial factors for a sustainable and economical production of lignocellulosic based bioethanol is the availability of a robust fermenting microorganism with high tolerance to inhibitors generated during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic raw materials, since these inhibitors are known to severely hinder growth and fermentation. Results A long-term adaptation in repetitive batch cultures in shake flasks using a cocktail of 12 different inhibitors and a long-term chemostat adaptation using spruce hydrolysate were used as evolutionary engineering strategies to improve the inhibitor tolerance in the metabolically engineered xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TMB3400. The yeast was evolved for a period of 429 and 97 generations in repetitive batch cultures and chemostat cultivation, respectively. During the evolutionary engineering in repetitive batch cultures the maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.18 h-1 to 0.33 h-1 and the time of lag phase was decreased from 48 h to 24 h. In the chemostat adaptation, after 97 generations, the specific conversion rates of HMF and furfural were found to be 3.5 and 4 folds higher respectively, compared to rates after three generations. Two evolved strains (RK60-5, RKU90-3 and one evolved strain (KE1-17 were isolated from evolutionary engineering in repetitive batches and chemostat cultivation, respectively. The strains displayed significantly improved growth performance over TMB3400 when cultivated in spruce hydrolysate under anaerobic conditions, the evolved strains exhibited 25 to 38% increase in specific consumption rate of sugars and 32 to 50% increased specific ethanol productivity compared to TMB3400. The evolved strains RK60-5 and RKU90-3 were unable to consume xylose under anaerobic conditions, whereas, KE1-17 was found to consume xylose at similar rates as TMB3400. Conclusion Using evolutionary engineering strategies in batch and chemostat

  7. "Beating osteoARThritis": development of a stepped care strategy to optimize utilization and timing of non-surgical treatment modalities for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, A.J.; Ende, C.H.; Vliet-Vlieland, Th.P.M.; Swierstra, B.A.; Kortland, J.H.; Bijlsma, J.W.; Voorn, T.B.; Schers, H.J.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Dekker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequacies in health care practices have been reported despite existing guidelines to manage hip or knee osteoarthritis. To facilitate guideline implementation and improve utilization of non-surgical treatment options a care strategy should be developed. This study describes the development of an

  8. "Beating osteoARThritis": Development of a stepped care strategy to optimize utilization and timing of non-surgical treatment modalities for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, A.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Swierstra, B.A.; Kortland, J.H.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Voorn, T.B.; Schers, H.J.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Dekker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequacies in health care practices have been reported despite existing guidelines to manage hip or knee osteoarthritis. To facilitate guideline implementation and improve utilization of non-surgical treatment options a care strategy should be developed. This study describes the development of an

  9. Directional biases reveal utilization of arm's biomechanical properties for optimization of motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Jacob A; Zhang, Yanxin; Shimansky, Yury; Sharma, Siddharth; Dounskaia, Natalia V

    2007-09-01

    Strategies used by the CNS to optimize arm movements in terms of speed, accuracy, and resistance to fatigue remain largely unknown. A hypothesis is studied that the CNS exploits biomechanical properties of multijoint limbs to increase efficiency of movement control. To test this notion, a novel free-stroke drawing task was used that instructs subjects to make straight strokes in as many different directions as possible in the horizontal plane through rotations of the elbow and shoulder joints. Despite explicit instructions to distribute strokes uniformly, subjects showed biases to move in specific directions. These biases were associated with a tendency to perform movements that included active motion at one joint and largely passive motion at the other joint, revealing a tendency to minimize intervention of muscle torque for regulation of the effect of interaction torque. Other biomechanical factors, such as inertial resistance and kinematic manipulability, were unable to adequately account for these significant biases. Also, minimizations of jerk, muscle torque change, and sum of squared muscle torque were analyzed; however, these cost functions failed to explain the observed directional biases. Collectively, these results suggest that knowledge of biomechanical cost functions regarding interaction torque (IT) regulation is available to the control system. This knowledge may be used to evaluate potential movements and to select movement of "low cost." The preference to reduce active regulation of interaction torque suggests that, in addition to muscle energy, the criterion for movement cost may include neural activity required for movement control.

  10. Differences in risk behaviors, care utilization, and comorbidities in homeless persons based on HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R David; Dykema, Shana

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional pilot project measured differences by HIV status in chronic health conditions, primary care and emergency department use, and high-risk behaviors of homeless persons through self-report. Using selective random sampling, 244 individuals were recruited from a homeless shelter. The reported HIV prevalence was 6.56% (n = 16), with the odds of HIV higher in persons reporting crack cocaine use. HIV-infected persons were more likely to report a source of regular medical care and less likely to use the emergency department than uninfected persons. Validation of findings through exploration of HIV and health care access in homeless persons is needed to confirm that HIV-infected homeless persons are more likely to have primary care. Distinctions between primary care and specialty HIV care also need to be explored in this context. If findings are consistent, providers who care for the homeless could learn more effective ways to engage homeless patients. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Success in Global New Product Development: Impact of Strategy and the Behavioral Environment of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Brentani, U.; Kleinschmidt, E.J.; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation and the trend toward globalization are two important dimensions driving business today, and a firm's global new product development (NPD) strategy is a primary determinant of performance. Succeeding in this competitive and complex market arena calls for corporate resources...... America and Europe, business-to-business, services and goods), a structural model testing for the hypothesized mediation effects was substantially supported. Specifically, having an organizational posture that, at once, values innovation plus globalization, as well as a senior management that is active...... as primary determinants of competitive advantage and, thus, of superior performance through the strategic initiatives that these enable. In the study, global NPD programs are assessed in terms of three dimensions: (1) the organizational resources or behavioral environment of the firm relevant...

  12. Mexican American mothers of low and middle socioeconomic status: communication behaviors and interactive strategies during shared book reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Barbara L; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed during two book reading sessions. The data were coded across a number of communication behavior categories and were analyzed using the Adult/Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI; A. DeBruin-Parecki, 1999). Mexican American mothers used a variety of communication behaviors during shared book reading with their preschool children. Significant differences between the SES groups regarding the frequency of specific communication behaviors were revealed. Middle-SES mothers used positive feedback and yes/no questions more often than did low-SES mothers. Mexican American mothers also used a variety of interactive reading strategies with varying frequency, as measured by the ACIRI. They enhanced attention to text some of the time, but rarely promoted interactive reading/supported comprehension or used literacy strategies. There were no significant differences between the SES groups regarding the frequency of interactive reading strategies. Parent literacy programs should supplement Mexican American mothers' communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies to improve effectiveness and participation.

  13. Dimorphic ejaculates and sperm release strategies associated with alternative mating behaviors in the squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostólico, Lígia H; Marian, José E A R

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates. In loliginid squids, males with alternative reproductive tactics (sneakers and consorts) differ not only in mating behavior, but also transfer spermatophores into two distinct sites within the female. Here, we compared structure and functioning of spermatophores between sneakers and consorts in the squid Doryteuthis plei applying microscopy techniques and in vitro experiments. Sneakers and consorts exhibit differences in spermatophore structure that lead to distinct spermatophoric reactions and spermatangium morphologies. Moreover, in sneakers, sperm release lasts longer and their sperm show an aggregative behavior not detected in consorts. Slow sperm release may be a strategy to guarantee longer sperm provision, given the wide interval between sneaker mating and egg release. For consorts, in turn, intense and quick sperm discharge may be advantageous, as timing between mating and egg-laying is relatively short. Within the complex squid mating system, factors such as (i) different fertilization sites and (ii) interval between mating and egg release may also influence sperm competition, and ultimately shape the evolution of divergent ejaculates between dimorphic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Behavior and fate of copper ions in an anammox granular sludge reactor and strategies for remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Deng, Rui; Cheng, Ya-Fei; Zhou, Yu-Huang; Buayi, Xiemuguli [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Key Laboratory of Hangzhou City for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Zhang, Xian; Wang, Hui-Zhong [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Jin, Ren-Cun, E-mail: jrczju@aliyun.com [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Key Laboratory of Hangzhou City for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • The Cu partition in an anammox UASB reactor was predicted by models. • The distribution and form dynamics of Cu in anammox reactors were tracked. • The response of the EPS to Cu(II) was characterized by 3D-EEM spectra. • The mechanism of Cu inhibition on anammox granules was updated. • The feasibilities of two novel remediation strategies were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, the behavior, distribution and form dynamics of overloaded Cu(II) in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granular sludge reactors were investigated. The performance and physiological characteristics were tracked by continuous-flow monitoring to evaluate the long-term effects. High Cu loading (0.24 g L{sup −1} d{sup −1}) exceeded sludge bearing capacity, and precipitation dominated the removal pathway. The Cu distribution migrated from the extracellular polymeric substances-bound to the cell-associated Cu and the Cu forms shifted from the weakly bound to strongly bound fractions over time. Pearson correlation and fluorescence spectra analyses showed that the increase in protein concentrations in the EPS was a clear self-defense response to Cu(II) stress. Two remediation strategies, i.e., ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) washing and ultrasound-enhanced EDTA washing, weakened the equilibrium metal partition coefficient from 5.8 to 0.45 and 0.34 L mg{sup −1}SS, respectively, thereby accelerating the external diffusion of the Cu that had accumulated in the anammox granules.

  15. Behavior and fate of copper ions in an anammox granular sludge reactor and strategies for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Deng, Rui; Cheng, Ya-Fei; Zhou, Yu-Huang; Buayi, Xiemuguli; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Cu partition in an anammox UASB reactor was predicted by models. • The distribution and form dynamics of Cu in anammox reactors were tracked. • The response of the EPS to Cu(II) was characterized by 3D-EEM spectra. • The mechanism of Cu inhibition on anammox granules was updated. • The feasibilities of two novel remediation strategies were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, the behavior, distribution and form dynamics of overloaded Cu(II) in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granular sludge reactors were investigated. The performance and physiological characteristics were tracked by continuous-flow monitoring to evaluate the long-term effects. High Cu loading (0.24 g L −1 d −1 ) exceeded sludge bearing capacity, and precipitation dominated the removal pathway. The Cu distribution migrated from the extracellular polymeric substances-bound to the cell-associated Cu and the Cu forms shifted from the weakly bound to strongly bound fractions over time. Pearson correlation and fluorescence spectra analyses showed that the increase in protein concentrations in the EPS was a clear self-defense response to Cu(II) stress. Two remediation strategies, i.e., ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) washing and ultrasound-enhanced EDTA washing, weakened the equilibrium metal partition coefficient from 5.8 to 0.45 and 0.34 L mg −1 SS, respectively, thereby accelerating the external diffusion of the Cu that had accumulated in the anammox granules.

  16. Optimal Strategies for Low Carbon Supply Chain with Strategic Customer Behavior and Green Technology Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is mainly caused by excessive emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. In order to reduce carbon emissions, cap and trade policy is implemented by governments in many countries, which has significant impacts on the decisions of companies at all levels of the low carbon supply chain. This paper investigates the decision-making and coordination of a low carbon supply chain consisting of a low carbon manufacturer who produces one product and is allowed to invest in green technology to reduce carbon emissions in production and a retailer who faces stochastic demands formed by homogeneous strategic customers. We investigate the optimal production, pricing, carbon trading, and green technology investment strategies of the low carbon supply chain in centralized (including Rational Expected Equilibrium scenario and quantity commitment scenario and decentralized settings. It is demonstrated that quantity commitment strategy can improve the profit of the low carbon supply chain with strategic customer behavior. We also show that the performance of decentralized supply chain is lower than that of quantity commitment scenario. We prove that the low carbon supply chain cannot be coordinated by revenue sharing contract but by revenue sharing-cost sharing contract.

  17. Self-Management of On-Task Homework Behavior: A Promising Strategy for Adolescents with Attention and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Michael I.; Zhe, Elizabeth J.; Haugen, Kimberly A.; Klein, Jean A.

    2009-01-01

    Students with attention and behavior problems oftentimes experience difficulty finishing academic work. On-task behavior is frequently cited as a primary reason for students' failure to complete homework assignments. Researchers have identified self-monitoring and self-management of on-task behavior as effective tools for improving homework…

  18. Evidence for cognitive–behavioral strategies improving dyspnea and related distress in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norweg A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Norweg,1 Eileen G Collins2,3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Rehabilitation Research and Development (RR&D, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA Background: Dyspnea is a complex, prevalent, and distressing symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD associated with decreased quality of life, significant disability, and increased mortality. It is a major reason for referral to pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods: We reviewed 23 COPD studies to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral strategies for relieving dyspnea in COPD. Results: Preliminary evidence from randomized controlled trials exists to support cognitive–behavioral strategies, used with or without exercise, for relieving sensory and affective components of dyspnea in COPD. Small to moderate treatment effects for relieving dyspnea were noted for psychotherapy (effect size [ES] = 0.08–0.25 for intensity; 0.26–0.65 for mastery and distractive auditory stimuli (ES = 0.08–0.33 for intensity; 0.09 to -0.61 for functional burden. Small to large dyspnea improvements resulted from yoga (ES = 0.2–1.21 for intensity; 0.67 for distress; 0.07 for mastery; and −8.37 for functional burden; dyspnea self-management education with exercise (ES = −0.14 to −1.15 for intensity; −0.62 to −0.69 for distress; 1.04 for mastery; 0.14–0.35 for self-efficacy; and slow-breathing exercises (ES = 4390.34 to −0.83 for intensity; -0.61 to -0.80 for distress; and 0.62 for self-efficacy. Cognitive–behavioral interventions may relieve dyspnea in COPD by (1 decreasing sympathetic nerve activity, dynamic hyperinflation, and comorbid anxiety, and (2 promoting arterial oxygen saturation, myelinated vagus nerve activity, a greater

  19. Utilization of the Bridging Strategy for the Development of New Drugs in Oncology to Avoid Drug Lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Seiji; Koyama, Nobuyuki; Hidaka, Shinji

    2017-11-01

    Global trial (GT) strategy and bridging (BG) strategy are currently the main clinical development strategies of oncology drugs in Japan, but the relationship between development style and drug lag and how the bridging strategy has contributed to the solution of drug lag have not been clear. We investigated the potential factors that influenced submission lag (SL), and also compared the differences in SL among early-initiation BG strategy, late-initiation BG strategy, and GT strategy. A stepwise linear regression analysis identified the potential factors that shorten SL: development start lag and development style. Comparison of the differences in SL among the strategies also indicated that the SL in the GT strategy and that in the early-initiation BG strategy were significantly shorter than that in the late-initiation BG strategy. The findings in our study suggest that the late-initiation BG strategy may not contribute to shortening drug lag. Because the number of late-initiation BG studies has not decreased, we propose first that pharmaceutical companies should initiate clinical development as early as possible in Japan so that they can choose the GT strategy as a first option at the next step, and second when they cannot choose the GT strategy after investigating differences in exposure between Japanese and non-Japanese in a phase 1 study, they should select the early BG strategy to avoid future drug lag. It is also important for the regulatory authorities to provide reasonable guidance to have a positive impact on strategic decisions, even for foreign-capital companies. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals’ behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees’ SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees’ use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23–58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers’ OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived

  1. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals' behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees' SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees' use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23-58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers' OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived negatively

  2. Improved tensile and buckling behavior of defected carbon nanotubes utilizing boron nitride coating – A molecular dynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badjian, H.; Setoodeh, A.R., E-mail: setoodeh@sutech.ac.ir

    2017-02-15

    Synthesizing inorganic nanostructures such as boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have led to immense studies due to their many interesting functional features such as piezoelectricity, high temperature resistance to oxygen, electrical insulation, high thermal conductivity and very long lengths as physical features. In order to utilize the superior properties of pristine and defected carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a hybrid nanotube is proposed in this study by forming BNNTs surface coating on the CNTs. The benefits of such coating on the tensile and buckling behavior of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are illustrated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the resulted nanostructures during the deformation. The AIREBO and Tersoff-Brenner potentials are employed to model the interatomic forces between the carbon and boron nitride atoms, respectively. The effects of chiral indices, aspect ratio, presence of mono-vacancy defects and coating dimension on coated/non-coated CNTs are examined. It is demonstrated that the coated defective CNTs exhibit remarkably enhanced ultimate strength, buckling load capacity and Young's modulus. The proposed coating not only enhances the mechanical properties of the resulted nanostructure, but also conceals it from few external factors impacting the behavior of the CNT such as humidity and high temperature.

  3. Utility of Respondent Driven Sampling to Reach Disadvantaged Emerging Adults for Assessment of Substance Use, Weight, and Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D; Borch, Casey A; Davies, Susan L; Kerbawy, Shatomi J; Lewis, Terri H; Crawford, M Scott; Cheong, JeeWon; Michael, Max

    2016-01-01

    Emerging adulthood often entails heightened risk-taking with potential life-long consequences, and research on risk behaviors is needed to guide prevention programming, particularly in under-served and difficult to reach populations. This study evaluated the utility of Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS), a peer-driven methodology that corrects limitations of snowball sampling, to reach at-risk African American emerging adults from disadvantaged urban communities. Initial "seed" participants from the target group recruited peers, who then recruited their peers in an iterative process (110 males, 234 females; M age = 18.86 years). Structured field interviews assessed common health risk factors, including substance use, overweight/obesity, and sexual behaviors. Established gender-and age-related associations with risk factors were replicated, and sample risk profiles and prevalence estimates compared favorably with matched samples from representative U.S. national surveys. Findings supported the use of RDS as a sampling method and grassroots platform for research and prevention with community-dwelling risk groups.

  4. Effects of rational emotive behavior therapy for senior nursing students on coping strategies and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Ah; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Eun Jung

    2015-03-01

    Senior nursing students are faced with various types of stressful events such as taking the national licensure exam or finding employment. Such stress can generate maladaptive behaviors as well as physical and psychological symptoms. There is evidence supporting the use of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) for reducing disruptive behaviors and negative emotions as well as improving self-efficacy and stress-coping strategies. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on stress coping strategies and self-efficacy for senior nursing students. Thirty-four senior nursing students in a nursing college were assigned randomly to an experimental group (n=18) and a control group (n=16). The REBT program consisted of 8 sessions, and it was implemented for a 4-week period. Outcome measures assessed stress-coping strategies and self-efficacy before and after intervention. After intervention with REBT, the mean difference scores for self-efficacy (p=.032) were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. However, the mean difference scores for seeking social support (p=.166), problem solving (p=.126), and avoidance (p=.154) in stress-coping strategies were not significantly different between the two groups. The results imply that group counseling based on REBT enhances the self-efficacy among senior nursing students before graduation. As regards stress coping strategies, a longer intervention period is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The utility of zebrafish to study the mechanisms by which ethanol affects social behavior and anxiety during early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Annan, Leonette V; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros H; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Baiamonte, Matteo; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2014-12-03

    Exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during brain development has a number of effects on social behavior but the molecular mechanisms that mediate this are not well understood. Gaining a better understanding of these factors may help to develop therapeutic interventions in the future. Zebrafish offer a potentially useful model in this regard. Here, we introduce a zebrafish model of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure. Embryos were exposed to 20mM ethanol for seven days (48hpf-9dpf) and tested as adults for individual social behavior and shoaling. We also tested their basal anxiety with the novel tank diving test. We found that the ethanol-exposed fish displayed reductions in social approach and shoaling, and an increase in anxiety in the novel tank test. These behavioral differences corresponded to differences in hrt1aa, slc6a4 and oxtr expression. Namely, acute ethanol caused a spike in oxtr and ht1aa mRNA expression, which was followed by down-regulation at 7dpf, and an up-regulation in slc6a4 at 72hpf. This study confirms the utility of zebrafish as a model system for studying the molecular basis of developmental ethanol exposure. Furthermore, it proposes a putative developmental mechanism characterized by ethanol-induced OT inhibition leading to suppression of 5-HT and up-regulation of 5-HT1A, which leads, in turn, to possible homeostatic up-regulation of 5-HTT at 72hpf and subsequent imbalance of the 5-HT system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  7. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Atiqah Norazlimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus, Common redshank (Tringa totanus, Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus, and Little heron (Butorides striata and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder. The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R=0.443, p<0.05, bill size and prey size (R=-0.052, p<0.05, bill size and probing depth (R=0.42, p=0.003, and leg length and water/mud depth (R=0.706, p<0.005. A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm and species (H=15.96, p=0.0012. Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging.

  8. The Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana Scale: Further examination using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Huang, Wenjing; Dvorak, Robert D; Prince, Mark A; Hummer, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States. We sought to develop a psychometrically sound item bank for the PBSM and to create a short assessment form that minimizes respondent burden and time. Quantitative item analyses, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with item response theory (IRT) and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), revealed an item bank of 36 items that was examined for unidimensionality and good content coverage, as well as a short form of 17 items that is free of bias in terms of gender (men vs. women), race (White vs. non-White), ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), and recreational marijuana use legal status (state recreational marijuana was legal for 25.5% of participants). We also provide a scoring table for easy transformation from sum scores to IRT scale scores. The PBSM item bank and short form associated strongly and negatively with past month marijuana use and consequences. The measure may be useful to researchers and clinicians conducting intervention and prevention programs with young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Sexual Behavior and Vaginal Practices During Pregnancy and Postpartum: Implications for HIV Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Drake, Alison L; Matemo, Daniel; Unger, Jennifer A; McClelland, Raymond S; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-02-01

    Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying. Among 1252 women enrolled, 78.4% were married (of whom 15.1% were in polygamous unions), 1.4% had a known HIV-infected partner, and 33.6% had a partner of unknown HIV status. At enrollment, 58.5% reported sex in the past month (94.3% unprotected) and 4.5% reported forced sex. Odds of unprotected sex at enrollment was >11-fold higher in married than in unmarried women (P < 0.001) and lower among women who reported partners of unknown HIV status or HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected partners. Median time to postpartum resumption of sex was 7 weeks (interquartile range 4-12). Prevalence of unprotected sex in the past week increased from 6.6% to 60.0% between 2 and 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing was reported by 60.1% of women at enrollment and prevalence remained stable postpartum; vaginal drying was reported by 17.9% at enrollment and decreased to 6.1% at 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing and drying were associated with forced sex. High rates of unknown partner HIV status, polygamy, and less frequent condom use among pregnant/postpartum women underscore the need for female-controlled HIV prevention interventions. Vaginal washing and drying may present challenges to microbicide use.

  10. Selecting effective persuasive strategies in behavior change support systems: Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kelders, Saskia; Kulyk, Olga; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    The Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems provides a place to discuss recent advances in BCSS research. The selected papers show that research into behavior change support systems is expanding: not only by trying to reach more and other people, but also by expanding the

  11. Energy consumption behavior in the commercial sector: An ethnographic analysis of utility bill information and customer comprehension in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher Todd

    The commercial and industrial sectors of the United States compose roughly one-third of total United States energy consumption. Many studies have suggested that significant cost-effective energy savings opportunities exist in this sector, but there is a gap between predictions of potential and actual investment in energy-efficient technologies. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the decision-making environment of the business sector. In particular, there is essentially no information about how small-business decision-makers make choices about energy consumption. My research is intended to begin the process of understanding this important arena of energy consumption behavior. Using semi-structured interview techniques, I interviewed forty-four businesses in ten states. The focus of the interviews was the business decision-maker's handling and use of the utility bill---the main (often sole) piece of information that links energy consumption to cost. Through the interviews, I collected information about how utility bills are understood and misunderstood, what components of the bill are seen as useful or confusing, and how energy consumption was seen in the context of larger business decision-making. In addition, I collected data on two forms of energy consumption feedback: historic consumption feedback, in which informants compared their current energy use to patterns of their own energy consumption over time; and group comparison consumption feedback, in which informants compared their energy consumption to the consumption of a group of similar energy consumers. Finally, I collected data on sources of information to which decision-makers turned when they wanted to seek more information about energy consumption alternatives. Overall, my findings suggest that the current utility bill format is often misunderstood. In many cases, particularly in the small-business and medium-size-business categories, the link between energy consumption and energy cost is

  12. Assessing the Effects of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Behavior Change Strategies on Physical Activity in Older Adults: a Factorial Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Siobhan K; Lewis, Beth; Oakes, J Michael; Wyman, Jean F; Guan, Weihua; Rothman, Alexander J

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about which behavior change strategies motivate older adults to increase their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effects of two sets of behavior change strategies to motivate increased physical activity among older adults: interpersonal and intrapersonal. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 102, mean age = 79) were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to receive interpersonal (e.g., social support, friendly social comparison; no, yes) and /or intrapersonal (e.g., goal setting, barriers management; no, yes) behavior change strategies, combined with an evidence-based, physical activity protocol (Otago exercise program) and a physical activity monitor (Fitbit One™). Based on monitor data, participants who received interpersonal strategies, compared to those who did not, increased their average minutes of total physical activity (light, moderate, vigorous) per week, immediately (p = .006) and 6 months (p = .048) post-intervention. Similar, increases were observed on measures of functional strength and balance, immediately (p = .012) and 6 months (p = .003) post-intervention. The intrapersonal strategies did not elicit a significant increase in physical activity or functional strength and balance. Findings suggest a set of interpersonally oriented behavior change strategies combined with an evidence-based physical activity protocol can elicit modest, but statistically and clinically significant, increases in older adults' physical activity and functional strength and balance. Future research should replicate these findings and investigate the sustained quantity of physical activity elicited by these strategies and their impact on older adults' quality of life and falls. Trial Registration The ClinicalTrials.gov registration identifier is NCT02433249.

  13. Landowner behavior can determine the success of conservation strategies for ecosystem migration under sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Dayer, Ashley A; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-08-22

    The human aspects of conservation are often overlooked but will be critical for identifying strategies for biological conservation in the face of climate change. We surveyed the behavioral intentions of coastal landowners with respect to various conservation strategies aimed at facilitating ecosystem migration for tidal marshes. We found that several popular strategies, including conservation easements and increasing awareness of ecosystem services, may not interest enough landowners to allow marsh migration at the spatial scales needed to mitigate losses from sea-level rise. We identified less common conservation strategies that have more support but that are unproven in practice and may be more expensive. Our results show that failure to incorporate human dimensions into ecosystem modeling and conservation planning could lead to the use of ineffective strategies and an overly optimistic view of the potential for ecosystem migration into human dominated areas.

  14. Development of alternative sulfur dioxide control strategies for a metropolitan area and its environs, utilizing a modified climatological dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Skipka; D. B. Smith

    1977-01-01

    Alternative control strategies were developed for achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards in Portland, Maine, and its environs, using a modified climatological dispersion model (CDM) and manipulating the sulfur content of the fuel oil consumed in four concentric zones. Strategies were evaluated for their impact on ambient air quality, economics, and...

  15. Risky HIV sexual behavior and utilization of voluntary counseling and HIV testing and associated factors among undergraduate students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Woldeyohannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Of the total 602 students selected, an overall response rate of 557 (92.6% were registered. Among the participants 361 (60% were males. The student ages’ were ranged from 17 up to 25 years with mean age of 20.3 ± 1.6. Around 385 (64% of them were in the age group of 17 up to 20 years. Among the study participants, 161 (26.8% had sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3 years. About 443 (76% of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs. Among sexually active students, 74 (46% had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4% had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments

  16. Risky HIV sexual behavior and utilization of voluntary counseling and HIV testing and associated factors among undergraduate students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Asmamaw, Yehenew; Sisay, Solomon; Hailesselassie, Werissaw; Birmeta, Kidist; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2017-01-25

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3) years. About 443 (76%) of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Among sexually active students, 74 (46%) had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4%) had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80)] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI) = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06)] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments. Some students were engaged in risky sexual behaviour even though they had heard about HIV/AIDS. The perception of risk for acquisition of HIV infection and utilization of VCT were low. HIV prevention and control strategies including education in the areas of HIV/AIDS as part of university programs curriculum, specially non-health students, and strengthening health institutions to provide youth-friendly VCT services for HIV with "know

  17. Conflict between Place and Response Navigation Strategies: Effects on Vicarious Trial and Error (VTE) Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brandy; Papale, Andrew; Redish, A. David; Markus, Etan J.

    2013-01-01

    Navigation can be accomplished through multiple decision-making strategies, using different information-processing computations. A well-studied dichotomy in these decision-making strategies compares hippocampal-dependent "place" and dorsal-lateral striatal dependent "response" strategies. A place strategy depends on the ability to flexibly respond…

  18. Predictive Effects of Good Self-Control and Poor Regulation on Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Do Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22663345

  19. Qualitative, quantitative, and data mining methods for analyzing log data to characterize students' learning strategies and behaviors [discussant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ryan S.J.d.; Gobert, Janice D.; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2010-01-01

    This symposium addresses how different classes of research methods, all based upon the use of log data from educational software, can facilitate the analysis of students’ learning strategies and behaviors. To this end, four multi-method programs of research are discussed, including the use of

  20. Parental Stress, Discipline Strategies, and Child Behavior Problems in Families with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, Paul M.; Sullivan, Maureen A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the parent-child relationship by examining associations between parent stress, parental discipline strategies, child disruptive behavior problems, and level of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms. A sample of 130 parents of children with ASD ages 3 to 11 years participated. Parents reported high levels of parent…

  1. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  2. Schema-Based Strategy Instruction and the Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance of Two Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of schema instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). The participants were two fourth-grade students identified with EBD. The intervention package consisted of schema instruction, strategy instruction on problem-solving heuristics…

  3. Facilitating Effective Digital Game-Based Learning Behaviors and Learning Performances of Students Based on a Collaborative Knowledge Construction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Han-Yu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recognized the potential of educational computer games in improving students' learning engagement and outcomes; however, facilitating effective learning behaviors during the gaming process remains an important and challenging issue. In this paper, a collaborative knowledge construction strategy was incorporated into an educational…

  4. A Grounded Theory of Behavior Management Strategy Selection, Implementation, and Perceived Effectiveness Reported by First-Year Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Julie B.; Igo, L. Brent

    2010-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. When confronting mild student…

  5. "The Knowledge of" Counselors in Balqa Governorate: Behavior Modification Strategies in Light of Some of the Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-basel, D-Nagham Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the extent of knowledge of counselor behavior modification strategies. The current study sample consisted of (80) mentor and guide, were selected randomly from among all workers enrolled in regular public schools in the Balqa governorate represented the community study for the academic year 2012-2013. The study…

  6. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol Use Outcomes among College Women Drinkers: Does Disordered Eating and Race Moderate This Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.…

  7. Behavior Management Strategies for Teachers: Achieving Instructional Effectiveness, Student Success, and Student Motivation--Every Teacher and Any Student Can! 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Joan C.; Rowland, Sidney T.

    This book provides tested methods for teachers to use in their behavior management and instructional efforts, offering strategies for maintaining and increasing appropriate behaviors as well as preventing and remediating inappropriate behaviors. Section 1, "Understanding Behavior and Selected Models," includes (1) "Understanding…

  8. Young people in Bogota, Colombia develop their own strategies to prevent risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M

    1996-01-01

    Although the government of Colombia moved in 1993 to mandate sexuality education in primary and secondary schools, nongovernmental organizations have worked in this area for more than two decades. Notable has been the work of one such organization, the Colombian Human and Social Development Foundation, among youth from a marginal, underserved area of Bogota that houses approximately 27,000 adolescents. The project uses a peer approach to relate the values of responsibility, tolerance, and self-determination to the prevention of risky sexual behaviors. At the onset, 15 youth leaders from the local school identified strategies for raising the topic of sexuality to their peers: suggestion boxes, school radio programs, educational materials such as murals and pamphlets, workshops, board games with sexuality-related themes, and community involvement. Suggestion box submissions revealed that sixth and seventh graders wanted to know about puberty-related events, while older students were interested in the effects of masturbation on health and appearance and the association between premarital sexual activity and one's reputation. In an 18-month period, close to 9000 community residents were reached with program materials and 1798 adolescents participated in group meetings. Among the gains observed have been correction of misinformation, a broader view of sexuality, the capacity for independent thought, and self-pride.

  9. The Utility of the Health Action Process Approach Model for Predicting Physical Activity Intentions and Behavior in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research is needed to develop evidence-based behavioral interventions for preventing and treating obesity that are specific to the schizophrenia population. This study is the precursor to such intervention research where we examined the utility of the social cognitions outlined within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA model for predicting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA intentions and behavior among individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A prospective cohort design [baseline (T1, week 2 (T2, and week 4 (T3] was used to examine the HAPA constructs and MVPA across a sample of 101 adults (Mage = 41.5 ± 11.7 years; MBMI = 31.2 ± 7.8 kg/m2; 59% male. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted controlling for age, gender, BMI, and previous self-reported MVPA. In the first regression, intentions at T1 were regressed onto the T1 motivational HAPA constructs (risk perception, affective attitudes, task self-efficacy and social support; MVPA status (meeting vs. not meeting the MVPA guidelines assessed via accelerometry at T3 was regressed onto T1 social support and intentions followed by T2 action and coping planning, and maintenance self-efficacy in the second analysis. Overall, the motivational and social support variables accounted for 28% of the variance in intentions, with affective attitudes (β = 0.33, p < 0.01 and task self-efficacy (β = 0.25, p < 0.05 exhibiting significant, positive relationships. For MVPA status, the model as a whole explained 39% of the variance, with the volitional HAPA constructs explaining a non-significant 3% of this total variance. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting self-efficacy and affective attitudes within this clinical population.

  10. Interrelationships between Health Behaviors and Coping Strategies among Informal Caregivers of Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Kent, Erin E.; Rowland, Julia H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent research among cancer survivors suggests that health behaviors and coping are intertwined, with important implications for positive behavior change and health. Informal caregivers may have poor health behaviors, and caregivers' health behaviors have been linked to those of survivors. Aims: This hypothesis generating study…

  11. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  12. Principles and strategies for monitoring data collection integrity in a multi-site randomized clinical trial of a behavioral intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R; Donovan Stickler, Molly A; Stegenga, Kristin; Lee, Melissa; Haase, Joan E

    2011-08-01

    Although treatment fidelity strategies for enhancing the integrity of behavioral interventions have been well described, little has been written about monitoring data collection integrity. This article describes the principles and strategies developed to monitor data collection integrity of the "Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience During Transplant" study (R01NR008583, U10CA098543, and U10CA095861)-a multi-site Children's Oncology Group randomized clinical trial of a music therapy intervention for adolescents and young adults undergoing stem cell transplant. The principles and strategies outlined in this article provide one model for development and evaluation of a data collection integrity monitoring plan for behavioral interventions that may be adapted by investigators and may be useful to funding agencies and grant application reviewers in evaluating proposals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. ON THE NECESSITY OF CHANGES IN THE STRATEGY OF UTILIZATION SHIP BOILER TECHNICAL CONDITION MAINTENANCE IN THE ASPECT OF LNG APPLIED AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy oils (HFO fuels used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utiliza-tion boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degrada-tion. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, there-fore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO, which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG, onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  14. Climate Narratives: Combing multiple sources of information to develop risk management strategies for a municipal water utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Basdekas, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Stewart, N.

    2013-12-01

    Municipal water utilities often develop Integrated Water Resource Plans (IWRP), with the goal of providing a reliable, sustainable water supply to customers in a cost-effective manner. Colorado Springs Utilities, a 5-service provider (potable and waste water, solid waste, natural gas and electricity) in Colorado USA, recently undertook an IWRP. where they incorporated water supply, water demand, water quality, infrastructure reliability, environmental protection, and other measures within the context of complex water rights, such as their critically important 'exchange potential'. The IWRP noted that an uncertain climate was one of the greatest sources of uncertainty to achieving a sustainable water supply to a growing community of users. We describe how historic drought, paleo-climate, and climate change projections were blended together into climate narratives that informed a suite of water resource systems models used by the utility to explore the vulnerabilities of their water systems.

  15. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Laura N., E-mail: laura.n.haar@mbs.ac.u [University of Manchester, Manchester Business School, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom); Marinescu, Nicolae, E-mail: marinescu@unitbv.r [Transylvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences, 29 Eroilor Bd, Brasov 500 036 (Romania)

    2011-05-15

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. {yields} We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. {yields} We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. {yields} The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. {yields} To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  16. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Marinescu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: → We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. → We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. → We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. → The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. → To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  17. Determinants of Sedentary Behavior, Motivation, Barriers and Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time in Older Women: A Qualitative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien F. M. Chastin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior defined as time spent non-exercising seated or reclining posture has been identified has a health risk and associated with frailty and disablement for older adults. Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society. To date no study has investigated the determinants of sedentary behavior in older adults. This study reports a qualitative investigation of the determinants of sedentary behavior, strategies and motivator to reduce sitting time by structured interviews in a group of community dwelling older women (N = 11, age 65 and over. Older women expressed the view that their sedentary behavior is mostly determined by pain which acts both as an incentive to sit and a motivator to stand up, lack of energy in the afternoon, pressure from direct social circle to sit and rest, societal and environmental typecasting that older adult are meant to sit, lack of environmental facilities to allow activity pacing. This qualitative investigation highlighted some factors that older adults consider determinants of their sedentary behavior. Some are identical to those affecting physical activity (self-efficacy, functional limitations, ageist stereotyping but some appear specific to sedentary behavior (locus of control, pain and should be further investigated and considered during intervention design. Tailored interventions that pay attention to the pattern of sedentary behavior of individuals appear to be supported by the views of older women on their sedentary behavior.

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Improvement of Coping Strategies and Addiction Symptoms in Drug-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H BrockieMilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving coping strategies and symptoms of drug addiction patients. Method: In a quasi-experimental study, the number of 90drug-dependent patients referring to clinics to stop taking drugs existing in the city of Urmia were divided into two experimental (n=45 groups and control (n=45 using random sampling. The experimental group received 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment in Carroll style while the control group received only methadone and the physical pills. All the participants completed coping strategies questionnaire at the beginning, during (after three months, and three months after treatment (follow-up. As well, they were assessed for the rate of improvement in symptoms of addiction and process of addiction treatment using by Madzly’s addiction profile questionnaire. Findings: The results proved the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and its survival. Conclusion: Cognitive behavioral therapy is very influential in the boost of coping strategies and the improvement of mental and physical health in drug-dependent patients.

  19. Behavioral Contexts, Food-Choice Coping Strategies, and Dietary Quality of a Multiethnic Sample of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Employed parents’ work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents’ food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P≤0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner’s employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents’ work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739

  20. The Optimal Ordering Strategy of Outsourcing Procurement of Health Education and Behavior Intervention Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Fan; Sun, Xiao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Health communication and behavior intervention are main measures adopted in health education. Behavior intervention among these measures is the direct one to affect individual and group behaviors. Patients demand more than health information communication, but rely on health intervention service and related products. This essay starts from…

  1. Animal models of behavioral dysfunctions: basic concepts and classifications, and an evaluation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staay, van der F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In behavioral neurosciences, such as neurobiology and biopsychology, animal models make it possible to investigate brain-behavior relations, with the aim of gaining insight into normal and abnormal human behavior and its underlying neuronal and neuroendocrinological processes. Different types of

  2. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict implementation of harm reduction strategies among MDMA/ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to test whether the variables proposed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were associated with baseline intention to implement and subsequent use of 2 MDMA/ecstasy-specific harm reduction interventions: preloading/postloading and pill testing/pill checking. Using targeted Facebook advertisements, an international sample of 391 recreational ecstasy users were recruited to complete questionnaires assessing their ecstasy consumption history, and their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, habit strength (past strategy use), and intention to use these two strategies. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significantly associated with baseline intention to preload/postload and pill test/pill check. Out of the 391 baseline participants, 100 completed the two-month follow-up assessment. Baseline habit strength and frequency of ecstasy consumption during the three months prior to baseline were the only significant predictors of how often participants used the preloading/postloading strategy during the follow-up. Baseline intention to pill test/pill check was the only significant predictor of how often participants used this strategy during the follow-up. These findings provide partial support for TPB variables as both correlates of baseline intention to implement and predictors of subsequent use of these two strategies. Future investigations could assess whether factors related to ecstasy consumption (e.g., subjective level of intoxication, craving, negative consequences following consumption), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility and availability of harm reduction resources) improve the prediction of how often ecstasy users employ these and other harm reduction strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals’ behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees’ SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context.Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees’ use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB.Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23–58 years who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers’ OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads.Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB.Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is

  4. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  5. Candy consumption patterns, effects on health, and behavioral strategies to promote moderation: summary report of a roundtable discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyff, Roberta L; Birch, Leann L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Susan L; Mattes, Richard D; Murphy, Mary M; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rollins, Brandi Y; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all Americans (97%) report eating candy at least once per year; yet, on a given day, only approximately one-fourth of the US population aged ≥2 y consumes candy. Among all Americans, candy contributes a relatively small proportion of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat to the total diet, and recent research suggests that current levels of candy consumption are not associated with risk of weight gain and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. Providing guidance for the consumption of candy in moderation requires an understanding of various behavioral health-related factors that influence candy consumption. A roundtable of behavioral nutrition experts, researchers, and nutrition educators met to discuss recent data on intakes of candy, health outcomes associated with usual candy intake, and the impact of behavioral strategies, including restriction, education, and environmental awareness, on modifying eating behaviors to achieve moderate intakes of candy. Restricting access to palatable foods, whether self-imposed or by parental control, may have potentially negative consequences. Techniques and insight into how to adopt "moderation" in candy consumption, from effective parental practices to environmental strategies that facilitate behavior change without a high degree of effort, were identified as important next steps toward sustainable dietary guidance related to the role of candy and other treats in a healthy lifestyle. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Candy Consumption Patterns, Effects on Health, and Behavioral Strategies to Promote Moderation: Summary Report of a Roundtable Discussion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyff, Roberta L; Birch, Leann L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Susan L; Mattes, Richard D; Murphy, Mary M; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rollins, Brandi Y; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all Americans (97%) report eating candy at least once per year; yet, on a given day, only approximately one-fourth of the US population aged ≥2 y consumes candy. Among all Americans, candy contributes a relatively small proportion of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat to the total diet, and recent research suggests that current levels of candy consumption are not associated with risk of weight gain and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. Providing guidance for the consumption of candy in moderation requires an understanding of various behavioral health-related factors that influence candy consumption. A roundtable of behavioral nutrition experts, researchers, and nutrition educators met to discuss recent data on intakes of candy, health outcomes associated with usual candy intake, and the impact of behavioral strategies, including restriction, education, and environmental awareness, on modifying eating behaviors to achieve moderate intakes of candy. Restricting access to palatable foods, whether self-imposed or by parental control, may have potentially negative consequences. Techniques and insight into how to adopt “moderation” in candy consumption, from effective parental practices to environmental strategies that facilitate behavior change without a high degree of effort, were identified as important next steps toward sustainable dietary guidance related to the role of candy and other treats in a healthy lifestyle. PMID:25593156

  7. Establishing Design Strategies and an Assessment Tool of Home Appliances to Promote Sustainable Behavior for the New Poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental benefits related to home appliance life cycles depend on how these products are used. Designing home appliances that promote sustainable behavior is an effective way to reduce environmental impacts. This study aimed to increase relevant opportunities for promoting sustainable behavior practices on the new poor through home appliances, which is rarely discussed in the fields of design for sustainable behavior (DfSB and product design. In particular, relevant assessment tools or indicators are lacking in DfSB, and people’s use of home appliances is generally unsustainable. Therefore, repertory grid technology was used to understand the perceptions of the new poor, develop an assessment tool, and construct design strategies for home appliances that promote sustainable behavior. Data were collected from the new poor and from designers. Through cluster and principal component analyses, three strategy types were proposed that corresponded to different product features, suggestions, and guidance. In addition, the effectiveness and potential of an assessment tool were demonstrated using the Wilcoxon rank test. The findings could be used by designers, retailers, and green marketers to propose effective product design programs that promote sustainable behavior of the new poor during product use.

  8. The ichnologic record of the continental invertebrate invasion: evolutionary trends in environmental expansion, ecospace utilization, and behavioral complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Genise, Jorge F.; Taylor, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    The combined study of continental trace fossils and associated sedimentary facies provides valuable evidence of colonization trends and events throughout the Phanerozoic. Colonization of continental environments was linked to the exploitation of empty or under-utilized ecospace. Although the nonmarine trace fossil record probably begins during the Late Ordovician, significant invasion of nonmarine biotopes began close to the Silurian-Devonian transition with the establishment of a mobile arthropod epifauna (Diplichnites ichnoguild) in coastal marine to alluvial plain settings. Additionally, the presence of vertical burrows in Devonian high-energy fluvial deposits reflects the establishment of a stationary, deep suspension-feeding infauna of the Skolithos ichnoguild. The earliest evidence of plant-arthropod interaction occurred close to the Silurian-Devonian boundary, but widespread and varied feeding patterns are known from the Carboniferous. During the Carboniferous, permanent subaqueous lacustrine settings were colonized by a diverse, mobile detritus-feeding epifauna of the Mermia ichnoguild, which reflects a significant palaeoenvironmental expansion of trace fossils. Paleozoic ichnologic evidence supports direct routes to the land from marginal marine environments, and migration to lakes from land settings. All nonmarine sedimentary environments were colonized by the Carboniferous, and subsequent patterns indicate an increase in ecospace utilization within already colonized depositional settings. During the Permian, back-filled traces of the Scoyenia ichnoguild record the establishment of a mobile, intermediate-depth, deposit-feeding in-fauna in alluvial and transitional alluvial-lacustrine sediment. Diversification of land plants and the establishment of ecologically diverse plant communities through time provided new niches to be exploited by arthropods. Nevertheless, most ot the evolutionary feeding innovations took place relatively early, during the Late

  9. A Cost-Utility Analysis of 5 Strategies for the Management of Acute Otitis Media in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Dando, Emily E; Dunleavy, Mark L; Curran, Dorothy L; Martin, Judith M; Hoberman, Alejandro; Smith, Kenneth J

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether antimicrobial therapy in young children with acute otitis media reduces time to resolution of symptoms, overall symptom burden, and persistence of otoscopic evidence of infection. We used a cost-utility model to evaluate whether immediate antimicrobial treatment seems to be worthwhile, and if so, which antimicrobial agent is most cost effective. We compared the cost per quality-adjusted life-day of 5 treatment regimens in children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media: immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate, immediate amoxicillin, immediate cefdinir, watchful waiting, and delayed prescription (DP) for antibiotic. The 5 treatment regimens, listed in order from least effective to most effective were DP, watchful waiting, immediate cefdinir, immediate amoxicillin, and immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate. Listed in order from least costly to most costly, the regimens were DP, immediate amoxicillin, watchful waiting, immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate, and immediate cefdinir. The incremental cost-utility ratio of immediate amoxicillin compared with DP was $101.07 per quality-adjusted life-day gained. The incremental cost-utility ratio of immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate compared with amoxicillin was $2331.28 per quality-adjusted life-day gained. In children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media and no recent antibiotic exposure, immediate amoxicillin seems to be the most cost-effective initial treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New fuel air control strategy for reducing NOx emissions from corner-fired utility boilers at medium-low loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sinan; Fang, Qingyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing renewable power, the fossil fuel power plants have to be increasingly operated under large and rapid load change conditions, which can induce various challenges. This work aims to reduce NOx emissions of large-scale corner-fired boilers operated at medium–low loads....... The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions from a 1000 MWe corner-fired tower boiler under different loads are investigated experimentally and numerically. A new control strategy for the annular fuel air is proposed and implemented in the boiler, in which the secondary air admitted to the furnace through...... the air annulus around each coal nozzle tip is controlled by the boiler load, instead of being controlled by the output of the connected mill as commonly used in this kind of power plant. Both the experimental and simulation results show that the new control strategy reduces NOx emissions at the entrance...

  11. Research and development strategy on the behavior of containments during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, C.

    1990-06-01

    In case of an hypothetical severe accident leading to core melting, the last barrier preventing radionucleide release in the environnment is the containment of the main reactor building. The French research and development programmes aimed at understanding the containment behavior during severe accidents relate to several domains; some of them are: - assessment of hydrogen behavior - corium behavior and coolability - ultimate resistance of the containments and leaktightness - caracterization of filtered venting procedure. All these aspects are covered by code calculations and experimental developments

  12. The Utilization of an iPad for Increasing Work-Related Behaviors in Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah; Bucholz, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an iPad to increase work related behaviors for one adult with disabilities in a vocational setting. A multiple baseline across behaviors single subject research design was used to determine if an iPad helped to increase independence in three identified behaviors, which included…

  13. Are men shortchanged on health? Perspective on health care utilization and health risk behavior in men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasov, R M; Wong, J; Kashanian, J; Lee, M; Samadi, D B; Pinkhasov, M M; Shabsigh, R

    2010-03-01

    Significant gender disparities exist in life expectancy and major disease morbidity. There is a need to understand the major issues related to men's health that contributes to these significant disparities. It is hypothesized that, high-risk behaviors and low utilization of all and preventive health services contribute to the higher mortality and the higher and earlier morbidity in men. Data was collected from CDC: Health United States, 2007; Health Behavior of Adults: United States 2002-04; and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2005 Summary. In United States, men are more likely to be regular and heavy alcohol drinkers, heavier smokers who are less likely to quit, non-medical illicit drug users, and are more overweight compared to women. Men are less likely to utilize health care visits to doctor's offices, emergency departments (ED), and physician home visits than women. They are also less likely to make preventive care, hospice care, dental care visits, and have fewer hospital discharges and shorter hospital stays than women. High-risk behaviors and low utilization of health services may contribute to the lower life expectancy in men. In the context of public health, behavioral and preventive interventions are needed to reduce the gender disparity.

  14. Benefits, Facilitators, Barriers, and Strategies to Improve Pesticide Protective Behaviors: Insights from Farmworkers in North Carolina Tobacco Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie Lee; LePrevost, Catherine E; Linnan, Laura; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Mooney, Kathi

    2017-06-23

    Pesticide exposure is associated with deleterious health effects. Prior studies suggest Latino farmworkers perceive little control over their occupational health. Using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical guide, we explored the perceptions of Latino farmworkers working in tobacco in North Carolina ( n = 72) about benefits and facilitators of pesticide protective behaviors as well as barriers, and strategies to overcome barriers to their use. Interviews were conducted with participants at farmworker housing during non-work time. Qualitative data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Farmworkers recognized pesticide protective behaviors as helping them to not get sick and stay healthy. Farmworkers perceived work experience as facilitating protective behaviors. Wetness in the field was the most commonly cited barrier to protective behavior use. To overcome this barrier, farmworkers suggested use of water-resistant outerwear, as well as packing a change of clothes for mid-day, with space and time to change provided by employers. Examination of the efficacy and feasibility of farmworkers' suggestions for addressing barriers is warranted. Training and behavior modeling by experienced peers may improve behavior adoption and perceived control.

  15. "We're Changing Our Ways": Women's Coping Strategies for Obesity Risk-reducing Behaviors in American Indian Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors.

  16. Information strategies and energy conservation behavior: A meta-analysis of experimental studies from 1975 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, Magali A.; Fischlein, Miriam; Asensio, Omar I.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies that provide information about the environmental impact of activities are increasingly seen as effective to encourage conservation behavior. This article offers the most comprehensive meta-analysis of information based energy conservation experiments conducted to date. Based on evidence from 156 published field trials and 525,479 study subjects from 1975 to 2012, we quantify the energy savings from information based strategies. On average, individuals in the experiments reduced their electricity consumption by 7.4%. Our results also show that strategies providing individualized audits and consulting are comparatively more effective for conservation behavior than strategies that provide historical, peer comparison energy feedback. Interestingly, we find that pecuniary feedback and incentives lead to a relative increase in energy usage rather than induce conservation. We also find that the conservation effect diminishes with the rigor of the study, indicating potential methodological issues in the current literature. - Highlights: • We conduct a meta-analysis of information-based energy conservation experiments. • We analyze 156 published trials and 524,479 study subjects from 1975 to 2012. • On average, individuals in the experiments reduced electricity consumption by 7.4%. • Individualized feedback via audits and consulting results in the largest reductions. Pecuniary feedback and incentives lead to a relative increase in energy usage

  17. Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schimpe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility-scale battery storage systems typically consist of multiple smaller units contributing to the overall power dispatch of the system. Herein, the power distribution among these units is analyzed and optimized to operate the system with increased energy efficiency. To improve the real-life storage operation, a holistic system model for battery storage systems has been developed that enables a calculation of the energy efficiency. A utility-scale Second-Life battery storage system with a capacity of 3.3 MWh/3 MW is operated and evaluated in this work. The system is in operation for the provision of primary control reserve in combination with intraday trading for controlling the battery state of charge. The simulation model is parameterized with the system data. Results show that losses in power electronics dominate. An operational strategy improving the energy efficiency through an optimized power flow distribution within the storage system is developed. The power flow distribution strategy is based on the reduction of the power electronics losses at no-load/partial-load by minimizing their in-operation time. The simulation derived power flow distribution strategy is implemented in the real-life storage system. Field-test measurements and analysis prove the functionality of the power flow distribution strategy and reveal the reduction of the energy throughput of the units by 7%, as well as a significant reduction of energy losses in the units by 24%. The cost savings for electricity over the system’s lifetime are approximated to 4.4% of its investment cost.

  18. Personality, Freshmen Proactive Social Behavior, and College Transition: Predictors beyond Academic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Cullen, Kristin L.; Yao, Xiang; Li, Yixuan

    2013-01-01

    When transitioning to college freshmen must behave proactively in order to strive for success in their collegiate careers and their future life. Past research has mainly focused on the academic strategies of freshmen when investigating the predictors of successful college transition and has paid little attention to students' social strategies. The…

  19. Teaching Awareness of Strategic Behavior in Combination with Strategy Training: Effects on Children's Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jack J.; Engle, Randall W.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of rehearsal training and strategy awareness to train groups of mildly retarded and normal children in using mature information processing techniques. Recall scores on a training task were influenced by rehearsal training, but neither the rehearsal and strategy conditions nor their combination influenced recognition of…

  20. Strategies for memory-based decision making : Modeling behavioral and neural signatures within a cognitive architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fechner, Hanna B; Pachur, Thorsten; Schooler, Lael J; Mehlhorn, Katja; Battal, Ceren; Volz, Kirsten G; Borst, Jelmer P.

    2016-01-01

    How do people use memories to make inferences about real-world objects? We tested three strategies based on predicted patterns of response times and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses: one strategy that relies solely on recognition memory, a second that retrieves additional knowledge, and

  1. Behavior change through automated e-mails: mediation analysis of self-help strategy use for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate whether automated e-mails promoting effective self-help strategies for depressive symptoms were effective in changing self-help behavior, and whether this improved depression outcomes. 568 adults with sub-threshold depression participated in a randomized controlled trial and provided complete data. A series of 12 e-mails promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies was compared with e-mails providing non-directive depression information. Depression symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and use of self-help strategies was assessed at baseline and post-intervention. We hypothesized that those receiving the self-help e-mails would increase their use of evidence-based self-help and this would be associated with improvements in depression. Mediation analyses were conducted using a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. Total use of the self-help strategies promoted in the e-mails significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms (B = -0.75, SE = 0.16, 95% CI: -1.06 to -0.48). The direct effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms was much smaller and not significant when the mediation path was included. The majority of the individual strategies also had a significant indirect effect on depressive symptoms. In adults with sub-threshold depression, automated e-mails based on behavior change principles can successfully increase use of self-help strategies, leading to a reduction in depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Socio-technical strategies and behavior change to increase the adoption and sustainability of wastewater resource recovery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Christine; Mohebbi, Shima; Zhang, Qiong

    2018-06-15

    Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize. The modeling framework is informed by literature-based theories such as the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Various methods, including surveys, interviews, participatory observations, and a water constituents mass balance analysis are used to validate relationships and numerically populate the model. The SD model was evaluated with field data and simulated to identify strategies that will improve the adoption and sustainability of RR systems. Site demonstrations (marketing strategy) made a significant impact on the stock of adopted RR systems. The stock of sustained RR systems is driven by the sustainability rate (i.e. economic and environmental viability) which can be improved by more site demonstrations and tank options (technical strategy). These strategies, however, only contributed to incremental improvements in the system's sustainability performance. This study shows that changing community behaviors (i.e. reporting the correct number of users and reclaiming resources), represented by structural change in the SD model, is the more significant way to influence the sustainable management of the community's wastewater resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of economic regulation on attempts to curb expense preference behavior: a micro-data analysis of CEO compensation schemes for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixon, F.G.; Upadhyaya, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study uses a large, micro data set to present evidence which suggests that owners of regulated electric utilities have little incentive to structure CEO compensation packages in an effort to curb potential expense preference behavior. Because such potential behavior occurs, or would occur, at no cost to the firm (or the firm's owners), little incentive exists to structure compensation schemes in a way that would curb such behavior (e.g. by compensating them with incentive bonus plans and stock options). The results presented here augment those which examine other industries (e.g. banking) in an effort to point out the relationships between ownership organization, political involvement and expense preference behavior. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Memory Strategies and Retrieval Success in Preschool Children: Relations to Maternal Behavior over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, O. Evren; Larkina, Marina; Kleinknecht, Erica; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how maternal strategic behaviors during a mother-child collaborative sort-recall task of categorically similar items related to children's recall and children's strategic behavior in a sort-recall task that they completed independently. Mother-child dyads participated in the collaborative sort-recall task when children were 40 months…

  5. Is My Teaching Disturbing You? Strategies for Addressing Disruptive Behaviors in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle

    2010-01-01

    Faculty in higher education are experiencing a new generation of college students referred to as Generation X (Gen-Xers) and Millennials. The characteristics and behaviors of Gen-Xers and Millennials have created a more challenging classroom learning environment. Some educators may choose to ignore disruptive behaviors or may simply not know which…

  6. Bob Bear: A Strategy for Improving Behaviors of Preschoolers Identified as At Risk or Developmentally Delayed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Meredith; Meese, Ruth L.; Keith, Stephen; Mathews, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Social learning theory, sociodramatic play, and the use of puppets and stuffed animals may be beneficial for improving social behaviors of preschoolers with and without disabilities. Therefore, this action research study is developed on the belief that a stuffed animal (Bob Bear) will enhance appropriate behaviors for preschool children when used…

  7. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  8. Assessing and Analyzing Behavior Strategies of Instructors in College Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzed are university instructor behaviors in introductory and advanced level laboratories of botany, chemistry, geology, physics and zoology. Science Laboratory Interaction Categories--Teacher (SLIC) was used to assess 15 individual categories of teacher behaviors in the areas of questioning, giving directions, transmitting information,…

  9. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  10. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PEMILIHAN STRATEGI BISNIS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN QSPM (QUANTITATIVE STRATEGIC PLANNING MATRIX DAN MODEL MAUT (MULTI ATTRIBUTE UTILITY THEORY (STUDI KASUS PADA SENTRA INDUSTRI GERABAH KASONGAN, BANTUL, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Industri Kecil Menengah (IKM gerabah yang terletak di kecamatan Kasongan, kabupaten Bantul, Yogyakarta ini merupakan salah satu sentra industri gerabah Indonesia yang sedang berkembang untuk pasar domestik dan luar negeri.Menurut data statistik Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY, IKM mempunyai daya serap pekerja yang cukup banyak.Perkembangan tersebut perlu diiringi dengan adanya sistem pemasaran yang baik dalam IKM tersebut.Adanya penurunan penjulaan pada beberapa tahun terakhir dan kurang baiknya metode strategi pemasaran merupakan penyebab munculnya masalah –masalah dalam hal penjualan di Industri IKM Gerabah Kasongan, Yogyakarta.Analisis lingkungan eksternal dan lingkungan internal dapat dijadikan acuan utama untuk melakukan perbaikan strategi pemasaran.Analisis lingkungan ekternal dan internal tersebut digabungkan dengan analisis SWOT, kemudian dilakukan penetapan prioritas strategi dari hasil analisis SWOT dengan matriks QSPM (Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix. Model MAUT (Multi Attribute Utility Theory juga digunakan untuk membandingakan prioritas strategi bisnis dengan melihat segi infrastruktur, waktu, cost dan pendapat pengusaha dalam penelitian ini. Dari hasil penelitian bahwa ini Industri IKM dapat melakukan strategi  pengembangan produk dan penetrasi pasar. Selain itu membuat desa Kasongan lebih menarik dengan mengembangkan desa menjadi daerah wisata yang memang menarik untuk dikunjungi. Kesiapan ini juga diiringi dengan adanya kesiaapan oleh masyarakat dan para pengusaha dengan lebih mengembangkan produknya dengan melakukan diversifikasi produk dengan bahan baku yang sama yaitu tanah tersebut. Kata Kunci : strategi bisnis, SWOT, QSPM, model MAUT Abstract The Gerabah Small and Mid-sized Industrial Firm (IKM placed in Kasongan, Bantul, Yogyakarta is one of the central industry of Indonesian gerabah, which is now currently develop into domestic and international market.According to the statistical data from the Local

  12. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  13. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: Utilization of Oral Medicine-specific software for support of clinical care, research, and education: current status and strategy for broader implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai; Varoni, Elena; Sykes, Rosemary; McCullough, Michael; Hua, Hong; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Jensen, Siri Beier; Lockhart, Peter B; Mattsson, Ulf; Jontell, Mats

    2015-08-01

    To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. An invitation letter explaining the objectives was sent to the global Oral Medicine community. Respondents were interviewed to obtain information about different aspects of OMSS functionality. Ten OMSS tools were identified. Four were being used for clinical care, one was being used for research, two were being used for education, and three were multipurpose. Clinical software was being utilized as databases developed to integrate of different type of clinical information. Research software was designed to facilitate multicenter research. Educational software represented interactive, case-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information technology (IT) can have an impact on the quality of patient care, research, and education in the field of Oral Medicine. A strategy for broader implementation of OMSS is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic Widespread Pain Drawn on a Body Diagram is a Screening Tool for Increased Pain Sensitization, Psycho-Social Load, and Utilization of Pain Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Eric J; Ramachenderan, Jonathan; Davies, Stephanie J; Parsons, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that chronic widespread pain, (CWP) drawn by patients on a body diagram, could be used as a screening tool for increased pain sensitization, psycho-social load, and utilization of pain management strategies. The triage questionnaires of 144 adults attending a chronic pain outpatients' clinic were audited and the percentage pain surface area (PPSA) drawn on their body diagrams was calculated using the "rule of nines" (RON) method for burns area assessment. Outcomes were measured using the painDETECT Questionnaire (PD-Q) and other indices and compared using a nonrandomized, case-control method. It was found that significantly more subjects with CWP (defined as a PPSA ≥ 20%) reported high (≥ 19) PD-Q scores (suggesting pain "sensitization" or neuropathic pain) (P = 0.0002), "severe" or "extremely severe" anxiety scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items Questionnaire (P = 0.0270), ≥ 5 psycho-social stressors (P = 0.0022), ≥ 5 significant life events (P = 0.0098), and used ≥ 7 pain management strategies (PMS) (P psycho-social load, and utilizing pain management resources. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  15. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  16. Occupant behavior in building energy simulation: towards a fit-for-purpose modeling strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaetani, I.; Hoes, P.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Occupant behavior is nowadays acknowledged as a main source of discrepancy between predicted and actual building performance; therefore, researchers attempt to model occupants' presence and adaptive actions more realistically. Literature shows a proliferation of increasingly complex, data-based

  17. Validity and usability of a safe driving behaviors measure for older adults : strategy for congestion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Statistics project that crash/injury/fatality rates of older drivers will increase with the future growth of : this population. Accurate and precise measurement of older driver behaviors becomes imperative to : curtail these crash trends and resultin...

  18. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  19. Quantitative iTRAQ-based secretome analysis reveals species-specific and temporal shifts in carbon utilization strategies among manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Wu, Si; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2017-09-01

    Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of iTRAQ proteomics and custom bioinformatic analyses to compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi over a three-week time course. We demonstrate that although the fungi produce a similar suite of extracellular enzymes, they exhibit striking differences in the regulation of these enzymes among species and over time, revealing species-specific and temporal shifts in C utilization strategies as they degrade the same substrate. Specifically, our findings suggest that Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a and Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f employ sequential enzyme secretion patterns concomitant with decreasing resource availability, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a preferentially degrades proteinaceous substrate before switching to carbohydrates, and Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a utilizes primarily peptidases to aggressively attack carbon sources in a concentrated burst. This work highlights the diversity of operative metabolic strategies among cellulose-degrading Ascomycetes and enhances our understanding of their role in C turnover in the environment.

  20. The Diagnostic Utility of Behavioral Checklists in Identifying Children with ADHD and Children with Working Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan E.; Holmes, Joni; Place, Maurice; Elliott, Julian G.; Hilton, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with ADHD and those with working memory impairments have a common behavioral profile in the classroom. Three teacher checklists were used: the Conners' teacher rating scale (CTRS), the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF), and the working memory rating scale. The Conners'…

  1. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth; Laurie L. Kurth; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar; Susan J. Prichard

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation...

  2. Assessing an effective feeding strategy to optimize crude glycerol utilization as sustainable carbon source for lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Lorenzo; Ami, Diletta; Posteri, Riccardo; Giuzzi, Andrea; Mereghetti, Paolo; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-05-05

    Microbial lipids can represent a valuable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in the context of a viable bio-based economy. This production can be driven by cultivating some oleaginous microorganisms on crude-glycerol, a 10% (w/w) by-product produced during the transesterification process from oils into biodiesel. Despite attractive, the perspective is still economically unsustainable, mainly because impurities in crude glycerol can negatively affect microbial performances. In this view, the selection of the best cell factory, together with the development of a robust and effective production process are primary requirements. The present work compared crude versus pure glycerol as carbon sources for lipid production by three different oleaginous yeasts: Rhodosporidium toruloides (DSM 4444), Lipomyces starkeyi (DSM 70295) and Cryptococcus curvatus (DSM 70022). An efficient yet simple feeding strategy for avoiding the lag phase caused by growth on crude glycerol was developed, leading to high biomass and lipid production for all the tested yeasts. Flow-cytometry and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, supported by principal component analysis (PCA), were used as non-invasive and quick techniques to monitor, compare and analyze the lipid production over time. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis completed the quali-quantitative description. Under these operative conditions, the highest lipid content (up to 60.9% wt/wt) was measured in R. toruloides, while L. starkeyi showed the fastest glycerol consumption rate (1.05 g L(-1) h(-1)). Being productivity the most industrially relevant feature to be pursued, under the presented optimized conditions R. toruloides showed the best lipid productivity (0.13 and 0.15 g L(-1) h(-1) on pure and crude glycerol, respectively). Here we demonstrated that the development of an efficient feeding strategy is sufficient in preventing the inhibitory effect of crude glycerol, and robust enough to ensure high lipid

  3. Alert Workplace From Healthcare Workers' Perspective: Behavioral and Environmental Strategies to Improve Vigilance and Alertness in Healthcare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagah Zadeh, Rana; Shepley, Mardelle; Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Owora, Arthur Hamie; Krieger, Ana C

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify the behavioral and environmental strategies that healthcare workers view as helpful for managing sleepiness, improving alertness, and therefore optimizing workplace safety. Reduced alertness is a common issue in healthcare work environments and is associated with impaired cognitive performance and decision-making ability as well as increased errors and injuries. We surveyed 136 healthcare professionals at a primary care clinic, an acute care hospital, and a mental health clinic. Nonstructured, semistructured, and structured questionnaires were used to elicit relevant information which was analyzed using qualitative content analysis and logistic regression models, respectively. In order by frequency of endorsement: dietary intervention; physical mobility; cognitive, sensory, or social stimulation; personal lifestyle strategies; and rest/nap opportunities were reported as behavioral strategies used to address workplace alertness. Compared to other environmental features, daylight and thermal comfort were perceived to be more important to addressing workplace alertness ( p based guidelines is needed to address sleepiness and alertness to improve workplace safety in healthcare facilities.

  4. Current Trends in Exercise Intervention Research, Technology, and Behavioral Change Strategies for People With Disabilities: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Byron; Young, Hui-Ju; Bickel, C Scott; Motl, Robert W; Rimmer, James H

    2017-10-01

    This review synthesized physical activity and exercise intervention literature for the past 10 yrs for people with physical and cognitive disabilities including intervention characteristics, behavior change strategies, and types of technologies used to improve targeted outcomes. Systematic searches yielded 132 eligible studies. The major disability groups were multiple sclerosis (41%), stroke (15%), and spinal cord injury (12%). Research designs primarily involved randomized controlled trials (61%) versus quasi-experimental designs (39%). Approximately 20% of the interventions used some form of the following technology: information and communication technology (48%), interactive technology (37%), or electronic gauges (30%). Eighteen percent of studies used intervention strategies based on behavioral theory, which was typically combined with technology to promote activity and increase adherence in generally larger study samples. The three prevailing theories included social cognitive theory (58%), supportive accountability theory (21%), and transtheoretical model (21%). Upon completing the intervention, studies reported primarily significant outcomes (80%). Exercise research for PWD has grown in both quantity and quality, but several gaps remain. Study findings provide a roadmap for future exercise trials on understudied populations and highlight technology and behavior change theory as drivers of future intervention research.

  5. Towards an understanding of self-directed language as a mechanism of behavior change: A novel strategy for eliciting client language under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O. Ladd

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Change talk (CT and sustain talk (ST are thought to reflect underlying motivation and be important mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs. However, greater specificity and experimental rigor is needed to establish CT and ST as MOBCs. Testing the effects of self-directed language under laboratory conditions is one promising avenue. The current study presents a replication and extension of research examining the feasibility for using simulation tasks to elicit self-directed language. Methods: First-year college students (N=92 responded to the Collegiate Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation, a validated task for assessing decision-making in college drinking. Verbal responses elicited via free-response and structured interview formats were coded based on established definitions of CT and ST, with minor modifications to reflect the non-treatment context. Associations between self-directed language and alcohol use at baseline and eight months were examined. Additionally, this study examined whether a contextually-based measure of decision-making, behavioral willingness, mediated relationships between self-directed language and alcohol outcome. Results: Healthy talk and unhealthy talk independently were associated with baseline alcohol use across both elicitation formats. Only healthy talk during the free-response elicitation was associated with alcohol use at follow up; both healthy talk and unhealthy talk during the interview elicitation were associated with 8-month alcohol use. Behavioral willingness significantly mediated the relationship between percent healthy talk and alcohol outcome. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of studying self-directed language under laboratory conditions and suggest that such methods may provide a fruitful strategy to further understand the role of self-directed language as a MOBC. Keywords: Change talk, College students, Alcohol, Simulation task

  6. Punishment Strategies: First Choice or Last Resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowiak, Twila; Bridges, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Is it appropriate to implement punishment strategies in the home and school settings when children display disrespectful and inappropriate behaviors? This article depicts the advantages and disadvantages of teachers and parents utilizing an array of punishment strategies including: (a) reprimands, (b) response cost, (c) timeout, and (d) corporal…

  7. Salinity Effects on Strategies of Glycogen Utilization in Livers of Euryhaline Milkfish (Chanos chanos under Hypothermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuation of temperature affects many physiological responses in ectothermic organisms, including feed intake, growth, reproduction, and behavior. Changes in environmental temperatures affect the acquisition of energy, whereas hepatic glycogen plays a central role in energy supply for the homeostasis of the entire body. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogenolysis, is also an indicator of environmental stress. Here, we examined the effects of salinity on glycogen metabolism in milkfish livers under cold stress. A reduction of feed intake was observed in both freshwater (FW and seawater (SW milkfish under cold adaptation. At normal temperature (28°C, compared to the FW milkfish, the SW milkfish exhibited greater mRNA abundance of the liver isoform of GP (Ccpygl, higher GP activity, and less glycogen content in the livers. Upon hypothermal (18°C stress, hepatic Ccpygl mRNA expression of FW milkfish surged at 3 h, declined at 6 and 12 h, increased again at 24 h, and increased significantly after 96 h. Increases in GP protein, GP activity, and the phosphorylation state and the breakdown of glycogen were also found in FW milkfish livers after 12 h of exposure at 18°C. Conversely, the Ccpygl transcript levels in SW milkfish were downregulated after 1 h of exposure at 18°C, whereas the protein abundance of GP, GP activity, and glycogen content were not significantly altered. Taken together, under 18°C cold stress, FW milkfish exhibited an acute response with the breakdown of hepatic glycogen for maintaining energy homeostasis of the entire body, whereas no change was observed in the hepatic glycogen content and GP activity of SW milkfish because of their greater tolerance to cold conditions.

  8. The effect of self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation on motivation : A longitudinal study on the effect of school-based interventions in secondary education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation

  9. A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioral, emotional, and motivational outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone

    This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students’ academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade

  10. Toward a Unified Integration Approach: Uniting Diverse Primary Care Strategies Under the Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Brian E; Bell, Jennifer; Khatri, Parinda; Robinson, Patricia J

    2017-12-12

    Primary care continues to be at the center of health care transformation. The Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model of service delivery includes patient-centered care delivery strategies that can improve clinical outcomes, cost, and patient and primary care provider satisfaction with services. This article reviews the link between the PCBH model of service delivery and health care services quality improvement, and provides guidance for initiating PCBH model clinical pathways for patients facing depression, chronic pain, alcohol misuse, obesity, insomnia, and social barriers to health.

  11. Teaching Parents Behavioral Strategies for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Effects on Stress, Strain, and Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadarola, Suzannah; Levato, Lynne; Harrison, Bryan; Smith, Tristram; Lecavalier, Luc; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; Bearss, Karen; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    We report on parent outcomes from a randomized clinical trial of parent training (PT) versus psychoeducation (PEP) in 180 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. We compare the impact of PT and PEP on parent outcomes: Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Parent Sense of Competence (PSOC), and Caregiver Strain Questionnaire…

  12. Increasing On-Task Behavior in the Classroom: Extension of Self-Monitoring Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Zech, Natalie A.; Hoff, Kathryn E.; Doepke, Karla J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a tactile self-monitoring prompt to increase on-task behaviors among 3 elementary-aged students in a special education classroom. Students were taught to self-monitor their attention by using the MotivAider (MotivAider, 2000), an electronic beeper that vibrates to provide a tactile cue to self-monitor. An ABAB…

  13. A Mindfulness-Based Strategy for Self-Management of Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Manikam, Ramasamy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Some individuals with autism engage in physical aggression to an extent that interferes with not only their quality of life, but also that of their parents and siblings. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments have been the mainstay of treatments for aggression in children and adolescents with autism. We evaluated the effectiveness of a…

  14. Understanding Children's Emotional Processes and Behavioral Strategies in the Context of Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N=207, mean age=8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy)…

  15. Effects of Teacher Consultation on Evidence-Based Classroom Management Strategies: Teacher and Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) conducted the online 2005-2006 Teacher Needs Survey wherein 52% of first year teachers, 28% of teachers with two to five years of experience, and 26% of teachers with 6 to 10 years experience ranked classroom management as their greatest need. Difficulty managing student behaviors leads to higher stress…

  16. Brief Report: Assessing Attitudes toward Culturally and Contextually Relevant Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…

  17. Analysis of Learning Behavior in a Flipped Programing Classroom Adopting Problem-Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tosti Hsu-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Programing is difficult for beginners because they need to learn the new language of computers. Developing software, especially complex software, is bound to result in problems, frustration, and the need to think in new ways. Identifying the learning behavior behind programing by way of empirical studies can help beginners learn more easily. In…

  18. An effective tumor-targeting strategy utilizing hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system for improved anti-tumor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Fan, Bo; Sun, Ping; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zhonggao

    2016-10-15

    Hypoxia is a feature of most solid tumors, targeting hypoxia is considered as the best validated yet not extensively exploited strategy in cancer therapy. Here, we reported a novel tumor-targeting strategy using a hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system. In the study, 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazole (AI) through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions, was conjugated to the alkylated polyethyleneimine (bPEI1.8k-C6) to form amphiphilic bPEI1.8k-C6-NI polycations. bPEI1.8k-C6-NI could self-assemble into micelle-like aggregations in aqueous, which contributed to the improved stability of the bPEI1.8k-C6-NI/siRNA polyplexes, resulted in increased cellular uptake. After being transported into the hypoxic tumor cells, the selective nitro-to-amino reduction would cause structural change and elicit a relatively loose structure to facilitate the siRNA dissociation in the cytoplasm, for enhanced gene silencing efficiency ultimately. Therefore, the conflict between the extracellular stability and the intracellular siRNA release ability of the polyplexes was solved by introducing the hypoxia-responsive unit. Consequently, the survivin-targeted siRNA loaded polyplexes shown remarkable anti-tumor effect not only in hypoxic cells, but also in tumor spheroids and tumor-bearing mice, indicating that the hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system had great potential for tumor-targeted therapy. Hypoxia is one of the most remarkable features of most solid tumors, and targeting hypoxia is considered as the best validated strategy in cancer therapy. However, in the past decades, there were few reports about using this strategy in the drug delivery system, especially in siRNA delivery system. Therefore, we constructed a hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system utilizing a hypoxia-responsive unit, 2-nitroimidazole, by which the unavoidable conflict between improved extracellular stability and promoted intracellular si

  19. Utility of eButton images for identifying food preparation behaviors and meal-related tasks in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Margaret; Patterson, Monika; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-02-24

    Food preparation skills may encourage healthy eating. Traditional assessment of child food preparation employs self- or parent proxy-reporting methods, which are prone to error. The eButton is a wearable all-day camera that has promise as an objective, passive method for measuring child food preparation practices. This paper explores the feasibility of the eButton to reliably capture home food preparation behaviors and practices in a sample of pre- and early adolescents (ages 9 to 13). This is a secondary analysis of two eButton pilot projects evaluating the dietary intake of pre- and early adolescents in or around Houston, Texas. Food preparation behaviors were coded into seven major categories including: browsing, altering food/adding seasoning, food media, meal related tasks, prep work, cooking and observing. Inter-coder reliability was measured using Cohen's kappa and percent agreement. Analysis was completed on data for 31 participants. The most common activity was browsing in the pantry or fridge. Few participants demonstrated any food preparation work beyond unwrapping of food packages and combining two or more ingredients; actual cutting or measuring of foods were rare. Although previous research suggests children who "help" prepare meals may obtain some dietary benefit, accurate assessment tools of food preparation behavior are lacking. The eButton offers a feasible approach to food preparation behavior measurement among pre- and early adolescents. Follow up research exploring the validity of this method in a larger sample, and comparisons between cooking behavior and dietary intake are needed.

  20. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Katherine W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women. Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age ( Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies.

  1. xylA and xylB overexpression as a successful strategy for improving xylose utilization and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate production in Burkholderia sacchari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guamán, Linda P; Oliveira-Filho, Edmar R; Barba-Ostria, Carlos; Gomez, José G C; Taciro, Marilda K; da Silva, Luiziana Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Despite the versatility and many advantages of polyhydroxyalkanoates as petroleum-based plastic substitutes, their higher production cost compared to petroleum-based polymers has historically limited their large-scale production. One appealing approach to reducing production costs is to employ less expensive, renewable feedstocks. Xylose, for example is an abundant and inexpensive carbon source derived from hemicellulosic residues abundant in agro-industrial waste (sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates). In this work, the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate P(3HB) from xylose was studied to develop technologies for conversion of agro-industrial waste into high-value chemicals and biopolymers. Specifically, this work elucidates the organization of the xylose assimilation operon of Burkholderia sacchari, a non-model bacterium with high capacity for P(3HB) accumulation. Overexpression of endogenous xylose isomerase and xylulokinase genes was successfully assessed, improving both specific growth rate and P(3HB) production. Compared to control strain (harboring pBBR1MCS-2), xylose utilization in the engineered strain was substantially improved with 25% increase in specific growth rate, 34% increase in P(3HB) production, and the highest P(3HB) yield from xylose reported to date for B. sacchari (Y P3HB/Xil  = 0.35 g/g). This study highlights that xylA and xylB overexpression is an effective strategy to improve xylose utilization and P(3HB) production in B. sacchari.

  2. Impacts of Integrated Marketing Communication Strategies Applied for Geographical Indications on Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kırgız, Ayça

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to raise the awarenessfor products with geographical indication (GI) which directly influence thedevelopment of local and nation-wide economies, marketing of tourism activitiesand branding of destination and to investigate the integrated marketing communication(IMC) tools applied for realization of selling and the impact of such tools onshopping behavior. In this study, simple linear regression analysis have beenused. The data analysis showed that the perceived qu...

  3. Problem-based Learning Strategies for Teaching Military Social Work Practice Behaviors: Review and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Whitworth; Joseph R. Herzog; Diane L. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines and evaluates a military social work course as it has been taught by three social work faculty members at two universities in the southeastern US. The authors highlight why these courses are needed within social work undergraduate and graduate programs. They report how CSWE-identified military practice behaviors are addressed within the course. They also describe how practice-based learning approaches appear to be ideally suited for teaching military social work curricul...

  4. The Impact of a Student-Led Pedometer Intervention Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies on Step Count and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D.; Focht, Brian C.; King, Jenna S.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a student-led physical activity intervention that incorporated pedometers and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Undergraduate students (N = 117) enrolled in upper division exercise and sport science courses recruited participants. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention condition received…

  5. The Effects of Institutional Culture on Study Strategies of Hispanic Students as Measured by the "Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio": The Spanish Version of the "Study Behavior Inventory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; Sandiford, Janice R.

    The study behaviors of Spanish-speaking students at a large two-year public college in the United States were studied using the Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ECI) (L. Bliss, D. Vinay, and F. Koenigner), the Spanish version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (C. Weinstein, 1987). Behaviors of these students were compared with…

  6. Fitting in and standing out: increasing the use of alcohol protective behavioral strategies with a deviance regulation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Neighbors, Clayton; Martens, Matthew P

    2015-06-01

    Heavy alcohol use remains a consistent public health concern on college campuses. The current pilot study used deviance regulation theory (DRT) to modify protective behavioral strategies (PBS) among college student drinkers to reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. The sample was comprised of current college student drinkers (n = 76; 53.95% female) ranging in age from 18-24 (M = 19.29, SD = 1.42). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a positively or negatively framed message. They then reported on use of alcohol PBS (via the Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale), alcohol consumption (via the Modified Daily Drinking Questionnaire), and alcohol-related consequences (via the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire) each week for 6 weeks. Among drinkers with low PBS use norms, a positively, versus a negatively, framed message resulted in increased PBS use and consequently less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related consequences. Among drinkers with high PBS use norms, a negatively, versus positively, framed message resulted in increased PBS use and consequently lower alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related consequences. However, these effects were only relevant among those who strongly believed the DRT frame. Findings suggest assigning drinkers to frames based on perceived PBS use norms and increasing belief in the frame may be 1 approach to increasing responsible drinking patterns among college students. Furthermore, the current data suggests important boundary conditions for norm-based interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A road paved with safe intentions: Increasing intentions to use alcohol protective behavioral strategies via Deviance Regulation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Neighbors, Clayton; Martens, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Kuvaas, Nicholas J

    2016-06-01

    Drinking remains a problem across college campuses. Changing this behavior requires interventions that can be easily and widely dispersed. Several theories place intentions as a proximal predictor of behavior change. The current study examines the effects of a Web-based Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) intervention on (1) intentions to use alcohol protective behavior strategies (PBS) and (2) associations between these intentions and actual behavior. Participants (n = 76) completed a 6-week, Web-based study examining drinking behaviors. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive frame about individuals who use PBS or a negative frame about individuals who do not. They also reported normative perceptions of PBS use among college students. They subsequently logged onto a secure server each week to report on alcohol involvement, use of 3 types of PBS (Manner of Drinking, Stopping/Limiting, and Serious Harm Reduction), and intentions to use these PBS the following week. Consistent with DRT, negative frames resulted in higher PBS use intentions if individuals held high normative beliefs about PBS use. Positive frames resulted in higher Manner of Drinking PBS use intentions if individuals held low normative beliefs about PBS use, but only if individuals endorsed a high belief in the frame. In addition, there was a DRT consistent increase in intention-action associations, but only for Stopping/Limiting PBS. A brief Web-based DRT intervention was effective at increasing PBS intentions and increasing PBS intention-action associations. DRT may provide a mechanism to additively or synergistically improve other Web-based interventions for college drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  9. Effects of the generator and evaporator temperature differences on a double absorption heat transformer—Different control strategies on utilizing heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hanzhi; Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of the GETD on the DAHT system performance are analyzed. • Three different configurations are compared in detail. • Suggestions on the heat source control strategies are given. - Abstract: The combination of the absorption heat transformer with renewable energy systems, like solar thermal systems, is raising more and more concern. In those combined systems the strategies on utilizing heat sources can affect system thermodynamic performance significantly. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis on the effect of the heat source temperature and different heat source flow patterns on the performance of a double absorption heat transformer (DAHT). A detailed comparative study is carried out to clarify the impact of the generator and evaporator temperature differences (GETD) on the coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficient (ECOP), exergy destruction rates in the individual components and heat transfer areas needed for each component. The results show that the generator, condenser and absorber-evaporator are responsible for most of the exergy destruction rate in the DAHT system; the parallel-flow configuration (the generator temperature is equal to the evaporator temperature) performs better under the high gross temperature lift conditions; in the case of the counter-flow configuration (the generator temperature is relatively higher), better performance can be obtained in both the COP and ECOP under the proper heat source temperature (85 and 95 °C); the fair-flow configuration (higher temperature in the evaporator) is not recommended in this paper due to no advantages found in either thermodynamic performance or system size.

  10. Exploring the utility of measures of critical thinking dispositions and professional behavior development in an audiology education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L; Bartlett, Doreen J; Lucy, S Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Discussions about professional behaviors are growing increasingly prevalent across health professions, especially as a central component to education programs. A strong critical thinking disposition, paired with critical consciousness, may provide future health professionals with a foundation for solving challenging practice problems through the application of sound technical skill and scientific knowledge without sacrificing sensitive, empathic, client-centered practice. In this article, we describe an approach to monitoring student development of critical thinking dispositions and key professional behaviors as a way to inform faculty members' and clinical supervisors' support of students and ongoing curriculum development. We designed this exploratory study to describe the trajectory of change for a cohort of audiology students' critical thinking dispositions (measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory: [CCTDI]) and professional behaviors (using the Comprehensive Professional Behaviors Development Log-Audiology [CPBDL-A]) in an audiology program. Implications for the CCTDI and CPBDL-A in audiology entry-to-practice curricula and professional development will be discussed. This exploratory study involved a cohort of audiology students, studied over a two-year period, using a one-group repeated measures design. Eighteen audiology students (two male and 16 female), began the study. At the third and final data collection point, 15 students completed the CCTDI, and nine students completed the CPBDL-A. The CCTDI and CPBDL-A were each completed at three time points: at the beginning, at the middle, and near the end of the audiology education program. Data are presented descriptively in box plots to examine the trends of development for each critical thinking disposition dimension and each key professional behavior as well as for an overall critical thinking disposition score. For the CCTDI, there was a general downward trend from time point 1 to

  11. The Undesirable Behaviors of Students in Academic Classrooms, and the Discipline Strategies Used by Faculty Members to Control Such Behaviors from the Perspective of the College of Education Students in King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qahtani, Norah Saad Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the undesirable students' behaviors in academic classrooms, and the disciplinary, preventive and therapeutic strategies that will be used by faculty members to control those behaviors from the perspective of the College of Education's students in King Saud University. The results of the study has shown that the…

  12. Utilizing the ultrasensitive Schistosoma up-converting phosphor lateral flow circulating anodic antigen (UCP-LF CAA) assay for sample pooling-strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Hoekstra, Pytsje T; de Dood, Claudia J; van Dam, Govert J

    2017-11-01

    Methodological applications of the high sensitivity genus-specific Schistosoma CAA strip test, allowing detection of single worm active infections (ultimate sensitivity), are discussed for efficient utilization in sample pooling strategies. Besides relevant cost reduction, pooling of samples rather than individual testing can provide valuable data for large scale mapping, surveillance, and monitoring. The laboratory-based CAA strip test utilizes luminescent quantitative up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles and a rapid user-friendly lateral flow (LF) assay format. The test includes a sample preparation step that permits virtually unlimited sample concentration with urine, reaching ultimate sensitivity (single worm detection) at 100% specificity. This facilitates testing large urine pools from many individuals with minimal loss of sensitivity and specificity. The test determines the average CAA level of the individuals in the pool thus indicating overall worm burden and prevalence. When requiring test results at the individual level, smaller pools need to be analysed with the pool-size based on expected prevalence or when unknown, on the average CAA level of a larger group; CAA negative pools do not require individual test results and thus reduce the number of tests. Straightforward pooling strategies indicate that at sub-population level the CAA strip test is an efficient assay for general mapping, identification of hotspots, determination of stratified infection levels, and accurate monitoring of mass drug administrations (MDA). At the individual level, the number of tests can be reduced i.e. in low endemic settings as the pool size can be increased as opposed to prevalence decrease. At the sub-population level, average CAA concentrations determined in urine pools can be an appropriate measure indicating worm burden. Pooling strategies allowing this type of large scale testing are feasible with the various CAA strip test formats and do not affect

  13. Correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns at Yale University, New Haven, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R. Doolittle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Methods: Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the COPE Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The interns were in programs at the Yale University School of Medicine and a Yale-affiliated community hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Results: The prevalence of self-identified burnout prior to starting the internship was 1/66 (1.5% in June 2009, increasing to 10/53 (18.9% in February 2010 (P<0.0001. From June 2009 to February 2010, the prevalence of high emotional exhaustion increased from 30/66 (45.5% to 45/53 (84.9% (P<0.0001, and that of high depersonalization increased from 42/66 (63.6% to 45/53 (84.9% (P=0.01. Interns who employed the strategies of acceptance and active coping were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P<0.05. Perceptions of high personal accomplishment was 75.5% and was positively correlated with total scores on the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, as well as the internal/fluid and existential/meditative domains of that instrument. Specific behaviors did not impact burnout. Conclusion: Burnout increased during the intern year. Acceptance, active coping, and spirituality were correlated with less burnout. Specific behaviors were not correlated with burnout domains.

  14. Correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns at Yale University, New Haven, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin R; Windish, Donna M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the COPE Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The interns were in programs at the Yale University School of Medicine and a Yale-affiliated community hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. The prevalence of self-identified burnout prior to starting the internship was 1/66 (1.5%) in June 2009, increasing to 10/53 (18.9%) in February 2010 (P<0.0001). From June 2009 to February 2010, the prevalence of high emotional exhaustion increased from 30/66 (45.5%) to 45/53 (84.9%) (P<0.0001), and that of high depersonalization increased from 42/66 (63.6%) to 45/53 (84.9%) (P=0.01). Interns who employed the strategies of acceptance and active coping were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P<0.05). Perceptions of high personal accomplishment was 75.5% and was positively correlated with total scores on the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, as well as the internal/fluid and existential/meditative domains of that instrument. Specific behaviors did not impact burnout. Burnout increased during the intern year. Acceptance, active coping, and spirituality were correlated with less burnout. Specific behaviors were not correlated with burnout domains.

  15. Impact of Heterogeneity in Sexual Behavior on Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Transmission with Test-and-Treat Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Rozhnova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The WHO's early-release guideline for antiretroviral treatment (ART of HIV infection based on a recent trial conducted in 34 countries recommends starting treatment immediately upon an HIV diagnosis. Therefore, the test-and-treat strategy may become more widely used in an effort to scale up HIV treatment and curb further transmission. Here we examine behavioural determinants of HIV transmission and how heterogeneity in sexual behaviour influences the outcomes of this strategy. Using a deterministic model, we perform a systematic investigation into the effects of various mixing patterns in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM, stratified by partner change rates, on the elimination threshold and endemic HIV prevalence. We find that both the level of overdispersion in the distribution of the number of sexual partners and mixing between population subgroups have a large influence on endemic prevalence before introduction of ART and on possible long term effectiveness of ART. Increasing heterogeneity in risk behavior may lead to lower endemic prevalence levels, but requires higher coverage levels of ART for elimination. Elimination is only feasible for populations with a rather low degree of assortativeness of mixing and requires treatment coverage of almost 80% if rates of testing and treatment uptake by all population subgroups are equal. In this case, for fully assortative mixing and 80% coverage endemic prevalence is reduced by 57%. In the presence of heterogeneity in ART uptake, elimination is easier to achieve when the subpopulation with highest risk behavior is tested and treated more often than the rest of the population, and vice versa when it is less. The developed framework can be used to extract information on behavioral heterogeneity from existing data which is otherwise hard to determine from population surveys.

  16. Clinical Utility of Short Social Cognitive Tests in Early Differentiation of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia from Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Christian; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cognitive tests used in clinical practice may not be sensitive enough for the early differentiation of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of literature has shown that deficits in various aspects of social cognition can be f...

  17. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  18. Missing the mark for patient engagement: mHealth literacy strategies and behavior change processes in smoking cessation apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Alber, Julia M; Stellefson, Michael L; Krieger, Janice L

    2018-05-01

    To examine how Transtheoretical Model (TTM)'s processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies are employed in mobile smoking cessation apps. A purposive sample of 100 iTunes apps were coded to assess descriptive (price, type, developer, user-rating) and engagement metrics, including processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies (plain language, usability, interactivity). One-way ANOVAs and independent samples t-tests examined associations between descriptive and engagement metrics. Over half of the apps included 7 (78%) processes of change. Fewer included self-liberation (36%) and reinforcement management (34%). Most apps incorporated plain language, but few integrated usability and interactivity strategies. Hypnotherapy and informational apps included more behavioral processes of change than apps incorporating a combination of features, including gaming, cigarette trackers, and motivational coaching (pbehavior change processes but rarely incorporated usability and interactivity features to promote patient engagement. Engagement metrics did not vary by app user-ratings, price-to-download, or developer, including for-profit organizations or government and educational institutions. Providers should acknowledge the popularity of smoking cessation apps as potential cessation aids and communicate their benefits and drawbacks to patients. Future efforts to improve smoking cessation apps should focus on enhancing the quality of tailored and interactive content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncovering Longitudinal Health Care Behaviors for Millions of Medicaid Enrollees: A Multistate Comparison of Pediatric Asthma Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Ross; Zheng, Yuchen; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Serban, Nicoleta

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces a framework for analyzing and visualizing health care utilization for millions of children, with a focus on pediatric asthma, one of the major chronic respiratory conditions. The data source is the 2005 to 2012 Medicaid Analytic Extract claims for 10 Southeast states. The study population consists of Medicaid-enrolled children with persistent asthma. We translate multiyear, individual-level medical claims into sequences of discrete utilization events, which are modeled using Markov renewal processes and model-based clustering. Network analysis is used to visualize utilization profiles. The method is general, allowing the study of other chronic conditions. The study population consists of 1.5 million children with persistent asthma. All states have profiles with high probability of asthma controller medication, as large as 60.6% to 90.2% of the state study population. The probability of consecutive asthma controller prescriptions ranges between 0.75 and 0.95. All states have utilization profiles with uncontrolled asthma with 4.5% to 22.9% of the state study population. The probability for controller medication is larger than for short-term medication after a physician visit but not after an emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization. Transitions from ED or hospitalization generally have a lower probability into physician office (between 0.11 and 0.38) than into ED or hospitalization (between 0.20 and 0.59). In most profiles, children who take asthma controller medication do so regularly. Follow-up physician office visits after an ED encounter or hospitalization are observed at a low rate across all states. Finally, all states have a proportion of children who have uncontrolled asthma, meaning they do not take controller medication while they have severe outcomes.

  20. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Shuhong; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing

    2017-01-01

    We report that lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) have recently attracted extensive interest in the energy-storage field after silence from the public view for several decades. However, many challenges still need to be overcome before their practical application, especially those that are related to the interfacial instability of Li metal anodes. Here, we reveal for the first time that the thickness of the degradation layer on the metallic Li anode surface shows a linear relationship with Li areal capacity utilization up to 4.0 mAh cm -2 in a practical LMB system. The increase in Li capacity utilization in each cycle causes variations in the morphology and composition of the degradation layer on the Li anode. Under high Li capacity utilization, the current density for charge (i.e., Li deposition) is identified to be a key factor controlling the corrosion of the Li metal anode. Lastly, these fundamental findings provide new perspectives for the development of rechargeable LMBs.