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Sample records for behavioral sex differences

  1. Sex differences in wild chimpanzee behavior emerge during infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth V Lonsdorf

    Full Text Available The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization.

  2. Sex differences in the brain, behavior, and neuropsychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain are reflected in behavior and in the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The fetal brain develops in the male direction due to a direct effect of testosterone on the developing neurons, or in the female direction due to the absence of such a testosterone surge. Because

  3. Sex differences in cortisol's regulation of affiliative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Gary D; Rice, Leslie K; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Jones, Amanda C; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. A stress perspective is used to illuminate how competitive defeat and victory shape biology and behavior. We report a field study examining how change in cortisol following perceived defeat (vs. victory) in a competition-in this case, a dog agility competition-relates to affiliative behavior. Following competition, we measured cortisol change and the extent to which dog handlers directed affiliative behaviors toward their dogs. We found striking sex differences in affiliation. First, men were more affiliative toward their dogs after victory, whereas women were more affiliative after defeat. Second, the greater a female competitor's increase in cortisol, the more time she spent affiliating with her dog, whereas for men, the pattern was the exact opposite: the greater a male competitor's increase in cortisol, the less time he spent affiliating with his dog. This pattern suggests that, in the wake of competition, men and women's affiliative behavior may serve different functions-shared celebration for men; shared consolation for women. These sex differences show not only that men and women react very differently to victory and defeat, but also that equivalent changes in cortisol across the sexes are associated with strikingly different behavioral consequences for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. College Students' Health Behavior Clusters: Differences by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah; Zhou, Wenjun; Sowers, Morgan F; Shelnutt, Karla; Olfert, Melissa D; Morrell, Jesse; Koenings, Mallory; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Brown, Onikia; White, Adrienne A; Hoerr, Sharon L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Kattelmann, Kendra K

    2017-07-01

    The study purpose was to identify clusters of weight-related behaviors by sex in a college student populations. We conducted secondary data analysis from online surveys and physical assessments collected in Project Young Adults Eating and Active for Health (YEAH) with a convenience sample of students on 13 college campuses in the United States. We performed 2-step cluster analysis by sex to identify subgroups with homogeneous characteristics and behaviors. We used 8 derivation variables: healthy eating; eating restraints; external cues; stress; fruit/vegetable intake; calories from fat; calories from sugar-sweetened beverages; and physical activity. Contribution of derivation variables to clusters was analyzed with a MANOVA test. Data from 1594 students were included. Cluster analysis revealed 2-clusters labeled "Healthful Behavior" and "At-risk" for males and females with an additional "Laid Back" cluster for males. "At-risk" clusters had the highest BMI, waist circumference, elevated health risk, and stress and least healthy dietary intake and physical activity. The "Laid Back" cluster had normal weights and the lowest restrained eating, external cues sensitivity, and stress. Identified differences in characteristics and attitudes towards weight-related behaviors between males and females can be used to tailor weight management programs.

  5. Sex differences in vicarious trial-and-error behavior during radial arm maze learning.

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    Bimonte, H A; Denenberg, V H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated sex differences in VTE behavior in rats during radial arm maze learning. Females made more VTEs than males, although there were no sex differences in learning. Further, VTEs and errors were positively correlated during the latter testing sessions in females, but not in males. This sex difference may be a reflection of differences between the sexes in conflict behavior or cognitive strategy while solving the maze.

  6. Distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the avian brain: functional implications for neural sex differences and sexual behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.

    2001-01-01

    Developmental and seasonal changes in the production of androgens, estrogens, and progestins seem to control sex-specific differentiation and seasonal changes in appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of birds. This results in profound sex differences in the quality (sex-specific) or quantity

  7. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

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    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  8. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Elizabeth A.; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a whe...

  9. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontro...

  10. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: Sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors in the brain are involved in the regulation of various social behaviors and have emerged as drug targets for the treatment of social dysfunction in several sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. Sex differences in the VP and OT systems may therefore be implicated in sex-specific regulation of healthy as well as impaired social behaviors. We begin this review by highlighting the sex differences, or lack of sex differences, in VP and OT synthesis in the brain. We then discuss the evidence showing the presence or absence of sex differences in VP and OT receptors in rodents and humans, as well as showing new data of sexually dimorphic V1a receptor binding in the rat brain. Importantly, we find that there is lack of comprehensive analysis of sex differences in these systems in common laboratory species, and we find that, when sex differences are present, they are highly brain region- and species-specific. Interestingly, VP system parameters (VP and V1aR) are typically higher in males, while sex differences in the OT system are not always in the same direction, often showing higher OT expression in females, but higher OT receptor expression in males. Furthermore, VP and OT receptor systems show distinct and largely non-overlapping expression in the rodent brain, which may cause these receptors to have either complementary or opposing functional roles in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior. Though still in need of further research, we close by discussing how manipulations of the VP and OT systems have given important insights into the involvement of these neuropeptide systems in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M.; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors in the brain are involved in the regulation of various social behaviors and have emerged as drug targets for the treatment of social dysfunction in several sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. Sex differences in the VP and OT systems may therefore be implicated in sex-specific regulation of healthy as well as impaired social behaviors. We begin this review by highlighting the sex differences, or lack of sex differences, in VP and OT synthesis in the brain. We then discuss the evidence showing the presence or absence of sex differences in VP and OT receptors in rodents and humans, as well as showing new data of sexually dimorphic V1a receptor binding in the rat brain. Importantly, we find that there is lack of comprehensive analysis of sex differences in these systems in common laboratory species, and we find that, when sex differences are present, they are highly brain region- and species- specific. Interestingly, VP system parameters (VP and V1aR) are typically higher in males, while sex differences in the OT system are not always in the same direction, often showing higher OT expression in females, but higher OT receptor expression in males. Furthermore, VP and OT receptor systems show distinct and largely non-overlapping expression in the rodent brain, which may cause these receptors to have either complementary or opposing functional roles in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior. Though still in need of further research, we close by discussing how manipulations of the VP and OT systems have given important insights into the involvement of these neuropeptide systems in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior in rodents and humans. PMID:25951955

  12. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexual Persons, Behaviors, and Civil Rights: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Used meta-analytic techniques to compare men's and women's attitudes toward homosexual persons, homosexual behaviors, and gay people's civil rights. As expected, size of sex differences varied across these categories. Men were more negative than women toward homosexual persons and homosexual behavior, but the sexes viewed gay civil rights…

  13. Sex Differences in Parenting Behaviors in Single-Mother and Single-Father Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Howell, Nyssa C.; Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Lapray, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family structure has led some to claim that sex-based parenting differences exist. But if such differences exist in single-parent families, the absence of a second parent rather than specific sex-typed parenting might explain them. We examine differences in mothering and fathering behavior in single-parent households, where number of…

  14. Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  15. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: Are the Social Role and Evolutionary Explanations Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    1996-01-01

    Examines competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology. Findings associated with social role theory are weighed against evolutionary explanations. It is suggested that evolutionary theory better accounts for the overall pattern of sex differences and for their origins.…

  16. Sex differences in neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation revealed by fNIRS hyperscanning

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    Baker, Joseph M.; Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Vrticka, Pascal; Saggar, Manish; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task. Dyads containing at least one male demonstrated significantly higher behavioral performance than female/female dyads. Individual males and females showed significant activation in the right frontopolar and right inferior prefrontal cortices, although this activation was greater in females compared to males. Female/female dyad’s exhibited significant inter-brain coherence within the right temporal cortex, while significant coherence in male/male dyads occurred in the right inferior prefrontal cortex. Significant coherence was not observed in mixed-sex dyads. Finally, for same-sex dyads only, task-related inter-brain coherence was positively correlated with cooperation task performance. Our results highlight multiple important and previously undetected influences of sex on concurrent neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation. PMID:27270754

  17. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

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    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  18. The neural basis of sex differences in sexual behavior: A quantitative meta-analysis

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    Poeppl, Timm B.; Langguth, Berthold; Rupprecht, Rainer; Safron, Adam; Bzdok, Danilo; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality as to its etymology presupposes the duality of sexes. Using quantitative neuroimaging meta-analyses, we demonstrate robust sex differences in the neural processing of sexual stimuli in thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. In a narrative review, we show how these relate to the well-established sex differences on the behavioral level. More specifically, we describe the neural bases of known poor agreement between self-reported and genital measures of female sexual arousal, of previously proposed male proneness to affective sexual conditioning, as well as hints of unconscious activation of bonding mechanisms during sexual stimulation in women. In summary, our meta-analytic review demonstrates that neurofunctional sex differences during sexual stimulation can account for well-established sex differences in sexual behavior. PMID:27742561

  19. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  20. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  1. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  2. Mothers’ Parenting and Child Sex Differences in Behavior Problems among African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. This study examines whether associations between observations of mothers’ positive and negative parenting and children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consists of 137 African American, low-income families with one sibling approximately two-years-old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately four-years-old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, while lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors. PMID:23937420

  3. Coping Styles and Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…

  4. Indianness, Sex, and Grade Differences on Behavior and Personality Measures Among Oglala Sioux Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Joseph N.; O'Donnell, James P.

    1974-01-01

    This study assesses Indianness (mixed or full-blood), sex, and grade differences among Oglala Sioux high school students, using the Coopersmith Behavior Rating Forms and the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist. Results indicate that mixed-bloods had higher achievement and greater popularity than full-bloods. Fewer problems and higher…

  5. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation, gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol, and diet (i.e., western-style diet vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day, but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females.

  6. Sex differences in the play behavior of immature spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta.

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    Pedersen, J M; Glickman, S E; Frank, L G; Beach, F A

    1990-09-01

    Social, locomotor, and object play were studied in a colony of five male and five female peer-reared spotted hyenas during 12 1-hr tests while the animals were 13-19 months of age. Animals were tested in both same-sex and mixed-sex groups and were stimulated to play by the introduction of fresh straw and sawdust bedding. Each test was videotaped and the frequency of each type of play was determined by a time sampling procedure. Females played more frequently than males, however, the category of play which was elevated depended upon the social context during testing. In same-sex tests the frequency of vigorous social play displayed by females markedly exceeded that by males, but no comparable sex difference appeared in mixed-sex tests. Females engaged in locomotor play more frequently than males in mixed-sex tests, but no comparable sex difference appeared in same-sex tests. No sex difference in object play was observed. Two male and two female hyenas were gonadectomized prior to the initiation of the present sequence of tests. The results suggest that gonadectomy during the prepubertal period does not affect the frequency of play behavior. However, the small sample sizes preclude any conclusive determination of the effects of these gonadectomies on play.

  7. Sex on the brain: Are gender-dependent structural and functional differences associated with behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Anna

    2017-01-02

    A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females. This review polemicizes with those opinions and presents examples of sex-related local neural differences underpinning a variety of sex differences in behaviors, skills, and cognitive/emotional abilities. Although male/female brain differentiation may vary in pattern and scale, nonetheless, in some respects (e.g., relative local gray matter volumes) it can be substantial, taking the form of sexual dimorphism and involving large areas of the brain (the cortex in particular). A significant part of this review is devoted to arguing that some sex differences in the brain may serve to prevent (in the case where they are maladaptive), rather than to produce, differences at the behavioral/skill level. Specifically, some differences might result from compensatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining similar intellectual capacities across the sexes, despite the smaller average volume of the brain in females compared with males. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sex differences in behavior and neural development and their role in adolescent vulnerability to substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Gulley, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents are especially prone to risky behavior and to the emergence of psychological disorders like substance abuse, anxiety and depression. However, there is a sex (or gender) difference in this vulnerability, with females being more prone to developing internalizing disorders and males being more likely to engage in risky behavior and drug use. While several researchers have proposed that there is a relationship between corticolimbic circuit development and adolescent vulnerability, the current proposed models do not take sex differences into account. In this review, we explore recent findings from both human and rodent studies of sex differences during adolescence. In particular, we consider epidemiological studies on the factors that contribute to the development of substance abuse and internalizing disorders, laboratory studies on reward-related and decision-making behavior, and neuroanatomical studies on the development of several structures in the corticolimbic circuit (i.e., prefrontal cortex [PFC], amygdala and striatum). We then integrate these recent findings into models of adolescent vulnerability to substance use that have previously not addressed sex differences. Lastly, we discuss methodological considerations for the interpretation and design of studies on sex (or gender) differences during adolescence while highlighting some opportunities for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex differences in claimed and behavioral self-handicapping and ADHD symptomatology in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Stephen J; Hartung, Cynthia M; McCrea, Sean M; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Canu, Will H

    2016-12-01

    Although the research is clear that boys with ADHD have higher symptomatology and impairment than girls with ADHD, for adults the research is mixed. Some studies suggest no sex differences, whereas others suggest that women might have higher symptomatology and impairment. The present study examined sex differences in ADHD symptomatology and impairment, and the possible role of claimed and behavioral self-handicapping as an explanation for any differences. Claimed self-handicapping (CSH) involves reports of performance-inhibiting conditions, whereas behavioral self-handicapping (BSH) involves reporting more objective, intentional acts that could undermine performance. College students (N = 699) completed an online study. Sex differences were found for hyperactivity such that women reported higher levels, but not for inattention or impairment. The test of the indirect effect of sex through CSH was significant, suggesting that higher levels of CSH in women were associated with elevated ADHD symptoms and impairment. The test of the indirect effect of sex through BSH was also significant, suggesting that higher levels of BSH in men are associated with elevated symptoms of ADHD and impairment. These data extend the literature by suggesting that self-handicapping might at least partially explain differential self-reporting of ADHD symptoms and impairment in emerging adults across the sexes.

  10. Complementarity of sex differences in brain and behavior: From laterality to multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E

    2017-01-02

    Although, overwhelmingly, behavior is similar in males and females, and, correspondingly, the brains are similar, sex differences permeate both brain and behavioral measures, and these differences have been the focus of increasing scrutiny by neuroscientists. This Review describes milestones from more than 3 decades of research in brain and behavior. This research was necessarily bound by available methodology, and we began with indirect behavioral indicators of brain function such as handedness. We proceeded to the use of neuropsychological batteries and then to structural and functional neuroimaging that provided the foundations of a cognitive neuroscience-based computerized neurocognitive battery. Sex differences were apparent and consistent in neurocognitive measures, with females performing better on memory and social cognition tasks and males on spatial processing and motor speed. Sex differences were also prominent in all major brain parameters, including higher rates of cerebral blood flow, higher percentage of gray matter tissue, and higher interhemispheric connectivity in females, compared with higher percentage of white matter and greater intrahemispheric connectivity as well as higher glucose metabolism in limbic regions in males. Many of these differences are present in childhood, but they become more prominent with adolescence, perhaps linked to puberty. Overall, they indicate complementarity between the sexes that would result in greater adaptive diversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Complementarity of Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior: From Laterality to Multi-Modal Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2016-01-01

    While overwhelmingly behavior is similar in males and females, and correspondingly the brains are similar, sex differences permeate both brain and behavioral measures and these differences have been the focus of increasing scrutiny by neuroscientists. Here we describe milestones of over three decades of research in brain and behavior. This research was necessarily bound by available methodology, and we began by indirect behavioral indicators of brain function such as handedness. We proceeded to using neuropsychological batteries and then to structural and functional neuroimaging that provided the foundations of a cognitive neuroscience based computerized neurocognitive battery. Sex differences were apparent and consistent in neurocognitive measures, with females performing better on memory and social cognition tasks and males on spatial processing and motor speed. Sex differences were also prominent on all major brain parameters, including higher rates of cerebral blood flow, higher percent of gray matter tissue and higher inter-hemispheric connectivity in females compared to higher percent of white matter and greater intra-hemispheric connectivity, as well as higher glucose metabolism in limbic regions in males. Many of these differences are present in childhood but they become more prominent with adolescence, perhaps linked to puberty. Together they indicate complementarity between the sexes that would result in higher adaptive diversity. PMID:27870413

  12. Investigation of pre-pubertal sex differences in wheel running and social behavior in three mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elizabeth A; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Sex differences in social behaviors exist in mammals during adulthood, and further evidence suggests that sex differences in behavior are present before sexual maturity. In order to model behavioral disorders in animals, it is important to assess baseline sex-related behavioral differences, especially when studying disorders for which sex-related behavioral effects are expected. We investigated the effect of sex on behavior in 3 strains of pre-pubertal mice (C57BL/6, CFW, and CF1) using a wheel-running assay. We found no significant sex differences in latency to run on the wheel or total duration of wheel running within each strain. During the social interaction test, there were no differences between sexes in latency or total duration of contact or following between a subject and novel mouse. We also evaluated behavioral patterns of wheel running and stereotypical behaviors, such as burrowing and grooming. Both sexes showed characteristic wheel running behavior, spending the majority of each trial interacting with the wheel when it was free and more time performing other activities ( e.g. , stereotypical behaviors, general locomotion) when it was jammed. These results provide evidence that, among various strains of pre-pubertal mice, baseline sex-related behavioral differences are not strong enough to influence the measured behaviors.

  13. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Sex differences in depressive, anxious behaviors and hippocampal transcript levels in a genetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, N S; Wang, L; Redei, E E

    2013-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating illness with high prevalence of comorbid anxiety. The incidence of depression and of comorbid anxiety is much higher in women than in men. These gender biases appear after puberty and their etiology is mostly unknown. Selective breeding of the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, an accepted model of adult and adolescent depression, resulted in two fully inbred substrains. Adult WKY more immobile (WMI) rats of both sexes consistently show increased depression-like behavior in the forced swim test when compared with the control WKY less immobile (WLI) strain. In contrast, here we show that while adult female WMIs and WLIs both display high anxiety-like behaviors, only WLI males, but not WMI males, show this behavior. Moreover, the behavioral profile of WMI males is consistent from early adolescence to adulthood, but the high depression- and anxiety-like behaviors of the female WMIs appear only in adulthood. These sex-specific behavioral patterns are paralleled by marked sex differences in hippocampal gene expression differences established by genome-wide transcriptional analyses of 13th generation WMIs and WLIs. Moreover, sex- and age-specific differences in transcript levels of selected genes are present in the hippocampus of the current, fully inbred WMIs and WLIs. Thus, the contribution of specific genes and/or the influence of the gonadal hormonal environment to depression- and anxiety-like behaviors may differ between male and female WMIs, resulting in their distinct behavioral and transcriptomic profiles despite shared sequences of the somatic chromosomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Sex differences in behavior and neural development and their role in adolescent vulnerability to substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are especially prone to risky behavior and to the emergence of psychological disorders like substance abuse, anxiety and depression. However, there is a sex (or gender) difference in this vulnerability, with females being more prone to developing internalizing disorders and males being more likely to engage in risky behavior and drug use. While several researchers have proposed that there is a relationship between corticolimbic circuit development and adolescent vulnerability, the...

  16. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  17. Loss of T cells influences sex differences in behavior and brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilett, Kelly C; Friedel, Miriam; Ellegood, Jacob; MacKenzie, Robyn N; Lerch, Jason P; Foster, Jane A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that immune-brain communication influences behavior and brain function. Mice lacking T cell receptor β and δ chains were tested in the elevated plus maze, open field, and light-dark test and showed reduced anxiety-like behavior compared to wild type. Interestingly sex differences were observed in the behavioural phenotype of TCRβ-/-δ- mice. Specifically, female TCRβ-/-δ- mice spent more time in the light chamber compared to wild type females, whereas male TCRβ-/-δ- spent more time in the center of the open field compared to wild type males. In addition, TCRβ-/-δ- mice did not show sex differences in activity-related behaviors observed in WT mice. Ex vivo brain imaging (7 Tesla MRI) revealed volume changes in hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe and other brain regions between wild type and T cell receptor knockout mice. There was also a loss of sexual dimorphism in brain volume in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, normally the most sexually dimorphic region in the brain, in immune compromised mice. These data demonstrate the presence of T cells is important in the development of sex differences in CNS circuitry and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Differences in Behavioral Outcomes Following Temperature Modulation During Induced Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

  19. Sex differences in behavioral outcomes following temperature modulation during induced neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda L; Garbus, Haley; Rosenkrantz, Ted S; Fitch, Roslyn Holly

    2015-05-22

    Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P) 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

  20. Sex differences in brain and behavior in adolescence: Findings from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-11-01

    Sex differences in brain and behavior were investigated across the lifespan. Parameters include neurobehavioral measures linkable to neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic indicators of brain structure and function. Sexual differentiation of behavior has been related to organizational factors during sensitive periods of development, with adolescence and puberty gaining increased attention. Adolescence is a critical developmental period where transition to adulthood is impacted by multiple factors that can enhance vulnerability to brain dysfunction. Here we highlight sex differences in neurobehavioral measures in adolescence that are linked to brain function. We summarize neuroimaging studies examining brain structure, connectivity and perfusion, underscoring the relationship to sex differences in behavioral measures and commenting on hormonal findings. We focus on relevant data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a community-based sample of nearly 10,000 clinically and neurocognitively phenotyped youths age 8-21 of whom 1600 have received multimodal neuroimaging. These data indicate early and pervasive sexual differentiation in neurocognitive measures that is linkable to brain parameters. We conclude by describing possible clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in behavioral impulsivity in at-risk and non-risk drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eWeafer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk. Methods: Participants performed a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and a measure of delay discounting to assess impulsive choice. Results: On the measure of inhibitory control, at-risk women committed significantly more inhibitory errors than at-risk men, indicating poorer behavioral control among the women. By contrast, no sex differences were observed between at-risk men and women in delay discounting, or between the male and female non-risk drinkers on any measure. Conclusion: Heavy drinking women displayed poorer inhibitory control than heavy drinking men. It remains to be determined whether the sex differences in inhibitory control are the result of drinking, or whether they pre-dated the problematic drinking in these individuals.

  2. Sex differences in principal farm operators' tractor driving safety beliefs and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, H P; Westneat, S C; Browning, S R; Piercy, L R; Struttmann, T

    2000-01-01

    To examine the widely accepted hypothesis that farm women are more concerned with safety issues and behaviors than their male counterparts are. A telephone survey was administered to a random sample of Kentucky principal farm operators, 90 of whom were women. Participants were questioned about their tractor safety beliefs and practices. No significant sex differences in tractor safety perceptions and behavior were observed. Socialization of women to the role of principal farm operator may override their typically greater sensitivity to safety issues, an important consideration when designing safety campaigns for this population.

  3. Effects of chromosomal sex and hormonal influences on shaping sex differences in brain and behavior: Lessons from cases of disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Matthew S; Lipson, Allen; Vashist, Neerja; Vilain, Eric

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and postnatal behavior are determined largely by genetic sex and in utero gonadal hormone secretions. In humans however, determining the weight that each of these factors contributes remains a challenge because social influences should also be considered. Cases of disorders of sex development (DSD) provide unique insight into how mutations in genes responsible for gonadal formation can perturb the subsequent developmental hormonal milieu and elicit changes in normal human brain maturation. Specific forms of DSDs such as complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and 5α-reductase deficiency syndrome have variable effects between males and females, and the developmental outcomes of such conditions are largely dependent on sex chromosome composition. Medical and psychological works focused on CAH, CAIS, and 5α-reductase deficiency have helped form the foundation for understanding the roles of genetic and hormonal factors necessary for guiding human brain development. Here we highlight how the three aforementioned DSDs contribute to brain and behavioral phenotypes that can uniquely affect 46,XY and 46,XX individuals in dramatically different fashions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sex differences in behavioral and PKA cascade responses to repeated cocaine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; Weierstall, Karen; Minerly, Ana Christina; Weiner, Jan; Jenab, Shirzad; Quinones-Jenab, Vanya

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown sex different patterns in behavioral responses to cocaine. Here, we used between-subject experiment design to study whether sex differences exist in the development of behavioral sensitization and tolerance to repeated cocaine, as well as the role of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling cascade in this process. Ambulatory and rearing responses were recorded in male and female rats after 1 to 14 days of administration of saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg; ip). Correspondent PKA-associated signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen (CPu) was measured at each time point. Our results showed that females exhibited higher cocaine-induced behavioral responses and developed behavioral sensitization and tolerance faster than males. Whereas females developed behavioral sensitization to cocaine after 2 days and tolerance after 14 days, male rats developed sensitization after 5 days. In addition, cocaine induced a sexual dimorphic pattern in the progression of neuronal adaptations on the PKA cascade signaling in region (NAc vs. CPu) and time (days of cocaine administration)-dependent manners. In general, more PKA signaling cascade changes were found in the NAc of males on day 5 and in the CPu of females with repeated cocaine injection. In addition, in females, behavioral activities positively correlated with FosB levels in the NAc and CPu and negatively correlated with Cdk5 and p35 in the CPu, while no correlation was observed in males. Our studies suggest that repeated cocaine administration induced different patterns of behavioral and molecular responses in the PKA cascade in male and female rats.

  5. Sex-related differences in behavioral and amygdalar responses to compound facial threat cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hee Yeon; Adams, Reginald B; Cushing, Cody A; Boshyan, Jasmine; Ward, Noreen; Kveraga, Kestutis

    2018-03-08

    During face perception, we integrate facial expression and eye gaze to take advantage of their shared signals. For example, fear with averted gaze provides a congruent avoidance cue, signaling both threat presence and its location, whereas fear with direct gaze sends an incongruent cue, leaving threat location ambiguous. It has been proposed that the processing of different combinations of threat cues is mediated by dual processing routes: reflexive processing via magnocellular (M) pathway and reflective processing via parvocellular (P) pathway. Because growing evidence has identified a variety of sex differences in emotional perception, here we also investigated how M and P processing of fear and eye gaze might be modulated by observer's sex, focusing on the amygdala, a structure important to threat perception and affective appraisal. We adjusted luminance and color of face stimuli to selectively engage M or P processing and asked observers to identify emotion of the face. Female observers showed more accurate behavioral responses to faces with averted gaze and greater left amygdala reactivity both to fearful and neutral faces. Conversely, males showed greater right amygdala activation only for M-biased averted-gaze fear faces. In addition to functional reactivity differences, females had proportionately greater bilateral amygdala volumes, which positively correlated with behavioral accuracy for M-biased fear. Conversely, in males only the right amygdala volume was positively correlated with accuracy for M-biased fear faces. Our findings suggest that M and P processing of facial threat cues is modulated by functional and structural differences in the amygdalae associated with observer's sex. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sex differences in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B

    2016-12-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.

  7. Sex Differences in Defensive Behavior and Venom of The Striped Bark Scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D W; Jones, A D; Goldston, J S; Rowe, M P; Rowe, A H

    2016-11-01

    Studies of venom variability have advanced from describing the mechanisms of action and relative potency of medically important toxins to understanding the ecological and evolutionary causes of the variability itself. While most studies have focused on differences in venoms among taxa, populations, or age-classes, there may be intersexual effects as well. Striped bark scorpions (Centruroides vittatus) provide a good model for examining sex differences in venom composition and efficacy, as this species exhibits dramatic sexual dimorphism in both size and defensive behavior; when threatened by an enemy, larger, slower females stand and fight while smaller, fleeter males prefer to run. We here add evidence suggesting that male and female C. vittatus indeed have different defensive propensities; when threatened via an electrical stimulus, females were more likely to sting than were males. We reasoned that intersexual differences in defensive phenotypes would select for venoms with different functions in the two sexes; female venoms should be effective at predator deterrence, whereas male venoms, less utilized defensively, might be better suited to capturing prey or courting females. This rationale led to our predictions that females would inject more venom and/or possess more painful venom than males. We were wrong. While females do inject more venom than males in a defensive sting, females are also larger; when adjusted for body size, male and female C. vittatus commit equal masses of venom in a sting to a potential enemy. Additionally, house mice (Mus musculus) find an injection of male venom more irritating than an equal amount of female venom, likely because male venom contains more of the toxins that induce pain. Taken together, our results suggest that identifying the ultimate causes of venom variability will, as we move beyond adaptive storytelling, be hard-won. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and

  8. Sex Differences and Gendered Behaviors: An Analysis of School-Age Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle Carol

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation contains two studies, which are intended to expand our current knowledge about girls with ASD without intellectual disability. The first study examined sex-differences in ASD symptom endorsement and coexisting internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The second study explored the social behaviors of boys and girls with ASD at…

  9. Sex Differences in Affect Behaviors, Desired Social Responses, and Accuracy at Understanding the Social Desires of Other People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Vigil

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available I recently proposed a socio-relational framework that suggests that phenotypic variation in the expression of discrete affect behaviors (e.g., expressed anger vs. sadness may reflect two basic dimensions of behavioral response. The first dimension is the motivation to selectively attract or avoid interactions with different people. The second dimension is the behavioral display of either personal capacity or trustworthiness cues, often through the expression of dominant and submissive behaviors, respectively (Vigil, in press. Sex differences in affect behaviors (e.g., externalizing vs. internalizing displays may reflect developmental sensitivities to advertise capacity and trustworthiness cues somewhat differently, due to the unique social dynamics and relational constraints under which males and females evolved. In this study, I use a series of self-report questionnaires to examine two basic assumptions of the framework. The first assumption is that sex differences in nonverbal affect behaviors (aggression vs. crying reflect the desire for, and are effective for causing other people to either avoid or comfort the individual, respectively. I hypothesized that males would report a greater likelihood of responding to various distress moods with aggressive, rather than crying behaviors, and that males would desire, and believe male peers similarly desire distancing responses from others when feeling these moods. Instead, females were hypothesized to report more crying behaviors, and to desire, and believe female peers desire more comforting responses from others. The second assumption is that people are more accurate at inferring the desired social responses (i.e., to be left alone or comforted when experiencing distress of same-sex, rather than opposite-sex peers. I hypothesized that people's beliefs of same-sex peers are more similar to the self-reported desires of the male and female participants, themselves, than their beliefs of opposite-sex

  10. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels, higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. Key words: Chinese university students, same-sex attraction and behavior, gender differences

  11. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, Nina; van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H.; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Dessens, Arianne B.

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally

  12. Sex Differences in Social Interaction Behavior Following Social Defeat Stress in the Monogamous California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C.; Pride, Michael C.; Villalon Landeros, Rosalina; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Silva, Andrea L.; Crean, Katie K.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction) that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks). Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior. PMID:21364768

  13. Sex differences in social interaction behavior following social defeat stress in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Trainor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks. Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior.

  14. Sex differences in cognitive regulation of psychosocial achievement stress: brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Gur, Ruben C; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-03-01

    Although cognitive regulation of emotion has been extensively examined, there is a lack of studies assessing cognitive regulation in stressful achievement situations. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 23 females and 20 males to investigate cognitive downregulation of negative, stressful sensations during a frequently used psychosocial stress task. Additionally, subjective responses, cognitive regulation strategies, salivary cortisol, and skin conductance response were assessed. Subjective response supported the experimental manipulation by showing higher anger and negative affect ratings after stress regulation than after the mere exposure to stress. On a neural level, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) were more strongly activated during regulation than nonregulation, whereas the hippocampus was less activated during regulation. Sex differences were evident: after regulation females expressed higher subjective stress ratings than males, and these ratings were associated with right hippocampal activation. In the nonregulation block, females showed greater activation of the left amygdala and the right STG during stress than males while males recruited the putamen more robustly in this condition. Thus, cognitive regulation of stressful achievement situations seems to induce additional stress, to recruit regions implicated in attention integration and working memory and to deactivate memory retrieval. Stress itself is associated with greater activation of limbic as well as attention areas in females than males. Additionally, activation of the memory system during cognitive regulation of stress is associated with greater perceived stress in females. Sex differences in cognitive regulation strategies merit further investigation that can guide sex sensitive interventions for stress-associated disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese university students' attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years) indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels), higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China.

  16. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Mironova, Polina; Bethell, Jennifer; Manion, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide…

  17. Sex differences and gender-invariance of mother-reported childhood problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Polderman, Tinca J C; Neale, Michael C; Verhulst, Frank C; Posthuma, Danielle; Dieleman, Gwen C

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence and severity of childhood behavioral problems differ between boys and girls, and in psychiatry, testing for gender differences is common practice. Population-based studies show that many psychopathology scales are (partially) Measurement Invariance (MI) with respect to gender, i.e. are unbiased. It is, however, unclear whether these studies generalize towards clinical samples. In a psychiatric outpatient sample, we tested whether the Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (CBCL) is unbiased with respect to gender. We compared mean scores across gender of all syndrome scales of the CBCL in 3271 patients (63.3% boys) aged 6-18. Second, we tested for MI on both the syndrome scale and the item-level using a stepwise modeling procedure. Six of the eight CBCL syndrome scales included one or more gender-biased items (12.6% of all items), resulting in slight over- or under-estimation of the absolute gender difference in mean scores. Two scales, Somatic Complaints and Rule-breaking Behavior, contained no biased items. The CBCL is a valid instrument to measure gender differences in problem behavior in children and adolescents from a clinical sample; while various gender-biased items were identified, the resulting bias was generally clinically irrelevant, and sufficient items per subscale remained after exclusion of biased items. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sex Differences in Emotional and Behavioral Responses to HIV+ individuals’ Expression of Distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); A.J. Dijker (Anton); W. Koomen (Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTwo studies examined the influence of HIV+ individual’s expression of distress on perceivers’ emotional and behavioral reactions. In Study 1 (N = 224), HIV+ individuals’ expression of distress was experimentally manipulated by means of vignettes. Men and women reacted differently when

  19. Adolescent cocaine self-administration induces habit behavior in adulthood: sex differences and structural consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePoy, L M; Allen, A G; Gourley, S L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent cocaine use increases the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction in adulthood, and etiological factors may include a cocaine-induced bias towards so-called ‘reward-seeking' habits. To determine whether adolescent cocaine exposure indeed impacts decision-making strategies in adulthood, we trained adolescent mice to orally self-administer cocaine. In adulthood, males with a history of escalating self-administration developed a bias towards habit-based behaviors. In contrast, escalating females did not develop habit biases; rather, low response rates were associated with later behavioral inflexibility, independent of cocaine dose. We focused the rest of our report on understanding how individual differences in young-adolescent females predicted long-term behavioral outcomes. Low, ‘stable' cocaine-reinforced response rates during adolescence were associated with cocaine-conditioned object preference and enlarged dendritic spine head size in the medial (prelimbic) prefrontal cortex in adulthood. Meanwhile, cocaine resilience was associated with enlarged spine heads in deep-layer orbitofrontal cortex. Re-exposure to the cocaine-associated context in adulthood energized responding in ‘stable responders', which could then be reduced by the GABAB agonist baclofen and the putative tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Together, our findings highlight resilience to cocaine-induced habits in females relative to males when intake escalates. However, failures in instrumental conditioning in adolescent females may precipitate reward-seeking behaviors in adulthood, particularly in the context of cocaine exposure. PMID:27576164

  20. Beliefs about appropriate pain behavior: cross-cultural and sex differences between Japanese and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Mieko

    2005-08-01

    The Appropriate Pain Behavior Questionnaire (APBQ) was employed to examine the effects of the participants' sex and culture on their beliefs regarding gender-appropriate pain behavior. The APBQ examines beliefs about the social acceptability to male and female participants of the behavioral and verbal expressions of pain by men and women (referents) in the presence of others [Nayak, S., 2000. Cross Cult Research 34, 135-151]. The participants were 18 male and 14 female Japanese, and 11 male and 21 female Euro-Americans. There was a significant effect of sex: female participants considered pain behaviors more acceptable than male participants. There was a significant effect of culture: compared to both male and female Japanese, Euro-American participants rated pain behaviors in both sexes to be more acceptable. There was also a significant effect of referent gender: for both sexes in both cultures, pain behaviors in women were rated as more acceptable than in men. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found between referent gender and sex of the participant: Male and female participants of both cultures were equally accepting of pain behaviors in women, but male participants were less accepting of pain behaviors in men than in women. There also was a significant interaction between referent gender and culture of the participant: Japanese participants considered pain behavior in both genders to be less acceptable than did Americans. The results are explained in terms of cultural traditions and social roles, and have clear implications for clinical treatment and diagnosis.

  1. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  2. Sex and age differences in ED patients with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Querrec, Fanny; Bounes, Vincent; Mestre, Maryse Lapeyre; Azema, Olivier; Longeaux, Nicolas; Gallart, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe an emergency department (ED) adult population with the chief complaint of mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use and to investigate sex- and age-related differences. We analyzed data (2009-2011) from the Regional Observatory of Emergency Medicine ORU-MiP (700000 patients per year) for all patients with a primary diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Day data were weighted by the number of days in the year and expressed for 100000 inhabitants of the area. Pearson χ(2) test and Fisher tests were used. The Brown-Mood test was used to compare medians. Of the 1411597 ED visits analyzed, 20838 consults (1.3%) were for primary diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. The median age (interquartile range) was 41 (28-51) years; 69.5% were men. More women consulted the ED for sedative or hypnotic use (4.9% vs 1.5%, P consumption (93.5% vs 90%, P psychoactive substance use account for 1.3% of ED visits. Older people should be screened for chronic alcohol consumption. Our findings underscore the opportunity provided by the ED for screening and brief intervention in drug- and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

  4. Sex Differences in the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…

  5. Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily I; Wallace, Gregory L; Bascom, Julia; Armour, Anna C; Register-Brown, Kelly; Popal, Haroon S; Ratto, Allison B; Martin, Alex; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1653-1662. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reproductive and behavioral aspects of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens in groups with different sex ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VU Cromberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of tinamous submitted to five different male:female ratios. The study was carried out with 72 birds in a randomized experimental design with 4 replications. Tinamous were housed in cages, using the ratios of one (1:1, two (2:1, three (3:1 and four (4:1 females per male, and also one male was housed with three females individually (3R:1, in a rotational system. Reproductive records of the breeding season from September 2004 to March 2005 were used. The reproductive traits studied were: number of eggs laid, fertility, and percentage of eggs damaged and cracked by pecking. Nonparametric analyses of these traits were performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Two replications of treatments 1:1 and 4:1, and one of treatment 2:1 were video-taped for three days, 12 hours/day. The videotapes were sampled according to the scan method to fit an ethogram. Birds were also watched for one hour per day to study dominance and agonistic behavior. None of the reproductive traits was affected by mating sex ratio (p<0.05. Female dominance could be related to displacement behavior (r=1.00, and male sitting in immobility plus sitting in activity behaviors were related to lower number of damaged eggs (r=-0.90. Social dominance was indirectly determined by displacement behavior in the study situation. A large number of damaged eggs occurred in all treatments, thereby not allowing a clear conclusion on the best male:female ratio.

  7. Behavioral phenotype and BDNF differences related to apoE isoforms and sex in young transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reverte, Ingrid; Klein, Anders Bue; Ratner, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    , very little information is available on apoE2 genotype. In the present study, we have characterized behavioral and learning phenotypes in young transgenic mice apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 of both sexes. We have also determined the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor Trk...

  8. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise, Food and Drug Administration rules excluded women of childbearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more ADRs than men; the classic sex hormone paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and TK including absorption, distribution, metabolisms, and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical, and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging.

  9. Sex differences in abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, M F; Suyama, J A; Bauer, C T; Banks, M L; Negus, S S

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substrate for dopamine (DA), norepinephrine and serotonin (5HT) transporters that produces greater pharmacological effects on certain endpoints in females than males in both clinical and rodent preclinical studies. To evaluate potential for sex differences in abuse-related MDMA effects, the present study compared MDMA effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and on in vivo microdialysis measurements of DA or 5HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. For ICSS studies, electrodes were implanted in the medial forebrain bundle and rats trained to press for electrical stimulation over a range of frequencies (56-158Hz, 0.05 log increments) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule, and the potency (0.32-3.2mg/kg, 10min pretreatment) and time course (3.2. mg/kg, 10-180min pretreatment) of MDMA effects were determined. For in vivo microdialysis, rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc, and the time course of MDMA effects (1.0-3.2mg/kg, 0-180min) on DA and 5HT was determined. MDMA produced qualitatively similar effects in both sexes on ICSS (both increases in low ICSS rates maintained by low brain-stimulation frequencies and decreases in high ICSS rates maintained by high brain-stimulation frequencies) and microdialysis (increases in both DA and 5HT). The duration and peak levels of both abuse-related ICSS facilitation and increases in NAc DA were longer in females. MDMA was also more potent to increase 5HT in females. These results provide evidence for heightened sensitivity of females to abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Common Ground for Spatial Cognition? A Behavioral and fMRI Study of Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Spatial Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Levin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial cognition are well documented; males typically outperform females on tasks dealing with mental rotation and spatial navigation, while females tend to outperform males on tasks dealing with object location, relational object location memory, or spatial working memory. Here we investigated both behavioral and neural sex differences in sex-specific spatial abilities. In Experiment 1, sixty-six (30 males, 36 females participants completed computerized mental rotation (MR and spatial working memory (SWM tasks. In Experiment 2, twelve (6 males, 6 females participants were given slightly modified versions of the same tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In both experiments, males outperformed females on the MR task, but no behavioral sex difference was observed on the SWM task. Males showed more activation in left parahippocampal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, inferior frontal gyrus in the MR task. Females showed activation in the left parahippocampal gyrus only. For the study condition of the spatial working memory task, females showed activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, while males activated left inferior parietal and medial frontal areas. In the test conditions, females showed activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Males activated right medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Interestingly, similar regions – parahippocampal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and middle temporal gyrus - were found to be active when males solved mental rotation tasks and females solved spatial working memory tasks. Further, performance was modulated by activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for males and the middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus for females. These data extend previous claims for sex differences in sex specific spatial cognitive abilities by demonstrating

  11. Sex Differences in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen P

    2018-04-01

    This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women. Data from research on HIV cure points to sex differences in viral reservoir dynamics and a direct role for sex hormones in latency maintenance. Biological sex remains an important variable in determining the risk of HIV infection and subsequent viral pathogenesis, and emerging data suggest sex differences relevant to curative interventions. Recruitment of women in HIV clinical research is a pathway to both optimize care for women and to identify novel therapeutics for use in both men and women.

  12. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  13. African American Mother–Daughter Communication About Sex and Daughters’ Sexual Behavior: Does College Racial Composition Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of African American mothers’ communication about sexual topics on the sexual attitudes and behavior of their college-enrolled daughters. Daughters were enrolled at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI) to assess whether and how college racial context might affect daughters’ sexual attitudes and behavior. Findings indicated that daughters at the HBCU had less permissive attitudes about premarital sex than their counterparts at the PWI. This result was especially true for daughters of mothers with more conservative attitudes about premarital sex and who discussed such topics infrequently. Last, the combination of positive mother–daughter communication and fewer discussions about sexual topics resulted in lower levels of sexual experience among the daughters. PMID:17500604

  14. African American mother-daughter communication about sex and daughters' sexual behavior: does college racial composition make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the influence of African American mothers' communication about sexual topics on the sexual attitudes and behavior of their college-enrolled daughters. Daughters were enrolled at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI) to assess whether and how college racial context might affect daughters' sexual attitudes and behavior. Findings indicated that daughters at the HBCU had less permissive attitudes about premarital sex than their counterparts at the PWI. This result was especially true for daughters of mothers with more conservative attitudes about premarital sex and who discussed such topics infrequently. Last, the combination of positive mother-daughter communication and fewer discussions about sexual topics resulted in lower levels of sexual experience among the daughters. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Sex differences in the effects of pre- and postnatal caffeine exposure on behavior and synaptic proteins in pubescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Cássia; Ardais, Ana Paula; Rocha, Andréia; Borges, Maurício Felisberto; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Pagnussat, Natália; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2018-02-02

    Few studies have addressed the effects of caffeine in the puberty and/or adolescence in a sex dependent manner. Considering that caffeine intake has increased in this population, we investigated the behavioral and synaptic proteins changes in pubescent male and female rats after maternal consumption of caffeine. Adult female Wistar rats started to receive water or caffeine (0.1 and 0.3g/L in drinking water; low and moderate dose, respectively) during the active cycle at weekdays, two weeks before mating. The treatment lasted up to weaning and the offspring received caffeine until the onset of puberty (30-34days old). Behavioral tasks were performed to evaluate locomotor activity (open field task), anxious-like behavior (elevated plus maze task) and recognition memory (object recognition task) and synaptic proteins levels (proBDNF, BDNF, GFAP and SNAP-25) were verified in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. While hyperlocomotion was observed in both sexes after caffeine treatment, anxiety-related behavior was attenuated by caffeine (0.3g/L) only in females. While moderate caffeine worsened recognition memory in females, an improvement in the long-term memory was observed in male rats for both doses. Coincident with memory improvement in males, caffeine increased pro- and BDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Females presented increased proBDNF levels in both brain regions, with no effects of caffeine. While GFAP was not altered, moderate caffeine intake increased SNAP-25 in the cortex of female rats. Our findings revealed that caffeine promoted cognitive benefits in males associated with increased BDNF levels, while females showed less anxiety. Our findings revealed that caffeine promotes distinct behavioral outcomes and alterations in synaptic proteins during brain development in a sex dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The trouble with sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2011-12-22

    Sex differences in the brain are real and clinically important but often grossly distorted in popular discourse. Considering the public's deep fascination with sex difference research and its impact on issues from mental health to education and workplace equity, neuroscientists should pay greater heed to its misappropriation and to studying how gender enculturation shapes neural function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Attend or defend? Sex differences in behavioral, autonomic, and respiratory response patterns to emotion-eliciting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Rattel, Julina A; Wegerer, Melanie; Liedlgruber, Michael; Schweighofer, Simon; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Blechert, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia). This indicates a prototypical threat-related defense response in women, while men showed a pattern of sustained orienting, which can be understood as a shift toward less threat proximity in the defense cascade model. Clinical implications are discussed within a socio-evolutionary framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Shalon Edwards, N; McKenna, Mary C; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Edwards, N. Shalon; McKenna, Mary C.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning. PMID:26376217

  20. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  1. Sex differences in behavioral outcome following neonatal hypoxia ischemia: insights from a clinical meta-analysis and a rodent model of induced hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda L; Alexander, Michelle; Rosenkrantz, Ted S; Sadek, Mona Lisa; Fitch, R Holly

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) is one of the most common injuries among preterm infants and term infants with birth complications. Both populations show cognitive/behavioral deficits, including impairments in sensory, learning/memory, and attention domains. Clinical data suggests a sex difference in HI outcomes, with males exhibiting more severe cognitive/behavioral deficits relative to matched females. Our laboratory has also reported more severe behavioral deficits among male rats with induced HI relative to females with comparable injury (Hill et al., 2011a,b). The current study initially examined published clinical studies from the past 20years where long-term IQ outcome scores for matched groups of male and female premature infants were reported separately (IQ being the most common outcome measure). A meta-analysis revealed a female "advantage," as indicated by significantly better scores on performance and full scale IQ (but not verbal IQ) for premature females. We then utilized a rodent model of neonatal HI injury to assess sham and postnatal day 7 (P7) HI male and female rats on a battery of behavioral tasks. Results showed expected deficits in HI male rats, but also showed task-dependent sex differences, with HI males having significantly larger deficits than HI females on some tasks but equivalent deficits on other tasks. In contrast to behavioral results, post mortem neuropathology associated with HI was comparable across sex. These findings suggest: 1) neonatal female "protection" in some behavioral domains, as indexed by superior outcome following early injury relative to males; and 2) female protection may entail sex-specific plasticity or compensation, rather than a reduction in gross neuropathology. Further exploration of the mechanisms underlying this sex effect could aid in neuroprotection efforts for at-risk neonates in general, and males in particular. Moreover, our current report of comparable anatomical

  2. Sex Differences Reappraised: A Rebuttal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1975-01-01

    This rebuttal of the criticisms made by Evans and Sperekas points to the fact that sex differences have been found by the authors on locus of control scales, that the purported sex-biased items in the Future Events Test are not necessarily outside the response repetoire of women, and the criticism of including female relevant items cannot be…

  3. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  4. Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Margarita; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Cabral, Francisco; Silva, Ricardo de Castro e; Campos, Márcia; Faúndes, Anibal

    2005-01-01

    Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant c...

  5. Sexing the Brain: The Science and Pseudoscience of Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent upsurge in unitary biological explanations for gender differences in behavior (i.e. that they are “hard-wired” in the genetic code, put forward not only in books written for a general audience but also in scientific papers, makes it important to examine the fallacies of these ideas. Such genetic and hormonal explanations of human behavior, formulated with little consideration of the influences of experience, and often without taking experience into account at all, are part of a new wave of genetic explanations for a broad range of human behavior, as explained in the paper. These ideas are far from new; moreover, they are pseudoscientific and are used for political influence under the guise of science. They are a conservative social force that maintains social and educational inequalities between women and men. This paper explains that causal explanations of differences between the sexes are of two completely different types: unitary (genetic determinist versus interactive explanations. The false reasoning used to support genetic determinist explanations of sex differences in behavior is discussed. To illustrate what biology really tells us about gender differentiation, the paper discusses the interactive roles of genetic, hormonal and environmental influences on the development of gender differences. These interactions are illustrated using two model biological systems (e.g. the intertwined influences of genes, sex hormones and experience on the development of sex differences in behavior in rats, and sex differences in neuronal connections in chickens. There is plenty of scientific evidence to show the complex interactive, and ever changing, influences of experience and genes that take place as an organism develops and throughout its life. Malleability of brain and behavior can be shown clearly using animal models, and the processes involved apply also to the development of brain and behavior in humans. We diminish our understanding

  6. Sex differences, gender and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-02

    This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...

  8. Sex differences associated with intermittent swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Libman, Matthew K; Wooten, Katherine L; Drugan, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Various animal models of depression have been used to seek a greater understanding of stress-related disorders. However, there is still a great need for novel research in this area, as many individuals suffering from depression are resistant to current treatment methods. Women have a higher rate of depression, highlighting the need to investigate mechanisms of sex differences. Therefore, we employed a new animal model to assess symptoms of depression, known as intermittent swim stress (ISS). In this model, the animal experiences 100 trials of cold water swim stress. ISS has already been shown to cause signs of behavioral depression in males, but has yet to be assessed in females. Following ISS exposure, we looked at sex differences in the Morris water maze and forced swim test. The results indicated a spatial learning effect only in the hidden platform task between male and female controls, and stressed and control males. A consistent spatial memory effect was only seen for males exposed to ISS. In the forced swim test, both sexes exposed to ISS exhibited greater immobility, and the same males and females also showed attenuated climbing and swimming, respectively. The sex differences could be due to different neural substrates for males and females. The goal of this study was to provide the first behavioral examination of sex differences following ISS exposure, so the stage of estrous cycle was not assessed for the females. This is a necessary future direction for subsequent experiments. The current article highlights the importance of sex differences in response to stress.

  9. Sex differences in college students' free drawings and their relationship to 2D:4D ratio and recalled childhood play behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkopf, Ian; Turgeon, Sarah M

    2014-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that female-typical characteristics in elementary school girls' drawings were correlated with a feminized digit ratio (2D:4D), a marker for prenatal androgen exposure. However, this observation was limited to older girls, suggesting that social factors mediate the relationship between 2D:4D and drawing. To examine the hypothesis that the influence of prenatal androgen on girls' drawing is mediated by an effect of early androgens on sex-typical behavior, we examined 2D:4D, free drawings, and scores on the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity (RCGI) Questionnaire in a population of college students. Characteristics of participants' free drawings were assessed and those that showed sex differences were compared with 2D:4D and RCGI scores. Men had smaller 2D:4D ratios than women, used fewer total colors, used fewer pinks, purples, and blues, and had higher gender-typical scores on the RCGI. Women's drawings were more likely to contain flowers and animals and men's drawings were more likely to represent sports. Within-sex RCGI and 2D:4D scores were not significantly correlated. Significant within-sex relationships between 2D:4D and RCGI and drawing behavior were observed but the effects appeared to be independent; the hypothesis that gender-typical childhood behavior mediates the effect of prenatal androgen on drawing characteristics was not supported.

  10. A meta-analysis of sex differences in cyber-bullying behavior: the moderating role of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher; Coyne, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    The current research used meta-analysis to determine whether (a) sex differences emerged in cyber-bullying frequency, (b) if age moderated any sex effect, and (c) if any additional moderators (e.g., publication year and status, country and continent of data collection) influenced the sex effect. Theoretically, if cyber-bullying is considered a form of traditional bullying and aggression, males are likely to cyber-bully more than females. Conversely, if cyber-bullying is considered relational/indirect aggression, females will be slightly more likely to cyber-bully than males. Results from 122 effect size estimates showed that males were slightly more likely to cyber-bully than females; however, age moderated the overall effect. Specifically, females were more likely to report cyber-bullying during early to mid-adolescence than males, while males showed higher levels of cyber-bullying during later adolescence than females. Publication status and year and continent and country of data collection also moderated the overall effect. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sex differences in social interaction behaviors in rats are mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Nicole; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Considerable sex differences occur in the incidence and prevalence of anxiety disorders where women are more anxious than men, particularly in situations where social interaction is required. In preclinical studies, the social interaction test represents a valid animal model to study sex differences in social anxiety. Indeed, female rats engage less in conspecific interactions than their male counterparts, which are behaviors indicative of higher social anxiety in female rats. In this work, we implicated extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating social interaction. Indeed, female rats’ had lower ERK2 expression compared to male rats, and overexpression of ERK2 in the mPFC increases their social interaction to the level seen in their male counterparts. These data indicate that the sexually dimorphic expression of ERK2 mediates social anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:22521590

  12. Do sex differences in rumination explain sex differences in depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M; Chang, Han Yan M; Olson, Ryan L; Alderman, Brandon L

    2017-01-02

    It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al., ). After eight weeks of training, both men and women reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and fewer ruminative thoughts (Alderman et al., ). Statistical correlations between depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts were strong and significant (rho > 0.50; p depressive symptoms relate to "reflective" ruminations, which involve analyses of past events, feelings, and behaviors. This is also the only relationship that dissipated after the intervention. In general, these analyses suggest that the strength of the relationship between depressive symptoms and rumination does not necessarily explain sex differences in depression; but because the relationship is strong, targeting rumination through intervention can reduce the incidence of MDD, which is more prevalent among women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sex differences in cough reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Ioan, I; Demoulin-Alexikova, S

    2017-11-01

    Majority of patients visiting cough clinics are postmenopausal women, who are affected by intractable cough for years. Why the cough reflex becomes exaggerated in women is not known. Basic research excludes females from the studies contributing to the sex bias which may be responsible for lack of understanding of "hypersensitive" cough in women. Biological and behavioural differences between women and men are the factors affecting cough physiology. Gender also shapes the patterns of behaviour and determines the character of environmental exposures which differs between sexes. The article offers an insight into the physiology of the cough, differences in the maturation of it and biological, social and behavioural factors contributing to the sex differences in cough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex-specific effects of dietary fatty acids on saliva cortisol and social behavior in guinea pigs under different social environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Puehringer-Sturmayr, Verena; Kaplan, Arthur; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavioral performances. The beneficial effects of higher dietary PUFA intakes and PUFA:SFA ratios may also affect social interactions and social-living per se, where adequate physiological and behavioral responses are essential to cope with unstable social environmental conditions. Effects of diets high in PUFAs or SFAs and a control diet were investigated in male and female guinea pigs after 60 days of supplementation. Plasma fatty acid patterns served as an indicator of the general fatty acid status. HPA-axis activities, determined by measuring saliva cortisol concentrations, social behaviors, and hierarchy ranks were analyzed during group housing of established single-sexed groups and during challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals of the other groups. The plasma PUFA:SFA ratio was highest in PUFA supplemented animals, with female levels significantly exceeding males, and lowest in SFA animals. SFA males and females showed increased saliva cortisol levels and decreased aggressiveness during group housing, while sociopositive behaviors were lowest in PUFA males. Males generally showed higher cortisol increases in response to the challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals than females. While increasing cortisol concentrations were detected in control and PUFA animals, no such effect was found in SFA animals. During social confrontations, PUFA males showed higher levels of agonistic and sociopositive behaviors and also gained higher dominance ranks among males, which was not detected for females. While SFAs seemingly impaired cortisol responses and social behaviors, PUFAs enabled adequate behavioral responses in male individuals under stressful new social environmental conditions. This sex-specific effect was possibly

  15. Sexually selected sex differences in competitiveness explain sex differences in changes in drinking game participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Liana S E; McCullough, Michael

    2015-05-14

    Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013) replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women) and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013) also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness-and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular-are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives.

  16. Sexually Selected Sex Differences in Competitiveness Explain Sex Differences in Changes in Drinking Game Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana S. E. Hone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013 replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013 also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness—and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular—are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives.

  17. Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality: the role of risky impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P

    2010-12-23

    Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female) on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34) and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  18. Sex Differences in Same-Sex Direct Aggression and Sociosexuality: The Role of Risky Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine P. Cross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34 and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  19. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Sleep Behavior, Fish Consumption, and Depressive Symptoms in the General Population of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supartini, Atin; Oishi, Taro; Yagi, Nobuyuki

    2017-07-14

    Sleep, fish consumption, and depression have a close relationship; however, the role of sex differences in sleep, fish consumption, and depression research is not yet well-established. This study aimed to examine whether the impact of bedtime, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, sleep quality, and fish consumption on depressive symptoms differed in women and men. An online survey was conducted in South Korea with a stratified random sample of 600 participants between the ages of 20 and 69, whose gender and age were proportional to estimates of Korea's general population. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied to evaluate sleep timing, sleep-onset latency, sleep duration, and sleep quality. Our results indicated that late bedtime and short sleep duration were independently associated with depressive symptoms in women. Sleep-onset latency and poor sleep quality were independently associated with increased prevalence of depressive symptoms in both men and women. Higher fish consumption was significantly associated with decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms in men only. Our findings suggested the importance of a different approach for men and women in terms of promoting healthy sleep habits. In addition, higher fish consumption may be beneficial in the primary prevention of depression in Korean men. Further research is needed to confirm the findings from this cross-sectional study.

  20. Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Margarita; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Cabral, Francisco; Castro e Silva, Ricardo de; Campos, Márcia; Faúndes, Anibal

    2005-01-01

    Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.

  1. Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Márcia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls. Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.

  2. Sex Differences in Career Guidance of Undergraduate Math Students and the Relation to Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Lauren; Awad, Germine H.

    2017-01-01

    Males continue to dominate mathematics-related areas in graduate school and employment, possibly due to the differential guidance that they receive as students. In the present study, 180 undergraduates completed an online survey on the career and graduate school guidance they received from mathematics professors. Student sex, professor sex, and…

  3. Sex differences in human epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-09-01

    In the majority of neuropsychiatric conditions, marked gender-based differences have been found in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of disease. Emerging data suggest that gender differences exist also in the epidemiology, and pathophysiology of epilepsy. The present review summarizes the current information regarding gender and epilepsy. These differences are regarded from the perspective of innate sex differences in cerebral morphology, structural and functional connections, and assuming that these differences may render men and women differently vulnerable to epileptogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contributions of Neuroimaging to Understanding Sex Differences in Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, ML; Sawyer, EK; Howell, LL

    2011-01-01

    A consistent observation in drug abuse research is that males and females show differences in their response to drugs of abuse. In order to understand the neurobiology underlying cocaine abuse and effective treatments, it is important to consider the role of sex differences. Sex hormones have been investigated in both behavioral and molecular studies, but further evidence addressing drug abuse and dependence in both sexes would expand our knowledge of sex-differences in response to drugs of a...

  5. Are age and sex differences in brain oxytocin receptors related to maternal and infanticidal behavior in naïve mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olazábal, Daniel E; Alsina-Llanes, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". There is significant variability in the behavioral responses displayed by naïve young and adult mice when first exposed to pups. This variability has been associated with differences in the expression of oxytocin receptors (OXTRs) in the brain in several species. Experiment I investigated the behavioral responses of juvenile, adolescent, and adult CB57BL/6 males and females when first exposed to pups. We found an age increase in maternal females (11% of juveniles, 20% of adolescents, and 50% of young adults), and infanticidal males (0% of juveniles, 30% of adolescents, 44.5% of young adults, and 100% of older adults). Experiment II investigated OXTR density in the brain of juvenile and adult mice. Our results revealed an age decline in the density of OXTR in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, cingulated and posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus in both males and females. Adult females had higher OXTR density in the ventromedial nucleus/postero-ventral hypothalamus (VMH) and the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), but lower density in the ventral region of the lateral septum (LSv) than juveniles. Males had lower OXTR density in the anterior olfactory area (AOA) compared to juveniles. No age or sex differences were found in the medial preoptic area, and amygdaloid nuclei, among other brain regions. This study suggests that 1) maturation of parental and infanticidal behavioral responses is not reached until adulthood; 2) the pattern of development of OXTR in the mouse brain is unique, region specific, and differs from that observed in other rodents; 3) either up or down regulation of OXTR in a few brain regions (VMH/AOB/LSv/AOA) might contribute to age or sex differences in parental or infanticidal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Cross-sectional Survey of HIV Transmission and Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Different Areas of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic and the sexual intercourse habits of men who have sex with men (MSM in crowded places, both locally and abroad. This study conducted a survey of MSM in different locales of Inner Mongolia to provide a reference for developing strategies or measures to prevent and control HIV among this understudied population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of men aged 18 years and older at different venues popular among MSM in Inner Mongolia. Between April and July 2012, MSM volunteered to participate in this study, receive HIV/syphilis testing, and complete a questionnaire about their behavior. A total of 1611 MSM participated. Participants signed a voluntary informed consent form, completed an anonymous questionnaire and were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results Of the 1611 MSM surveyed, 6.83 and 23.65 % had HIV and syphilis, respectively, and the co-infection rate was 3.17 %. Sociodemographic factors such as age, culture, marital status, knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS transmission, and peer education significantly differed between venues (P < 0.01. MSM who were under 22 years, 23–35 years, and over 36 years primarily contacted their potential partners online, at bars/other (streetwalkers, and at public baths/parks, respectively. MSM partners found in bars, in public baths, in parks and online were primarily high school students and technical secondary school students. MSM who were streetwalkers or cross-dressing male sex workers primarily had junior middle school education levels or below. Married MSM primarily had intercourse in public baths and parks, and MSM who had intercourse in public baths and parks also reported the greatest proportions of intercourse with women (39.1 and 35.0 %, respectively. Furthermore, MSM who had intercourse in parks reported having the most anal sex with same-sex

  7. School grade and sex differences in domain-specific sedentary behaviors among Japanese elementary school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ishii

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is vital to reduce the proportion of sedentary behavior in children. Understanding the duration and behavioral context is needed. The present study examined school-grade and sex differences in domain-specific sedentary times and concurrence with screen-time guidelines among Japanese elementary school children. Methods A total of 625 children (330 boys were surveyed in 2010 and 2014. Using a questionnaire, data regarding participants’ grade (first through third grades: lower grades; fourth through six grades: higher grades, sex, weight, and height were collected in addition to the time spent per day engaging in each specific sedentary behavior separately: (1 reading or listening to music, (2 TV or video viewing, (3 TV game use, (4 internet use excluding class, (5 homework, and (6 car travel. Two-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for BMI and moderate to vigorous physical activity, were used to examine school-grade and sex differences in sedentary behaviors and the independent risk of exceeding recommended total daily screen time (< 2 h. Results On 625 children, mean minutes (SD of sedentary behavior per week in (1 – (6 were 90.3 (123.4, 535.0 (356.6, 167.3 (222.1, 23.9 (70.9, 264.9 (185.3, and 33.4 (61.2 in weekdays and 42.1 (70.0, 323.9 (232.0, 123.0 (96.4, 15.8 (49.9, 74.4 (96.4, and 71.3 (84.9 in weekends, respectively. There were differences in the minutes of sedentary behavior between participants of 2010 and 2014; e.g., TV game use and homework in weekdays and weekdays and car travel in weekends. Boys spent more time in TV game use, and girls spent more time reading, listening to music, doing homework, and car travel. Higher-grade students spent more time reading or listening to music, using a computer, and doing homework. Higher-grade students were 2.09 times (95% CI: 1.32 − 3.30 in whole week, 2.08 times (95% CI: 1.45 − 3.00 in weekday, and 1.88 times (95% CI: 1.29

  8. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Sex differences and anesthesiology: preface and comments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishno, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In this special issue, the topic of sex difference in the field of anesthesiology is featured. Eight subtopics are discussed including 1) sex differences in cardiovascular medicine, 2) perioperative cardiovascular management, 3) sex differences in the respiratory functions of the upper airway, 4) sex differences in the anesthetic management, 5) sex differences in pain, 6) sex differences in laboratory medicine, 7) sex differences in pharmacokinetics of anesthetics, and 8) postoperative nausea and vomiting. Although recent clinical and experimental studies have shown the existence of sex and/or gender differences in many fields of medicine, our knowledge of sex differences in anesthesiology is apparently insufficient. I believe that anesthesiologists should pay more attention to this topic to improve our daily practice of anesthesia.

  10. Sex selection: treating different cases differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Serour, G I; Cook, R J; Qiu, R-Z

    2005-08-01

    This paper contrasts ethical approaches to sex selection in countries where discrimination against women is pervasive, resulting in selection against girl children, and in countries where there is less general discrimination and couples do not prefer children of either sex. National sex ratio imbalances where discrimination against women is common have resulted in laws and policies, such as in India and China, to deter and prevent sex selection. Birth ratios of children can be affected by techniques of prenatal sex determination and abortion, preconception sex selection and discarding disfavored embryos, and prefertilization sperm sorting, when disfavored sperm remain unused. Incentives for son preference are reviewed, and laws and policies to prevent sex selection are explained. The elimination of social, economic and other discrimination against women is urged to redress sex selection against girl children. Where there is no general selection against girl children, sex selection can be allowed to assist families that want children of both sexes.

  11. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in the psychopharmacological treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, John J; Murphy, Michael F; Cutler, Neal R

    2016-12-01

    Although a number of studies have observed that females respond better to serotonergic antidepressants than males and that postmenopausal females have a diminished response to antidepressants compared with younger females, there are also studies that conflict with both of these findings, making any generalizations regarding sex differences difficult to make. Sex variance in antidepressant efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles have been attributed to sex-based physiological differences, behavioral differences, related disorders, and sex-specific conditions, including pregnancy and menopause. This paper will review the history and current research on sex effects of antidepressant treatment.

  13. Sex differences in the neural and behavioral response to intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin during human social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Rilling James K.; DeMarco Ashley C.; Hackett Patrick D.; Chen Xu; Gautam Pritam; Stair Sabrina; Haroon Ebrahim; Thompson Richmond; Ditzen Beate; Patel Rajan; Pagnoni Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Both oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to modulate social behavior, and dysfunction in both systems has been postulated as a potential cause of certain psychiatric disorders that involve social behavioral deficits. In particular, there is growing interest in intranasal OT as a potential treatment for certain psychiatric disorders, and preliminary preclinical and clinical studies suggest efficacy in alleviating some of the associated symptoms. However, the vast majority of research...

  14. Sex education and adolescent sexual behavior: do community characteristics matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Joan Marie; Kulkarni, Aniket; Hsia, Jason; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Studies point to variation in the effects of formal sex education on sexual behavior and contraceptive use by individual and community characteristics. Using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, we explored associations between receipt of sex education and intercourse by age 15, intercourse by the time of the interview and use of effective contraception at first sex among 15-19-year-olds, stratified by quartiles of three community characteristics and adjusted for demographics. Across all quartiles of community characteristics, sex education reduced the odds of having sex by age 15. Sex education resulted in reduced odds of having sex by the date of the interview and increased odds of using contraception in the middle quartiles of community characteristics. Variation in the effects of sex education should be explored. Research might focus on programmatic differences by community type and programmatic needs in various types of communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Sex differences in the neural and behavioral response to intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin during human social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Demarco, Ashley C; Hackett, Patrick D; Chen, Xu; Gautam, Pritam; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Thompson, Richmond; Ditzen, Beate; Patel, Rajan; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Both oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to modulate social behavior, and dysfunction in both systems has been postulated as a potential cause of certain psychiatric disorders that involve social behavioral deficits. In particular, there is growing interest in intranasal OT as a potential treatment for certain psychiatric disorders, and preliminary pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest efficacy in alleviating some of the associated symptoms. However, the vast majority of research participants in these studies have been male, and there is evidence for sexually differentiated effects of nonapeptides in both humans and non-human animals. To date, no study has investigated the effect of intranasal OT on brain function in human males and females within the same paradigm. Previously, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind fMRI study, we reported effects of intranasal OT and AVP on behavior and brain activity of human males as they played an interactive social game known as the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Here, we present findings from an identical study in human females, and compare these with our findings from males. Overall, we find that both behavioral and neural responses to intranasal OT and AVP are highly sexually differentiated. In women, AVP increased conciliatory behavior, and both OT and AVP caused women to treat computer partners more like humans. In men, AVP increased reciprocation of cooperation from both human and computer partners. However, no specific drug effects on behavior were shared between men and women. During cooperative interactions, both OT and AVP increased brain activity in men within areas rich in OT and AVP receptors and in areas playing a key role in reward, social bonding, arousal and memory (e.g., the striatum, basal forebrain, insula, amygdala and hippocampus), whereas OT and AVP either had no effect or in some cases actually decreased brain activity in these regions in women. OT treatment rendered neural responses

  16. Sex Differences in Tibiocalcaneal Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.

  17. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is

  18. Sex differences in intracranial arterial bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    . The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....

  19. Why we should consider sex (and study sex differences) in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Becker, Jill B

    2016-09-01

    Among mammals, every cell has a biological sex, and the sex of an individual pervades its body and brain. In this review, we describe the processes through which mammals become phenotypically male or female by organizational and activational influences of genes and hormones throughout development. We emphasized that the molecular and cellular changes triggered by sex chromosomes and steroid hormones may generate sex differences in overt physiological functions and behavior, but they may alternatively promote end-point convergences between males and females. Clinical and pre-clinical evidences suggest that sex and gender differences modulate drug consumption as well as of the transition towards drug-promoted pathological states such as dependence and addiction. Additionally, sex differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will also influence dependence and addiction as well as side effects of drugs. These effects will further interact with socially gendered factors to result in sex differences in the access to, engagement in and efficacy of any therapeutic attempt. Finally, we maintain that 'sex sameness' is as important as 'sex differences' when building a complete understanding of biology for both males and females and provide a framework with which to classify and guide investigation into the mechanisms mediating sex differences and sex sameness. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Sex differences in impulsive action and impulsive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-11-01

    Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in behavioral measures of impulsivity for both humans and laboratory animals. We focus on two specific components of impulsivity: impulsive action (i.e., difficulty inhibiting a prepotent response) and impulsive choice (i.e., difficulty delaying gratification). Sex differences appear to exist on these measures, but the direction and magnitude of the differences vary. In laboratory animals, impulsive action is typically greater in males than females, whereas impulsive choice is typically greater in females. In humans, women discount more steeply than men, but sex differences on measures of impulsive action depend on tasks and subject samples. We discuss implications of these findings as they relate to drug addiction. We also point out the major gaps in this research to date, including the lack of studies designed specifically to examine sex differences in behavioral impulsivity, and the lack of consideration of menstrual or estrous phase or sex hormone levels in the studies. © 2013.

  1. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  2. Sex Differences in Genetic Architecture of Complex Phenotypes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Dongen, J.; van Beek, J.H.D.A.; Distel, M.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Smit, D.J.A.; Minica, C.C.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Geels, L.M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits) in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA)

  3. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  4. Genes, Environments, and Sex Differences in Alcohol Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M

    2017-07-01

    The study of sex differences has been identified as one way to enhance scientific reproducibility, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have implemented a new policy to encourage the explicit examination of sex differences. Our goal here is to address sex differences in behavioral genetic research on alcohol outcomes. We review sex differences for alcohol outcomes and whether the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the same across sexes; describe common research designs for studying sex-specific gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) effects; and discuss the role of statistical power and theory when testing sex-specific genetic effects. There are robust sex differences for many alcohol outcomes. The weight of evidence suggests that the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and AUD are the same across sexes. Whether there are sex-specific G × E effects has received less attention to date. The new NIH policy necessitates a systematic approach for studying sex-specific genetic effects in alcohol research. Researchers are encouraged to report power for tests of these effects and to use theory to develop testable hypotheses, especially for studies of G × E.

  5. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  6. Sex Ideologies in China: Examining Interprovince Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national "sex revolution" is under way. However, China's internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China's distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the "rice theory." The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China's ideational landscape of sex.

  7. Sex differences in the Simon task help to interpret sex differences in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade, a number of studies have reported sex differences in selective attention, but a unified explanation for these effects is still missing. This study aims to better understand these differences and put them in an evolutionary psychological context. 418 adult participants performed a computer-based Simon task, in which they responded to the direction of a left or right pointing arrow appearing left or right from a fixation point. Women were more strongly influenced by task-irrelevant spatial information than men (i.e., the Simon effect was larger in women, Cohen's d = 0.39). Further, the analysis of sex differences in behavioral adjustment to errors revealed that women slow down more than men following mistakes (d = 0.53). Based on the combined results of previous studies and the current data, it is proposed that sex differences in selective attention are caused by underlying sex differences in core abilities, such as spatial or verbal cognition.

  8. Sex differences in impulsive action and impulsive choice

    OpenAIRE

    Weafer, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in behavioral measures of impulsivity for both humans and laboratory animals. We focus on two specific components of impulsivity: impulsive action (i.e., difficulty inhibiting a prepotent response) and impulsive choice (i.e., difficulty delaying gratification). Sex differences appear to exist on these measures, but the direction and magnitude of the differences vary. In laboratory animals, impulsive action is typically greater in males than fem...

  9. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716

  10. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan.

  11. Sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior by education and marital status before and after admission to hospital. A register-based cohort study of the Danish population aged 50+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, Andreas; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland

    to hospital between 1999 and 2008. For this population, we identified all contacts with GPs between 1996 and 2011 to quantify the sex differences in treatment-seeking behavior within the 3-year periods before and after hospitalization, and to estimate the impact of the civil and educational status on the sex...... differentials in treatment-seeking. We found women having consistently more GP contacts across all ages, but a narrowing of the treatment-seeking behavior shortly before and after admission to hospital. We moreover found a gradient of the educational and the marital status, suggesting that groups with higher...

  12. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  13. Helping Behavior: Effects of Sex and Sex-Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Crawley, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Male and female experimenters requested adult shoppers (N=178) to fill out a questionnaire. Refusal data showed shoppers helping other-sex more than same-sex experimenters. Other results showed a significant three-way interaction among helper and helpee sex and sex-typing and situation sex-typing and that helper sex-typing did not have significant…

  14. Sex differences in heritability of neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...... conducted to determine whether the sex differences in heritability of NP are due to sex-specific genetic factors. Data on lifetime prevalence of NP from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 33,794 Danish twins were collected and age-stratified univariate biometrical modeling using sex......-limitation models was performed based on 10,605 dizygotic (DZ) twins of opposite sex to estimate the qualitative sex differences. In a full sex-limitation model the genetic component in females were higher than in males, but the genetic and the shared environmental correlations were equal to what is normally...

  15. Understanding the broad influence of sex hormones and sex differences in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S; Milner, Teresa A

    2017-01-02

    Sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Sex hormones can act through many cellular and molecular processes that alter structure and function of neural systems and influence behavior as well as providing neuroprotection. Within neurons, sex hormone receptors are found in nuclei and are also located near membranes, where they are associated with presynaptic terminals, mitochondria, spine apparatus, and postsynaptic densities. Sex hormone receptors also are found in glial cells. Hormonal regulation of a variety of signaling pathways as well as direct and indirect effects on gene expression induce spine synapses, up- or downregulate and alter the distribution of neurotransmitter receptors, and regulate neuropeptide expression and cholinergic and GABAergic activity as well as calcium sequestration and oxidative stress. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences and responses to sex hormones in brain regions, which influence functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era of our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. At the Frontier of Epigenetics of Brain Sex Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret M Mccarthy; Bridget M Nugent

    2015-01-01

    The notion that epigenetics may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of sex differences in the brain has garnered great enthusiasm but the reality in terms of actual advances has been slow. Two general approaches include the comparison of a particular epigenetic mark in males vs. females and the inhibition of key epigenetic enzymes or co-factors to determine if this eliminates a particular sex difference in brain or behavior. The majority of emphasis has been on candida...

  17. Do Sex Differences Define Gender-Related Individual Differences within the Sexes? Evidence from Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…

  18. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  19. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons’ Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954

  20. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciencia" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M Sanchez

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  1. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Drug Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Rodenburg (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women

  2. Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

  3. Mechanisms of Sex Differences in Fear and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramikie, Teniel Sonya; Ressler, Kerry J

    2018-05-15

    Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability. Moreover, these studies suggest that sex-specific PTSD vulnerability is partly regulated by sex differences in fear systems. Fear, which represents a highly conserved adaptive response to threatening environmental stimuli, becomes pathological in trauma- and stress-based psychiatric syndromes, such as PTSD. Over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in understanding normal and pathological molecular and behavioral fear processes in humans and animal models. Thus, fear mechanisms represent a tractable PTSD biomarker in the study of sex differences in fear. In this review, we discuss studies that examine nonbiological and biological sex differences that contribute to normal and pathological fear behaviors in humans and animal models. This, we hope, will shed greater light on the potential mechanisms that contribute to increased PTSD vulnerability in females. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex differences and sex similarities in disgust sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Bryan, A.D.; Lieberman, D.L.; Caldwell Hooper, A.E.; Merriman, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Across two studies, we test for sex differences in the factor structure, factor loadings, concurrent validity, and means of the Three Domain Disgust Scale. In Study 1, we find that the Three Domain Disgust Scale has indistinguishable factor structure and factor loadings for men and women. In Study

  5. Sex Differences in College Student Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimbu, Jerry L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Determines patterns of drug usage and related behavior of college, university, and junior college students on a state-wide basis. This article focuses on sex as it relates to the total pattern of drug abuse of nine specific substances among a large group of college students and examines results in terms of both practical and statistical…

  6. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Tagler; Heather M. Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and wom...

  7. Job Orientation of Males and Females: Are Sex Differences Declining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, O. C.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Sex differences in job orientation found by Manhardt (1972) were explored to determine if they still exist, or if a trend toward similarity as found in studies on traits and behaviors prevails. Implications for personnel managers in handling differences on job orientation of males and females are discussed. (Author/KC)

  8. Sex differences in genetic architecture of complex phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Vink

    Full Text Available We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA studies of complex phenotypes. If different genes play a role across sex, GWA studies should consider the effect of genetic variants separately in men and women, which affects statistical power. Twin and family studies offer an opportunity to compare resemblance between opposite-sex family members to the resemblance between same-sex relatives, thereby presenting a test of quantitative and qualitative sex differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits. We analyzed data on lifestyle, personality, psychiatric disorder, health, growth, development and metabolic traits in dizygotic (DZ same-sex and opposite-sex twins, as these siblings are perfectly matched for age and prenatal exposures. Sample size varied from slightly over 300 subjects for measures of brain function such as EEG power to over 30,000 subjects for childhood psychopathology and birth weight. For most phenotypes, sample sizes were large, with an average sample size of 9027 individuals. By testing whether the resemblance in DZ opposite-sex pairs is the same as in DZ same-sex pairs, we obtain evidence for genetic qualitative sex-differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits for 4% of phenotypes. We conclude that for most traits that were examined, the current evidence is that same the genes are operating in men and women.

  9. Sexual risk behaviors for HIV infection in Spanish male sex workers: differences according to educational level, country of origin and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, R; Salmerón, P; Gil, M D; Gómez, S

    2012-05-01

    The stigma associated with male sex workers (MSW) hinders the prevention, treatment, and care of HIV infection in this population. These factors make social and public health resources less accessible to MSW. To improve the effectiveness of prevention strategies, this study examines social factors such as educational level, country of origin, and sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews of 100 MSW in Castellón and Valencia (Spanish cities) indicate that knowledge of HIV transmission is good; nevertheless, MSW significantly overestimate or underestimate some sexual practices. Levels of condom use are high; notably, they are higher during anal sex. Levels of condom use are lower with intimate partners than with clients. MSW do not present differences in terms of the socio-demographic variables analyzed and sexual orientation. Furthermore, regression analyses are not significant. These results offer more accurate profiles of MSW than were previously available, which will ultimately help improve the effectiveness of prevention programs.

  10. Atomoxetine in abstinent cocaine users: Sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise E. DeVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Data presented are from a sex-differences secondary analysis of a human laboratory investigation of single doses of atomoxetine (40 mg and 80 mg versus placebo in abstinent individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD. Subjective drug effects, cognitive performance and cardiovascular measures were assessed. The primary atomoxetine dose analyses (which do not consider sex as a factor are reported in full elsewhere (DeVito et al., 2017 [1].

  11. Sex differences in intracranial arterial bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious condition, occurring more frequently in females than in males. SAH is mainly caused by rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which is formed by localized dilation of the intracranial arterial vessel wall, usually at the apex of the arterial bifurcation. T....... The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....

  12. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or cognitive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eOhla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the first sex-dependent differences for chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG, psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and oldorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate attention stronger to potentially noxious stimuli, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception.

  13. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  14. The new science of cognitive sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I; Halpern, Diane F

    2014-01-01

    Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined. Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on task characteristics. Diverse disciplines have revolutionized our understanding of why these differences exist. For instance, fraternal-twin studies align with earlier literature to help establish the role of prenatal androgens and large international datasets help explain how cultural factors such as economic prosperity and gender equity affect females and males differently. Understanding how biological and environmental factors interact could help maximize cognitive potential and address pressing societal issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex differences in the processing of flankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2010-04-01

    The study of sex differences in cognition has often focused on differences in spatial processing. Recently, sex differences in selective attention have been observed by Bayliss, di Pellegrino, and Tipper (2005), showing that women are more influenced than men by irrelevant spatial cues. The current study elaborates on this finding and tests whether sex differences in the processing of irrelevant information also occur in a simpler task, in which there is no need to redirect visual attention and no need to remember multiple spatial stimulus-response associations. Here, attention is studied using a novel combination of a go/no-go task and a flanker task. A total of 80 neurotypical participants were studied, and it was found that responses in women were more strongly affected by flanker information than were responses in men. This suggests that these sex differences were not due to difficulties with spatial reorientation, or remembering spatial stimulus-response relationships. The findings are discussed in the context of the hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences.

  16. On sexual behavior and sex-role reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiling, Gerard A

    2005-09-01

    Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-)combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to enable exchange of genetic material. In multicellular organisms the situation is more complicated than in unicellular organisms, as it is impossible for each cell within a multicellular body to have sex with another cell. Hence, evolution selected a system in which the possibility to have sex was limited to only one cell-line: the germ cells. As a result, sex adopted the character of fertilization, and sex and reproduction became inseparably linked. Still, in some species, including humans, sexual behavior still exhibits features of its evolutionary past: in humans (like in bonobo's) most sexual activity and many sexual behavioral patterns have nothing to do with reproduction (masturbation, homosexual behavior, for example); in humans, sexual behavior also became associated with other strategic objectives, such as intensifying the pair bond, expression of love or power. Different genders - male and female - evolved, and each gender evolved typical gender-related sexual and reproductive strategies as well. In most multicellular species, these strategies became inextricably mixed, and sexual behavior increasingly more - and in most species even exclusively - 'served' the interests of reproduction: sexual behavior became more or less synonymous with reproductive behavior. In most species, the 'mix' of sexual and reproductive strategies evolved into typical gender-related patterns of behavior, that is, in typical 'sex-roles'. Often, males are bigger and more 'beautiful' (= more intensely ornamented) than females; males compete with each other for access to females; males court females, while females choose males ('female choice'). However, ecological circumstances may cause

  17. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  18. Sex-related variation in human behavior and the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Male and female fetuses differ in testosterone concentrations beginning as early as week 8 of gestation. This early hormone difference exerts permanent influences on brain development and behavior. Contemporary research shows that hormones are particularly important for the development of sex-typical childhood behavior, including toy choices, which until recently were thought to result solely from sociocultural influences. Prenatal testosterone exposure also appears to influence sexual orientation and gender identity, as well as some, but not all, sex-related cognitive, motor and personality characteristics. Neural mechanisms responsible for these hormone-induced behavioral outcomes are beginning to be identified, and current evidence suggests involvement of the hypothalamus and amygdala, as well as interhemispheric connectivity, and cortical areas involved in visual processing. PMID:20724210

  19. BXD recombinant inbred strains participate in social preference, anxiety and depression behaviors along sex-differences in cytokines and tactile allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Antunes Dos Santos, Alessandra; Ferrer, Beatriz; Culbreth, Megan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Barrasa, Angel; Gulinello, Maria; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a major public health concern. Dysregulation of oxidative and inflammatory systems may be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Due to the need to find appropriate animal models to the understanding of such disorders, we queried whether 2 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice strains (BXD21/TyJ RI and BXD84/RwwJ RI mice) and C57BL/6 wild-type mice show differential performance in depression and anxiety related behaviors and biomarkers. Specifically, we assessed social preference, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and Von Frey tests at 3-4 months-of-age, as well as activation of cytokines and antioxidant mRNA levels in the cortex at 7 months-of-age. We report that (1) the BXD84/RwwJ RI strain exhibits anxiety disorder and social avoidance-like behavior (2) BXD21/TyJ RI strain shows a resistance to depression illness, and (3) sex-dependent cytokine profiles and allodynia with elevated inflammatory activity were inherent to male BXD21/TyJ RI mice. In conclusion, we provide novel data in favor of the use of BXD recombinant inbred mice to further understand anxiety and depression disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and substance use: testing for sex differences in the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D

    2014-04-01

    Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On sexual behavior and sex-role reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-) combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to

  3. Homage to Bateman: sex roles predict sex differences in sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Karoline; Arnqvis, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Classic sex role theory predicts that sexual selection should be stronger in males in taxa showing conventional sex roles and stronger in females in role reversed mating systems. To test this very central prediction and to assess the utility of different measures of sexual selection, we estimated sexual selection in both sexes in four seed beetle species with divergent sex roles using a novel experimental design. We found that sexual selection was sizeable in females and the strength of sexual selection was similar in females and males in role-reversed species. Sexual selection was overall significantly stronger in males than in females and residual selection formed a substantial component of net selection in both sexes. Furthermore, sexual selection in females was stronger in role-reversed species compared to species with conventional sex roles. Variance-based measures of sexual selection (the Bateman gradient and selection opportunities) were better predictors of sexual dimorphism in reproductive behavior and morphology across species compared to trait-based measures (selection differentials). Our results highlight the importance of using assays that incorporate components of fitness manifested after mating. We suggest that the Bateman gradient is generally the most informative measure of the strength of sexual selection in comparisons across sexes and/or species. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Sex Differences in Doctoral Student Publication Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Miller, Emily K.; Saclarides, Evthokia Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Women in the sciences who earn PhDs are less likely than their male counterparts to pursue tenure-track positions at research universities. Moreover, among those who become STEM researchers, men have been found to publish more than women. These patterns raise questions about when sex differences in publication begin. Using data from a survey of…

  5. Sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H. A H; de Vet, Henrica C W; Picavet, H. Susan J

    STUDY DESIGN. Cross-sectional population-based study. OBJECTIVE. To study sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain (MP): limited functioning, work leave or disability, and healthcare use. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. MP is a major public health problem in developed countries due to

  6. Sex differences in adults' motivation to achieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, S.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Posthuma, D.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis

  7. Behavioral intention to take up different types of HIV testing among men who have sex with men who were never-testers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; She, Rui; Ip, Mary; Jiang, Hui; Ho, Shara P Y; Yang, XueYing

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is an important global prevention strategy but underutilized by local men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV testing (specific or any type), in the next six months among MSM who had not been tested for HIV in the last three years (never-testers) in Hong Kong. The data was based on 141 never-testers of 430 MSM who completed the anonymous baseline telephone survey of an ongoing randomized controlled trial from January 2015 to August 2015. Only 17.7% of them showed strong intention to take up any type of HIV testing in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that perceived benefit of HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.66), perceived psychological barriers of HIV testing (AOR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.73, 1.00), and perceived self-efficacy in taking up HIV testing (AOR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.52) were significantly associated with behavioral intention to take up any HIV testing. Perceived cue to action from non-governmental organization staff was positively associated with a marginal p-value of 0.077 (AOR: 2.37, 95%CI: 0.97, 5.77). It is warranted to strengthen perceived benefit, remove psychological barriers, and increase perceived self-efficacy related to HIV testing. Innovative and effective health promotions are greatly needed to increase HIV testing coverage among never-testers.

  8. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  10. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  11. Sex differences in angiotensin II- induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Xue

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central actions of angiotensin II (ANG II via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.

  12. Spatiotemporal mapping of sex differences during attentional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Urbanek, Carsten; Gross, Melanie; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Koehler, Simone; Dettling, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly aimed at approximating neural substrates of human cognitive sex differences elicited by visuospatial challenge. It has been suggested that females and males use different behaviorally relevant neurocognitive strategies. In females, greater right prefrontal cortex activation has been found in several studies. The spatiotemporal dynamics of neural events associated with these sex differences is still unclear. We studied 22 female and 22 male participants matched for age, education, and nicotine with 29-channel-electroencephalogram recorded under a visual selective attention paradigm, the Attention Network Test. Visual event-related potentials (ERP) were topographically analyzed and neuroelectric sources were estimated. In absence of behavioral differences, ERP analysis revealed a novel frontal-occipital second peak of visual N100 that was significantly increased in females relative to males. Further, in females exclusively, a corresponding central ERP component at around 220 ms was found; here, a strong correlation between stimulus salience and sex difference of the central ERP component amplitude was observed. Subsequent source analysis revealed increased cortical current densities in right rostral prefrontal (BA 10) and occipital cortex (BA 19) in female subjects. This is the first study to report on a tripartite association between sex differences in ERPs, visual stimulus salience, and right prefrontal cortex activation during attentional processing. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Sex differences in T cells in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Ashlee J; Sullivan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and end-organ damage. There is a sex difference in blood pressure (BP) that begins in adolescence and continues into adulthood, in which men have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with women until the sixth decade of life. Less than 50% of hypertensive adults in the United States manage to control their BP to recommended levels using current therapeutic options, and women are more likely than are men to have uncontrolled high BP. This, is despite the facts that more women compared with men are aware that they have hypertension and that women are more likely to seek treatment for the disease. Novel therapeutic targets need to be identified in both sexes to increase the percentage of hypertensive individuals with controlled BP. The purpose of this article was to review the available literature on the role of T cells in BP control in both sexes, and the potential therapeutic application/implications of targeting immune cells in hypertension. A search of PubMed was conducted to determine the impact of sex on T cell-mediated control of BP. The search terms included sex, gender, estrogen, testosterone, inflammation, T cells, T regulatory cells, Th17 cells, hypertension, and blood pressure. Additional data were included from our laboratory examinations of cytokine expression in the kidneys of male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and differential gene expression in both the renal cortex and mesenteric arterial bed of male and female SHRs. There is a growing scientific literature base regarding the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of hypertension and BP control; however, the majority of these studies have been performed exclusively in males, despite the fact that both men and women develop hypertension. There is increasing evidence that although T cells also mediate BP in females, there are distinct differences in both the T-cell profile and the functional impact of sex

  14. Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Human Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Geary

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Darwin’s (1871 theory of sexual selection and the associated mechanisms of intrasexual competition (e.g., male-male competition and intersexual choice (e.g., female choice of mates have guided the scientific study of sex differences in hundreds of non-human species. These mechanisms and several recent advances in our understanding of the evolution and expression of sex differences in non-human species are described. The usefulness of this theory for approaching the study human sex differences is illustrated with discussion of patterns of women’s mate preferences and choices and with discussion of men’s one-on-one and coalitional competition. A comparison of these aspects of intersexual choice and intrasexual competition in humans and non-human species is provided, as is discussion of cultural variation in the expression of these behaviors. cultural influences (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974.

  15. Sex Differences in the Cerebral Collateral Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E; Moore, Scott M; Lucitti, Jennifer L; Aghajanian, Amir; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Premenopausal women and intact female rodents sustain smaller cerebral infarctions than males. Several sex-dependent differences have been identified as potential contributors, but many questions remain unanswered. Mice exhibit wide variation in native collateral number and diameter (collateral extent) that is dependent on differences in genetic background, aging, and other comorbidities and that contributes to their also-wide differences in infarct volume. Likewise, variation in infarct volume correlates with differences in collateral-dependent blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We examined whether extent of pial collateral arterioles and posterior communicating collateral arteries (PComAs) differ depending on sex in young, aged, obese, hypertensive, and genetically different mice. We combined new data with meta-analysis of our previously published data. Females of C57BL/6J (B6) and BALB/cByJ (BC) strains sustained smaller infarctions than males after permanent MCA occlusion. This protection was unchanged in BC mice after introgression of the B6 allele of Dce1, the major genetic determinant of variation in pial collaterals among mouse strains. Consistent with this, collateral extent in these and other strains did not differ with sex. Extent of PComAs and primary cerebral arteries also did not vary with sex. No dimorphism was evident for loss of pial collateral number and/or diameter (collateral rarefaction) caused by aging, obesity, and hypertension, nor for collateral remodeling after pMCAO. However, rarefaction was greater in females with long-standing hypertension. We conclude that smaller infarct volume in female mice is not due to greater collateral extent, greater remodeling, or less rarefaction caused by aging, obesity, or hypertension.

  16. A working model for the assessment of disruptions in social behavior among aged rats: The role of sex differences, social recognition, and sensorimotor processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Amy E; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spencer, Robert L; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Conti, Melissa M; Bishop, Christopher; Deak, Terrence

    2016-04-01

    Aging results in a natural decline in social behavior, yet little is known about the processes underlying these changes. Engaging in positive social interaction is associated with many health benefits, including reduced stress reactivity, and may serve as a potential buffer against adverse consequences of aging. The goal of these studies was to establish a tractable model for the assessment of social behavior deficits associated with late aging. Thus, in Exp. 1, 1.5-, 3-, and 18-month-old male Fischer 344 (F344) rats were assessed for object investigation, and social interaction with a same-aged partner (novel/familiar), or a different-aged partner, thereby establishing working parameters for studies that followed. Results revealed that 18-month-old males exhibited reductions in social investigation and social contact behavior, with this age-related decline not influenced by familiarity or age of the social partner. Subsequently, Exp. 2 extended assessment of social behavior to both male and female F344 rats at multiple ages (3, 9, 18, and 24 months), after which a series of sensorimotor performance tests were conducted. In this study, both males and females exhibited late aging-related reductions in social interactions, but these changes were more pronounced in females. Additionally, sensorimotor performance was shown to be impaired in 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, with this deficit more evident in males. Finally, Exp. 3 examined whether aging-related inflammation could account for declines in social behavior during late aging by administering naproxen (0, 7, 14, and 28 mg/kg; s.c.)-a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-to 18-month-old females. Results from this study revealed that social behavior was unaffected by acute or repeated (6 days) naproxen, suggesting that aging-related social deficits in females may not be a consequence of a general aging-related inflammation and/or malaise. Together, these findings demonstrate that aging-related declines in

  17. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Zagni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions.

  18. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Tagler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  19. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  20. Sex differences in pain-related behavior and expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in dorsal root ganglia of rats with diabetes type 1 and type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhatovic, Lejla; Banozic, Adriana; Kostic, Sandra; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2013-06-01

    Sex differences in pain-related behavior and expression of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in dorsal root ganglia were studied in rat models of Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2). DM1 was induced with 55mg/kg streptozotocin, and DM2 with a combination of high-fat diet and 35mg/kg of streptozotocin. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal and mechanical stimuli. The expression of CaMKII was analyzed with immunofluorescence. Sexual dimorphism in glycemia, and expression of CaMKII was observed in the rat model of DM1, but not in DM2 animals. Increased expression of total CaMKII (tCaMKII) in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia neurons, which are associated with nociception, was found only in male DM1 rats. None of the animals showed increased expression of the phosphorylated alpha CaMKII isoform in small-diameter neurons. The expression of gamma and delta isoforms of CaMKII remained unchanged in all analyzed animal groups. Different patterns of glycemia and tCaMKII expression in male and female model of DM1 were not associated with sexual dimorphism in pain-related behavior. The present findings do not suggest sex-related differences in diabetic painful peripheral neuropathy in male and female diabetic rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in psychological adjustment from infancy to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M; Smart, D; Sanson, A; Oberklaid, F

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore sex differences in development from infancy to 8 years of age in a community sample. Measures of biological, social, interactive, and parental functioning as well as teacher reports were obtained. There were minimal differences in infancy, but major psychosocial differences emerged with increasing age. In the biological sphere boys were disadvantaged only in ratings of language and motor skills at 3 to 4 years old. They showed greater temperamental "difficulty" and low persistence factor scores from 5 years onward. Boys were significantly more likely to have problems with adaptive behavior and social competence and to show behavior problems of the hyperactive and aggressive type, as rated by mothers. Parent and family functioning measures did not differentiate between the sexes. Teachers rated boys as having more problems in academic and behavioral domains the first 3 years of school. Path analyses combining data sets gathered when the children were 3 to 8 years old demonstrated the differential courses of development for boys and girls although temperamental flexibility was the best predictor of behavioral adjustment for both sexes. A social learning explanation of the increased incidence of problems among males is supported, although biological influences are not ruled out.

  2. Sex differences in parent-infant interaction during free play, departure, and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, M; Frankel, J

    1977-12-01

    20 18-month-olds were observed with their mothers and 20 with their fathers in laboratory free-play, departure, and separation situations. Parent and infant behaviors were allowed to vary naturally. Although there were no parent sex or infant sex differences in infants' free-play behavior, there were parent sex X infant sex differences in parental free-play behaviors. Parents talked to, sat on the floor more with, and tended to share play more with same-sexed than opposite-sexed infants, and the patterning of free-play behaviors was different for mothers and fathers. During departure, fathers talked to the infants more than mothers. Infants were more distressed in the absence of same-sexed than opposite-sexed parents. There were infant sex X parent sex differences in the relationships between separation distress and parental free-play and departure behaviors. The implications of these findings for understanding differential roles of mothers and fathers, the development of sex differences, and the determinants of separation distress are discussed.

  3. Sex differences in navigation strategy and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Alexander P; Gong, Xinyi; Hegarty, Mary

    2018-05-22

    Research on human navigation has indicated that males and females differ in self-reported navigation strategy as well as objective measures of navigation efficiency. In two experiments, we investigated sex differences in navigation strategy and efficiency using an objective measure of strategy, the dual-solution paradigm (DSP; Marchette, Bakker, & Shelton, 2011). Although navigation by shortcuts and learned routes were the primary strategies used in both experiments, as in previous research on the DSP, individuals also utilized route reversals and sometimes found the goal location as a result of wandering. Importantly, sex differences were found in measures of both route selection and navigation efficiency. In particular, males were more likely to take shortcuts and reached their goal location faster than females, while females were more likely to follow learned routes and wander. Self-report measures of strategy were only weakly correlated with objective measures of strategy, casting doubt on their usefulness. This research indicates that the sex difference in navigation efficiency is large, and only partially related to an individual's navigation strategy as measured by the dual-solution paradigm.

  4. Sex differences in social cognition: The case of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2017-01-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sex Behaviors as Social Cues Motivating Social Venue Patronage Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Michaels, Stuart; Jonas, Adam; Khanna, Aditya S; Skaathun, Britt; Morgan, Ethan; Schneider, John A

    2017-10-01

    HIV prevention programs often focus on the physical social venues where men who have sex with men (MSM) frequent as sites where sex behaviors are assumed to be practiced and risk is conferred. But, how exactly these behaviors influence venue patronage is not well understood. In this study, we present a two-mode network analysis that determines the extent that three types of sex behaviors-condomless sex, sex-drug use, and group sex-influence the patronage of different types of social venues among a population sample of young Black MSM (YBMSM) (N = 623). A network analytic technique called exponential random graph modeling was used in a proof of concept analysis to verify how each sex behavior increases the likelihood of a venue patronage tie when estimated as either: (1) an attribute of an individual only and/or (2) a shared attribute between an individual and his peers. Findings reveal that sex behaviors, when modeled only as attributes possessed by focal individuals, were no more or less likely to affect choices to visit social venues. However, when the sex behaviors of peers were also taken into consideration, we learn that individuals were statistically more likely in all three behavioral conditions to go places that attracted other MSM who practiced the same behaviors. This demonstrates that social venues can function as intermediary contexts in which relationships can form between individuals that have greater risk potential given the venues attraction to people who share the same risk tendencies. As such, structuring interventions around these settings can be an effective way to capture the attention of YBMSM and engage them in HIV prevention.

  6. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  7. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,

  8. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative ...

  9. Sex differences in stress effects on emotional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-01-02

    Stress influences emotional learning and memory processes. These effects are thought to underlie stress-associated mental disorders. Sex differences in stress reactivity and in central nervous system stress sensitivity illustrate the important modulatory role of sex hormones. This Review outlines how stress hormones influence different stages of the fear conditioning process, such as fear acquisition, extinction, and retrieval. Results will be compared with findings on the impact of stress on episodic memory. The focus is on the available human data on sex differences and the impact sex hormones have on the stress effects on emotional learning and memory. It will become apparent that the menstrual cycle but also the intake of hormonal contraceptives modulates the impact of stress on brain and behavior. Additional basic research is needed for a deeper insight regarding the interplay between stress and sex hormones in emotion and cognition. In addition, new treatment options might be derived to optimize existing strategies such as exposure therapy, which relies on the principles of fear conditioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. At the Frontier of Epigenetics of Brain Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Mccarthy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion that epigenetics may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of sex differences in the brain has garnered great enthusiasm but the reality in terms of actual advances have been slow. Two general approaches include the comparison of a particular epigenetic mark in males versus females and the inhibition of key epigenetic enzymes or co-factors to determine if this eliminates a particular sex difference in brain or behavior. The majority of emphasis has been on candidate genes such as steroid receptors. Only recently have more generalized survey type approaches been achieved and these promise to open new vista’s and accelerate discovery of important roles for DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNAs. Technical challenges abound and while not unique to this field will require novel thinking and new approaches by behavioral neuroendocrinogists.

  11. Sex Differences in Countermovement Jump Phase Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The countermovement jump (CMJ is commonly used to explore sex differences in neuromuscular function, but previous studies have only reported gross CMJ measures or have partly examined CMJ phase characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ phase characteristics between male and female athletes by comparing the force-, power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves throughout the entire CMJ, in addition to gross measures. Fourteen men and fourteen women performed three CMJs on a force platform from which a range of kinetic and kinematic variables were calculated via forward dynamics. Jump height (JH, reactive strength index modified, relative peak concentric power, and eccentric and concentric displacement, velocity, and relative impulse were all greater for men (g = 0.58–1.79. Relative force-time curves were similar between sexes, but relative power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves were greater for men at 90%–95% (immediately before and after peak power, 47%–54% (start of eccentric phase and 85%–100% (latter half of concentric phase, and 65%–87% (bottom of countermovement and initial concentric phase of normalized jump time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between sexes, with men demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger concentric impulse and, thus, achieving greater velocity throughout most of the concentric phase, including take-off.

  12. Sex differences in social interaction of methamphetamine-treated rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Pometlová, M.; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Deykun, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 617-623 ISSN 0955-8810 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : estrogen * methamphetamine * rat * sex difference * social behavior * testosterone Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.720, year: 2011

  13. Sex differences in depression-like behavior after nerve injury are associated with differential changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in mice subjected to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Takashi; Kinoshita, Megumi; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-04-10

    We recently demonstrated that exposure to early life stress exacerbates nerve injury-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in adult male and female mice. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic pain causes emotional dysfunction, such as anxiety and depression. In the present study, we investigated the impact of early life stress on depression-like behavior after nerve injury in mice. In addition, we examined the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Early life stress was induced by maternal separation between 2 and 3 weeks of age combined with social isolation after weaning (MSSI). At 9 weeks of age, the sciatic nerve was partially ligated to elicit neuropathic pain. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test at 12 weeks of age. Tissue samples from different regions of the brain were collected at the end of maternal separation (3 weeks of age) or after the forced swim test (12 weeks of age). At 12 weeks of age, immobility time in the forced swim test was increased only in MSSI-stressed female mice with nerve injury. BDNF expression was increased in male, but not female, MSSI-stressed mice at 3 weeks of age. However, MSSI stress did not impact BDNF expression in male or female mice at 12 weeks of age. Our findings suggest that exposure to early life stress exacerbates emotional dysfunction induced by neuropathic pain in a sex-dependent manner. Changes in BDNF expression after early life stress may be associated with neuropathic pain-induced depression-like behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, sex differences in BDNF expression after exposure to early life stress may contribute to sex-specific susceptibility to neuropathic pain-induced emotional dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzean, Samara A M; DeNobrega, Aliza K; Perrotti, Linda I

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that while women report lower rates of drug use than men, the number of current drug users and abusers who are women continues to increase. In addition women progress through the phases of addiction differently than men; women transition from casual drug use to addiction faster, are more reactive to stimuli that trigger relapse, and have higher rates of relapse then men. Sex differences in physiological and psychological responses to drugs of abuse are well documented and it is well established that estrogen effects on dopamine (DA) systems are largely responsible for these sex differences. However, the downstream mechanisms that result from interactions between estrogen and the effects of drugs of abuse on the DA system are just beginning to be explored. Here we review the basic neurocircuitry which underlies reward and addiction; highlighting the neuroadaptive changes that occur in the mesolimbic dopamine reward and anti-reward/stress pathways. We propose that sex differences in addiction are due to sex differences in the neural systems which mediate positive and negative reinforcement and that these differences are modulated by ovarian hormones. This forms a neurobehavioral basis for the search for the molecular and cellular underpinnings that uniquely guide motivational behaviors and make women more vulnerable to developing and sustaining addiction than men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex differences in tool use acquisition in bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, Klaree J; White, Frances J; Meinelt, Audra

    2013-09-01

    All the great ape species are known tool users in both the wild and captivity, although there is great variation in ability and behavioral repertoire. Differences in tool use acquisition between chimpanzees and gorillas have been attributed to differing levels of social tolerance as a result of differences in social structure. Chimpanzees also show sex differences in acquisition and both chimpanzees and bonobos demonstrate a female bias in tool use behaviors. Studies of acquisition are limited in the wild and between species comparisons are complicated in captivity by contexts that often do not reflect natural conditions. Here we investigated tool use acquisition in a captive group of naïve bonobos by simulating naturalistic conditions. We constructed an artificial termite mound fashioned after those that occur in the wild and tested individuals within a social group context. We found sex differences in latencies to attempt and to succeed where females attempted to fish, were successful more quickly, and fished more frequently than males. We compared our results to those reported for chimpanzees and gorillas. Males across all three species did not differ in latency to attempt or to succeed. In contrast, bonobo and chimpanzee females succeeded more quickly than did female gorillas. Female bonobos and female chimpanzees did not differ in either latency to attempt or to succeed. We tested the social tolerance hypothesis by investigating the relationship between tool behaviors and number of neighbors present. We also compared these results to those reported for chimpanzees and gorillas and found that bonobos had the fewest numbers of neighbors present. The results of this study do not support the association between number of neighbors and tool behavior reported for chimpanzees. However, bonobos demonstrated a similar sex difference in tool use acquisition, supporting the hypothesis of a female bias in tool use in Pan. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Theoretical Analysis of Sex Differences In Same-Sex Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)

  17. Sex differences in stroke: a socioeconomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbari A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Delbari,1 Farzane Keyghobadi,2 Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1,3 Fariba Keyghobadi,2 Reza Akbari,2 Houman Kamranian,2 Mohammad Shouride Yazdi,2 Sayed Shahaboddin Tabatabaei,1 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad4 1Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Research Center on Healthy Aging, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Khorasan, Iran; 3Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing (MyAgeing™, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Neurobiology, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Care Sciences and Society (NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: A number of studies have explored the issue of sex differences in stroke from biomedical perspective; however, there are still large gaps in the existing knowledge. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differences in socioeconomic status and living conditions between men and women may explain the part of the sex differences in incidence and outcomes of stroke. Methods: All stroke participants aged ≥60 years admitted in Vaseie Hospital in Sabzevar, Iran, from March 21, 2013, until March 20, 2014, were included in this study. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to confirm stroke. A series of χ2 tests were performed and Statistical Program for Social Sciences, Version 21.0, was used to investigate the potential differences between older men and women in stroke incidence and outcomes. Results: A total of 159 incident stroke cases were documented during 1 year. The annual rate of stroke was statistically significantly higher in elderly women than in elderly men (401 vs 357 per 100,000; P<0.001. Female elderly participants had significantly lower socioeconomic status, poorer living conditions, and higher lifetime history of depression, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus than their male counterparts. Conclusion: The findings from this study

  18. Sex differences underlying orofacial varicella zoster associated pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Crystal; Deng, Mohong; Yee, Michael B; Bellinger, Larry L; Kinchington, Paul R; Kramer, Phillip R

    2017-05-17

    Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster. Importantly, the incidence of zoster associated pain and PHN is known to be higher in women, although reasons for this sex difference remain unclear. Prior to this work, no animal model was available to study these sex-differences. Our goal was to develop an orofacial animal model for zoster associated pain which could be utilized to study the mechanisms contributing to this sex difference. To develop this model VZV was injected into the whisker pad of rats resulting in IE62 protein expression in the trigeminal ganglia; IE62 is an immediate early gene in the VZV replication program. Similar to PHN patients, rats showed retraction of neurites after VZV infection. Treatment of rats with gabapentin, an agent often used to combat PHN, ameliorated the pain response after whisker pad injection. Aversive behavior was significantly greater for up to 7 weeks in VZV injected rats over control inoculated rats. Sex differences were also seen such that ovariectomized and intact female rats given the lower dose of VZV showed a longer affective response than male rats. The phase of the estrous cycle also affected the aversive response suggesting a role for sex steroids in modulating VZV pain. These results suggest that this rat model can be utilized to study the mechanisms of 1) orofacial zoster associated pain and 2) the sex differences underlying zoster associated pain.

  19. Functional neuroimaging of sex differences in autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is episodic memory for personally experienced events. The brain areas underlying AM retrieval are known to include several prefrontal cortical and medial temporal lobe regions. Sex differences in AM recall have been reported in several behavioral studies, but the functional anatomical correlates underlying such differences remain unclear. This study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of AM recall between healthy male and female participants (n = 20 per group). AM recall in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words was compared to a semantic memory task involving the generation of examples from a category using emotionally valenced cues. Behaviorally, females recalled more negative and fewer positive AMs compared with males, while ratings of arousal, vividness, and memory age did not differ significantly between sexes. Males and females also did not differ significantly in their performance on control tasks. Neurophysiologically, females showed increased hemodynamic activity compared to males in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsal anterior insula, and precuneus while recalling specific AMs (all valences combined); increased activity in the DLPFC, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus while recalling positive AMs; and increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, amygdala, and temporopolar cortex when recalling negative AMs. When comparing positive to negative AMs directly, males and females differed in their BOLD responses in the hippocampus and DLPFC. We propose that the differential hemodynamic changes may reflect sex-specific cognitive strategies during recall of AMs irrespective of the phenomenological properties of those memories. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sex Differences in HIV Prevalence, Behavioral Risks and Prevention Needs Among Anglophone and Francophone Sub-Saharan African Migrants Living in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa; Oumzil, Hicham; El Rhilani, Houssine; Latifi, Amina; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Morocco has experienced a dramatic increase of migration from sub-Sahara Africa during the past decade. Recently included among the most vulnerable populations cited in the Morocco National Strategic Plans on HIV/TB for 2012-2016, sub-Saharan Africa migrants living in an irregular administrative situation participated in a survey to provide baseline data about their socio-demographic, sexual and HIV testing behaviors and HIV and syphilis prevalence. Two surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2013 among males and females, ≥18 years, originating from sub-Saharan African countries and living and/or working in an irregular administrative situation in Rabat and residing at least 3 months in Morocco. Analysis was conducted to evaluate differences between the two samples and between females and males within each sample using the successive sampling estimator in RDS Analyst. Roughly 3 % of francophone and anglophone migrants were infected with HIV, whereas a statistically significantly higher percentage of francophone (2.8 %), compared to anglophone (0.3 %), migrants were infected with syphilis. Females were found to have HIV infection rates three times higher and past year sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms more than two times higher than their male counterparts. Female migrants also had statistically significantly higher percentages of ever testing for HIV and HIV testing and receiving results in the past year compared to males. We found distinct and important differences between migrants depending on whether they come from francophone versus anglophone countries and whether they were male or female. Future research should continue to explore these differences, while policies and programs should note these differences to best allocate resources in providing social and health services to these populations.

  1. Sex differences in depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Comasco, Erika; Georgakis, Marios K; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2017-01-02

    Women have a lifetime risk of major depression double that of men but only during their reproductive years. This sex difference has been attributed partially to activational effects of female sex steroids and also to the burdens of pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Men, in contrast, have a reproductive period difficult to delineate, and research on the mental health of men has rarely considered the effects of fatherhood. However, the couple goes through a number of potentially stressing events during the reproductive period, and both mothers and fathers are at risk of developing peripartum depression. This Review discusses the literature on maternal and paternal depression and the endocrine changes that may predispose a person to depression at this stage of life, with specific focus on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, oxytocin, and testosterone levels in men. Important findings on sex differences in the neural correlates of maternal and paternal behavior have emerged, highlighting the relevance of the emotional brain in mothers and the sociocognitive brain in fathers and pointing toward the presence of a common parents' brain. Additionally, sex differences in neurogenesis and brain plasticity are described in relation to peripartum depression. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sex differences in emotional perception: Meta analysis of divergent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Olsen, Rachel M; Duda, Bryant; Wanger, Timothy J; Sabatinelli, Dean

    2017-02-15

    Behavioral and physiological sex differences in emotional reactivity are well documented, yet comparatively few neural differences have been identified. Here we apply quantitative activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis across functional brain imaging studies that each reported clusters of activity differentiating men and women as they participated in emotion-evoking tasks in the visual modality. This approach requires the experimental paradigm to be balanced across the sexes, and thus may provide greater clarity than previous efforts. Results across 56 emotion-eliciting studies (n=1907) reveal distinct activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal pole, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in men relative to women. Women show distinct activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and regions of the dorsal midbrain including the periaqueductal gray/superior colliculus and locus coeruleus. While some clusters are consistent with prevailing perspectives on the foundations of sex differences in emotional reactivity, thalamic and brainstem regions have not previously been highlighted as sexually divergent. These data strongly support the need to include sex as a factor in functional brain imaging studies of emotion, and to extend our investigative focus beyond the cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex work, immigration and social difference

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Public discourses around ‘migrant sex workers’ are often more confident about what migrant sex workers signify morally (i.e. vulnerability, criminality) but are less clear about who the ‘migrant’ is. This thesis interrogates the implications of the ‘migrant sex worker’ category based on semi-structured interviews with 65 immigrant, migrant and racialised women in sex work and two support staff in Melbourne, Australia and Vancouver, Canada during 2013–2014. Specifically, I employ an intersecti...

  4. Sex Differences in Assertiveness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Charles; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Validates the "College Self-Expression Scale." Shows that females are significantly more assertive, and that in one of the criterion situations each sex was significantly more assertive toward members of the same sex than members of the opposite sex. (RL)

  5. Behavioral and physiological changes produced by a supralethal dose of ionizing radiation: evidence for hormone-influenced sex differences in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sufficiently large and rapid dose of ionizing radiation produces an immediate but transient behavioral incapacitation. Acute hypotension often accompanies the disorder. Although the etiology of this syndrome is unclear, it has been suggested that an increase in histamine excretion contributes to it. Since histamine is known to interact with the endocrine system and since estrogens have been shown to prolong the life of animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation, it was also hypothesized that females might be relatively less affected by an acute, large dose of ionizing radiation. Male and female rats were trained on an avoidance task, irradiated, and then retested. Females showed a less severe decrement after radiation exposure than males. Likewise, females did not suffer the severe hypotension normally associated with male radiogenic early transient incapacitation (ETI); rather, an acute hypertension was produced in females. A second series of experiments revealed that differences in male and female radiation response were eliminated by gonadectomy. Systemic estradiol injection produced strikingly feminine (i.e., superior) postirradiation avoidance responses as well as hypertension in neutered rats. Testosterone injections had no effect on either measure. Central nervous system alterations have been correlated with the ETI. Therefore, final experiments sought a possible central locus of the action of estradiol. It was found that exposure of the nucleus peopticus medialis to estrogens produces postirradiation benefits in avoidance performance and blood pressure similar to those seen after systemic estradiol treatments. Nucleus amygdaloideus medialis implants produced no such benefits

  6. Sex addiction and gambling disorder: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, J M; Fernández-Aranda, F; Granero, R; Aragay, N; Mallorquí-Bague, N; Ferrer, V; More, A; Bouman, W P; Arcelus, J; Savvidou, L G; Penelo, E; Aymamí, M N; Gómez-Peña, M; Gunnard, K; Romaguera, A; Menchón, J M; Vallès, V; Jiménez-Murcia, S

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the DSM-5 has developed a new diagnostic category named "Substance-related and Addictive Disorders". This category includes gambling disorder (GD) as the sole behavioral addiction, but does not include sex addiction (SA). The aim of this study is to investigate whether SA should be classified more closely to other behavioral addictions, via a comparison of the personality characteristics and comorbid psychopathology of individuals with SA with those of individuals with GD, which comes under the category of addiction and related disorders. The sample included 59 patients diagnosed with SA, who were compared to 2190 individuals diagnosed with GD and to 93 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom CheckList-90 Items-Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. No statistically significant differences were found between the two clinical groups, except for socio-economic status. Although statistically significant differences were found between both clinical groups and controls for all scales on the SCL-90, no differences were found between the two clinical groups. The results were different for personality characteristics: logistic regression models showed that sex addictive behavior was predicted by a higher education level and by lower scores for TCI-R novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, persistence and self-transcendence. Being employed and lower scores in cooperativeness also tended to predict the presence of sex addiction. While SA and GD share some psychopathological and personality traits that are not present in healthy controls, there are also some diagnostic-specific characteristics that differentiate between the two clinical groups. These findings may help to increase our knowledge of phenotypes existing in behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.

  8. Sex-specific differences in corticosterone secretion, behavioral phenotypes and expression of TrkB.T1 and TrkB.FL receptor isoforms: Impact of systemic TrkB inhibition and combinatory stress exposure in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azogu, Idu; Liang, Jacky; Plamondon, Helene

    2018-05-09

    Stress exposure has been implicated in the development of mood disorders, although little is known about the lasting effects of repeated stress during the adolescent period on sex-specific differences in endocrine and plasticity-signaling responses in adulthood. Using a 10-day combinatory stress paradigm (postnatal day (PND) 26 to 35), we examined sex-specific impact of adolescent stress and inhibition of tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor (ANA-12; 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on 1) adolescent blood corticosterone levels, 2) adult locomotion and anxiety-like behavior, and 3) region-specific differences in endogenous TrkB full-length (TrkB.FL) and truncated (TrkB.T1) receptor isoforms. Blood collected on days 1, 5 and 10 revealed elevated basal and stress-induced CORT secretion in females compared to males, while ANA-12 attenuated CORT elevations post stress in both sexes. As adults, all females exhibited higher locomotor and exploratory activity than males in the open field test and elevated plus maze, and differences were comparable in the forced swim within stress-naïve and stress groups. Biochemically, vehicle-treated males showed elevated TrkB.T1 and TrkB.FL compared to vehicle-treated females in the PFC, hippocampus and NAc, and levels were consistently attenuated by ANA-12 treatment in non-stress males. With regards to stress exposure, expression of both isoforms was strongly down-regulated in the NAc of males only and was associated with increased TrkB.T1 in the PFC. ANA-12 enhanced expression in females, independent of stress exposure, compared to vehicle-treated counterparts, expression being increased for TrkB.T1 versus TrkB.FL and magnitude of the changes being region-specific. In contrast, ANA-12 effects in stressed males were restricted to inhibition of both isoforms in the hippocampus. Together, our findings support that TrkB activation, contingent on stress exposure, differentially affects TrkB isoform regulation during adulthood. Sex

  9. Sex-Linked Behavior: Evolution, Stability, and Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Cordelia; Dupré, John; Joel, Daphna

    2017-09-01

    Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motivational influences on the safer sex behavior of agency-based male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, David W

    2008-10-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research.

  11. Millennials sex differences on Snapchat perceived privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Rauzzino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snapchat offers a distinctive feature from other social networks in that its users control the visibility of the contents they share with others by defining how long these contents may be available. Snapchat is changing the way men and women perceive online information privacy and content management. This paper aims to illustrate the relevance of social representation theory to evaluate perceived privacy in Snapchat users, with a sample of 268 young adults residing in Bogotá. A survey method was employed for data collection purposes. The results reveal that Snapchat users are concerned about their networks’ privacy, with no significant sex differences, although men's perception of Snapchat privacy is safer than that of women. Finally, a discussion is presented as to the limitations and implications of these results for further studies.

  12. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.; Chung, W. C.; Kruijver, F. P.; Hofman, M. A.; Ishunina, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab

  13. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  14. Cleft Type, Age, and Sex Differences in Teen-Agers' Ratings of Their Own Behavior, Self-Esteem, and Attitude toward Clefting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The behavior, self-esteem, and attitude toward clefting of 94 adolescents being treated at a clinic for oral-facial anomalies and communicative disorders were examined. Younger teenagers were more aggressive, more active, and had more somatic complaints than did the older teenagers. (SBH)

  15. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.

  16. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  17. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43%. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males ingest Hg at a higher rate than females, but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to higher

  18. Sex differences in the Simon task help to interpret sex differences in selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Stoet, Gijsbert

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, a number of studies have reported sex differences in selective attention, but a unified explanation for these effects is still missing. This study aims to better understand these differences and put them in an evolutionary psychological context. 418 adult participants performed a computer-based Simon task, in which they responded to the direction of a left or right pointing arrow appearing left or right from a fixation point. Women were more strongly influenced by task-irr...

  19. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex Differences in the Experience of Widowhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Carol J.

    Previous writers have presumed that widowhood is more stressful for one sex or the other. Hypotheses derived from demographic considerations and sex role developmental theory compared the needs and resources of 147 widows and 42 widowers, relative to 190 married persons. All subjects were non-institutionalized urban residents aged 62 or over. The…

  1. Connection Between Group Conformity and Free Sex Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia, Trida

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to test empirically the connection between group conformity and free sex in adolescence. The method was using 59 statements of group conformity scale and 60 statements of free sex behavior in adolescence. The score was giving depend on favorable and unfavorable statements. Coefficient validity for group conformity was from 0,2551-0,6274 and 0,8038 for coefficient reliability. Coefficient validity for free sex behavior in adolescence was from 0,3706-0,7953 and 0,956...

  2. Looking behind the score: Skill structure explains sex differences in skilled video game performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Kyle W; Boot, Walter R; Ericsson, K Anders

    2018-01-01

    Some have explained large sex differences in visuospatial abilities by genetic adaptations to different roles in primitive hunter-gatherer societies and the interaction of innate biological differences and environmental factors. We explored the extent to which variations in behavior and acquired skills can provide alternative accounts for sex differences in the performance of a complex spatially-demanding video game (Space Fortress). Men and women with limited video game experience were given 30 hours of training, and latent curve analyses examined the development of their ship control performance and behavior. Men had significantly better control performance than women before and after training, but differences diminished substantially over the training period. An analysis of participants' joystick behaviors revealed that initially men and women relied on different patterns of control behaviors, but changes in these behaviors over time accounted for the reduced sex differences in performance. When we controlled for these differences in behavior, sex effects after training were no longer significant. Finally, examining the development of control performance and control behaviors of men and women categorized as initially high and low performers revealed the lower-performing women may have been controlling their ship using an approach that was very different from the men and higher-performing women. The potential problems of analyzing men and women's spatial performance as homogenous groups are discussed, as well as how these issues may account for sex differences in skilled video game performance and perhaps other domains involving spatial abilities.

  3. Human Performance: Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Sons, 1977. 6 15. Horn, J, L. Human abilities: A review of research and theory in the early 1970’s. Annual Review of Psychology. 1976, 27^, 437...Mother-Infant Interaction, Howard A. Moss. 149. Sex of Parent X Sex of Child: Socioemotional Development, Micheal Lewis and Marsha Weinraub. 165...C. Thomas, 1971. Contents: Biology of Sex Differences. 3. Psychological Sex Differences. 12. Freudian Theory of Feminine Development. 43. The

  4. Transactional sex and the challenges to safer sexual behaviors: a study among male sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Thomas, Beena E; Johnson, Blake E; Closson, Elizabeth F; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Menon, Sunil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a significant but invisible population in India who are at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies from India have documented HIV risk factors and motivations for sex work in this population. Between 2013 and 2014, a community-based convenience sample of 100 MSW in Chennai (south India) completed a baseline risk assessment as part of a behavioral intervention. Participants were ≥18 years, and reported current sex work. We report medians and proportions, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests are used to examine differences between sex work and sexual behavior measures by income source. Participants were engaged in sex work for 5.0 years (IQR = 2.3-10.0), and earned 3000 (IQR = 2000-8000) Rupees (India engage in high levels of sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Money appears to be a driving factor for engaging in sex work and condomless sex with clients. HIV prevention interventions with MSW should focus on facilitating skills that will support their ability to negotiate sexual safety in the context of monetary disincentives.

  5. Confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Zachary; Felker, Sydney

    2012-06-01

    On tasks that require the mental rotation of 3-dimensional figures, males typically exhibit higher accuracy than females. Using the most common measure of mental rotation (i.e., the Mental Rotations Test), we investigated whether individual variability in confidence mediates this sex difference in mental rotation performance. In each of four experiments, the sex difference was reliably elicited and eliminated by controlling or manipulating participants' confidence. Specifically, confidence predicted performance within and between sexes (Experiment 1), rendering confidence irrelevant to the task reliably eliminated the sex difference in performance (Experiments 2 and 3), and manipulating confidence significantly affected performance (Experiment 4). Thus, confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance and hence the sex difference appears to be a difference of performance rather than ability. Results are discussed in relation to other potential mediators and mechanisms, such as gender roles, sex stereotypes, spatial experience, rotation strategies, working memory, and spatial attention.

  6. Sex differences in neural activation following different routes of oxytocin administration in awake adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Kulkarni, Praveen P; Ferris, Craig F; Veenema, Alexa H

    2017-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates social behavior in sex-specific ways across species. OT has promising effects on alleviating social deficits in sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. However little is known about potential sexually dimorphic effects of OT on brain function. Using the rat as a model organism, we determined whether OT administered centrally or peripherally induces sex differences in brain activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity changes in the brains of awake rats during the 20min following intracerebroventricular (ICV; 1μg/5μl) or intraperitoneal (IP; 0.1mg/kg) OT administration as compared to baseline. ICV OT induced sex differences in BOLD activation in 26 out of 172 brain regions analyzed, with 20 regions showing a greater volume of activation in males (most notably the nucleus accumbens and insular cortex), and 6 regions showing a greater volume of activation in females (including the lateral and central amygdala). IP OT also elicited sex differences in BOLD activation with a greater volume of activation in males, but this activation was found in different and fewer (10) brain regions compared to ICV OT. In conclusion, exogenous OT modulates neural activation differently in male versus female rats with the pattern and magnitude, but not the direction, of sex differences depending on the route of administration. These findings highlight the need to include both sexes in basic and clinical studies to fully understand the role of OT on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Self-medication behaviors among Japanese consumers: sex, age, and SES differences and caregivers’ attitudes toward their children’s health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama Ikuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2009, when the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act was enacted in Japan, self-medication practices have increased. Because the concept of self-medication was recently introduced in Japan, few studies exist on this topic. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how self-medication is practiced. This study examined Japanese consumers’ self-medication practices and attitudes toward over-the-counter (OTC medicines based on their sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods The participants were 403 adults (Mage = 41.1 years, SD = 16.22. A quota sampling method was employed based on age group, and participants completed an online questionnaire. Results Participants in the 20–29 age group reported medical costs as an obstacle in seeing a doctor; in contrast, transportation was a mitigating factor for elderly people. Regarding SES, people at lower SES levels chose to rest instead of seeing a doctor or purchasing over-the-counter (OTC medicines when sick. They also placed more value on national brand OTC medicines than private brands (likely due to advertisements. This finding suggests individuals with a low SES do not select OTC medicines based on their effects or ingredients. Regarding attitudes toward OTC medicines, Japanese participants seemed to be unaware of the potential for abuse and side effects associated with OTC medicines. Finally, in relation to caregivers’ self-medication practices for their children, the majority of participants reported taking their children to the hospital since children tend to receive free medical care. Furthermore, caregivers with a high educational background are more confident in being able to help manage their children’s health. Conclusions Our results suggest that health and medical discrepancies among Japanese consumers pose new social problems. In Japan, universal health care is available, but the cost of receiving medical care is not completely free of charge. Thus

  9. Pleiotropic Mechanisms Indicated for Sex Differences in Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileena Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in common disease is pervasive, including a dramatic male preponderance in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Potential genetic explanations include a liability threshold model requiring increased polymorphism risk in females, sex-limited X-chromosome contribution, gene-environment interaction driven by differences in hormonal milieu, risk influenced by genes sex-differentially expressed in early brain development, or contribution from general mechanisms of sexual dimorphism shared with secondary sex characteristics. Utilizing a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP dataset, we identify distinct sex-specific genome-wide significant loci. We investigate genetic hypotheses and find no evidence for increased genetic risk load in females, but evidence for sex heterogeneity on the X chromosome, and contribution of sex-heterogeneous SNPs for anthropometric traits to ASD risk. Thus, our results support pleiotropy between secondary sex characteristic determination and ASDs, providing a biological basis for sex differences in ASDs and implicating non brain-limited mechanisms.

  10. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  11. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-10-01

    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  12. Buspirone before prenatal stress protects against adverse effects of stress on emotional and inflammatory pain-related behaviors in infant rats: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Otellin, Vladimir A; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2011-10-24

    Prenatal stress strengthens tonic pain and provokes depression. The serotoninergic system is involved in these processes. We recently showed that maternal buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, protects against the adverse effects of in utero stress on depression and pain in adult rat offspring. Using a similar maternal treatment with buspirone, we focus here on the infant stage, which is important for the correction of prenatal abnormalities. Maternal buspirone before restraint stress during the last week of pregnancy decreased the time of immobility in the forced swim test in the infant offspring. Prenatal stress increased formalin-induced pain in the second part of the time-course of the response to formalin in males of middle infancy but in the first part of the response in males of late infancy. The effect was reversed by maternal buspirone. Pain dominated in males of both middle and late infancy but the time-course of formalin pain in infant females revealed a slower development of the processes. The results show that the time-course of formalin-induced pain in infant rats reacts to prenatal stress in an age-dependent and sexually dimorphic manner. Our finding of opposite influences of prenatal stress and buspirone before prenatal stress on formalin-induced pain during the interphase indicates that functional maturity of the descending serotonergic inhibitory system occurs in late infancy males (11-day-olds), and 5-HT1A receptors participate in this process. The data provide evidence that maternal treatment with buspirone prior to stress during pregnancy alleviates depression-like and tonic pain-related behaviors in the infant offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use.

  14. Sex differences in social modulation of learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikosz, Marta; Nowak, Aleksandra; Werka, Tomasz; Knapska, Ewelina

    2015-12-14

    In its simplest form, empathy can be characterized as the capacity to share the emotional experiences among individuals, a phenomenon known as emotional contagion. Recent research shows that emotional contagion and its adaptive role can be studied in rodents. However, it is not known whether sex differences observed in human empathy extend to its more primitive forms. In the present study, we used a rat model of emotional contagion to compare the behavioral consequences of social transfer of information about threat, and the subsequent neural activation patterns in male and female rats. We found that: (1) males and females display a similar behavioral pattern during the interaction with either a fear-conditioned or a control rat; (2) interaction with a fear-conditioned conspecific positively modulates two-way avoidance learning in male and diestral female rats but not in estral females; and (3) such interaction results in increased c-Fos expression in the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex in males, whereas in females no such changes were observed. Collectively, our results point to the occurrence of sex and estrus cycle phase differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and underlying neuronal activation in rodents.

  15. Meeting your match: how attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Ischa; Engels, Rutger C M E; Finkenauer, Catrin; Holland, Rob W

    2009-06-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavior in terms of relational investment (i.e., behavioral efforts related to the improvement of interaction fluency, communication of positive interpersonal affect, and positive self-presentation). As expected, men displayed more relational investment behavior if their own physical attractiveness was similar to that of the confederate. For women, no effects of attractiveness similarity on relational investment behavior were found. Results are discussed in the light of positive assortative mating, preferences for physically attractive mates, and sex differences in attraction-related interpersonal behaviors.

  16. Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex differences in cognition and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rena

    2014-09-01

    The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire life span. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory - especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports.

  17. Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex differences in cognition and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire lifespan. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory – especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports.

  18. Psychiatric symptoms and same-sex sexual attraction and behavior in light of childhood gender atypical behavior and parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.

  19. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  20. Serial Comparison Processes and Sex Differences in Clerical Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeres, Raymond L.

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 91 male and 91 female university students to assess sex differences in performance on speeded matching tests and theory on same-different judgments. Results are interpreted via the dual-process hypothesis of same-difference judgments with sex differences explained in terms of serial comparison processes rather…

  1. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  2. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Edlund

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actual infidelity experiences; men experienced more jealousy in response to the sexual aspects of an actual infidelity, whereas women experienced more jealousy in response to the emotional aspects of the infidelity. Sex differences emerged using both continuous measures of jealousy as well as the traditional forced-choice measure. Overall, our results demonstrate that sex differences in jealousy are not limited to responses to hypothetical infidelity scenarios; they also emerge in response to actual infidelity experiences.

  3. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören

    2016-01-01

    (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were......Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho...

  4. Sex differences in mortality by ethnic background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Drefahl, Sven; Jacobsen, Rune

    migrant effect and predominantly male migration from non-Western countries to Denmark and Sweden in 1960-70s, as well as high fertility in their female spouses, we expect to find even smaller sex differential mortality among migrants than in the ethnic Danish and Swedish populations. We use high...

  5. Monozygotic twins of different apparent sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Yukifumi; Fujino, Nobuyuki; Sato, Yoshiaki; Matsunobu, Akira; Tadokoro, Mamoru [Sagamihara Kyodo Hospital (Japan); Akane, Atsushi [Kansai Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Matsuura, Nobuo; Maeda, Tohru [Kitasato Univ. (Japan); Nakahori, Yutaka; Nakagome, Yasuo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-15

    We report on twins of unlike sex who shared a 45,X/46,X, +mar karyotype. The mar chromosome was found to be Yq- by DNA analysis. Marker studies, including 8 VNTR loci, yielded a probability of monozygosity of 0.99999996. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences in jealousy: evolutionary mechanism or artifact of measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Bartlett, Monica Y; Braverman, Julia; Salovey, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Two studies are presented that challenge the evidentiary basis for the existence of evolved sex differences in jealousy. In opposition to the evolutionary view, Study I demonstrated that a sex difference in jealousy resulting from sexual versus emotional infidelity is observed only when judgments are recorded using a forced-choice response format. On all other measures, no sex differences were found; both men and women reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity. A second study revealed that the sex difference on the forced-choice measure disappeared under conditions of cognitive constraint. These findings suggest that the sex difference used to support the evolutionary view of jealousy (e.g., D. M. Buss, R. Larsen, D. Westen, & J. Semmelroth, 1992; D. M. Buss et al., 1999) likely represents a measurement artifact resulting from a format-induced effortful decision strategy and not an automatic, sex-specific response shaped by evolution.

  8. Sex Differences in Jealousy in Response to Actual Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Edlund; Jeremy D. Heider; Cory R. Scherer; Maria-Magdalena Farc; Brad J. Sagarin

    2006-01-01

    The present studies address two criticisms of the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy: (a) that the sex difference in jealousy emerges only in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, and (b) that the sex difference emerges only using forced-choice measures. In two separate studies, one a paper-and-pencil survey with a student sample and the other a web-based survey targeting a non-student sample, men and women showed significant sex differences in jealousy in response to actu...

  9. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  10. Sex differences in depression after widowhood. Do men suffer more?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grootheest, D.S.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: This study focuses on sex differences in depression of the widowed. Previous research showed different results in sex differences and in depression after bereavement. We assessed the effects of widowhood on depressive symptoms for men and women and examined whether environmental strain

  11. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  12. Neurogenin 3 Mediates Sex Chromosome Effects on the Generation of Sex Differences in Hypothalamic Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Scerbo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the hypothesis of that cell-autonomous action of sex chromosomes can differentially regulate the expression of the neuritogenic gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3 in male and female hypothalamic neurons, generating sex differences in neuronal development. Neuronal cultures were prepared from male and female E14 mouse hypothalami, before the fetal peak of testosterone. Female neurons showed enhanced neuritogenesis and higher expression of Ngn3 than male neurons. The silencing of Ngn3 abolished sex differences in neuritogenesis, decreasing the differentiation of female neurons. The sex difference in Ngn3 expression was determined by sex chromosomes, as demonstrated using the four core genotypes mouse model, in which a spontaneous deletion of the testis-determining gene Sry from the Y chromosome was combined with the insertion of the Sry gene onto an autosome. In addition, the expression of Ngn3, which is also known to mediate the neuritogenic actions of estradiol, was increased in the cultures treated with the hormone, but only in those from male embryos. Furthermore, the hormone reversed the sex differences in neuritogenesis promoting the differentiation of male neurons. These findings indicate that Ngn3 mediates both cell-autonomous actions of sex chromosomes and hormonal effects on neuritogenesis.

  13. Developmental neurogenetics and multimodal neuroimaging of sex differences in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2017-02-01

    Examining sex differences in the brain has been historically contentious but is nonetheless important for advancing mental health for both girls and boys. Unfortunately, females in biomedical research remain underrepresented in most mental health conditions including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), even though equal inclusion of females would improve treatment for girls and yield benefits to boys. This review examines sex differences in the relationship between neuroanatomy and neurogenetics of ASD. Recent findings reveal that girls diagnosed with ASD exhibit more intellectual and behavioral problems compared to their male counterparts, suggesting that girls may be less likely diagnosed in the absence of such problems or that they require a higher mutational load to meet the diagnostic criteria. Thus far, the female biased effect of chromosome 4, 5p15.33, 8p, 9p24.1, 11p12-13, 15q, and Xp22.3 and the male biased effect of 1p31.3, 5q12.3, 7q, 9q33.3, 11q13.4, 13q33.3, 16p11.2, 17q11-21, Xp22.33/Yp11.31, DRD1, NLGN3, MAOA, and SHANK1 deletion have been discovered in ASD. The SNPs of genes such as RYR2, UPP2, and the androgen receptor gene have been shown to have sex-biasing factors in both girls and boys diagnosed with ASD. These sex-related genetic factors may drive sex differences in the neuroanatomy of these girls and boys, including abnormal enlargement in temporal gray and white matter volumes, and atypical reduction in cerebellar gray matter volumes and corpus callosum fibers projecting to the anterior frontal cortex in ASD girls relative to boys. Such factors may also be responsible for the attenuation of brain sexual differentiation in adult men and women with ASD; however, much remains to be uncovered or replicated. Future research should leverage further the association between neuroanatomy and genetics in girls for an integrated and interdisciplinary understanding of ASD.

  14. Childhood Adversity, Daily Stress, and Marital Strain in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Rachel; Umberson, Debra; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity has enduring consequences for individuals throughout life, including increased reactivity to stress that may contribute to marital strain in adulthood. Past research on gendered experiences of heterosexual spouses raises questions about how the influence of childhood adversity might differ for men and women in same-sex marriages. We analyze dyadic diary data from 756 individuals in 106 male same-sex, 157 female same-sex, and 115 different-sex marriages to consider how childhood adversity moderates the association between daily stress and marital strain. Results suggest that the negative consequences of daily stress for marital strain are amplified by past childhood adversity with variation for men and women in same- and different-sex unions, such that women and those in same-sex marriages may experience some protection from the adverse consequences of childhood adversity.

  15. Sex differences in Hadza eating frequency by food type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesque, J Colette; Marlowe, Frank W; Crittenden, Alyssa N

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sex differences in frequencies of adults eating in a foraging population-the Hadza of Tanzania. We use eating frequency data from instantaneous scan observations of the Hadza, to see to how much sharing of foods taken back to camp compensates for the targeting of different foods by each sex while out foraging. Eating in camp differs by sex in terms of overall eating frequency, as well as in terms of diet composition (frequencies of eating each food type). We also control for sex-differences in time spent in camp and still find sex-differences in eating frequencies-women are observed eating significantly more frequently than men. There are also sex-differences in the eating frequencies of particular food types both with and without controlling for presence in camp. Finally, we use data on acquisition of each food type by sex and find that both sexes are more frequently observed eating women's foods in camp than men's foods. At least in the case of the Hadza, we see pronounced sex differences in the in-camp diet. Hadza men are eating a higher quality diet than are women, but women are able to eat far more frequently, and spend less time foraging than men. It is not yet clear whether a regular caloric intake of lower quality foods would be more beneficial for maintaining fecundity than a more variable diet consisting of higher quality foods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Sex-related differences in outcomes after hallux valgus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Ji Wun; Park, Sung Bum; Kim, Jin Kak

    2015-03-01

    With differences between the sexes in foot bone anatomy and ligamentous laxity, there is the possibility that the results of hallux valgus surgery may also differ between the sexes. We aimed to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between the sexes. The authors retrospectively reviewed 60 males (66 feet) and 70 females (82 feet) who underwent distal or proximal chevron osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity between June 2005 and December 2011. We compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the sexes. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics between the sexes. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score, visual analogue scale for pain, and patient satisfaction at the last follow-up did not differ significantly between the sexes. The mean preoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and inter-metatarsal angle (IMA) were not significantly different between the sexes. At the last follow-up, the mean HVA was significantly greater in females (p=0.003) than in males; mean IMA was not significantly different between the sexes. The mean correction of HVA in males was significantly greater than that in females (p=0.014). There were no significant differences between the sexes regarding clinical outcomes after distal and proximal chevron osteotomy. However, male patients achieved greater correction of HVA than female patients. There is a possibility that sexual dimorphism of the foot may affect postoperative HVA.

  17. Sex Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared with Their Unaffected Siblings and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive and behavioral sex differences in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and two comparison groups: a group of typically developing (TD) children and a group of unaffected siblings of ASD children. Sex differences in core autistic symptoms, co-occurring behavioral symptoms, and cognitive styles…

  18. Deletion of Fmr1 results in sex-specific changes in behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Suzanne O; Reynolds, Conner D; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Escobar, Brianna; Chandler, Matthew A; Volquardsen, Megan; Jefferson, Taylor; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Tileena; Huebschman, Jessica; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we used a systemic Fmr1 knockout in order to investigate both genotype- and sex-specific differences across multiple measures of sociability, repetitive behaviors, activity levels, anxiety, and fear-related learning and memory. Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Few studies to date have examined sex differences in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, though clinical data support the idea of differences in both overall prevalence and phenotype between the sexes. Using wild-type and systemic homozygous Fmr1 knockout mice, we assessed a variety of behavioral paradigms in adult animals, including the open field test, elevated plus maze, nose-poke assay, accelerating rotarod, social partition task, three-chambered social task, and two different fear conditioning paradigms. Tests were ordered such that the most invasive tests were performed last in the sequence, and testing paradigms for similar behaviors were performed in separate cohorts to minimize testing effects. Our results indicate several sex-specific changes in Fmr1 knockout mice, including male-specific increases in activity levels, and female-specific increases in repetitive behaviors on both the nose-poke assay and motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod task. The results also indicated that Fmr1 deletion results in deficits in fear learning and memory across both sexes, and no changes in social behavior across two tasks. These findings highlight the importance of including female subjects in preclinical studies, as simply studying the impact of genetic mutations in males does not yield a complete picture of the phenotype. Further research should explore these marked phenotypic differences among the sexes. Moreover, given that treatment strategies are typically equivalent between the sexes, the results highlight a potential need for sex-specific therapeutics.

  19. Examining sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...... of anxiety disorders, and potential sex differences in the effectiveness of different treatments. The chapter contains suggestions for future research, including important questions that remain to be answered....

  20. Sex differences in asthma in swimmers and tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif

    2017-03-01

    Elite athletes, independent of sport, have increased risk of developing asthma, but little is known about sex difference among adolescent athletes. To investigate and compare sex-related differences according to symptoms and treatment of asthma, allergy, and health among elite athletes and a reference group. Adolescent elite swimmers (n = 101), tennis players (n = 86), and a reference group (n = 1,628) responded to a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, allergy, health behavior, psychosomatic symptoms, self- esteem, and well-being. The athletes performed a mannitol provocation and a sport-specific exercise provocation. Atopy was assessed by skin prick tests, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured. The females reported more asthma symptoms than the males in both the reference group (29.1% vs 22.3%) and the athlete group (56.4% vs 40.2%). However, no significant differences were found in physician-diagnosed asthma or treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. More female athletes had a positive mannitol provocation result (48.7% vs 35.8% in male athletes), and more female swimmers had a positive exercise provocation result (15.1% vs 7.7% in male swimmers). The females in all groups had more psychosomatic symptoms compared with the respective males, and the males in the reference group reported higher self-esteem and felt more well-being compared with the reference group females. Overall, we found a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms in the females. However, the frequency of physician-diagnosed asthma and the prescription of inhaled corticosteroids were the same in both sexes. This finding demonstrates an insufficient diagnosis of asthma in females. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments.

  2. The Sex Difference in Depression across 29 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.; Bradley, Dana Burr

    2007-01-01

    The sex difference in depression is well documented in westernized, developed societies, although there has been little quantitative cross-cultural research on the topic. In this study, we use multilevel logit models to examine sex differences in depression across 29 countries using data from the World Values Survey. We find that in no country are…

  3. Absenteeism, Burnout and Symptomatology of Teacher Stress: Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Toro, Laura; Prieto-Ursúa, María

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been carried out confirming high levels in symptomatology of stress and depression in the teaching profession, research focusing on sex differences in these problems has been both scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study is to analyse differences with regards to sex in the incidence of absenteeism, work-related…

  4. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Prediction of Adult Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, B.; Rosenberg, B. G.

    This paper deals with two sets of data-one that fails to find any long-term sex differences in adults, and another which seems to find such differences. The Berkeley Guidance Study offers longitudinal data in which no variables differentiate between the two sexes at all age levels. From these results, the authors conclude that the normal course of…

  5. Sex differences in serum lidid levels in nigerian patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The incidence of Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Nigeria population remain undetermined. The sex differences in changes in lipoprotein levels in. NS. are not well defined. This study examines the sex differences in lipoprotein levels among Nigerian patients with the N.S.. Methods Of 79 patients seen ...

  6. A review on sex differences in processing emotional signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kret, M.E.; de Gelder, B.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in sex-related differences in psychological functioning has again come to the foreground with new findings about their possible functional basis in the brain. Sex differences may be one way how evolution has capitalized on the capacity of homologous brain regions to process social

  7. Age-Related Sex Differences in Language Lateralization: A Magnetoencephalography Study in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with…

  8. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Erin E; Masta, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757), a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  9. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Brandt

    Full Text Available Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757, a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  10. Sex dimorphic behaviors as markers of neuroendocrine disruption by environmental chemicals: the case of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, A; Ricceri, L; Tait, S; Calamandrei, G

    2012-12-01

    The complexity of the neuroendocrine level of investigation requires the assessment of behavioral patterns that extend beyond the reproductive functions, which are age- and sex-specific in rodents, described by defined clusters of behavioral items regulated by genetic, hormonal, and epigenetic factors. The study of social behavior in laboratory rodents reveals sex-dimorphic effects of environmental chemicals that may be undetected either by a traditional neurotoxicological approach or referring to the classical definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here we review data on the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to the non-persistent organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, whose neurotoxic activity at low doses is currently a matter of concern for children's health. In mice exposed to chlorpyrifos in utero and/or in early development social/emotional responses are differently affected in the two sexes in parallel with sex-dependent interference on hypothalamic neuroendocrine pathways regulating social behaviors (vasopressin, oxytocin, and steroid regulated systems). Through the analysis of complex sex-dimorphic behavioral patterns we show that neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting activities of CPF overlap. This widely diffused organophosphorus pesticide might thus be considered as a neuroendocrine disruptor possibly representing a risk factor for sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender Labeling and the Adoption of Sex-Typed Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Beverly I.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Tests the ability of 43 children, ranging in age from 20 months to 40 months, to discriminate between pictures of boys and girls and male and female adults. Compares children who passed this gender-task with those who failed it on three behaviors most often categorized as sex-typed: toy choice, aggression, and peer playmate selection. (HOD)

  12. Support for the microgenderome invites enquiry into sex differences

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, Amy; Butt, Henry; Ball, Michelle; Lewis, Donald P.; Bruck, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microgenderome defines the interaction between microbiota, sex hormones and the immune system. Our recent research inferred support for the microgenderome by showing sex differences in microbiota-symptom associations in a clinical sample of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This addendum expands upon the sex-specific pattern of associations that were observed. Interpretations are hypothesized in relation to genera versus species-level an...

  13. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p users had larger, while female METH users had smaller, right superior frontal cortex (interaction-p = 0.0005). The male METH users with larger frontal volumes and female METH users with smaller or thinner frontal cortices had greater Cognitive impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use. PMID:27095357

  14. Sex Differences in the Pharmacokinetics of Antidepressants : Influence of Female Sex Hormones and Oral Contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, Valerie A.; Proost, Johannes H.; Jiawan, Vincent C. R.; Melgert, Barbro N.

    Women are twice as likely to develop depression as men. Moreover, the symptoms they experience also show sex differences: women tend to develop depression at an earlier age and show more severe symptoms than men. Likewise, the response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy appears to have sex

  15. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  16. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  17. Reconciling Sex Differences in Information-Processing and Career Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1990-01-01

    Information processing theory could be made more sensitive to differences in career outcomes for males and females by (1) examining the nature of the career decision; (2) expanding the notion of information; (3) relating the vocational schema to the gender schema; and (4) noting whether variables are general, sex related, or sex specific. (SK)

  18. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling…

  19. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  20. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  1. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Boys and girls on the playground: sex differences in social development are not stable across early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu , Stéphanie; Cabanes , Guénaël; Le Maner-Idrissi , Gaïd

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Sex differences in human social behaviors and abilities have long been a question of public and scientific interest. Females are usually assumed to be more socially oriented and skillful than males. However, despite an extensive literature, the very existence of sex differences remains a matter of discussion while some studies found no sex differences whereas others reported differences that were either congruent or not with gender stereotypes. Moreover, the magnitude,...

  3. Sex differences in locomotor effects of morphine in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Craft, Rebecca M.; Clark, James L.; Hart, Stephen P.; Pinckney, Megan K.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in reinforcing, analgesic and other effects of opioids have been demonstrated; however, the extent to which sex differences in motoric effects of opioids contribute to apparent sex differences in their primary effects is not known. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the prototypic mu opioid agonist morphine on locomotor activity in male vs. female rats. Saline or morphine (1-10 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were placed into ...

  4. On the Real Magnitude of Psychological Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Del Giudice

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evolutionary theory of sex differences will benefit from an accurate assessment of their magnitude across different psychological domains. This article shows that mainstream research has severely underestimated the magnitude of psychological sex differences; the reason lies in the common practice of measuring multidimensional differences one dimension at a time, without integrating them into a proper multivariate effect size (ES. Employing the Mahalanobis distance D (the multivariate generalization of Cohen's d results in more accurate, and predictably larger, estimates of overall sex differences in multidimensional constructs. Two real-world examples are presented: (1 In a published dataset on Big Five personality traits, sex differences on individual scales averaged d = .27, a typical ES conventionally regarded as “small.” However, the overall difference was D = .84 (disattenuated D = .98, implying considerable statistical separation between male and female distributions. (2 In a recent meta-analytic summary of sex differences in aggression, the individual ESs averaged d = .34. However, the overall difference was estimated at D = .75 – .80 (disattenuated D = .89–1.01. In many psychological domains, sex differences may be substantially larger than previously acknowledged.

  5. Investigating the Influence of Biological Sex on the Behavioral and Neural Basis of Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K Suzanne; Elbich, Daniel B; Motta-Mena, Natalie V

    2017-01-01

    There is interest in understanding the influence of biological factors, like sex, on the organization of brain function. We investigated the influence of biological sex on the behavioral and neural basis of face recognition in healthy, young adults. In behavior, there were no sex differences on the male Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)+ or the female CFMT+ (that we created) and no own-gender bias (OGB) in either group. We evaluated the functional topography of ventral stream organization by measuring the magnitude and functional neural size of 16 individually defined face-, two object-, and two place-related regions bilaterally. There were no sex differences in any of these measures of neural function in any of the regions of interest (ROIs) or in group level comparisons. These findings reveal that men and women have similar category-selective topographic organization in the ventral visual pathway. Next, in a separate task, we measured activation within the 16 face-processing ROIs specifically during recognition of target male and female faces. There were no sex differences in the magnitude of the neural responses in any face-processing region. Furthermore, there was no OGB in the neural responses of either the male or female participants. Our findings suggest that face recognition behavior, including the OGB, is not inherently sexually dimorphic. Face recognition is an essential skill for navigating human social interactions, which is reflected equally in the behavior and neural architecture of men and women.

  6. Investigating the Influence of Biological Sex on the Behavioral and Neural Basis of Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is interest in understanding the influence of biological factors, like sex, on the organization of brain function. We investigated the influence of biological sex on the behavioral and neural basis of face recognition in healthy, young adults. In behavior, there were no sex differences on the male Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT)+ or the female CFMT+ (that we created) and no own-gender bias (OGB) in either group. We evaluated the functional topography of ventral stream organization by measuring the magnitude and functional neural size of 16 individually defined face-, two object-, and two place-related regions bilaterally. There were no sex differences in any of these measures of neural function in any of the regions of interest (ROIs) or in group level comparisons. These findings reveal that men and women have similar category-selective topographic organization in the ventral visual pathway. Next, in a separate task, we measured activation within the 16 face-processing ROIs specifically during recognition of target male and female faces. There were no sex differences in the magnitude of the neural responses in any face-processing region. Furthermore, there was no OGB in the neural responses of either the male or female participants. Our findings suggest that face recognition behavior, including the OGB, is not inherently sexually dimorphic. Face recognition is an essential skill for navigating human social interactions, which is reflected equally in the behavior and neural architecture of men and women. PMID:28497111

  7. Sex differences in the neural circuit that mediates female sexual receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.

    2011-01-01

    Female sexual behavior in rodents, typified by the lordosis posture, is hormone-dependent and sex-specific. Ovarian hormones control this behavior via receptors in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). This review considers the sex differences in the morphology, neurochemistry and neural circuitry of the VMH to gain insights into the mechanisms that control lordosis. The VMH is larger in males compared with females, due to more synaptic connections. Another sex difference is the responsiveness to estradiol, with males exhibiting muted, and in some cases reverse, effects compared with females. The lack of lordosis in males may be explained by differences in synaptic organization or estrogen responsiveness, or both, in the VMH. However, given that damage to other brain regions unmasks lordosis behavior in males, a male-typical VMH is unlikely the main factor that prevents lordosis. In females, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms whereby ovarian hormones modulate VMH function to promote lordosis. PMID:21338620

  8. Sex differences in the fetal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Daniela; Ojeda, Norma B; Alexander, Barbara T

    2008-01-01

    Numerous clinical and experimental studies support the hypothesis that the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. This review examined the mechanisms linking an adverse fetal environment and increased risk for chronic disease in adulthood with an emphasis on gender differences and the role of sex hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism in response to a suboptimal fetal environment. This review focuses on current findings from the PubMed database regarding animal models of fetal programming of hypertension, sex differences in phenotypic outcomes, and potential mechanisms in offspring of mothers exposed to an adverse insult during gestation. For the years 1988 to 2007, the database was searched using the following terms: fetal programming, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, sex differences, estradiol, testosterone, high blood pressure, and hypertension. The mechanisms involved in the fetal programming of adult disease are multifactorial and include alterations in the regulatory systems affecting the long-tterm control of arterial pressure. Sex differences have been observed in animal models of fetal programming, and recent studies suggest that sex hormones may modulate activity of regulatory systems, leading to a lower incidence of hypertension and vascular dysfunction in females compared with males. Animal models of fetal programming provide critical support for the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure. Experimental models demonstrate that sex differences are observed in the pathophysiologic response to an adverse fetal environment. A role for sex hormone involvement is strongly suggested,with modulation of the renin-angiotensin system as a possible mechanism.

  9. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. How important are sex differences in cannabinoid action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Fratta, Walter

    2010-06-01

    In humans as in animals, males and females are dissimilar in their genetic and hormonally driven behaviour; they process information differently, perceive experience and emotions in different ways, display diverse attitudes, language and social skills, and show sex-related differences in the brain anatomy and organization. Drug addiction is a widespread relapsing illness that affects both men and women. Sex-dependent differences have been frequently observed in the biological and behavioural effects of substances of abuse, including cannabis. Beside sex differences observed in the cannabinoid-induced effects related to cannabis abuse and dependence, cannabinoids have been shown to exert sex-dependent effects also in other physiological and behavioural aspects, such as food intake and energy balance (more evident in males), or anxiety and depression (more evident in females). Research has just begun to identify factors which could provide a neurobiological basis for gender-based differences in cannabinoid effects, among which, gonadal hormones seem to play a crucial role. Yet, cannabinoid pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic may also be important, as sex differences in cannabinoid effects might be due, at least in part, to differences in muscle mass and fat tissue distribution between males and females. Here, we will review both clinical and laboratory-based research evidence revealing important sex-related differences in cannabinoid effects, and put forward some suggestions for future studies to fill the gap in our knowledge of gender-specific bias in cannabinoid pharmacology.

  11. Sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, Jeffrey S; Bailey, Andrea L

    2010-01-01

    It is a clinical reality that women make up the large majority of chronic pain patients, and there is now consensus from laboratory experiments that when differences are seen, women are more sensitive to pain than men. Research in this field has now begun to concentrate on finding explanations for this sex difference. Although sex differences in sociocultural, psychological, and experiential factors likely play important roles, evidence largely from animal studies has revealed surprisingly robust and often qualitative sex differences at low levels of the neuraxis. Although not yet able to affect clinical practice, the continued study of sex differences in pain may have important implications for the development of new analgesic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...... cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...... turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity....

  13. Interactions of Socioeconomic Determinants, Offspring Sex Preference and Fertility Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Sharp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using path anaysis and the 5% PUMS data of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, this study examines 1 the correlation between Chinese-American sex preference for children and their fertility behavior, and 2 the interaction between the sex preference and its socioeconomic determinants. Of normative and non-normative factors investegated in this study, offspring sex preference is the greatest stimulus to Chinese fertility. Of socioeconomic variables, women’s educational attainment plays a primary role in depressing the impact of son preference in addition to their increasing stay in the host society. However, these two factors do not work on their husbands in the same way, demonstrating men’s inflexible attitudes toward gender roles in the family and in society. Son preference exerts positive impact on American-Chinese fertility and prevent from further decline. Yet, the influence has been diminishing since 1990 as observed in this study.

  14. Sex Differences Influencing Micro- and Macrovascular Endothelial Phenotype In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Virginia H; Kemp, Scott S; Schramm, Christine; Sieveking, Steve; Bingaman, Susan; Yu, Yang; Zaniletti, Isabella; Stockard, Kevin; Wang, Jianjie

    2018-06-09

    Endothelial dysfunction is an early hallmark of multiple disease states that also display sex differences with respect to age of onset, frequency, and severity. Results of in vivo studies of basal and stimulated microvascular barrier function revealed sex differences difficult to ascribe to specific cells or environmental factors. The present study evaluated endothelial cells (EC) isolated from macro- and/or microvessels of reproductively mature rats under the controlled conditions of low-passage culture to test the assumption that EC phenotype would be sex-independent. The primary finding was that EC, regardless of where they are derived, retain a sex-bias in low-passage culture, independent of varying levels of reproductive hormones. Implications of the work include the fallacy of expecting a universal set of mechanisms derived from study of EC from one sex and/or one vascular origin to apply uniformly to all EC under unstimulated conditions no less in the disease state. Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are heterogeneous with respect to phenotype reflecting at least organ of origin, location within the vascular network, and physical forces. Sex, as an independent influence on EC functions in health or etiology, susceptibility, and progression of dysfunction in numerous disease states, has been largely ignored. The current study focussed on EC isolated from aorta (macrovascular) and skeletal muscle vessels (microvascular) of age-matched male and female rats under identical conditions of short term (passage 4) culture. We tested the hypothesis that genomic sex would not influence endothelial growth, wound healing, morphology, lactate production, or messenger RNA and protein expression of key proteins (sex hormone receptors for androgen (AR) and oestrogen (ERα and ERβ); PECAM-1 and VE-CAD mediating barrier function; α v β 3 and N-Cadherin influencing matrix interactions; ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mediating EC/white cell adhesion). The hypothesis was rejected as EC origin

  15. Sexual Behavior, Definitions of Sex, and the Role of Self-Partner Context Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Kelsey K; McGarrity, Larissa A; Strassberg, Donald S

    2017-09-01

    Prior research has examined how heterosexual individuals define sex; however, these studies have rarely focused on sexual minority individuals or included a full range of applicable sexual behaviors. Participants were recruited from a local Pride Festival across two years. Study 1 (N = 329) was primarily descriptive and examined which physically intimate behaviors lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants included in their definitions of sex and the behaviors in which they had previously engaged. Study 2 (N = 393) utilized a between-subjects design to assess differences in definitions of sex when judging one's own behavior compared with that of a partner outside of the relationship. The behaviors in which participants were most likely to have engaged were manual-genital (82%) and oral-genital stimulation (79%). Regarding definitions of sex, a clear "gold standard" emerged for men, with 90% endorsing penile-anal intercourse as sex. No equally clear standard existed for women. Participants who were asked to consider their partner's behavior outside of their relationship were more likely to endorse the behavior as "having sex" than participants asked to consider their own behavior. This study addressed a major limitation of prior research by investigating definitions of sex among a community sample of LGB adults, with implications for provision of health care and sexual agreements between same-sex couples.

  16. Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n  = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n  = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n  = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age  = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.

  17. Sex differences in the subjective tolerability of antipsychotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbui, Corrado; Nosè, Michela; Bindman, Jonathan; Schene, Aart; Becker, Thomas; Mazzi, Maria A.; Kikkert, Martijn; Camara, Jayne; Born, Anja; Tansella, Michele

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, research efforts have been directed to better characterize the Subjective experience of taking psychotropic drugs. This Study investigated the sex difference in the subjective tolerability of antipsychotic drugs. Participants were recruited from patients under the care of

  18. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Marrie H.J.; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method: Participants

  19. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method Participants (N

  20. Interactive effects of sex hormones and gender stereotypes on cognitive sex differences--a psychobiosocial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten

    2009-04-01

    Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.

  1. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  2. Hemispheric side of damage influences sex-related differences in smoking cessation in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaznick, Natassia; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of smoking behavior vary between the sexes. There is evidence that decision making, which is one of the key "executive functions" necessary for making life-style modifications such as smoking cessation, is relatively lateralized to the right hemisphere in males and left hemisphere in females. In the current study, we examined whether the side of brain lesion has a differential effect on smoking behavior between the sexes. We hypothesized sex differences in smoking cessation based on lesion side. Participants were 49 males and 50 females who were smoking at the time of lesion onset. The outcome variable was abstinence from smoking (quit rate) at least one year post lesion. We found that in patients with left-hemisphere damage, quit rates were significantly higher in males than in females; however, in patients with right-hemisphere damage, quit rates were not statistically different. The findings support previous cognitive neuroscience literature showing that components of behavior responsible for maintaining addiction tend to be more strongly lateralized in males, whereas in females there is a more bilateral distribution. Our study provides further evidence for differences in lateralization of complex behavior between the sexes, which has significant implications for differences in treatment strategies between the sexes.

  3. HIV testing behaviors among female sex workers in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China.

  4. Sex differences in asthma in swimmers and tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes, independent of sport, have increased risk of developing asthma, but little is known about sex difference among adolescent athletes. Objective: To investigate and compare sex-related differences according to symptoms and treatment of asthma, allergy, and health among elite athletes and a reference group. Methods: Adolescent elite swimmers (n = 101), tennis players (n = 86), and a reference group (n = 1,628) responded to a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, al...

  5. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  6. Sex Differences in the Anticonvulsant Activity of Neurosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Samba Reddy, Doodipala

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions such brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures. Sex differences have been observed in many seizures types; however there are sex-specific seizure disorders that are much more prevalent in women. Despite some inconsistencies, there is a substantial amount of data which indicates that sensitivity to seizure stimuli differs ...

  7. Sex Differences in Detecting Sexual Infidelity : Results of a Maximum Likelihood Method for Analyzing the Sensitivity of Sex Differences to Underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul W; Gangestad, Steven W; Miller, Geoffrey F; Haselton, Martie G; Thornhill, Randy; Neale, Michael C

    2008-12-01

    Despite the importance of extrapair copulation (EPC) in human evolution, almost nothing is known about the design features of EPC detection mechanisms. We tested for sex differences in EPC inference-making mechanisms in a sample of 203 young couples. Men made more accurate inferences (φmen = 0.66, φwomen = 0.46), and the ratio of positive errors to negative errors was higher for men than for women (1.22 vs. 0.18). Since some may have been reluctant to admit EPC behavior, we modeled how underreporting could have influenced these results. These analyses indicated that it would take highly sex-differentiated levels of underreporting by subjects with trusting partners for there to be no real sex difference. Further analyses indicated that men may be less willing to harbor unresolved suspicions about their partners' EPC behavior, which may explain the sex difference in accuracy. Finally, we estimated that women underreported their own EPC behavior (10%) more than men (0%).

  8. Potential Reporting Bias in Neuroimaging Studies of Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sean P; Naudet, Florian; Laude, Jennifer; Radua, Joaquim; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Chu, Isabella; Stefanick, Marcia L; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-04-17

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported sex differences. To empirically evaluate for evidence of excessive significance bias in this literature, we searched for published fMRI studies of human brain to evaluate sex differences, regardless of the topic investigated, in Medline and Scopus over 10 years. We analyzed the prevalence of conclusions in favor of sex differences and the correlation between study sample sizes and number of significant foci identified. In the absence of bias, larger studies (better powered) should identify a larger number of significant foci. Across 179 papers, median sample size was n = 32 (interquartile range 23-47.5). A median of 5 foci related to sex differences were reported (interquartile range, 2-9.5). Few articles (n = 2) had titles focused on no differences or on similarities (n = 3) between sexes. Overall, 158 papers (88%) reached "positive" conclusions in their abstract and presented some foci related to sex differences. There was no statistically significant relationship between sample size and the number of foci (-0.048% increase for every 10 participants, p = 0.63). The extremely high prevalence of "positive" results and the lack of the expected relationship between sample size and the number of discovered foci reflect probable reporting bias and excess significance bias in this literature.

  9. Sex Differences in Sexual Desires and Attitudes in Norwegian Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite highly replicable predictable differences between the sexes on various sexual desires and attitudes, critics of evolutionary perspectives argue against the biological origins of such differences, highlighting cultural explanations. Critics suggest that there are no cross-cultural evolutionary predictable, systematic differences. Eagly and Wood (1999 suggest that in egalitarian cultures sex differences will be small or disappear. We tested whether Trivers’ (1972 Parental Investment Theory and Buss and Schmitt’s (1993 Sexual Strategies Theory predicted sex differences in sexuality within samples of students (N=1072 in egalitarian Norway. We expected similar interest in long-term relationships, but that females seek short-term partners less than males. Furthermore, males were expected to have less restricted sociosexuality, fantasize more, take more initiative to sex and be less satisfied with frequency of sex. The predictions were supported in the evolutionarily-predicted directions. Clinical consequences of claiming there are no sex differences in sexuality, when indeed they exist, are discussed.

  10. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  11. [Sex differences in congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Demian, H

    2016-12-01

    Gender influences the clinical presentation and the management of some acquired cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, resulting in different outcomes. Differences between women and men are also noticed in congenital heart disease. They are mainly related to the prevalence and severity of some congenital heart defects at birth, and in adulthood to the prognosis, incidence of Eisenmenger syndrome and risks of pregnancy. The role of gender on the risk of operative mortality of congenital heart surgery remains debated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in sleep disordered breathing in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozo, Tijana; Komnenov, Dragana; Badr, M Safwan; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is greater in men compared to women. This disparity could be due to sex differences in the diagnosis and presentation of sleep apnea, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that instigate this disorder. Women tend to report more non-typical symptoms of sleep apnea compared to men, and the presentation of apneic events are more prevalent in rapid compared to non-rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, there is evidence of sex differences in upper airway structure and mechanics and in neural mechanisms that impact on the control of breathing. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature that addresses sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing, and to discuss the influence that upper airway mechanics, chemoreflex properties, and sex hormones have in modulating breathing during sleep in men and women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Sex Difference in Bottlenose Dolphin Sightings during a Long-term Bridge Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Weaver

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost nothing is known about the effect of long-term bridge construction on free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. The species’ natural history predicts that there should be sex differences in reaction to construction because bottlenose dolphins show sex differences in most of their behaviors. A 5-year bridge construction project over a narrow but important dolphin corridor at John’s Pass tidal inlet, St. Petersburg FL, brought chronic environmental changes. The purpose of this 8-year study was to determine if bridge construction was associated with changes in dolphin sightings. The sex difference hypothesis was tested with a comparison of sighting probabilities before, during and after bridge construction. Sighting probabilities were generated for 68 adults seen n = 6504 times during N = 951 small-boat surveys of the 6.5-mile estuarine study area, documented with photo identification June 2005-December 2012. The sex difference hypothesis was supported with a significant interaction between construction and gender. Female sightings showed a significant linear decline across construction. Male sightings did not change across construction. The main conclusion is that adult males and females may react differently to habitat changes associated with anthropogenic activities. Sex differences in environmental monitoring and vigilance associated with maternal behavior may have played a role. This is the first report on John’s Pass dolphins that evaluates changes in their behavior during a major construction project across a narrow but important dolphin corridor.

  14. Sex and gender differences in diabetes care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, many research has been performed to investigate differences between men and women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (the most common type of diabetes). These studies showed that the negative impact of T2D on health is higher among women compared to men. However, whether this phenomenon holds

  15. Sex differences in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rena; Singh, Meharvan

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer's disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer's disease in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recombination difference between sexes: a role for haploid selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lenormand

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Why the autosomal recombination rate differs between female and male meiosis in most species has been a genetic enigma since the early study of meiosis. Some hypotheses have been put forward to explain this widespread phenomenon and, up to now, only one fact has emerged clearly: In species in which meiosis is achiasmate in one sex, it is the heterogametic one. This pattern, known as the Haldane-Huxley rule, is thought to be a side effect, on autosomes, of the suppression of recombination between the sex chromosomes. However, this rule does not hold for heterochiasmate species (i.e., species in which recombination is present in both sexes but varies quantitatively between sexes and does not apply to species lacking sex chromosomes, such as hermaphroditic plants. In this paper, we show that in plants, heterochiasmy is due to a male-female difference in gametic selection and is not influenced by the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This finding provides strong empirical support in favour of a population genetic explanation for the evolution of heterochiasmy and, more broadly, for the evolution of sex and recombination.

  17. Sex differences in visuospatial abilities persist during induced hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Gioia M; Wakim, Paul G; Keenan, P A; Schenkel, Linda A; Berlin, Kate; Gibson, Carolyn J; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-29

    Despite well-established sex differences in the performance on tests of several cognitive domains (e.g., visuospatial ability), few studies in humans have evaluated if these sex differences are evident both in the presence of circulating sex hormones and during sex steroid hormonal suppression. Sex differences identified in the relative absence of circulating levels of estradiol and testosterone suggest that differences in brain structure or function exist independent of current hormonal environment and are more likely a reflection of differing developmental exposures and/or genetic substrates. To evaluate cognitive performance in healthy eugonadal men and women before and again during GnRH agonist-induced hypogonadism. Men (n=16) and women (n=15) without medical or psychiatric illness were matched for IQ. Cognitive tests were performed at baseline (when eugonadal) and after 6-8 weeks of GnRH agonist-induced gonadal suppression. The test batteries included measures of verbal and spatial memory, spatial ability, verbal fluency, motor speed/dexterity, and attention/concentration. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures models. During both eugonadism and hypogonadism, men performed significantly better than women on several measures of visuospatial performance including mental rotation, line orientation, Money Road Map, Porteus maze, and complex figure drawing. Although some test performances showed an effect of hormone treatment, the majority of these differences reflected an improved performance during hypogonadism compared with baseline (and probably reflected practice effects). The well-documented male advantage in visuospatial performance, which we observed during eugonadal conditions, was maintained in the context of short-term suppression of gonadal function in both men and women. These findings suggest that, in humans, sex differences in visuospatial performance are not merely dependent on differences in the current circulating sex steroid environment. Thus

  18. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  19. The differences between sex offenders who victimise older women and sex offenders who offend against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K D; Hines, Morag; Tully, Ruth J

    2018-01-01

    Within the literature on sex offending, much attention is paid to the distinction between those sex offenders who offend against adults and those who offend against children. In contrast, there is a paucity of research into sex offenders who offend specifically against elderly or older victims. A detailed interview and psychometric tests were conducted with a sample of 28 sex offenders who had been convicted of a sexually motivated offence against an older female. These data were compared to a sample of 23 child sex offenders. Results indicate that amongst other significant differences between these sub-groups, men who offend against older women are generally younger, are more violent, and are more likely to use a weapon and cause injury and death compared to child sex offenders. The men who offended against children were more likely to think about and plan their offending, spend more time with the victim pre and post offence, admit sexual arousal during the offence, and admit to a sexual motivation for the offence. This study suggests that men who sexually offend against older women and men who sexually offend against children are distinct groups. Treatment and risk management strategies should take this into account. Further exploration of this sub-group of offenders is recommended to help inform treatment and risk management strategies for sex offenders who offend against older people.

  20. Sex differences in chronic stress effects on cognition in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria; Gomez, Juan; Beck, Kevin; Bowman, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress causes deleterious changes in physiological function in systems ranging from neural cells in culture to laboratory rodents, sub-human primates and humans. It is notable, however, that the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in males. In this review, we provide information about chronic stress effects on cognition in female rodents and contrast it with responses in male rodents. In general, females show cognitive resilience to chronic stressors which impair male cognitive function using spatial tasks including the radial arm maze, radial arm water maze, Morris water maze, Y-maze and object placement. Moreover, stress often enhances female performance in some of these cognitive tasks. Memory in females is not affected by stress in non-spatial memory tasks like recognition memory and temporal order recognition memory while males show impaired memory following stress. We discuss possible bases for these sex-dependent differences including the use of different strategies by the sexes to solve cognitive tasks. Whether the sex differences result from changes in non-mnemonic factors is also considered. Sex-dependent differences in alcohol and drug influences on stress responses are also described. Finally, the role of neurally derived estradiol in driving sex differences and providing resilience to stress in females is shown. The importance of determining the nature and extent of sex differences in stress responses is that such differences may provide vital information for understanding why some stress related diseases have different incidence rates between the sexes and for developing novel therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in oxidative stress resistance in relation to longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveditha, S; Deepashree, S; Ramesh, S R; Shivanandappa, T

    2017-10-01

    Gender differences in lifespan and aging are known across species. Sex differences in longevity within a species can be useful to understand sex-specific aging. Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to study the problem of sex differences in longevity since females are longer lived than males. There is evidence that stress resistance influences longevity. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between sex differences in longevity and oxidative stress resistance in D. melanogaster. We observed a progressive age-dependent decrease in the activity of SOD and catalase, major antioxidant enzymes involved in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress in parallel to the increased ROS levels over time. Longer-lived females showed lower ROS levels and higher antioxidant enzymes than males as a function of age. Using ethanol as a stressor, we have shown differential susceptibility of the sexes to ethanol wherein females exhibited higher resistance to ethanol-induced mortality and locomotor behavior compared to males. Our results show strong correlation between sex differences in oxidative stress resistance, antioxidant defenses and longevity. The study suggests that higher antioxidant defenses in females may confer resistance to oxidative stress, which could be a factor that influences sex-specific aging in D. melanogaster.

  2. Sex, violence, & rock n' roll: Longitudinal effects of music on aggression, sex, and prosocial behavior during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined longitudinal associations between listening to aggression, sex, and prosocial behavior in music on a number of behavioral outcomes across a one-year period during adolescence. Adolescents (N = 548, M age = 15.32, 52% female) completed a number of questionnaires on musical preferences, general media use, aggression, sexual outcomes, and prosocial behavior at two different time points separated by about one year. Using structural equation modeling to analyze the data, results revealed that listening to aggression in music was associated with increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior over time, even when controlling for initial levels of these behaviors. Listening to sexual content in music was associated with earlier initiation of sexual intercourse and a trend for a higher number of sexual partners (reported at Time 2). Prosocial behavior in music was not associated with any behavioral outcome longitudinally. Collectively, these results suggest that listening to certain types of content in music can have a longitudinal effect on behavior during adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender Differences in Sexual Behaviors in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Kang, Youngmi

    The purposes of this study were to identify whether there are gender differences in sexual behaviors among Korean adolescents and to explore the factors that influence safe sex practices across both sexes. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationally representative data obtained from the 2014 Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Sample consisted of 3,210 adolescents who had experience of sexual intercourse. The dependent variable in this study was practicing safe sex. The independent variables included a range of individual, family, and school factors. Female adolescents were less likely to practice safe sex (i.e., always using a condom). Individual (smoking, no drinking before sexual intercourse), family (living with parents, higher allowance per week) and school factors (non-coeducational school students, had received school-based sex education) were significant predictors of practicing safe sex in males. In contrast, family (lower economic status) and school factors (middle school students) predicted practicing safe sex among female adolescents. We demonstrated that gender plays an important role in the sexual behavior of adolescents. The findings of this study indicate a need to design and implement gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex and gender differences in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Sugarman, Dawn E; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2017-11-10

    The gender gap in substance use disorders (SUDs), characterized by greater prevalence in men, is narrowing, highlighting the importance of understanding sex and gender differences in SUD etiology and maintenance. In this critical review, we provide an overview of sex/gender differences in the biology, epidemiology and treatment of SUDs. Biological sex differences are evident across an array of systems, including brain structure and function, endocrine function, and metabolic function. Gender (i.e., environmentally and socioculturally defined roles for men and women) also contributes to the initiation and course of substance use and SUDs. Adverse medical, psychiatric, and functional consequences associated with SUDs are often more severe in women. However, men and women do not substantively differ with respect to SUD treatment outcomes. Although several trends are beginning to emerge in the literature, findings on sex and gender differences in SUDs are complicated by the interacting contributions of biological and environmental factors. Future research is needed to further elucidate sex and gender differences, especially focusing on hormonal factors in SUD course and treatment outcomes; research translating findings between animal and human models; and gender differences in understudied populations, such as those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders and gender-specific populations, such as pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex-linked strategies of human reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, K; Urribarri, D; Chacon, G C; Diaz, G; Torres, A; Herzog, G

    1993-01-01

    We present data on fertility characteristics in the Venezuelan population for each sex separately, allowing a detailed comparative analysis of the variance in fertility between males and females. We show that the fertility distribution for both sexes is discontinuous, that the average female has a larger number of offspring per individual than the average male, and that highly fertile males outnumber highly fertile females so that the total number of offspring produced by males and females is balanced. Results indicate that a few males are responsible for a relative higher fertility of the average female and that interactions between polyandric females with monogamic and polygynic males are common. Among the Yanomami, a relatively unacculturated hunter-gatherer-horticulturist tribe, similar differences in fertility distribution of both sexes are apparent. The data suggest that human populations contain statistically distinct subpopulations, with different reproductive strategies, suggesting the existence of complex interactions among human populations which are not evident from the study of individuals or groups.

  6. The Clinician Perspective on Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Rene; Bishop, Somer L.; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.

    2017-01-01

    Research studies using existing samples of individuals with autism spectrum disorders have identified differences in symptoms between males and females. Differences are typically reported in school age and adolescence, with similarities in symptom presentation at earlier ages. However, existing studies on sex differences are significantly limited,…

  7. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain, mood, and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs), and gonadal hormones. Finally, we

  8. Sex differences in kappa opioid receptor function and their potential impact on addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eChartoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, biological and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN, an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs, is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain,mood and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R, heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs, and gonadal hormones

  9. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartoff, Elena H; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain, mood, and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs), and gonadal hormones. Finally, we

  10. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding Sex Differences in Croatian Mortality Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Being male is the strongest demographic predictor of early mortality in Croatia. For every woman who dies between the ages of 15 and 34, three men die. Between the ages of 15 and 54, men are four times as likely as women to die from behavioral causes of death, such as accidents, homicides, and suicides. A causal explanation for sex differences in mortality must be based on an understanding of how sex differences were shaped by natural selection, and how those differences interact with environmental factors to create observed patterns and variations. In brief, males have been selected for riskier behavioral and physiological strategies than women, because of the greater variance and skew in male reproductive success. This paper examines the sex difference in Croatian mortality in three parts. First, we quantify the Croatian Male to Female Mortality Ratio (M:F MR for 9 major causes of death across age group to provide a richer understanding of the sex difference in mortality from a life history framework. Second, we compare the Croatian M:F MR from behavioral, internal, and all causes with that of the available world population to demonstrate how Croatian mortality can be understood as part of a universal pattern that is influenced by unique environmental context. Third, we investigate how the War of Independence in 1991-1995 affected mortality patterns though its impact on behavioral strategies and the physical embodiment of distress.

  11. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.

  12. Differences in Gay Male Couples' Use of Drugs and Alcohol With Sex by Relationship HIV Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Sex differences in prenatal epigenetic programming of stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L

    2011-07-01

    Maternal stress experience is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Recent studies have examined mechanisms by which changes in the maternal milieu may be transmitted to the developing embryo and potentially translated into programming of the epigenome. Animal models of prenatal stress have identified important sex- and temporal-specific effects on offspring stress responsivity. As dysregulation of stress pathways is a common feature in most neuropsychiatric diseases, molecular and epigenetic analyses at the maternal-embryo interface, especially in the placenta, may provide unique insight into identifying much-needed predictive biomarkers. In addition, as most neurodevelopmental disorders present with a sex bias, examination of sex differences in the inheritance of phenotypic outcomes may pinpoint gene targets and specific windows of vulnerability in neurodevelopment, which have been disrupted. This review discusses the association and possible contributing mechanisms of prenatal stress in programming offspring stress pathway dysregulation and the importance of sex.

  14. [Gender differences in cognitive functions and influence of sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Gómez-Gil, E; Vidal, A; Puig, O; Boget, T; Salamero, M

    2006-01-01

    To review scientific evidence on gender differences in cognitive functions and influence of sex hormones on cognitive performance. Systematical search of related studies identified in Medline. Women outperform men on verbal fluency, perceptual speed tasks, fine motor skills, verbal memory and verbal learning. Men outperform women on visuospatial ability, mathematical problem solving and visual memory. No gender differences on attention and working memory are found. Researchers distinguish four methods to investigate hormonal influence on cognitive performance: a) patient with hormonal disorders; b) neuroimaging in individuals during hormone administration; c) in women during different phases of menstrual cycle, and d) in patients receiving hormonal treatment (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, postmenopausal women and transsexuals). The findings mostly suggest an influence of sex hormones on some cognitive functions, but they are not conclusive because of limitations and scarcity of the studies. There are gender differences on cognitive functions. Sex hormones seem to influence cognitive performance.

  15. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-08-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder. However, compared to typically developing girls, girls with autism spectrum disorder showed subtle differences in reciprocal behaviour. The sex-specific response patterns in autism spectrum disorder can inform and improve the diagnostic assessment of autism in females.

  16. [Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.

  17. Public and Private Physical Affection Differences between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples: The Role of Perceived Marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Amani El-Alayli; Erin Kent

    2011-01-01

    Despite its connection with relationship satisfaction, research on physical affection is scarce and fails to disentangle private and public displays of affection. It is important to examine both types if marginalized couples are less comfortable displaying affection publicly. The present study examined whether same-sex couples display less public (but not private) physical affection than different-sex couples due to stronger feelings of relationship marginalization. It also examined how publ...

  18. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.; Benbow, Camilla P.; Geary, David C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amid ongoing public speculation about the reasons for sex differences in careers in science and mathematics, we present a consensus statement that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Sex differences in science and math achievement and ability are smaller for the mid-range of the abilities distribution than they are for those with the highest levels of achievement and ability. Males are more variable on most measures of quantitative and visuospatial ability, which necessarily results in more males at both high- and low-ability extremes; the reasons why males are often more variable remain elusive. Successful careers in math and science require many types of cognitive abilities. Females tend to excel in verbal abilities, with large differences between females and males found when assessments include writing samples. High-level achievement in science and math requires the ability to communicate effectively and comprehend abstract ideas, so the female advantage in writing should be helpful in all academic domains. Males outperform females on most measures of visuospatial abilities, which have been implicated as contributing to sex differences on standardized exams in mathematics and science. An evolutionary account of sex differences in mathematics and science supports the conclusion that, although sex differences in math and science performance have not directly evolved, they could be indirectly related to differences in interests and specific brain and cognitive systems. We review the brain basis for sex differences in science and mathematics, describe consistent effects, and identify numerous possible correlates. Experience alters brain structures and functioning, so causal statements about brain differences and success in math and science are circular. A wide range of sociocultural forces contribute to sex differences in mathematics and science achievement and ability—including the effects of family, neighborhood, peer, and school

  19. Public and Private Physical Affection Differences between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples: The Role of Perceived Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani El-Alayli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its connection with relationship satisfaction, research on physical affection is scarce and fails to disentangle private and public displays of affection. It is important to examine both types if marginalized couples are less comfortable displaying affection publicly. The present study examined whether same-sex couples display less public (but not private physical affection than different-sex couples due to stronger feelings of relationship marginalization. It also examined how public/private affection and marginalization relate to relationship satisfaction. Women in committed same-sex and different-sex relationships completed surveys of public affection, private affection, marginalization, and relationship satisfaction online. As predicted, women in same-sex relationships displayed less public affection than those in different-sex relationships, an effect mediated by general societal marginalization. Both private and public affection predicted higher relationship satisfaction, whereas feelings of marginalization by friends/family predicted lower relationship satisfaction. We discuss implications for relationship counseling and propose new ways of looking at marginalization.

  20. Sex differences in stress regulation of arousal and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Eck, Samantha R; Telenson, Alexander M; Salvatore, Madeleine

    2018-04-01

    There are sex differences in the prevalence and presentation of many psychiatric disorders. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression are more common in women than men, and women with these disorders present with more hyperarousal symptoms than men. In contrast, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia are more common in men than women, and men with these disorders have increased cognitive deficits compared to women. A shared feature of the aforementioned psychiatric disorders is the contribution of stressful events to their onset and/or severity. Here we propose that sex differences in stress responses bias females towards hyperarousal and males towards cognitive deficits. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies is detailed. We also describe underlying neurobiological mechanisms. For example, sex differences in stress receptor signaling and trafficking in the locus coeruleus-arousal center are detailed. In learning circuits, evidence for sex differences in dendritic morphology is provided. Finally, we describe how evaluating sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress in female and male rodents can lead to better treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in the influence of body mass index on anatomical architecture of brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Hamadani, K; Bhatt, R; Fling, C; Alaverdyan, M; Torgerson, C; Ashe-McNalley, C; Van Horn, J D; Naliboff, B; Tillisch, K; Sanmiguel, C P; Labus, J S

    2017-08-01

    The brain has a central role in regulating ingestive behavior in obesity. Analogous to addiction behaviors, an imbalance in the processing of rewarding and salient stimuli results in maladaptive eating behaviors that override homeostatic needs. We performed network analysis based on graph theory to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and network measures of integrity, information flow and global communication (centrality) in reward, salience and sensorimotor regions and to identify sex-related differences in these parameters. Structural and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained in a sample of 124 individuals (61 males and 63 females). Graph theory was applied to calculate anatomical network properties (centrality) for regions of the reward, salience and sensorimotor networks. General linear models with linear contrasts were performed to test for BMI and sex-related differences in measures of centrality, while controlling for age. In both males and females, individuals with high BMI (obese and overweight) had greater anatomical centrality (greater connectivity) of reward (putamen) and salience (anterior insula) network regions. Sex differences were observed both in individuals with normal and elevated BMI. In individuals with high BMI, females compared to males showed greater centrality in reward (amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens) and salience (anterior mid-cingulate cortex) regions, while males compared to females had greater centrality in reward (putamen) and sensorimotor (posterior insula) regions. In individuals with increased BMI, reward, salience and sensorimotor network regions are susceptible to topological restructuring in a sex-related manner. These findings highlight the influence of these regions on integrative processing of food-related stimuli and increased ingestive behavior in obesity, or in the influence of hedonic ingestion on brain topological restructuring. The observed sex differences emphasize the importance of

  2. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  3. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Lars; Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner's sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner's rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca . 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and increasing

  4. Sex differences in the hypothalamic control of prolactin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan, D.R.; Liu, L.; Bunn, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Sex differences in the brain may arise from the organisational effects of exposure to sex steroids during development, or from the exposure to a differential hormonal milieu in the adult. There is a marked sex difference in the neuroendocrine mechanism that regulates prolactin secretion. Levels of prolactin in the blood are higher in females than in males. Similarly, basal activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, which are involved in the tonic suppression of prolactin secretion, are two fold higher in females than in males. Prolactin is known to stimulate the activity of TIDA neurons, thereby regulating its own secretion by short-loop feedback. Hence, it is thought that elevated TIDA neuronal activity in females is induced by increased prolactin in the blood. We have recently demonstrated that prolactin stimulation of TIDA neurons requires the transcription factor, STAT5b. We have now investigated prolactin secretion in male and female STAT5b-deficient mice, to test the hypothesis that sex differences in TIDA neuronal activity are dependent on stimulation by prolactin acting through STAT5b. Prolactin levels in blood were measured by radioimmunoassay, and TIDA activity was assessed by measuring concentrations of the dopamine metabolite DOPAC in the median eminence by HPLC, and by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the arcuate nucleus by real-time RT-PCR. The data demonstrate marked gender differences in the activity of TIDA neurons. While TIDA activity in STAT5b-deficient mice was reduced compared to wild type, the sex difference persisted. Since STAT5b is required for the actions of prolactin on these neurons, we can conclude that the sexual dimorphism in brain function is independent of gender differences in blood levels of prolactin. It seems likely that differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones, either during development or in adulthood, might underlie the sex difference in TIDA neuronal activity. Copyright (2001

  5. Do sex reversal procedures differentially affect agonistic behaviors and sex steroid levels depending on the sexual genotype in Nile tilapia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, Vincent; Akonkwa, Balagizi; Mélard, Charles; Denoël, Mathieu; Cornil, Charlotte A; Rougeot, Carole

    2017-04-01

    In Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, phenotypic males and females with different sexual genotypes (XX, XY, YY) have particular behavioral and physiological traits. Compared to natural XX females and XY males, XY and YY females and XX males expressed higher level of aggressiveness that could be related to higher levels of 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, respectively. Our results suggest that the presence of a Y chromosome increases aggressiveness in females. However, since the same relationship between aggressiveness and the Y chromosome is not observed in males, we can hypothesize that the differences in aggressiveness are not directly dependent on the genotype but on the sex reversal procedures applied on young fry during their sexual differentiation to produce these breeders. These hormonal treatments could have permanently modified the development of the brain and consequently influenced the behavior of adults independently of their genotype. In both hypotheses (genotype or sex reversal influence), the causes of behavioral modifications have to be searched in an early modification of the brain sexual differentiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Behaviour of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in…

  7. Sex Differences in L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Rosa Maria Jimenez

    2003-01-01

    Reports the results of a descriptive study on sex differences in the use of a second language. A questionnaire was administered to 581 Spanish-speaking students learning Basque and English as second language to answer the following question: Do male and female second language learners differ in the number and the range of vocabulary strategies…

  8. Sex Differences in Mathematics Performance among Senior High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored sex differences in mathematics performance of students in the final year of high school and changes in these differences over a 3-year period in Ghana. A convenience sample of 182 students, 109 boys and 72 girls in three high schools in Ghana was used. Mathematics performance was assessed using ...

  9. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with

  10. Sex Differences in Reasoning and Emotion about Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines sex differences among 70 adults in the resolution of prosocial dilemmas involving self-sacrifice. Findings suggest that even when women and men make the same choices, they seem to think about and experience their choices in different ways. (MW)

  11. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  12. Relevant sex appeals in advertising: Gender and commitment context differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Even J. Lanseng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates differences in men’s and women’s attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1 and a romantic prime (study 2.Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men’s and women’s evolved mating preferences.

  13. Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Gender and Commitment Context Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanseng, Even J

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1) and a romantic prime (study 2). Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men's and women's evolved mating preferences.

  14. Sex differences in health and mortality in Moscow and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, A; Shkolnikova, M; Vaupel, J W

    2014-01-01

    and a male advantage in self-rated health, physical functioning, and depression symptomatology. Only on cognitive tests males performed similarly to or worse than women. Nevertheless, Muscovite males had more than twice higher mortality at ages 55-69 years compared to Muscovite women, almost double the ratio......In high income countries females outlive men, although they generally report worse health, the so-called male-female health-survival paradox. Russia has one of the world's largest sex difference in life expectancy with a male disadvantage of more than 10 years. We compare components of the paradox...... between Denmark and Moscow by examining sex differences in mortality and several health measures. The Human Mortality Database and the Russian Fertility and Mortality Database were used to examine sex differences in all-cause death rates in Denmark, Russia, and Moscow in 2007-2008. Self-reported health...

  15. Genetic regulation of sex differences in songbirds and lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Juli

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in the morphology of neural and peripheral structures related to reproduction often parallel the frequency of particular behaviours displayed by males and females. In a variety of model organisms, these sex differences are organized in development by gonadal steroids, which also act in adulthood to modulate behavioural expression and in some cases to generate parallel anatomical changes on a seasonal basis. Data collected from diverse species, however, suggest that changes in hormone availability are not sufficient to explain sex and seasonal differences in structure and function. This paper pulls together some of this literature from songbirds and lizards and considers the information in the broader context of taking a comparative approach to investigating genetic mechanisms associated with behavioural neuroendocrinology. PMID:26833833

  16. Sex differences in the neural mechanisms mediating addiction: a new synthesis and hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Jill B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this review we propose that there are sex differences in how men and women enter onto the path that can lead to addiction. Males are more likely than females to engage in risky behaviors that include experimenting with drugs of abuse, and in susceptible individuals, they are drawn into the spiral that can eventually lead to addiction. Women and girls are more likely to begin taking drugs as self-medication to reduce stress or alleviate depression. For this reason women enter into the downward spiral further along the path to addiction, and so transition to addiction more rapidly. We propose that this sex difference is due, at least in part, to sex differences in the organization of the neural systems responsible for motivation and addiction. Additionally, we suggest that sex differences in these systems and their functioning are accentuated with addiction. In the current review we discuss historical, cultural, social and biological bases for sex differences in addiction with an emphasis on sex differences in the neurotransmitter systems that are implicated.

  17. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Neuper, Christa; Schmidt, Reinhold; Wood, Guilherme; Kronbichler, Martin; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian; Koini, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation. We subjected 20 women (mean age = 25.45; SD = 5.23) and 20 men (mean age = 27.55; SD = 4.00) to a combined verbal and spatial fMRI paradigm at 3.0T to assess sex-related skills, based on the assumption that generally women better perform in verbal tasks while men do better in spatial tasks. We also obtained behavioral tests for verbal and spatial intelligence, attention, executive functions, and working memory. No differences between women and men were observed in behavioral measures of dual-tasking or cognitive performance. Generally, brain activation increased with higher task load, mainly in the bilateral inferior and prefrontal gyri, the anterior cingulum, thalamus, putamen and occipital areas. Comparing sexes, women showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus in the verbal dual-task while men demonstrated increased activation in the precuneus and adjacent visual areas in the spatial task. Against the background of equal cognitive and behavioral dual-task performance in both sexes, we provide first evidence for sex-related activation differences in functional networks for verbal and spatial dual-tasking.

  18. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Tschernegg

    Full Text Available Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation.We subjected 20 women (mean age = 25.45; SD = 5.23 and 20 men (mean age = 27.55; SD = 4.00 to a combined verbal and spatial fMRI paradigm at 3.0T to assess sex-related skills, based on the assumption that generally women better perform in verbal tasks while men do better in spatial tasks. We also obtained behavioral tests for verbal and spatial intelligence, attention, executive functions, and working memory.No differences between women and men were observed in behavioral measures of dual-tasking or cognitive performance. Generally, brain activation increased with higher task load, mainly in the bilateral inferior and prefrontal gyri, the anterior cingulum, thalamus, putamen and occipital areas. Comparing sexes, women showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus in the verbal dual-task while men demonstrated increased activation in the precuneus and adjacent visual areas in the spatial task.Against the background of equal cognitive and behavioral dual-task performance in both sexes, we provide first evidence for sex-related activation differences in functional networks for verbal and spatial dual-tasking.

  19. Pathways to ischemic neuronal cell death: are sex differences relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullough Louise D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have known for some time that the epidemiology of human stroke is sexually dimorphic until late in life, well beyond the years of reproductive senescence and menopause. Now, a new concept is emerging: the mechanisms and outcome of cerebral ischemic injury are influenced strongly by biological sex as well as the availability of sex steroids to the brain. The principal mammalian estrogen (17 β estradiol or E2 is neuroprotective in many types of brain injury and has been the major focus of investigation over the past several decades. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that although hormones are a major contributor to sex-specific outcomes, they do not fully account for sex-specific responses to cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies in cell culture and animal models that suggest that genetic sex determines experimental stroke outcome and that divergent cell death pathways are activated after an ischemic insult. These sex differences need to be identified if we are to develop efficacious neuroprotective agents for use in stroke patients.

  20. Sex differences in cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeltchev, Krassen; Wiedmer, Sebastian; Schwerzmann, Markus; Windecker, Stephan; Haefeli, Tobias; Meier, Bernhard; Mattle, Heinrich P; Arnold, Marcel

    2008-09-01

    Sex differences in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic stroke have not been systematically analyzed. We aimed to determine sex influences on demographics, vascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, stroke location, and clinical outcome. One thousand two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were admitted to a single stroke center. All patients underwent a complete stroke workup including clinical examination, standard blood tests, cerebral and vascular imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and 24-hour electrocardiography. In 500 patients, no definite etiology could be established (cryptogenic stroke/TIA). Of them, 167 patients (107 men and 60 women, mean age 52 +/- 13 years) had an PFO. The prevalence of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA was higher in men than in women (38% vs 28%, P = .014). Stroke severity and the prevalence of risk factors did not differ between the 2 sexes. There was an independent association between male sex and stroke location in the posterior cerebral circulation (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5, P = .006). Men and women did not differ in respect to PFO grade, prevalence of right-to-left shunt at rest, or coexistence of atrial septal aneurysm. Clinical outcome at 3 months was similar in both sexes. Patent foramen ovale was more prevalent in men than in women with cryptogenic stroke. There were no sex influences on age, risk factors, echocardiographic characteristics of PFO, or clinical outcome. Male sex was independently associated with stroke in the posterior cerebral circulation.

  1. Sex differences in confidence influence patterns of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Brown, Gillian R; Morgan, Thomas J H; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-11-01

    Lack of confidence in one's own ability can increase the likelihood of relying on social information. Sex differences in confidence have been extensively investigated in cognitive tasks, but implications for conformity have not been directly tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in a task that shows sex differences in confidence, an indirect effect of sex on social information use will also be evident. Participants (N = 168) were administered a mental rotation (MR) task or a letter transformation (LT) task. After providing an answer, participants reported their confidence before seeing the responses of demonstrators and being allowed to change their initial answer. In the MR, but not the LT, task, women showed lower levels of confidence than men, and confidence mediated an indirect effect of sex on the likelihood of switching answers. These results provide novel, experimental evidence that confidence is a general explanatory mechanism underpinning susceptibility to social influences. Our results have implications for the interpretation of the wider literature on sex differences in conformity. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W.J.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  3. Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: assessing sex and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Michelle M; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    With the aging of the population, the burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rapidly expanding. More than 5 million people in the US alone are affected with AD and this number is expected to triple by 2050. While men may have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia, women are disproportionally affected with AD. One explanation is that men may die of competing causes of death earlier in life, so that only the most resilient men may survive to older ages. However, many other factors should also be considered to explain the sex differences. In this review, we discuss the differences observed in men versus women in the incidence and prevalence of MCI and AD, in the structure and function of the brain, and in the sex-specific and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD. In medical research, sex refers to biological differences such as chromosomal differences (eg, XX versus XY chromosomes), gonadal differences, or hormonal differences. In contrast, gender refers to psychosocial and cultural differences between men and women (eg, access to education and occupation). Both factors play an important role in the development and progression of diseases, including AD. Understanding both sex- and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD is critical for developing individualized interventions for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  4. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  5. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. DIFFERENCES OF ANTROPOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO SEX OF PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Gojković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As per sample of 212 examinees at the age of 11 (±6 months at the fifth grade in Montenegrin elementary schools, it was used the system of 12 variables for the estimation of anthropometrical characteristis. The purpose of the examination was to establish differentiations between different students sex in the initial and final measuring. As for results given by using discriminant analysis and univariant analysis of variance on the anthropometrical student's status, it can be concluded that there's a statistical significant level in discrimination of subsamples of different sex.

  7. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Female Sex Offenders: Is There a Difference Between Solo and Co-Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Gibbs, Benjamin; Burkey, Chris Rush

    2016-10-01

    Studies on female sex offending have been limited for a number of reasons, such as societal perceptions that females are incapable of engaging in such behaviors because of their role as caretakers and nurturers in society. However, over the past few decades, studies examining female sex offenders have increased, revealing that females do commit sexual offenses and differ from their male counterparts. We examined offender, victim, and offense characteristics of female sex offenders who were convicted from 1995 to 2013 ( N = 223) in Arkansas and were sentenced to serve time in prison or placed on probation. We focused on the similarities and differences of solo and co-female sex offenders because we know from previous studies that the pathway of offending can differ between solo and co-female offenders, yet few studies have exclusively compared the similarities and differences among female sex offenders. Our data were collected from offender files that included basic personal offender information, offender survey and social history, criminal history, incident reports while incarcerated, court records, police investigation reports, initial offender and victim statements (prior to offender incarceration), and probation/parole reports. We believe the results of this study will provide further insight into the types of female sex offenders as well as the possible differences between co- and solo-offenders in relation to their victim preferences, risk levels, rehabilitation amenability, and recidivism propensities.

  9. Examining the role of sex in self-injurious thoughts and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathryn R; Millner, Alexander J; Mukerji, Cora E; Nock, Matthew K

    2017-09-28

    Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs), including nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide death exhibit substantial sex differences. Across most countries, men die by suicide more frequently than women; yet, women think about and attempt suicide more frequently than men. Research on sex differences in nonsuicidal self-injury is less developed; however, nonsuicidal self-injury is historically understood as a primarily female phenomenon. This review describes current research on sex differences across SITBs with a focus on factors that moderate these effects, such as age, race, geographic region, and time. Additionally, this review describes factors that may help to explain why sex differences across SITBs exist, including differences in culture, access to lethal suicide methods, rates of mental illness, and utilization of health care. The role of gender, and particularly non-binary gender, is also discussed. Current understanding of these sex differences is described with an eye toward future research on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eye tracking, strategies, and sex differences in virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nicolas E; Dahmani, Louisa; Konishi, Kyoko; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2012-01-01

    Reports of sex differences in wayfinding have typically used paradigms sensitive to the female advantage (navigation by landmarks) or sensitive to the male advantage (navigation by cardinal directions, Euclidian coordinates, environmental geometry, and absolute distances). The current virtual navigation paradigm allowed both men and women an equal advantage. We studied sex differences by systematically varying the number of landmarks. Eye tracking was used to quantify sex differences in landmark utilisation as participants solved an eight-arm radial maze task within different virtual environments. To solve the task, participants were required to remember the locations of target objects within environments containing 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 landmarks. We found that, as the number of landmarks available in the environment increases, the proportion of time men and women spend looking at landmarks and the number of landmarks they use to find their way increases. Eye tracking confirmed that women rely more on landmarks to navigate, although landmark fixations were also associated with an increase in task completion time. Sex differences in navigational behaviour occurred only in environments devoid of landmarks and disappeared in environments containing multiple landmarks. Moreover, women showed sustained landmark-oriented gaze, while men's decreased over time. Finally, we found that men and women use spatial and response strategies to the same extent. Together, these results shed new light on the discrepancy in landmark utilisation between men and women and help explain the differences in navigational behaviour previously reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in jealousy: a contribution from attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Kelly, Kristen M

    2010-02-01

    Studies have found that more men than women endorse sexual infidelity as more distressing than emotional infidelity, whereas more women than men endorse emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Some evolutionary psychologists have proposed that this sex difference can be best conceptualized as reflecting evolution-based differences in parental investment that produce a need for paternity certainty among men and a need for male investment in offspring among women. Nonetheless, a conspicuous subset of men report emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Current theorizing explains between-sex differences but not within-sex differences. We hypothesized that attachment-style differences may help to explain both between- and within-sex differences in jealousy. As hypothesized, dismissing avoidant participants reported more jealousy regarding sexual than emotional infidelity (64.8%), and secure participants, including secure men, reported more jealousy regarding emotional than sexual infidelity (77.3%), chi(2)(3, N = 411) = 45.03, p jealousy relationship by attachment style. Implications of an attachment perspective are discussed.

  12. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  13. Explaining sex differences in lifespan in terms of optimal energy allocation in the baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Annette M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P

    2017-10-01

    We provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that sex role specialization may account for sex differences in lifespan in baboons if such specialization causes the dependency of fitness upon longevity, and consequently the optimal resolution to an energetic trade-off between somatic maintenance and other physiological functions, to differ between males and females. We present a model in which females provide all offspring care and males compete for access to reproductive females and in which the partitioning of available energy between the competing fitness-enhancing functions of growth, maintenance, and reproduction is modeled as a dynamic behavioral game, with the optimal decision for each individual depending upon his/her state and the behavior of other members of the population. Our model replicates the sexual dimorphism in body size and sex differences in longevity and reproductive scheduling seen in natural populations of baboons. We show that this outcome is generally robust to perturbations in model parameters, an important finding given that the same behavior is seen across multiple populations and species in the wild. This supports the idea that sex differences in longevity result from differences in the value of somatic maintenance relative to other fitness-enhancing functions in keeping with the disposable soma theory. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. [Analysis of the risky behaviors among HIV positive female sex workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Jia, Manhong; Luo, Hongbing; Li, Youfang; Song, Lijun; Mei, Jingyuan; Ma, Yanling; Yang, Yanling; Lu, Ran; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Renzhong; Pan, Songfeng; Li, Zhiqing; Lu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the characteristics of risky behaviors among different age groups of HIV positive female sex workers, and to explore the strengthening of their management. From January to June 2014, 22 814 female sex workers were investigated and tested HIV in 117 sentinel surveillance sites in Yunnan Province, and 181 were confirmed to be HIV antibody positive, who accepted questionnaire surveys. According to the age, the participants were divided into the HIV/AIDS and related risk behaviors characteristics of the two groups were obtained via questionnaire surveys among 181 HIV positive female sex workers, and in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted from among 12 HIV positive sex workers. HIV antibody positive rate was 0.8% (181), the age of the 181 subjects were (35.83 ± 9.17) years old, 76 cases (42.0%) were HIV, the proportion of AIDS awareness was 95.6% (173); the proportion of drug use among ≥ 35 years old age group was 51.4% (54), which was higher than that in HIV counseling and testing in the past year. The proportion of continuing to engage in sexual services over 5 years after HIV infection was 48.5% (51/105) and the proportion of receiving antiretroviral treatment was 69.5% (73/105) in ≥ 35 years old age group, which were higher than those in the HIV positive female sex workers found that regular clients, not consistent use of condoms were the main cause of no condom use. Economic and livelihood factors are important reasons for continuing to engage in sexual services among HIV positive sex workers. HIV positive sex workers still have high risk behaviors including continuing to engage in commercial sexual service and no condom use after knowing their HIV infection status, and the proportion of using drugs in the ≥ 35 years old group was higher than that in < 35 years old group.

  15. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.

  16. Sex difference and Allee effects shape the dynamics of sex-structured invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Kokko, Hanna; Neubert, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life-history traits (e.g. growth, survival and dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density. Most models of population spread are based on one sex, or include limited aspects of sex differences. Here we ask whether and how the dynamics of finding mates interact with sex-specific life-history traits to influence the rate of population spread. We present a hybrid approach for modelling invasions of populations with two sexes that links individual-level mating behaviour (in an individual-based model) to population-level dynamics (in an integrodifference equation model). We find that limiting the amount of time during which individuals can search for mates causes a demographic Allee effect which can slow, delay, or even prevent an invasion. Furthermore, any sex-based asymmetries in life history or behaviour (skewed sex ratio, sex-biased dispersal, and sex-specific mating behaviours) amplify these effects. In contrast, allowing individuals to mate more than once ameliorates these effects, enabling polygynandrous populations to invade under conditions where monogamously mating populations would fail to establish. We show that details of individuals' mating behaviour can impact the rate of population spread. Based on our results, we propose a stricter definition of a mate-finding Allee effect, which is not met by the commonly used minimum mating function. Our modelling approach, which links individual- and population-level dynamics in a single model, may be useful for exploring other aspects of individual behaviour that are thought to impact the

  17. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY

  18. Early sex differences are not autism-specific: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    The increased male prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be mirrored by the early emergence of sex differences in ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning. The female protective effect hypothesis posits that ASD recurrence and symptoms will be higher among relatives of female probands. This study examined sex differences and sex of proband differences in ASD outcome and in the development of ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning among the high-risk younger siblings of ASD probands and low-risk children. Prior to 18 months of age, 1824 infants (1241 high-risk siblings, 583 low-risk) from 15 sites were recruited. Hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) analyses of younger sibling and proband sex differences in ASD recurrence among high-risk siblings were followed by HGLM analyses of sex differences and group differences (high-risk ASD, high-risk non-ASD, and low-risk) on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) subscales (Expressive and Receptive Language, Fine Motor, and Visual Reception) at 18, 24, and 36 months and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores (social affect (SA) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB)) at 24 and 36 months. Of 1241 high-risk siblings, 252 had ASD outcomes. Male recurrence was 26.7 % and female recurrence 10.3 %, with a 3.18 odds ratio. The HR-ASD group had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB and SA scores than the HR non-ASD group, which had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB scores than the LR group. Regardless of group, males obtained lower MSEL subscale scores, and higher ADOS RRB scores, than females. There were, however, no significant interactions between sex and group on either the MSEL or ADOS. Proband sex did not affect ASD outcome, MSEL subscale, or ADOS domain scores. A 3.2:1 male:female odds ratio emerged among a large sample of prospectively followed high-risk siblings. Sex differences in cognitive performance and repetitive behaviors were apparent not only in

  19. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending.

  20. Sex differences in the self-administration of cannabinoids and other drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for important sex-dependent differences in the origins, outcomes and treatment of drug abuse and dependence. Preclinical studies typically have employed animal models of addiction, such as oral or intravenous self-administration, to untangle the environmental, neurobiological and genetic factors that contribute to the shift from occasional, recreational use to compulsive, uncontrolled intake of drugs. Craving and relapse of drug seeking in abstinent individuals have also been found to differ between men and women. Identification of the neurobiological basis of craving and drug dependence continues to pose a challenge to addiction research. Significant sex differences are emerging in substance-abuse-related behavior, which has increased the demand for research on how drug consumption may have different causes, progression and consequences in men and women. In keeping with epidemiological data in humans, differences between the two sexes in drug seeking and intake have been well-documented in animal studies, with most recent findings related to abuse of cannabinoids. Clinical and preclinical findings indicate that sex and gonadal hormones may account for individual differences in susceptibility to the reinforcing effects of addictive substances, and that differences in vulnerability to drug abuse may be mediated by the same biological mechanisms. This review focuses on the differences between males and females in relation to drug self-administration and how such behavior may be affected by hormonal status.

  1. Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions.

  2. Biological basis of sex differences in drug abuse: preclinical and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Roth, Megan E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2002-11-01

    The recent focus on drug abuse in women has brought attention to numerous differences between women and men. In this review, we discuss both preclinical and clinical findings of sex differences in drug abuse as well as mechanisms that may underlie these differences. Recent evidence suggests that the progression to dependence and abuse may differ between women and men; thus, different prevention and treatment strategies may be required. Similar sex differences in drug sensitivity and self-administration have been reported in laboratory animal studies. Females appear to be more vulnerable than males to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants, opiates, and nicotine during many phases of the addiction process (e.g. acquisition, maintenance, dysregulation-escalation, relapse). Male and female animals differ in their behavioral, neurological, and pharmacological responses to drugs. Although the role of sex in the mechanisms of drug action remains unclear, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that ovarian hormones, particularly estrogen, play a role in producing sex differences in drug abuse. Future research is necessary to provide information on how to design more effective drug abuse treatment programs and resources that are sex specific.

  3. Sex differences in the functional connectivity of the amygdalae in association with cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Müller, Veronika I; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Boubela, Roland; Kalcher, Klaudius; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Gur, Ruben C; Eickhoff, Simon B; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-07-01

    Human amygdalae are involved in various behavioral functions such as affective and stress processing. For these behavioral functions, as well as for psychophysiological arousal including cortisol release, sex differences are reported. Here, we assessed cortisol levels and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of left and right amygdalae in 81 healthy participants (42 women) to investigate potential modulation of amygdala rsFC by sex and cortisol concentration. Our analyses revealed that rsFC of the left amygdala significantly differed between women and men: Women showed stronger rsFC than men between the left amygdala and left middle temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and hippocampus, regions involved in face processing, inner-speech, fear and pain processing. No stronger connections were detected for men and no sex difference emerged for right amygdala rsFC. Also, an interaction of sex and cortisol appeared: In women, cortisol was negatively associated with rsFC of the amygdalae with striatal regions, mid-orbital frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, supplementary motor area and the parietal-occipital sulcus. Contrarily in men, positive associations of cortisol with rsFC of the left amygdala and these structures were observed. Functional decoding analyses revealed an association of the amygdalae and these regions with emotion, reward and memory processing, as well as action execution. Our results suggest that functional connectivity of the amygdalae as well as the regulatory effect of cortisol on brain networks differs between women and men. These sex-differences and the mediating and sex-dependent effect of cortisol on brain communication systems should be taken into account in affective and stress-related neuroimaging research. Thus, more studies including both sexes are required. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Different association between renal hyperfiltration and mortality by sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Don; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Heo, Nam Ju; Chin, Ho Jun; Yang, Seung Hee; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2017-10-01

    Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) is a marker of early kidney injury that was recently shown to be a novel marker of mortality. However, it has no clear definition. In this study, we suggested an age- and sex-adjusted RHF definition and explored the association between RHF and mortality by sex. We analyzed data from individuals receiving routine health examinations from 1995 to 2009. RHF was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate over the 95th percentile matched for age and sex. A total of 114 966 individuals were included. During the 75-month of observation period, 2559 (2.2%) participants died. Among those, 71.4% were men. Because sex and RHF had a significant interaction for mortality (P for interaction sex. RHF was related to lower body weight and a higher proportion of cigarette smoking in men, whereas these relationships were not found in women. In the Kaplan-Meier curve, RHF was associated with higher mortality rate than non-RHF in both sexes, but this relationship was more prominent in men. In the multivariate analysis, RHF remained as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality even after adjustment for confounding in men (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.59; P = 0.001). In women, RHF was not associated with increased mortality. We demonstrated that RHF was a significant risk factor for mortality in men but not in women. The mechanisms and clinical implications of these different associations according to sex require a further clarification. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  5. Sex differences in the hypothalamus in the different stages of human life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, Dick F.; Chung, Wilson C. J.; Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Hofman, Michel A.; Hestiantoro, Andon

    2003-01-01

    Quite a number of structural and functional sex differences have been reported in the human hypothalamus and adjacent structures that may be related to not only reproduction, sexual orientation and gender identity, but also to the often pronounced sex differences in prevalence of psychiatric and

  6. School leadership, sex and gender: welcome to difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüger, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The biological basis for differences between the sexes has become increasingly clear in recent years. The nature-nurture debate has made way for the view that the individual is a product of the interaction between genes and environment. For the world of school leadership this means that instead of

  7. Sex Differences in Social Perception in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, M. C.; Anderson, L. C.; Naples, A. J.; McPartland, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more common in males than females. An underrepresentation of females in the ASD literature has led to limited knowledge of differences in social function across the sexes. Investigations of face perception represent a promising target for understanding variability in social functioning between males and females.…

  8. Exploring Sex Differences in Worry with a Cognitive Vulnerability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed to examine the relative contributions of mastery, stress, interpretive bias, and coping to sex differences in worry. Rumination was incorporated as a second outcome variable to test the specificity of these associations. Participants included two samples of undergraduates totaling 302 men and 379 women. A path…

  9. Sex differences among recipients of benzodiazepines in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, F.W. van der; Mohrs, J.; Foets, M.

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sex differences among recipients of benzodiazepines in Dutch general practice. Design-Study of consultations and associated interventions as recorded in the Dutch national survey of general practice. Setting: Practices of 45 general practitioners monitored during 1 April to 30

  10. Sex differences in chronic stress responses and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Dominguez, Sky; Fisher, Daniel W; Dong, Hongxin

    2018-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified. In this review, we discuss a novel hypothesis whereby women's susceptibility to chronic stress also mediates increased risk for AD. As stress is a risk factor for AD, and women are twice as likely to develop mood disorders where stress is a major etiology, it is possible that sex dimorphisms in stress responses contribute to the increase in women with AD. In line with this, sex divergence in biochemical responses to stress have been noted along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and among known molecular effectors of AD, with crosstalk between these processes also being likely. In addition, activation of the cortical corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) signaling pathway leads to distinct female-biased increases in molecules associated with AD pathogenesis. Therefore, the different biochemical responses to stress between women and men may represent an intrinsic, sex-dependent risk factor for AD.

  11. Sex-related differences in attention and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Solianik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Current study showed no sex differences in the mean values of cognition, whereas higher intra-individual variability of short-term memory and attention switching was identified in women, indicating that their performance was lower on these cognitive abilities.

  12. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a

  13. Sex-dependent differences in voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-01-02

    Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In rodents, the amount of time engaged in spontaneous activity within the home cage is a strong predictor of later adiposity and weight gain. Thus, it is important to understand primary motivators stimulating physical activity (PA). There are normal sex differences in PA levels in rodents and humans. The perinatal environment can induce sex-dependent differences in PA disturbances. This Review considers the current evidence for sex differences in PA in rodents and humans. The rodent studies showing that early exposure to environmental chemicals can shape later adult PA responses are discussed. Next, whether there are different motivators stimulating exercise in male vs. female humans are examined. Finally, the brain regions, genes, and pathways that modulate PA in rodents, and possibly by translation in humans, are described. A better understanding of why each sex remains physically active through the life span could open new avenues for preventing and treating obesity in children and adults. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sex differences in anthropometric variability among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have reported no sex differences in variability of anthropometric characteristics, except in skinfolds with males more varied than females. Whether this is true of South African rural children is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential sexual anthropometric variability and verify its presence ...

  15. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  16. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  17. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  18. Sex Differences in Neural Processing of Language among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Douglas D.; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Why females generally perform better on language tasks than males is unknown. Sex differences were here identified in children (ages 9-15) across two linguistic tasks for words presented in two modalities. Bilateral activation in the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri and activation in the left fusiform gyrus of girls was greater than in…

  19. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  20. Sex and gender differences in depression - proclivity in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Zarragoitía Alonso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and analyzes the major factors involved in depression, taking into account those related to biological, psychological and social issues linked to sex and gender. Ultimately, these sex and gender-associated factors determine that the condition is present more often in women than in men, nearly doubling the cases. In addition, the article describes the singularities of depressive disorders in different reproductive periods when the disease acquires clinical specificity in accordance with sexual and hormonal functions. Finally, the way in which gender roles can intervene in how depression is approached in women vis-à-vis men is covered.

  1. Sex Difference in Testosterone Response to a Video Game Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Allan; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Edelbrock, Sandy

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because ...

  2. Sex Differences in the Hepatic Cholesterol Sensing Mechanisms in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Björkhem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is linked to many multifactorial disorders, including different forms of liver disease where development and severity depend on the sex. We performed a detailed analysis of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways at the level of genes and metabolites combined with the expression studies of hepatic cholesterol uptake and transport in female and male mice fed with a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol. Lack of dietary cholesterol led to a stronger response of the sterol sensing mechanism in females, resulting in higher expression of cholesterogenic genes compared to males. With cholesterol in the diet, the genes were down-regulated in both sexes; however, males maintained a more efficient hepatic metabolic flux through the pathway. Females had higher content of hepatic cholesterol but this was likely not due to diminished excretion but rather due to increased synthesis and absorption. Dietary cholesterol and sex were not important for gallbladder bile acids composition. Neither sex up-regulated Cyp7a1 upon cholesterol loading and there was no compensatory up-regulation of Abcg5 or Abcg8 transporters. On the other hand, females had higher expression of the Ldlr and Cd36 genes. These findings explain sexual dimorphism of cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary cholesterol in a high-fat diet in mice, which contributes to understanding the sex-basis of cholesterol-associated liver diseases.

  3. Sex differences of troponin test performance in chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagman, Anna; Searle, Julia; Vollert, Jörn O; Storchmann, Harald; Büschenfelde, Dirk Meyer Zum; von Recum, Johannes; Vlasny, Daniela; Ale-Abaei, Angela; Koch, Matthias; Müller, Christian; Müller, Reinhold; Somasundaram, Rajan; Möckel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend troponin as the preferred biomarker to diagnose acute myocardial infarction (AMI) irrespective of the patient's sex. Recent reports have shown that sex-specific cut-offs should be considered but studies investigating sex-differences in the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac troponins are sparse. To evaluate whether the diagnostic performance of cardiac troponin at admission (cTn) under routine conditions is influenced by patient's sex. Between 15th of February 2009 and 15th of February 2010, women (n=1648) and men (n=2305) who presented to the emergency department with chest pain (n=3954) were enrolled. The diagnostic performance of the routine, contemporary sensitive cTn assays (TnI; Stratus® CS, Siemens and TnT; Roche Diagnostics) at baseline for the diagnosis of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) was analyzed. NSTEMI was diagnosed in 7.3% (n=287) of all patients. Men were more likely to be diagnosed with NSTEMI (8.8%; n=202) as compared to women (5.2%; n=85; psex, with a lower sensitivity and NPV in women. The definition and implementation of sex-specific cut-off values for cTn into clinical routine seems to be highly recommendable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  5. Sex and sexual orientation differences in personality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Lippa, Richard A; Zheng, Yong

    2011-06-01

    Using data from an Internet survey, we assessed masculinity-femininity (self-ascribed masculinity-femininity [Self-MF], gender-related interests, instrumentality, expressiveness) and Big Five personality traits in a Chinese sample of 201 heterosexual men, 220 homosexual men, 353 heterosexual women, and 215 homosexual women. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences were largest for gender-related interests and Self-MF. Homosexual-heterosexual differences in emotional stability were opposite for men and women, supporting the "gender shift" over the "social stress" hypothesis. Sex and sexual orientation differences in gender-related interests, Self-MF, and emotional stability observed in China were consistent with those found in other countries, suggesting possible biological influences. In contrast, group differences in other traits were more variable, suggesting possible cultural influences.

  6. Influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Appel, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pain caused by bone metastases has a severe impact on the quality of life for many patients with cancer. Good translational in vivo models are required to understand the molecular mechanism and develop better treatment. In the current study we evaluated the influence of sex differences...... on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain. Materials and Methods: 4T1-luc2 mammary cancer cells were introduced into the femoral cavity of female and male BALB/cJ mice. Bioluminescence tumor signal, pain-related behavior and bone degradation were monitored for 14 days. Results: Female mice demonstrated...... a significantly greater bioluminescence signal on day 2 compared to male mice and, in addition, a significant earlier onset of pain-related behavior was observed in the females. No sex difference was observed for bone degradation. Finally, a strong correlation between pain-related behavior and bone degradation...

  7. Meeting your match: How attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, I. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Holland, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their

  8. Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clougherty, Jane E; Eisen, Ellen A; Slade, Martin D; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards. We examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14, 618 white- and blue-collar aluminium manufacturing employees in eight US states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine the effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job status, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.97) and partnered men with children less likely (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.83). Education, age at hire and race influenced job status for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.35). Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (eg, single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, and finer exploration of sex-linked biological differences influencing responsivity to workplace exposures, is warranted.

  9. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors. PMID:27159875

  10. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors.

  11. Sex differences in drug use among polysubstance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-12-01

    Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Participants (n = 543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Sex differences in sensorimotor mu rhythms during selective attentional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, C; Dockstader, C; Cheyne, D; Tannock, R

    2010-12-01

    We used magnetoencephalography to investigate the effect of directed attention on sensorimotor mu (8-12 Hz) response (mu reactivity) to non-painful electrical stimulation of the median nerve in healthy adults. Mu desynchronization in the 10-12 Hz bandwidth is typically observed during higher-order cognitive functions including selective attentional processing of sensorimotor information (Pfurtscheller, Neuper, & Krauz, 2000). We found attention-related sex differences in mu reactivity, with females showing (i) prolonged mu desynchrony when attending to somatosensory stimuli, (ii) attentional modulation of the mu response based on whether attention was directed towards or away from somatosensory stimuli, which was absent in males, and (iii) a trend for greater neuronal excitability of the primary somatosensory region suggesting greater physiological responsiveness to sensory stimulation overall. Our findings suggest sex differences in attentional control strategies when processing somatosensory stimuli, whose salience may be greater for females. These sex differences in attention to somatosensory stimuli may help elucidate the well-documented sex biases in pain processing wherein females typically report greater sensitivity to experimental and clinical pain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Population and sex differences in Drosophila melanogaster brain gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalán Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in gene regulation are thought to be crucial for the adaptation of organisms to their environment. Transcriptome analyses can be used to identify candidate genes for ecological adaptation, but can be complicated by variation in gene expression between tissues, sexes, or individuals. Here we use high-throughput RNA sequencing of a single Drosophila melanogaster tissue to detect brain-specific differences in gene expression between the sexes and between two populations, one from the ancestral species range in sub-Saharan Africa and one from the recently colonized species range in Europe. Results Relatively few genes (Cyp6g1 and CHKov1. Conclusions Analysis of the brain transcriptome revealed many genes differing in expression between populations that were not detected in previous studies using whole flies. There was little evidence for sex-specific regulatory adaptation in the brain, as most expression differences between populations were observed in both males and females. The enrichment of genes with sexually dimorphic expression on the X chromosome is consistent with dosage compensation mechanisms affecting sex-biased expression in somatic tissues.

  15. Reconsidering evolved sex differences in jealousy: comment on Harris (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J

    2005-01-01

    In a recent article, Harris (2003) concluded that the data do not support the existence of evolved sex differences in jealousy. Harris' review correctly identifies fatal flaws in three lines of evidence (spousal abuse, homicide, morbid jealousy), but her criticism of two other lines of evidence (self-report responses, psychophysiological measures) is based, in part, on a mischaracterization of the evolutionary psychological theory and a misunderstanding of the empirical implications of the theory. When interpreted according to the correct criterion (i.e., an interaction between sex and infidelity type), self-report studies (both forced-choice and non-forced choice) offer strong support for the existence of sex differences in jealousy. Psychophysiological data also offer some support, although these data are weakened by validity-related concerns. In addition, some refutational evidence cited by Harris (responses to real infidelity, responses under cognitive load) actually does not refute the theory. An integrative model that describes how jealousy might result from the interaction of sociocultural variables and evolved sex differences and suggestions for future research directions are discussed.

  16. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  17. Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark

    This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  18. Human Performance: Sex Differences and the Influence of the Menstrual Cycle (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    and Therapy , 1970, 8, 353-366. 20. Singer, G., & Montgomery, R. B. Comment on roles of activation and inhibition in sex differences in cognitive...preference, and the sex difference. Sex Roles, 1975,1, 15-32. 13. Nielsen, J. M., & Doyle, P. T. Sex-role sterotypes of feminists and nonfeminists. Sex Roles

  19. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.

  20. Sex Differences in Feelings of Guilt Arising from Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Maryanne Fisher; Martin Voracek; P. Vivien Rekkas; Anthony Cox

    2008-01-01

    Although there is extensive literature regarding sex differences in jealousy due to infidelity, guilt resulting from infidelity remains unexplored. We hypothesize that men will feel guiltier from imagined emotional rather than sexual infidelity, as it is most important for their partner's reproductive success. Similarly, we predict that women will feel more guilt from imagined sexual rather than emotional infidelity. The findings indicate a different pattern; men feel guiltier following sexua...

  1. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contraceptive behavior in Ghana: a two-sex model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F N

    1995-01-01

    This report uses data of the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), a nationally representative self-weighting sample of 4488 female respondents 15-49 years old. 943 co-resident husbands of the surveyed women were also interviewed, thus the data provided 1010 dyads, which facilitated a couple-level analysis of contraceptive behavior. The determinants of modern contraceptive adoption were examined among dependent variables, including both modern and traditional methods, and the predictors of future usage among the nonusers were also assessed. For each of dependent variables, two logistic regressions were estimated, one for females, and the second one for couple measures of intentions and male preferences. Males were older and more educated than their female counterparts, and women were more likely than men to want to cease and space childbearing. 68.8% of women were in monogamous marriages, and the average age of women was 31.8 years, compared to 41 years for men among 1008 people in the sample. 43.5% of women had lost more than 1 child, and 22.9% had urban residence. 11.7% of couples agreed that contraceptives were needed for stopping childbearing. However, 14.9% said that there was no need for contraception, while 27.7% wanted contraception for spacing of births. 46% of the sample disagreed about contraceptive need and use. 6% of the women used modern contraceptives, while 8.7% used traditional methods. In addition, 29.7% of the women intended to use contraception in the future, while 55.6% did not intend to do this. Examination of contraceptive use and selected background variables indicates urban-rural differences. Also, the advancing age of wives and all levels of female schooling means increasing contraceptive use, but secondary schooling was associated with lower use for men than primary schooling. Use of contraception was also positively associated with the desire to cease childbearing for both sexes whether users or non-users. The findings

  3. Can the sex differences in disgust sensitivity account for the sex differences in blood-injection-injury fears?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, BO; Arrindell, WA; Lohr, JM

    Recent research has shown a positive relationship between disgust sensitivity and blood-injection-injury (BII) fears. This line of research has also found that females report higher levels of BII fears and disgust sensitivity than males. The present study sought to determine if the sex difference in

  4. Sex differences in common pain events: expectations and anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Gagnon, Christine M; Dannecker, Erin A; Brown, Jennifer L; Jump, Rebecca L; Price, Donald D

    2003-02-01

    This study examined (1) the effects of sex-related stereotypes in commonly experienced, potentially painful events and (2) differences in events representing the worst pain sensation imaginable for the typical woman and the typical man. Undergraduates (63 women and 54 men) completed the Situational Pain Questionnaire as the typical woman would and as the typical man would. The participants also answered 2 open-ended questions regarding the worst pain sensation imaginable for the typical woman and for the typical man. Our findings demonstrate that sex-related stereotypes extend to common pain events and that men and women expected that men would report less pain for common pain events than women. This suggests a gender-role related learning history that is relatively consistent for both sexes. The worst pain sensation imaginable was perceived to be different for typical men and women. Both sexes chose injury as the class of events men would find most painful and childbirth and menstrual pain as the class of events women would find most painful. Implications of this finding for common pain scaling approaches are discussed. The results of this study were obtained from a fairly uniform group of undergraduate men and women, which may limit the generalizability of our findings.

  5. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins.

  6. Students’ Spatial Performance: Cognitive Style and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, U.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the students’ spatial abilities based on cognitive styles and sex differences. Spatial abilities in this study include 5 components, namely spatial perception, spatial visualization, mental rotation, spatial relations, and spatial orientation. This research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The subjects in this research were 4 students of junior high school, there were 1 male FI, 1 male FD, 1 female FI, and 1 female FI. The results showed that there are differences in spatial abilities of the four subjects that are on the components of spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial relations. The differences in spatial abilities were found in methods / strategies used by each subject to solve each component problem. The differences in cognitive styles and sex suggested different choice of strategies used to solve problems. The male students imagined the figures but female students needed the media to solve the problem. Besides sex, the cognitive style differences also have an effect on solving a problem. In addition, FI students were not affected by distracting information but FD students could be affected by distracting information. This research was expected to contribute knowledge and insight to the readers, especially for math teachers in terms of the spatial ability of the students so that they can optimize their students’ spatial ability.

  7. Sex differences in thickness, and folding developments throughout the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, A Kadir; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Schaer, Marie

    2013-11-15

    While significant differences in male and female brain structures have commonly been reported, only a few studies have focused on the sex differences in the way the cortex matures over time. Here, we investigated cortical thickness maturation between the age of 6 to 30 years, using 209 longitudinally-acquired brain MRI scans. Significant sex differences in the trajectories of cortical thickness change with age were evidenced using non-linear mixed effects models. Similar statistical analyses were computed to quantify the differences between cortical gyrification changes with age in males and females. During adolescence, we observed a statistically significant higher rate of cortical thinning in females compared to males in the right temporal regions, the left temporoparietal junction and the left orbitofrontal cortex. This finding is interpreted as a faster maturation of the social brain areas in females. Concomitantly, statistically significant sex differences in cortical folding changes with age were observed only in one cluster of the right prefrontal regions, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying cortical thickness and gyrification changes with age are quite distinct. Sexual dimorphism in the developmental course of the cortical maturation may be associated with the different age of onset and clinical presentation of many psychiatric disorders between males and females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship of sex-related alcohol expectancies to alcohol consumption and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, B C

    1990-07-01

    Recent psychosocial research on alcohol expectancies--beliefs about the effects of alcohol on behavior, moods and emotions--has suggested that these expectancies mediate not only decisions about drinking but the alcohol effects displayed by those who have been drinking. Results of a study of drinking and sexual behavior showed that individuals of different gender and sexual orientation differed in their beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sexual responding. In addition, expectations of sexual enhancement and disinhibition were related to the initiation of sexual activity and to the proportion of sexual encounters that took place while drinking, and interacted with sex guilt to predict the amount drunk in the most recent sexual encounter. These results suggest that beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sex may affect the characteristics of sexual encounters that involve drinking.

  9. Sex Differences in Social Interaction in Rats: Role of the Immediate-Early Gene zif268

    OpenAIRE

    Stack, Ashley; Carrier, Nicole; Dietz, David; Hollis, Fiona; Sorenson, Jamie; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Given both the high prevalence of anxiety disorders in women and the fact that little is known about the mechanisms of gender differences in anxiety, our primary aim in this study was to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying sex differences in social anxiety-like behavior in rats. Through the use of zif268 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (zif ASO), we induced a temporary downregulation of zif268 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats and found that ...

  10. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as a factor that can positively affect safer sex behavior among youth; however, the evidence linking such communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. To examine the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on safer sex behavior among youth and explore potential moderators of this association. A systematic search of studies published from database inception through June 30, 2014, using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles yielded 5098 studies, of which 52 studies with 25,314 adolescents met the study eligibility criteria. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to July 27, 2015. Studies were included if they sampled adolescents (mean sample age ≤18 years), included an adolescent report of sexual communication with one or both parents, measured safer sex behavior, and were published in English. Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% CIs were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives or condoms. Fifty-two articles, including 71 independent effects representing more than 3 decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (weighted mean age, 15.2 years) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a significant weighted mean effect (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.08-0.13) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication with safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, P communication with girls (r = 0.12) than boys (r = 0.04) and among youth who discussed sex with their mothers (r = 0.14) compared with their fathers (r = 0.03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive vs condom use or among longitudinal vs cross-sectional studies, indicating that parent sexual communication had a similar effect across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were

  11. The Role of Drinking Severity on Sex Risk Behavior and HIV Exposure among Illicit Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Trenz, Rebecca; Harrell, Paul; Mauro, Pia; Latimer, William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined how drinking severity among injection and non-injection drug users is associated with sex risk behaviors and risk of HIV exposure. Methods The study is a secondary analysis of an investigation of risk factors among drug users in Baltimore known as the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study. Participants (N = 557) completed an interview, self-reported 30-day alcohol use, lifetime injection and non-injection drug use, and provided blood samples to screen for HIV. Participants were grouped into one of three drinking severity conditions: Abstinent (no reported alcohol use in prior 30-days), Moderate Alcohol Use (≤30 drinks for females, or ≤ 60 drinks for males), or Problematic Alcohol Use (>30 drinks for females, or >60 drinks for males). Drinking severity groups were significantly different on lifetime injection drug use, heroin injection, snorting/sniffing cocaine, and smoking crack. Results Logistic regression analyses found problematic alcohol users to be more likely than alcohol abstainers to inject drugs before or during sex (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.07-16.10), and more likely than moderate alcohol users to use alcohol before/during sex (AOR = 4.96; 95% CI = 2.09-11.81), inject drugs before/during sex (AOR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.29-6.80) and to be HIV+ among Black participants (AOR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.14-6.49). Conclusions These results outline the necessity for research and clinical intervention among this population to reduce sex risk behaviors and potential HIV exposure, while highlighting the need to examine drinking severity as a predictor of sex risk behaviors. PMID:23617865

  12. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, P.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.)

  13. Sex Differences in Affective Facial Reactions Are Present in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cattaneo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults exposed to affective facial displays produce specific rapid facial reactions (RFRs which are of lower intensity in males compared to females. We investigated such sex difference in a population of 60 primary school children (30 F; 30 M, aged 7–10 years. We recorded the surface electromyographic (EMG signal from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomatici muscles, while children watched affective facial displays. Results showed the expected smiling RFR to smiling faces and the expected frowning RFR to sad faces. A systematic difference between male and female participants was observed, with boys showing less ample EMG responses than age-matched girls. We demonstrate that sex differences in the somatic component of affective motor patterns are present also in childhood.

  14. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how…

  15. Sex differences in the pathways to major depression: a study of opposite-sex twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Gardner, Charles O

    2014-04-01

    The authors sought to clarify the nature of sex differences in the etiologic pathways to major depression. Retrospective and prospective assessments of 20 developmentally organized risk factors and the occurrence of past-year major depression were conducted at two waves of personal interviews at least 12 months apart in 1,057 opposite-sex dizygotic twin pairs from a population-based register. Analyses were conducted by structural modeling, examining within-pair differences. Sixty percent of all paths in the best-fit model exhibited sex differences. Eleven of the 20 risk factors differed across sexes in their impact on liability to major depression. Five had a greater impact in women: parental warmth, neuroticism, divorce, social support, and marital satisfaction. Six had a greater impact in men: childhood sexual abuse, conduct disorder, drug abuse, prior history of major depression, and distal and dependent proximal stressful life events. The life event categories responsible for the stronger effect in males were financial, occupational, and legal in nature. In a co-twin control design, which matches sisters and brothers on genetic and familial-environmental background, personality and failures in interpersonal relationships played a stronger etiologic role in major depression for women than for men. Externalizing psychopathology, prior depression, and specific "instrumental" classes of acute stressors were more important in the etiologic pathway to major depression for men. The results are consistent with previously proposed typologies of major depression that suggest two subtypes that differ in prevalence in women (deficiencies in caring relationships and interpersonal loss) and men (failures to achieve expected goals, with lowered self-worth).

  16. Sex-related differences in attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    The sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities is a continuing topic of major interest. Besides, the influences of trends over time and possible effects of sex steroid and assessment time on cognition have expanded the necessity to re-evaluate differences between men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare cognitive performance between men and women in a strongly controlled experiment. In total, 28 men and 25 women were investigated. Variables of body temperature and heart rate were assessed. A cognitive test battery was used to assess attention (visual search, unpredictable task switching as well as complex visual search and predictable task switching tests) and memory (forced visual memory, forward digit span and free recall test). The differences in heart rate and body temperatures between men and women were not significant. There were no differences in the mean values of attention and memory abilities between men and women. Coefficients of variation of unpredictable task switching response and forward digit span were lower (Pattention task incorrect response and negatively correlated (Pmemory task. Current study showed no sex differences in the mean values of cognition, whereas higher intra-individual variability of short-term memory and attention switching was identified in women, indicating that their performance was lower on these cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in spatial memory using serial and search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshna S; Prados, Jose; Gamble, Jasmin; De Lillo, Carlo; Gibson, Claire L

    2013-11-15

    The present study assessed the spatial abilities of male and female human participants using different versions of the non-navigational Corsi block-tapping test (CBT) and a search task. Males performed significantly better than females on the standard manual version of the CBT; however, the standard CBT does not allow discrimination between spatial memory span and the role of spatial organisational factors (structure, path length and presence of crossings) in the sequences to recall. These organisational factors were assessed, therefore, in an experiment in which 7-block-sequences had to be recalled in a computerised version of the CBT. No sex differences in performance were observed on the computerised CBT, indicating that males do not make better use of spatial organisational principles. Accordingly, sex differences observed in the manual CBT are likely to rely upon differences in memory span between males and females. In the search task, participants could locate a goal by reference to a Euclidian space (the geometry of a virtual enclose) or to proximal non-geometric cues. Both male and female participants showed a preference for the non-geometric cues, which overshadowed learning about the geometric cues when the two sets were available simultaneously during the training stage. These results indicate that sex differences do exist in those tests which are dependent on memory span. Sex differences were absent, however, in spatial organisational skills or in the usage of Euclidian and egocentric strategies to solve problems relying on spatial ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  19. Explaining Sex Differences in Reactions to Relationship Infidelities: Comparisons of the Roles of Sex, Gender, Beliefs, Attachment, and Sociosexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477, and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  20. Explaining sex differences in reactions to relationship infidelities: comparisons of the roles of sex, gender, beliefs, attachment, and sociosexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Adair, Lora; Monk, Kale

    2014-02-04

    To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477), and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs) and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  1. Sex and Gender Differences in Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Harreiter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle intervention programs are effective in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in high risk populations. However, most studies only give limited information about the influence of sex and/or gender effectiveness of these interventions. So far, similar outcome was reported for diabetes progression and weight loss. Nevertheless, long-term data on cardiovascular outcome are sparse but favoring women regarding all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In both men and women, sex hormone imbalances and reproductive disorders are associated with a higher risk of T2DM development. Diabetes prevention approaches are reported for polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes mellitus, and erectile dysfunction and are presented in this review. In the surgical treatment options for morbid obese patients, sex and gender differences are present. Choices and preferences of adherence to lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, expectations, treatment effects, and complications are influenced by sex or gender. In general, bariatric surgery is performed more often in women seeking medical/surgical help to lose weight. Men are older and have higher comorbidities and mortality rates and worse follow-up outcome after bariatric surgery. A more gender-sensitive clinical approach, as well as consideration of ethnicity may improve quality of life and increase health and life expectancy in men and women with a high risk for subsequent progression to T2DM.

  2. Sex differences in the developing brain as a source of inherent risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-12-01

    Brain development diverges in males and females in response to androgen production by the fetal testis. This sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during a sensitive window and induces enduring neuroanatomical and physiological changes that profoundly impact behavior. What we know about the contribution of sex chromosomes is still emerging, highlighting the need to integrate multiple factors into understanding sex differences, including the importance of context. The cellular mechanisms are best modeled in rodents and have provided both unifying principles and surprising specifics. Markedly distinct signaling pathways direct differentiation in specific brain regions, resulting in mosaicism of relative maleness, femaleness, and sameness through-out the brain, while canalization both exaggerates and constrains sex differences. Non-neuronal cells and inflammatory mediators are found in greater number and at higher levels in parts of male brains. This higher baseline of inflammation is speculated to increase male vulnerability to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders that are triggered by inflammation.

  3. Sex Differences in Patient-Reported Poststroke Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Burns, Suzanne Perea; Ellis, Charles

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that stroke has a differential impact in women compared to men. Women are more likely to survive strokes than men, yet they experience more severe strokes resulting in greater poststroke disability. However, few studies have characterized sex differences in functional ability after stroke. This study examined sex differences in long-term disability among stroke survivors. This was a retrospective analysis of the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Respondents were asked to rate their ability to perform 11 functional tasks. Univariate comparisons were completed to evaluate sex differences in performance, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the odds of reporting functional limitations. Five hundred fourteen men and 641 women stroke survivors completed the survey (mean age: 66.9 years). Approximately 75% of the sample reported having hypertension, 61% high cholesterol, 33% diabetes, 24% heart disease, 21% heart attack, and 16% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the predictive models, men were less likely to report "very difficult/can't do at all" in walking ¼ mile (odds ratios [OR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.90), climbing 10 steps (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.85), standing 2 hours (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87), stooping (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.68), reaching overhead (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97), carrying 10 pounds (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59), and pushing large objects (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.5) compared to women. The functional outcomes of men stroke survivors were significantly greater than women. The specific factors that contribute to sex differences in stroke-related outcomes are not entirely clear. Future research is needed to better understand these differences to ensure that equity of care is received.

  4. Sex differences in proximal control of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R; Quatman, Carmen E; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-07-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbo-pelvic (core) control may have a large effect on knee-joint control and injury risk. This review examines the published evidence on the contributions of the trunk and hip to knee-joint control. Specifically, the sex differences in potential proximal controllers of the knee as risk factors for ACL injury are identified and discussed. Sex differences in trunk and hip biomechanics have been identified in all planes of motion (sagittal, coronal and transverse). Essentially, female athletes show greater lateral trunk displacement, altered trunk and hip flexion angles, greater ranges of trunk motion, and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during sport manoeuvres, compared with their male counterparts. These differences may increase the risk of ACL injury among female athletes. Prevention programmes targeted towards trunk and hip neuromuscular control may decrease the risk for ACL injuries.

  5. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  6. Sex Differences in Proximal Control of the Knee Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbopelvic (core) control may have a large effect on knee-joint control and injury risk. This review examines the published evidence on the contributions of the trunk and hip to knee-joint control. Specifically, the sex differences in potential proximal controllers of the knee as risk factors for ACL injury are identified and discussed. Sex differences in trunk and hip biomechanics have been identified in all planes of motion (sagittal, coronal and transverse). Essentially, female athletes show greater lateral trunk displacement, altered trunk and hip flexion angles, greater ranges of trunk motion, and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during sport manoeuvres, compared with their male counterparts. These differences may increase the risk of ACL injury among female athletes. Prevention programmes targeted towards trunk and hip neuromuscular control may decrease the risk for ACL injuries. PMID:21688868

  7. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  8. Sex differences in attention to disgust facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraines, Morganne A; Kelberer, Lucas J A; Wells, Tony T

    2017-12-01

    Research demonstrates that women experience disgust more readily and with more intensity than men. The experience of disgust is associated with increased attention to disgust-related stimuli, but no prior study has examined sex differences in attention to disgust facial expressions. We hypothesised that women, compared to men, would demonstrate increased attention to disgust facial expressions. Participants (n = 172) completed an eye tracking task to measure visual attention to emotional facial expressions. Results indicated that women spent more time attending to disgust facial expressions compared to men. Unexpectedly, we found that men spent significantly more time attending to neutral faces compared to women. The findings indicate that women's increased experience of emotional disgust also extends to attention to disgust facial stimuli. These findings may help to explain sex differences in the experience of disgust and in diagnoses of anxiety disorders in which disgust plays an important role.

  9. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-05-08

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.

  10. Sex differences in depression and anxiety disorders: potential biological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemus, Margaret

    2006-11-01

    The phenomenon of higher rates of affective disorders in women illustrates many of the difficulties as well as promises of translating preclinical models to human disorders. Abnormalities in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathoadrenomedullary system have been identified in depression and anxiety disorders, and these disorders are clearly precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Despite the striking sex difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, attempts to identify corresponding sex differences in stress response reactivity in animal models have met with limited success. Processes which may contribute to increased rates of affective disorders in women are greater fluxes in reproductive hormones across the life span, and increased sensitivity to catecholamine augmentation of emotional memory consolidation.

  11. Sex Differences in Feelings of Guilt Arising from Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanne Fisher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is extensive literature regarding sex differences in jealousy due to infidelity, guilt resulting from infidelity remains unexplored. We hypothesize that men will feel guiltier from imagined emotional rather than sexual infidelity, as it is most important for their partner's reproductive success. Similarly, we predict that women will feel more guilt from imagined sexual rather than emotional infidelity. The findings indicate a different pattern; men feel guiltier following sexual infidelity, whereas women feel guiltier following emotional infidelity. Results also show that both sexes believe their partners would have a more difficult time forgiving sexual, rather than emotional, infidelity, but women and not men report that sexual infidelity would more likely lead to relationship dissolution. These findings are discussed in view of evolved mating strategies and individual reproductive success.

  12. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Importance Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as one factor that can positively impact safer sex among youth; however, the evidence linking communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. Objective This meta-analysis examined the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on youth safer sex behavior and explored potential moderators of this association. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted of studies published through June 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles. Study Selection Studies were included if they: 1) sampled adolescents (mean sample age≤18); 2) included an adolescent report of sexual communication with parent(s); 3) measured safer sex behavior; and 4) were published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives/birth control or condoms. Results Seventy-one independent effects representing over three decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (mean age = 15.1) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a small, significant weighted mean effect (r = .10, [95% CI:0.08–0.13]) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication to safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, p communication with girls (r = .12) than boys (r = .04), and among youth who discussed sex with mothers (r = .14) compared to fathers (r = .03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive versus condom use, or among longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies, indicating parent sexual communication had a similar impact across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were identified in the literature; future studies can improve on these by measuring

  13. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Ito E; Iwamoto J; Azuma K; Matsumoto H

    2014-01-01

    Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball player...

  14. Sex Differences in Proximal Control of the Knee Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbopelvic (core) control may have a la...

  15. DIFFERENCES OF ANTROPOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO SEX OF PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Gojković; Branislav Radulović

    2010-01-01

    As per sample of 212 examinees at the age of 11 (±6 months) at the fifth grade in Montenegrin elementary schools, it was used the system of 12 variables for the estimation of anthropometrical characteristis. The purpose of the examination was to establish differentiations between different students sex in the initial and final measuring. As for results given by using discriminant analysis and univariant analysis of variance on the anthropometrical student's status, it can be concluded that th...

  16. Sex differences in components of imagined perspective transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mark R; Sorhus, Ingrid; Edmonds, Caroline J; Potts, Rosalind

    2012-05-01

    Little research to date has examined whether sex differences in spatial ability extend to the mental self rotation involved in taking on a third party perspective. This question was addressed in the present study by assessing components of imagined perspective transformations in twenty men and twenty women. Participants made speeded left-right judgements about the hand in which an object was held by front- and back- facing schematic human figures in an "own body transformation task." Response times were longer when the figure did not share the same spatial orientation as the participant, and were substantially longer than those made for a control task requiring left-right judgements about the same stimuli from the participant's own point of view. A sex difference in imagined perspective transformation favouring males was found to be restricted to the speed of imagined self rotation, and was not observed for components indexing readiness to take a third party point of view, nor in left-right confusion. These findings indicate that the range of spatial abilities for which a sex difference has been established should be extended to include imagined perspective transformations. They also suggest that imagined perspective transformations may not draw upon those empathic social-emotional perspective taking processes for which females show an advantage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Ricardo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Barroilhet, Sergio; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Gaete, Jorge; Montgomery, Alan

    2013-04-23

    Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal.

  18. Morbidity figures from general practice: sex differences in traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Grosicar, Janja

    2010-08-01

    Trauma prevention starts with to find out the extent of the problem and who it affects. Insight into morbidity figures is therefore necessary. To explore sex differences in traumatology and secondary medical care utilization in primary care related to age and socio-economic status (SES). Data were obtained from an academic continuous morbidity registration project in the Netherlands in the period from 1996 to 2006, in which 13,000 patients were followed in 10 successive years. Sex differences showed a male excess from childhood to 45 years and women showing almost double trauma rates in the elderly. Low SES was associated with the greatest incidence of traumas. The largest sex difference in incidence above 65 years appeared in the high SES with more traumas in women compared with men. From this age on, female morbidity in traumatology outnumbered male morbidity regardless of SES. Considering use of referrals, we found that in the age group 15-45 years men made a greater use of secondary medical care. However, the vastest gender influence in medical care utilization was noticed in the age group over 65 years, outnumbered with women. Young men and old women are the most at risk for traumatic health problems: men presenting with traumata of the skull, the tibia and ocular trauma's and women with fractures of the femur, humerus and wrist. For both men and women the greatest incidence is in the low SES. Family physicians can play a pivotal role in prevention to focus on their patients with high risks.

  19. Sex differences in dimensions of impulsivity in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Guilherme Menezes; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Fuentes, Daniel; Corrêa, Humberto; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    Impulsivity has been more closely associated with men than with women because men are more often involved in illegal behaviors. The few studies that have investigated sex differences in impulsivity have used self-report questionnaires and have obtained contradictory results. Two computerized behavioral tests were administered to 125 healthy undergraduate students (75 women, M age 23.8 yr.; 50 men, M age 25.0 yr.). Men exhibited higher scores on motor impulsivity, but there were no significant differences between men and women on attentional and non-planning impulsivity scores. These findings are discussed in terms of the relationship between impulsivity and low- and high-order control.

  20. Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Association Between State Same-Sex Marriage Policies and Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raifman, Julia; Moscoe, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; McConnell, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Adolescents who are sexual minorities experience elevated rates of suicide attempts. To evaluate the association between state same-sex marriage policies and adolescent suicide attempts. This study used state-level Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2015, which are weighted to be representative of each state that has participation in the survey greater than 60%. A difference-in-differences analysis compared changes in suicide attempts among all public high school students before and after implementation of state policies in 32 states permitting same-sex marriage with year-to-year changes in suicide attempts among high school students in 15 states without policies permitting same-sex marriage. Linear regression was used to control for state, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year, with Taylor series linearized standard errors clustered by state and classroom. In a secondary analysis among students who are sexual minorities, we included an interaction between sexual minority identity and living in a state that had implemented same-sex marriage policies. Implementation of state policies permitting same-sex marriage during the full period of YRBSS data collection. Self-report of 1 or more suicide attempts within the past 12 months. Among the 762 678 students (mean [SD] age, 16.0 [1.2] years; 366 063 males and 396 615 females) who participated in the YRBSS between 1999 and 2015, a weighted 8.6% of all high school students and 28.5% of students who identified as sexual minorities reported suicide attempts before implementation of same-sex marriage policies. Same-sex marriage policies were associated with a 0.6-percentage point (95% CI, -1.2 to -0.01 percentage points) reduction in suicide attempts, representing a 7% relative reduction in the proportion of high school students attempting suicide owing to same-sex

  1. EVALUATING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE COMPLAINT BEHAVIOR OF MALAYSIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Oly Ndubisi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether male and female Malaysian consumers differ in their dissatisfaction complaint behavior and its aftermath. The study examines the moderation effect of gender in the relationship between public complaint behavior, private complaint behavior and customer defection. Data for the study was collected from 218 randomly selected customers of retail banks in Malaysia. The results show that public and private complaints are significantly associated with defection. These findings are generic across sex-type. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Females scan more than males: a potential mechanism for sex differences in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Pottruff, Molly M; Shore, David I

    2013-07-01

    Recognition-memory tests reveal individual differences in episodic memory; however, by themselves, these tests provide little information regarding the stage (or stages) in memory processing at which differences are manifested. We used eye-tracking technology, together with a recognition paradigm, to achieve a more detailed analysis of visual processing during encoding and retrieval. Although this approach may be useful for assessing differences in memory across many different populations, we focused on sex differences in face memory. Females outperformed males on recognition-memory tests, and this advantage was directly related to females' scanning behavior at encoding. Moreover, additional exposures to the faces reduced sex differences in face recognition, which suggests that males may be able to improve their recognition memory by extracting more information at encoding through increased scanning. A strategy of increased scanning at encoding may prove to be a simple way to enhance memory performance in other populations with memory impairment.

  3. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  4. Sex Differences in Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Pediatric HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Mori

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of infections in childhood is typically greater in males. The basis for these observed sex differences is not well understood, and potentially may facilitate novel approaches to reducing disease from a range of conditions. We here investigated sex differences in HIV-infected children in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation and post-treatment outcome. In a South African cohort of 2,101 HIV-infected children, we observed that absolute CD4+ count and CD4% were significantly higher in ART-naïve female, compared to age-matched male, HIV-infected children. Absolute CD4 count and CD4% were also significantly higher in HIV-uninfected female versus male neonates. We next showed that significantly more male than female children were initiated on ART (47% female; and children not meeting criteria to start ART by >5 yrs were more frequently female (59%; p<0.001. Among ART-treated children, immune reconstitution of CD4 T-cells was more rapid and more complete in female children, even after adjustment for pre-ART absolute CD4 count or CD4% (p=0.011, p=0.030, respectively. However, while ART was initiated as a result of meeting CD4 criteria less often in females (45%, ART initiation as a result of clinical disease in children whose CD4 counts were above treatment thresholds occurred more often in females (57%, p<0.001. The main sex difference in morbidity observed in children initiating ART above CD4 thresholds, above that of TB disease, was as a result of wasting and stunting observed in females with above-threshold CD4 counts (p=0.002. These findings suggest the possibility that optimal treatment of HIV-infected children might incorporate differential CD4 treatment thresholds for ART initiation according to sex.

  5. Sex, drugs, and HIV: rapid assessment of HIV risk behaviors among street-based drug using sex workers in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Richard; Kroeger, Karen; Belani, Hrishikesh; Achrekar, Angeli; Parry, Charles D; Dewing, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    South Africa is experiencing significant changes in patterns of illicit drug use, including increasing injection and non-injection drug use, and the use of drugs by persons engaged in sex work, both of which could further expand the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2005, a rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in Durban, South Africa, to learn more about patterns of drug use and HIV risk behaviors among drug-using, street-based sex workers. Field teams recruited 52 current injection and non-injection drug users for key informant interviews and focus groups, and they conducted mapping and observation in identified high-risk neighborhoods. Key informants were offered free, voluntary counseling and HIV rapid testing. The results of the assessment indicate that in this population, drugs play an organizing role in patterns of daily activities, with sex work closely linked to the buying, selling, and using of drugs. Participants reported using multiple drugs including crack cocaine, heroin, Ecstasy and Mandrax, and their choices were based on their expectations about the functional role and behavioral and pharmacological properties of the drugs. The organization of sex work and patterns of drug use differ by gender, with males exercising more control over daily routines and drug and sexual transactions than females. Activities of female sex workers are subject to considerable control by individual pimps, many of whom also function as landlords and drug dealers. A strong hold over the overlapping economies of drugs and sex work by a few individuals extends to control of the physical and social settings in which sex is exchanged and drugs are sold and used as well as the terms under which sex work is carried out. The potential for accelerated HIV spread is considerable given the evidence of overlapping drug-using and sexual risk behaviors and the mixing patterns across drug and sexual risk networks.

  6. A socio-relational framework of sex differences in the expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob Miguel

    2009-10-01

    Despite a staggering body of research demonstrating sex differences in expressed emotion, very few theoretical models (evolutionary or non-evolutionary) offer a critical examination of the adaptive nature of such differences. From the perspective of a socio-relational framework, emotive behaviors evolved to promote the attraction and aversion of different types of relationships by advertising the two most parsimonious properties of reciprocity potential, or perceived attractiveness as a prospective social partner. These are the individual's (a) perceived capacity or ability to provide expedient resources, or to inflict immediate harm onto others, and their (b) perceived trustworthiness or probability of actually reciprocating altruism (Vigil 2007). Depending on the unique social demands and relational constraints that each sex evolved, individuals should be sensitive to advertise "capacity" and "trustworthiness" cues through selective displays of dominant versus submissive and masculine versus feminine emotive behaviors, respectively. In this article, I introduce the basic theoretical assumptions and hypotheses of the framework, and show how the models provide a solid scaffold with which to begin to interpret common sex differences in the emotional development literature. I conclude by describing how the framework can be used to predict condition-based and situation-based variation in affect and other forms of expressive behaviors.

  7. Sex differences in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoliang; Li, Juan; Tai, Wai Lydia; Yao, Weifeng; Zhao, Bo; Hong, Junmou; Shi, Si; Wang, Song; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences have been increasingly highlighted in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in clinical practice. In CRPS type I (CRPS-I), although inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in its pathogenesis, whether pain behavior and the underlying mechanism are sex-specific is unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore whether sex differences have an impact on inflammation, oxidative stress, and pain sensitivity in CRPS-I. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was established in both male and female mice as an animal model of CRPS-I. Edema and mechanical allodynia of bilateral hind paws were assessed after reperfusion. Blood samples were analyzed for serum levels of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. Both male and female mice developed edema. Male mice developed CPIP at day 3 after reperfusion; female mice developed CPIP at day 2 after reperfusion. Female mice displayed significantly earlier and higher mechanical allodynia in the ischemic hind paw, which was associated with higher serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α, isoprostanes, 8 OhdG, and malondialdehyde at day 2 after reperfusion. Moreover, female mice showed significantly lower SOD and IL-4 compared to male mice at day 2 after reperfusion. Our results indicate that sex differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress states may play a central role in the sex-specific nociceptive hypersensitivity in CRPS-I, and offer a new insight into pharmacology treatments to improve pain management with CRPS.

  8. Sex differences in daily life stress and craving in opioid-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Landhing M; Kowalczyk, William J; Phillips, Karran A; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2018-04-11

    Responses to stress and drug craving differ between men and women. Differences in the momentary experience of stress in relation to craving are less well-understood. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we examined sex differences in real-time in two areas: (1) causes and contexts associated with stress, and (2) the extent to which stress and drug cues are associated with craving. Outpatients on opioid-agonist treatment (135 males, 47 females) reported stress, craving, and behavior on smartphones for 16 weeks. They initiated an entry each time they felt more stressed than usual (stress event) and made randomly prompted entries 3 times/day. In stress-event entries, they identified the causes and context (location, activity, companions), and rated stress and craving severity. The causes reported for stress events did not differ significantly by sex. Women reported arguing and being in a store more often during stress events, and men reported working more often during stress events, compared to base rates (assessed via random prompts). Women showed a greater increase in opioid craving as a function of stress (p stress ratings in the presence of both stress and drug cues relative to men (p stress but differ in stress- and cue-induced craving. These findings support sex-based tailoring of treatment, but because not all participants conformed to the overall pattern of sex differences, any such tailoring should also consider person-level differences.

  9. Adolescents Transitioning to High School: Sex Differences in Bullying Victimization Associated with Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan G.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students (N = 233). Females…

  10. The Behavioral Definitions of "Having Sex With a Man" and "Having Sex With a Woman" Identified by Women Who Have Engaged in Sexual Activity With Both Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Herbenick, Debby; Collazo, Erika; Sanders, Stephanie A; Reece, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A sizable minority of women report lifetime sexual behavior with both men and women. In the present study, a multinational sample of women who reported genital contact with at least one man and one woman in their lifetime (N = 2,751) were asked to provide their behavioral definitions of "having sex with a woman" and "having sex with a man." Replicating previous research, participants were asked "Would you say you 'had sex' with a woman/man if the most intimate behavior you engaged in with her/him was …" followed by a list of behaviors that differed based on the hypothetical partner gender. While most participants indicated that they would consider "having had sex" if they engaged in a variety of behaviors, behaviors involving genital contact were most often included within the participants' definitions of having sex, regardless of partner gender. The percentage of behaviors included in the participants' definitions of having sex with a woman (M = 59.40%, SD = 20.77%) was higher than the percentage of behaviors included in their definition of having sex with a man (M = 37.26%, SD = 28.97%). Broadening our understanding of "having sex" for individuals with diverse sexual experiences may have important implications for clinicians and researchers.

  11. Mechanical contributors to sex differences in idiopathic knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolella Daniel P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The occurrence of knee osteoarthritis (OA increases with age and is more common in women compared with men, especially after the age of 50 years. Recent work suggests that contact stress in the knee cartilage is a significant predictor of the risk for developing knee OA. Significant gaps in knowledge remain, however, as to how changes in musculoskeletal traits disturb the normal mechanical environment of the knee and contribute to sex differences in the initiation and progression of idiopathic knee OA. To illustrate this knowledge deficit, we summarize what is known about the influence of limb alignment, muscle function, and obesity on sex differences in knee OA. Observational data suggest that limb alignment can predict the development of radiographic signs of knee OA, potentially due to increased stresses and strains within the joint. However, these data do not indicate how limb alignment could contribute to sex differences in either the development or worsening of knee OA. Similarly, the strength of the knee extensor muscles is compromised in women who develop radiographic and symptomatic signs of knee OA, but the extent to which the decline in muscle function precedes the development of the disease is uncertain. Even less is known about how changes in muscle function might contribute to the worsening of knee OA. Conversely, obesity is a stronger predictor of developing knee OA symptoms in women than in men. The influence of obesity on developing knee OA symptoms is not associated with deviation in limb alignment, but BMI predicts the worsening of the symptoms only in individuals with neutral and valgus (knock-kneed knees. It is more likely, however, that obesity modulates OA through a combination of systemic effects, particularly an increase in inflammatory cytokines, and mechanical factors within the joint. The absence of strong associations of these surrogate measures of the mechanical environment in the knee joint with sex

  12. A Preliminary Study of Sex Differences in Emotional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Aguilar, Azalea; Barrios, Fernando A

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary approaches have proposed that women possess an advantage over men in emotional functioning to promote attachment for child-rearing. Likewise, sex differences have been reported in traits such as personality and empathy, traits that likely modulate emotional processing. In this preliminary study, sex differences in emotional processing were analyzed, including empathy as a social emotion and personality traits, as well as whether there exist relationships between those measures. Young volunteers (N = 105) indicated the emotional valence, activation, and dominance that they experience in situations categorized as emotionally positive, negative, or neutral. The results of comparison between sexes supported the approach that women showed more sensitivity to high activation and dominance for positive emotions and empathy, and men were more sensitive to negative situations. Correlation analysis showed only one positive relationship between scores of Self-transcendence, a subscale of Temperament and Character Inventory, with activation scores of neutral situations, but not with emotionally charged situations, perhaps because emotions are context-dependent processes while personality traits are considered context-independent descriptions of habits. These findings should be replicated to enrich knowledge about problems in emotional processing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H. J.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method Participants (N = 5,525) from a representative community sample in the Netherlands filled out questionnaires regarding the variables under study. Results Autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, SA; sensitivity to others, SO; capacity for managing new situations, CMNS) fully mediated the sex differences in depression and anxiety, and partly in eating disorder -(drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction) and anti-social personality disorder characteristics. The mediations followed the expected sex-specific patterns. SO related positively to the internalizing disorder indices, and negatively to the anti-social personality disorder. SA related negatively to all disorder indices; and CMNS to all internalizing disorder indices, but positively to the anti-social personality disorder. Conclusion Treatment of depression, anxiety, but also eating disorders and the antisocial personality disorder may benefit from a stronger focus on autonomy strengthening. PMID:28771498

  14. Sex differences in perceived attributes of computer-mediated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have pointed to the influence of sex with respect to the attributes of the computer medium. The author elaborates upon possible sex differences in reference to perceived attributes of the computer medium, i.e., Richness, Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, Plasticity, and Immediacy. Data from both a pilot and main study are reported and interpreted. The pilot study included 78 participants, while the main study involved 211. The independent samples were composed of Communication Studies students enrolled at two Mid-Atlantic universities. Nine items with anchors of 1: strongly disagree and 7: strongly agree were taken from the 2000 Computer Mediated Communication Competence Scale of Spitzberg to assess the attributes of computer-mediated interaction. The results indicate that women scored higher than men on perceptions of Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, and Immediacy.

  15. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress...

  16. How does sex matter? Behavior, stress and animal models of neurobehavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Many aspects of brain functioning exhibit important sex differences that affect behavior, mental health and mental disorders. However, most translational neuroscience research related to animal models of neurobehavioral disorders are carried out in male animals only. Based on published data from our laboratory on the House mouse, we discuss the following issues: (1) sex differences in social behavior of wild-derived mice; (2) artificial selection of laboratory strains and its consequences on social and reproductive competition; (3) sex-dependent effects of common experimental procedures; (4) differential effects of developmental events: the case of endocrine disruption; (5) implications for female models of stress and neurobehavioral disorders. Altogether, this review of data outline the marked differences of male and female responses to different social challenges and evinces the current lack of a relevant female mouse model of social stress. Whilst animal modelling is an important approach towards understanding mechanisms of neurobehavioral disorders, it is evident that data obtained in males may be irrelevant for inferring psychopathology and efficacy of pharmacological treatments for females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adversity and sex differences in social and emotional sensitivity in children; a possible mechanism for sex differences in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Hill; Helen Sharp; Lynne Murray

    2010-01-01

    Females are superior to males on a range of tasks indexing social sensitivity, the capacity to infer others' mental states and respond with appropriate behaviours and emotions(1-3). There are also sex differences in psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Boys have higher rates of psychiatric disorders before puberty, but disorders increase markedly in girls after puberty (4). The causes of the commonest forms of disorder, antisocial behaviour problems in boys, and depression ...

  18. Explaining sex differences in managerial career satisfier preferences: the role of gender self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N

    2006-03-01

    Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.

  19. Sex differences in the association between gray matter volume and verbal creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Xu, Li; Chen, Qunlin; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-08-02

    The explanation for why significant sex differences are found in creativity has become an increasingly important topic. The current study applied a cognitive neuroscience perspective and voxel-based morphometry to investigate the sex differences for the association between verbal creativity and gray matter volume (GMV) in a large sample of healthy adults from the Chinese Mainland (163 men and 193 women). Furthermore, we sought to determine which brain regions are responsible for these differences. Our behavioral results showed a significant sex difference. Specifically, women scored higher than men on originality. The voxel-based morphometry results indicated that the relationship between originality and GMV differed between men and women in the left temporo-occipital junction. Higher originality scores in women were associated with more GMV. In contrast, higher originality scores in men were related to less GMV. These findings suggest the left temporo-occipital junction GMV plays a unique role in the sex differences in verbal creativity because women usually surpass men in semantic processing, which is the major function of the left temporal region.

  20. Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Ku, Li-Chuan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000-1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in memory estimates for pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, M D

    2000-08-01

    Memory performance estimates of men and women before and after a recall test were investigated. College students (17 men and 20 women), all juniors, participated in a memory task involving the recall of 80 stimuli (40 pictures and 40 words). Before and after the task they were asked to provide estimates of their pre- and postrecall performance. Although no sex differences were found for total correct recall, recall for pictures, and recall for words, or in the estimates of memory performance before the recall task, there were significant differences after the test: women underestimated their performance on the words and men underestimated their performance on the picture items.

  2. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members.

  3. Sex differences in emotional contexts modulation on response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural, not gonadal, origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch

    OpenAIRE

    Agate, Robert J.; Grisham, William; Wade, Juli; Mann, Suzanne; Wingfield, John; Schanen, Carolyn; Palotie, Aarno; Arnold, Arthur P.

    2003-01-01

    In mammals and birds, sex differences in brain function and disease are thought to derive exclusively from sex differences in gonadal hormone secretions. For example, testosterone in male mammals acts during fetal and neonatal life to cause masculine neural development. However, male and female brain cells also differ in genetic sex; thus, sex chromosome genes acting within cells could contribute to sex differences in cell function. We analyzed the sexual phenotype of the brain of a rare gyna...

  5. Sex Education Knowledge Differences between Freshmen and Senior College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ruth M.; Dotger, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstinence sexuality education (sex ed) is the only federally funded sex ed in the United States. The strict curriculum of this education does not educate American adolescents about safer sex practices and leaves a knowledge gap in these adolescents that follows them into college. The Problem: This project aimed to identify sex knowledge…

  6. Between-Sex Differences in Romantic Jealousy: Substance or Spin? A Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Fussell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes (“threat appraisal”, “emotional episodes”, “sex-specific threat” and “forgive and forget” and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  7. Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

    2012-03-29

    An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested.

  8. Sex differences in microRNA regulation of gene expression: no smoke, just miRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Christopher P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Males and females differ widely in morphology, physiology, and behavior leading to disparities in many health outcomes, including sex biases in the prevalence of many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, with the exception of a relatively small number of genes on the Y chromosome, males and females share a common genome. Therefore, sexual differentiation must in large part be a product of the sex biased expression of this shared genetic substrate. microRNAs (miRs are small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of up to 70% of protein-coding genes. The ability of miRs to regulate such a vast amount of the genome with a high degree of specificity makes them perfectly poised to play a critical role in programming of the sexually dimorphic brain. This review describes those characteristics of miRs that make them particularly amenable to this task, and examines the influences of both the sex chromosome complement as well as gonadal hormones on their regulation. Exploring miRs in the context of sex differences in disease, particularly in sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders, may provide novel insight into the pathophysiology and potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment and prevention.

  9. Sex differences in cardiovascular health: does sexism influence women's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences.

  10. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.